Principles of Die Design

• Maintain consistent flow across die width
– q should remain constant at outfeed
• q – output flow

– Fluids will want to center flow

• •

Achieve pressure to maintain output Design for final output
– Die Swell in Unfilled polymers
• Die shape is different than output • Doesn’t happen in unfoamed WPC’s

Surface quality
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Die Components
• • • • • • • • • • • Orifice - Adapter Outlet of the extruder to the die. Typically cylindrical Entrance Section where the melt enters the die Manifold Area of the die where the melt is distributed across the section Mandrel Diverts flow to produce a hollow section of the part Land Downstream section of the die (end of die)

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Die Design
• Basic Shapes
– Film
• Thin and flat

• Rules of Thumb
– Minimize amount hollow sections
• Die cost • Shear heating
– High viscosity – WPC’s

– Sheet
• Little thicker than film

– Tubular/Capillary
• Hollow or solid

– Avoid thick sections
• Especially w/unfilled polymers

– Profiled
• Usually comprised of tubular and sheet concepts

– Keep wall thickness consistent
• Better flow

– Avoid “dead spots”
• Keep it moving

1

Q = 0 ⎛ z ⎞ ⎟ Q( z ) = QT ⎜ 1 − ⎜ L ⎟ ⎝ D ⎠ Linear decrease of QT along z-axis 2 . let us assume that: @ z = 0.Basic Die Types • Conventional – Straight manifold • Fishtail – Manifold has varying geometry • Length of land is constant across width • Coat Hanger – Manifold has constant geometry • • Diameter can vary Land length is not assumed http://in.jpg Slit Die – Coat Hanger Example Volumetric flow from the extruder QT.geocities.com/bolurpc/figlinks/exdiecastfilm.pressure Slit Die Example The flow balance equation: Q(z ) − Q(z + dz ) − q( z ) dz = 0 which by simplifying gives us (let z→0): dQ = − q = constant dz In constructing the function defining Q(z). Volumetric flow in the capillary manifold section: Q= π R 4 ⎛ dp ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ 8η ⎝ dz ⎠ (Hagen-Poiseuille law ) ** You want q to remain constant Volumetric flow in the slit: q= h 3 ⎛ dp ⎞ h 3 ⎛ p ⎞ ⎜− ⎟ ⎜− ⎟ = 12η ⎝ dl ⎠ 12η ⎜ Ll ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ η– viscosity at given shear rate p . Q = QT @ z = LD.

p(z) is not yet known. we can complete our equation defining land length by substituting: Ll = h 3 LD p o 2h 3 L2 D − 12ηQT 3πR 4 ⎡⎛ z ⎞ 1 ⎛ z ⎞ 2 ⎤ ⎜ ⎟− ⎜ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢⎝ LD ⎟ 2 ⎜ L D ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ where: LD = half width of the section z = manifold distance from center of flow QT = volumetric output of extruder po = melt pressure R = constant manifold radius η = melt viscosity at appropriate shear rate The changing length of the die land produces what is termed a coat-hanger die entrance.Slit Die Example Taking the derivative and combining with our previous definitions: dQ QT h3 p( z ) = = dz LD 12η Ll ( z ) Rearranging we can obtain a relation for how the land length (Ll) should change along the width of the section: Ll ( z ) = h 3 LD p( z ) 12η QT However. For this. Die Design – WPC’s • Die Flow – Wall Slip – Plug Flow • Friction • Material Characterization Modeling – Fluid??? – Solid?? 3 . we recall our equation defining flow in the manifold and relation we derived to define Q(z): ⎛ dp 8η z ⎞ = − 4 QT ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ L ⎟ dz πR D ⎠ ⎝ Slit Die Example Integrating we obtain: p = po − 8ηQT L D πR 4 ⎡⎛ z ⎞ 1 ⎛ z ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎜ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⎣⎝ L D ⎠ 2 ⎝ LD 2 ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ Finally.

Carl Hansen Verlag. Munich. 2003. 362pp.A. T. 229 pp. 1998. Inc. • Oswald. Hanser Publishers.References • Michaeli. Cincinnati. W. Extrusion Dies for Plastics and Rubber. 4 . Polymer Processing Fundamentals.

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