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Fouriers Law

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Where the constant of proportionality is the thermal conductivity of the material

Newtons Law of Cooling

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Where: is the convective heat transfer coefficient in is the surface area through which transfer of heat by convection takes place; is the surface temperature; and is the temperature of the fluid sufficiently far from the surface.

Radiant Heat Transfer

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Where: is the emissivity of solid surface; is the Stephen Boltzmann constant is the surface area completely enclosed by its surroundings; and are the absolute temperatures of the solid surface and the surroundings


The radiation heat exchange expression in the form of Newtons law of cooling

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Where is the radiative heat transfer coefficient in

The evaporative heat transfer


is the evaporative heat transfer coefficient and relates to the convective heat transfer is the surface

coefficient by the Lewis number (ISO 9920 2009) i.e. area through which evaporation takes place, the body, and

is the saturated vapour pressure at the surface of

is the partial vapour pressure in the environment.

Heat balance equation

the heat balance equation at the skin surface of a human body

The metabolic rate of the body (M) provides the energy to enable the body to do mechanical work (W) and the remainder (M-W) is released as heat to the environment through the skin surface (Qsk) and as a result of the respiratory process(Qres), with any extra or deficit stored (S), causing the body's temperature to increase or decrease. Where: M W Qsk Qres is the rate of metabolic energy production, is the rate of mechanical work, is the total rate of heat loss from the skin, is the total rate of heat loss from respiration,

S C R Esk Cres Eres Ssk Scr

is the heat stored in the body in surplus or deficit, is the rate of convective heat loss from the skin, is the rate of radiative heat loss from the skin, is the rate of total evaporative heat loss from the skin, is the rate of convective heat loss from respiration, is the rate of evaporative heat loss from respiration, is the rate of heat storage in skin compartment and is the rate of heat storage in core compartment

Operative temperature
Where, the Operative temperature can be defined as the average of the mean radiant and

ambient temperatures, weighted by their respective heat transfer coefficients.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficeint

Dry Heat Transfer in (Skin-Clothing-Environment)


Evaporative Heat Transfer in (Skin-Clothing-Environment)

Evaporative heat loss from the skin depends upon the amount of moisture on the skin and

the difference between the water vapour pressure at the skin and in the ambient environment:

Where: = skin wetness (dimensionless); = saturated vapor pressure at skin (at = vapor pressure in ambient air; = evaporative heat transfer resistance of clothing; = evaporative heat transfer resistance between the clothing and the environment. ;

Resistance of Metal Wire


Metal Resistivity

where = electron charge (


= electron density (number per unit volume);

mobility, relates to how electron moves through conductor by interacting with other electron and molecular structure of conductor.

As the electron charge is always the same, so the resistivity of any metal depends upon the product of

and . For most metals over a large range of temperatures, the product of and

decreases with increasing temperature, thus an increase in resistance establishes a positive

temperature coefficient.

Metal Resistivity and Temperature

Metal Resistance and Temperature

Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity

RTD Resistance and Temperature (-200 to 800 C)

RTD Resistance and Temperature (-200 to 800 C)

RTD Resistance and Temperature Equation Constants

The constants A and B are defined like this (Honeywell):

are constants and are defined as (Honeywell):

Modified RT Relationship of TSF

) ) )

Equation of the fitted line

Here M and B are the slope and the intercept of the fitted line..

Standard error in Resistance

is a measure of the amount of error in the prediction of resistance for an individual temperature value. It can be calculated as:


stands for the sum of the square of the residuals with respect to the fitted line.

Standard errors in the slope and Intercept:



represent individual temperature points and the means of all the

temperature points, respectively. The number of data points used in the regression process is denoted by . respectively. ) and are in fact the standard deviation of slope and intercept

Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity (),

Usually RTD sensing elements are specified with an alpha value between 0C and100C:

The Alpha value may also be calculated directly from the TR equation as:

Considering the testing range, the reference temperature, and comparison of samples. The value of

was preferred over

for analysis

for TSF samples made of the same kind of sensing values; can be calculated by

element will always be lower than their corresponding following expressions:

is known as the coefficient of determination, and is defined as:

Where, SSE stands for the sum of the square of the residuals with respect to the fitted line while SST means the the sum of the square of the residuals with respect to the average resistance value.

95% Slope

and Intercept

Confidence Deviation

were calculated by multiplying the t-value by their respective standard errors:

95% Resistance Confidence Deviation

is similar to the confidence deviation of the slope and the intercept and can also be calculated by the product of the t-value and the standard error in resistance (

95% Temperature Confidence Deviation

Calibration Equation

Manufacturing Uncertainty
The length of the sensing element in each sample was calculated using:

And compared with the target length

of sensing element defined as:



denotes the width and length of the sensing area of the TSF while


for the number of inlays.

1D Steady State Mathematical Modelling

) The thermal resistance is the resistance of a material to the conduction or convection of thermal energy and is defined as: (For conduction) (For convection)

( )

Expression ) can also be expressed in terms of thermal resistance as:

( Expression ( can be rearranged as:

( In equation (, the values of parameters; the parameters may be derived as below: were known. The rest of

( ( ( ( ( (

Temperature of a Sensing Element

Applying Fouriers law across the TSF, would yield:

The minus sign indicates the decrease in temperature as heat flows towards the positive xdirection. Now, suppose that the temperature of the underside of the TSF is indicated by when . Similarly represents the temperature of the upper side of the TSF when .

After integrating both sides of equation ( with the limits of and the result is:

Assuming that

is the temperature at a certain distance

from the underside of the TSF. After and the result is:

integrating equation ( again between the limits of

Now comparing equations and ruling out the factor of certain thickness ) can be expressed as:

, the temperature

of the TSF at a

Biot number
The Biot number is a dimensionless parameter, usually used to classify the component as lumped or not, and can be defined as:

Where and represents the convective heat transfer coefficient at the surface of the component is the characteristic length of the component, defined as the

and its thermal conductivity. While

ratio of volume and surface area of the component.

Modelled TR relationship of a Sensing Element

TR relationship of a sensing element in terms of dimensions of the TSF and wire can be modelled as:

The term actually describes the nominal resistance at 20 C . Equation ()

can be expressed in a simplified form as:


The power required to raise the temperature of the sensing element heat transfer through it and the self heating

depends upon the net

, and may be expressed as:

Where and are the mass and specific heat capacity of the sensing element and their product is the rate of change of the sensing element

is known as Thermal Capacitance.

temperature with respect to time. is the excitation current passing through the sensing element. The net heat transfer through the sensing element can be expressed as:

Where - Heat entered by conduction from layer one of TSF - Heat escaped by conduction to layer two of TSF - Heat escaped from edges to environment by convection After rearranging, equation () can be expressed as:

Equations are cross domain equations. In order to determine the


with respect to time,

the model would solve both equations simultaneously throughout the duration of the experiment, as the output of one equation depends upon the input of the other equation.

Strain Testing
The extension of the TSF sample was calculated by considering the initial lengths of the TSF (distance between the clamps): and final

Calibration equation
The calibration equation of a TSF sample can be created by first generating the regression equation of Resistance(R) and Temperature (T) data acquired during rig testing (as explained in chapter 5) in the following form:

and after rearranging the constants, converting the regression equation into a calibration equation as:

where M and B are the slope and the intercept of the regression equation, whilst ) and

are the constants of the calibration equation. Each TSF sample would have a different calibration constant, which should be calculated before using it in the application scenario.

Thermal Time Constant

TTC is directly related to the thermal mass (product of mass and specific heat) of a material and inversely related to the surface area: