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Electric power divider of hybrid car propulsion systems

Zdenk eovsk, Pavel Mindl CZECH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Technick 2 Praha 6, Cech Republic Tel.: +420 / 224 352 157, +420 / 224 352 153 Fax: +420 / 233 339 792 E-Mail:,

The paper was supported by Research Centre Automobile technology JB at the CTU Prague.

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), Automotive components, Power transmission, Synchronous motor, Efficiency

The paper deals with the power splitting synchronous permanent magnet generator used in hybrid electric cars. The synchronous permanent magnet generator is special electric double rotor generator which acts as power divider. This special electric machine concentrates planetary gear and electric generator, known from other solutions, into one special electric double rotor machine. The paper deals with this new machine from the point of view of its efficiency. The usage of this splitter device in hybrid electric drives is described. Important feature of this power splitter is its efficiency. Therefore laboratory measurements were performed. Results and their discussion are presented. Experimental results give very good efficiency of this power splitter in broad range of differential revolution of both rotors. The efficiency lies between 87 and 98 %.

Hybrid electric cars use well proved powertrain systems. They are published in [1], [2]. Some systems use power splitting devices in the powertrain. Typical solution is based on three-shaft planetary gear, connected with electric generator. This solution enables to split output power of internal combustion engine into two ways. The first way transmits part of output power direct to wheels, the second one transmits rest of the power by the electric way via generator and traction electric motor to the wheels. The new system uses special electric double rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator as power divider. This special electric machine concentrates power splitting device and electric generator into one machine. The paper deals with this new system from the point of its efficiency.

Hybrid system with electric power divider.

Electric power divider is shown on Fig.1. It consists of two rotors. The first rotor has permanent magnets. Its construction is similar to standard rotors of synchronous permanent magnets machines. The second rotor has three phase winding. Its construction is similar to standard stators of synchronous three phase machines. Outside both rotors is the standing frame. The first rotor with permanent magnets has two bearings and can rotate independently from the second rotor. The rotor with permanent magnets is firmly connected with the internal combustion engine. The rotor with three phase winding is firmly connected with car wheels.

Electromagnetic clutch Frame Rotating"stator" "Stator" coil


Principle of the system is depicted on Fig.2. The combustion engine COM ENG drives the electric power divider SGPM (Synchronous Generator with Permanent Magnets). The power divider is a special double rotor synchronous permanent magnet machine. The first rotor is firmly connected with the combustion engine shaft. The second rotor is firmly connected with the traction motor TM and with car wheels. Mechanical gear can be included. The traction motor is supplied with electric power induced by differential velocity between first and second rotors. Parameters of this electric power (voltage, current and frequency) are changed in electronics converter EC. Power of the combustion engine is divided into two parts.

Permanent magnet rotor

"Stator" coil

"Stator" slip rings

Fig.1. Double rotor power divider



SGPM base


The incoming power P1=T1* 1 is the power of combustion engine working with torque T1 Fig.2 Principle scheme of the electric hybrid at angular velocity 1. Torque T1 is car system with electric power divider transferred with electromagnetic force onto the second rotor, rotating at angular velocity 2 which is the same as car wheels angular velocity. Power transmitted onto car wheels by this torque is therefore Pm=T1*2.

Remaining power is induced by magnetic field into the electric winding arranged on the second rotor. Neglecting losses this electric power is Pel=P1-Pm=T1*(1-2). Power Pel is transferred via electronic converter EC into the traction motor TM and finally added to power Pm on the car wheels. Incoming power P1 is by this technique divided in two parts Pm and Pel. Combustion engine can rotate with angular velocity which does not depend from the car velocity.

Efficiency of electric power divider

Estimation of power splitting device is based on theoretical and practical experiences with classical electric machines. Our solution is derived from synchronous permanent magnets generator, which efficiency is usually more than 97% due to relatively low rotor eddy currents losses and permanent magnets excitation. On the other hand, rather complicated mechanical construction of double rotor systems with the slip rings and brushes on external rotor brings only low losses increasing. Therefore efficiency of this splitting system could be near the efficiency of classical synchronous machine. Estimation is near 95 %, but experimental verification is needed.

Electric power divider efficiency measurement

Determination of power splitter efficiency is very important from the point of view of its application in hybrid drive. Therefore measuring stand was arranged. Because electric power splitter divides the mechanical power of the primary internal combustion motor into two ways from which one is electric and the other one is mechanical, measurement of two mechanical and one electrical power is needed. Mechanical power from the primary internal combustion motor PMin PS is expressed by formula PMin PS = T1 1 where is: T1 . . . mechanical torque on power divider input shaft 1 . . . angle velocity of power divider input shaft This power is divided into the power splitter in electric power and mechanical power. Electric power PEout PS is measured by NORMA power analyzer

PEout PS

3 U I cos


U . . . is line to line voltage

I . . . is phase current . . . is current and voltage phase angle (displacement angle) Mechanical output power PMout PS is given by formula PMout PS = T2 2 where: T2 . is. mechanical torque in power divider output shaft 2 . . .is angle velocity of power divider output shaft. Total efficiency of power splitter is than expressed by formula

PEout PS + PMout PS PMin PS

*100 =

3 UI cos + T2 2 T1 1

*100 / % /

Needed mechanical parameters are measured and calculated by means of mechanical torque and revolution sensors. Arrangement of measuring stand is described in next paragraph.

Fig.3 Block diagram of power divider efficiency measuring stand

Power divider efficiency measuring stand

To determine real efficiency of power splitting device an arrangement of experimental stand is needed. Measuring stand is composed of following basic mechanical elements. Induction motor 1 (see Fig.3) is driving power splitter input shaft. Mechanical torque and revolutions of input shaft are measured by torque and revolutions sensor 1. Electrical output of power splitter is produced in case, when difference in revolutions between internal and external rotor exists. Produced electric power is measured by NORMA power analyzer connected between output of the external rotor and AC/DC converter (rectifier). On the rectifier output resistive load is connected. Power dissipated on the resistive load is measured by DC voltmeter V and ammeter A which served for DC power calculating. Mechanical output is measured by means of torque and revolutions sensor 2. Power splitter mechanical output is taken by induction motor 2. Each of induction motors 1 and 2 are supplied by frequency converters with revolutions control. Power splitter input and output mechanical power are measured by SPIDER measuring unit. Obtained data are transmitted and collected in the PC.

Obtained results
Efficiency measurement was made in range from 1000 up to 3000 revolutions of induction motor 1 (connected with internal rotor). Revolutions of induction motor 2 (connected with external rotor) were between 0 and 1000 rev/min. Final efficiency was calculated in accordance of the above presented formulae. Input data for calculation was mechanical output power on the shaft of induction motor1 measured by torque and revolutions sensor 1, mechanical output power of power divider was measured by torque and revolutions sensor 2 and electric output power was measured by NORMA power analyzer. Obtained results are presented on Fig.4. Obtained curves indicates, that efficiency is dependent on power divider input and output revolutions. Revolution difference decreasing causes efficiency increasing. But for relatively broad revolution difference interval efficiency changes lies in the 4% range. Better expression of efficiency dependence on differential revolutions is on Fig. 5.

ICE: 1500 rev.min-1



ICE:2000 rev.min-1 ICE: 3000 rev.min-1 ICE: 2500 rev.min-1



ICE: 1000 rev.min-1




0,86 0 200 400 600 800




Revolutions of induction motor 2 [min ] 1000 ot. mot. 1500 ot. mot. 2000 ot. mot. 2500 ot. mot. 3000 ot. mot.

Fig.4 Efficiency of electric power splitter in dependence of output revolutions


0,8 Efficiency




0 0 500 1000 1500 2000




Differential revolutions [min ]

Fig.3 Efficiency of electric power divider in dependence of differential revolutions

Experimental results give very good efficiency of power divider in broad differential revolution range as is shown in Fig.5. Achieved efficiency lies in range between 87 and 98 %. The mean value is nearly constant. Because calculation of power divider efficiency is theoretically very complicated the obtained experimental results are very useful. They are to be very optimistic. The fact that the efficiency is for broad differential revolution range nearly constant is very helpful for the vehicle projection.

[1] Michael H.Wesbrook: The Electric and Hybrid Electric Car, The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2001, London [2] eovsk,Z.- Mindl,P.: Hybrid Drive with Super-capacitor Energy Storage, FISITA Conference Barcelona. F193m 2004. [3] Lettl, J., Ratz, R.: Contribution to Induction Motor Vector Control. XIII. International Symposium on Electric Machinery ISEM 2005 Proceedings, pp. 141-145, Praha, September 7-8, 2005, ISBN 80-01-03328-7. [4] Zdenek,J.: Drive Control Computer Architecture. Proc.of XII.Int.Symp. ISEM2004, Prague, Sept. 2004. pp.201-208.