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Training Report On Application of Control system and instrumentation & IT in plant management

Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of

Bachelors of Technology In Electronics & Communication Engineering

Submitted by: Name: Arpit Agarwal Reg. Number:10902517 Name and Location of Company: NTPC Limited Badarpur Thermal Power Station(BTPS) Period Training: 04/06/2012- 14/07/2012

Department of Electronics & Comm. Engg Lovely Professional University Phagwara140 401, Punjab (India)

Ph. (01824-506960-61) Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering Lovely Professional University Phagwara (Distt. Kapurthala) Punjab India 144001 Ref:__________ Dated: __________

Certificate
This is to be Certified that this Training entitled Control system and instrumentation and IT submitted by Arpit Agarwal(RE6911B32), student of Electronics & Communication Engineering Department, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara Punjab in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelors of Technology (Electronics & Communication Engineering) Degree of LPU, is a record of students own study carried under my supervision & guidance.

Name and Signature of Training Supervisor Designation

Head of the Domain

Acknowledgement

Engineering is the art of organizing and directing men and controlling the forces and materials of nature for the benefit of the human race. But a true Engineering is the engineering with a practical knowledge. I owe a heartiest gratitude to NTPC Limited BTPS for providing me an internship in its prestigious organization. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to Ms. Rachna Singh Bhal (Sr. Manager, EDC) for providing me an opportunity to undergo my training at NTPC Badarpur. I am also thankful to my training Mentor Ms.Sonia singh (C&I) and Mr. for their efforts in making of this project. My regard and gratitude to Mr. Vijay Goel(Director of NTPC) seeks no bounds due to his efforts in supervising me and my project. Finally, yet importantly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my beloved parents for their blessings, my friends for their help and wishes for the successful completion of this project.

ARPIT AGARWAL (Trainee, L&T)

1.

ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

ABOUT NTPC
NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India.

A public sector company, it was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India.

JOURNEY OF NTPC

1975 -NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India.

1997 -In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of Navratna being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors.

2004 -NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89.5%. NTPC \ becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies.

2005 - The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.

2008 -National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world.

2009 -National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power generation company in

India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 317th in the world.

2012 -NTPC has also set up a plan to achieve a target of 50,000 MW generation capacity. 2017-NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017.

NTPC has installed capacity of around 38,600 MW (20%) out of our worlds installed capacity which is around ~2,00,000 MW.

Generation through these plants NTPC provide 25% or 1/4th of total country electricity. The distribution of sectors along with company names that provide electricity: PSUS- NTPC,NHPC etc.

PRIVATE Tata, Reliance, J.P. etc. Distribution of Generation of electricity: Out of 100% electricity generated 65%is distributed in such a way: 55% through coal & 10% through gas. 20% is generated through hydel source & 12% through renewable energy sources for ex-wind, solar energy etc. 3%is generated through nuclear energy resources.

I. II. III. IV.

Thermal is the biggest energy source.

Now only coal has been left to generate the electricity but coal is not able to fulfill the power requirements of NTPC so NTPC diverse its path and it goes to energy field so thats why the name of NTPC has now been changed to NTPC ltd. NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations.

VISION AND MISSION OF NTPC VISION:- A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with increasing
MISSION:-Develop

global presence. and provide reliable power, related products and services at competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly technologies and contribute to society.

STARETEGIES:
Sustainable Development Nuturing Human Resource STRATEGIES Technology Initiatives Security Exploit New Business Opportunities Further Enhance Fuel Sector Leadership

Performance

In terms of operations, NTPC has always been considerably above the national average. The availability factor for coal based power stations has increased from 89.32% in 1998-99 to 92.47% in 200809, which compares favorably with international standards. The PLF has increased from 76.6% in 1998-99 to 91.14% during the year 2008-09.

2. FLOW CHART OF THE PROCESS AT THE ORGANISATION 2.1 COAL PROCESS:

2.2 CONDENSATION PROCESS:

2.3

FEED WATER PROCESS:

2.4

STEAM PROCESS:

3.

EXPLANATION OF PROCESS AT THE ORGANISATION 3.1 COAL TO ELECTRICITY:

NTPC BADARPUR THERMAL POWER PLANT

Coal from the coal wagons(Coal stock yard) is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This

Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors.

RAILWAY TRACK FOR THE RAIL HAVING COALWAGONS TO REACH THE COAL YARD

VIEW OF COAL YARD FROM A FEW DISTANCE

BELT CONVEYERS

Coal is transported to Bowl mills and vowl mills by Coal Feeders i.e. RC feeder.

RC FEEDER
The coal is pulverized in the Bowl Mill, where it is ground to powder form. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall.

PULVERIZER
This table is rotated with the help of a motor. There are three large steel rollers, which are spaced 120 apart.

When there is no coal, these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between roller and the table and thus forces the rollers to rotate.

This crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P.A. Fan. P.A. Fan takes atmospheric air, a part of which is sent to Air-Preheaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control.

Atmospheric air from F.D. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air.

Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. Due to heat and density difference, the water rises up in the water wall tubes.
Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. This steam and water mixture is

again Taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. heaters Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to super heaters for superheating. The super

are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated (540C) and finally it goes to the turbine.
Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan, which maintains balance draft in the furnace (-5 to 10 mm of wcl) with forced draft fan.

These flue gases emit their heat energy to various super heaters in the pent house and finally pass through

air-preheaters and goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted.

Electrostatic Precipitator consists of metal plates, which are electrically charged. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates, so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the

atmosphere. Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal.

3.2 BOILER MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT:


The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter.

BOILER

Boiler Side of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station, New Delhi


Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the center.

The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter.

The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by

pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 F and 22.1 MPa. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace.

The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace.

Here the steam is superheated to 1,000 F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine.

The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. The generator includes the economizer, the steam drum, the chemical dosing equipment, and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the super heater coils.

Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure.

The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, air pre heater (APH), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or bag house) and the flue gas stack.

3.2.1 BOILER FURNACE AND STEAM DRUM:


Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel.

The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. From the economizer it passes to the steam drum.

Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers.

From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically).

As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls, the steam/vapor once again enters the steam drum.

3.2.2 FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM:


In coal-fired power stations, the raw feed coal from the coal storage area is first crushed into small pieces and then conveyed to the coal feed hoppers at the boilers.

The coal is next pulverized into a very fine powder. The pulverizes may be bowl mills, rotating drum

grinders, or other types of grinders. Some power stations burn fuel oil rather than coal. The oil must kept warm (above its pour point) in the fuel oil storage tanks to prevent the oil from congealing and becoming un-pump able. The oil is usually heated to about 100C before being pumped through the furnace fuel oil spray nozzles.

3.2.3 FUEL FIRING SYSTEM AND IGNITE SYSTEM:


From the pulverized coal bin, coal is blown by hot air through the furnace coal burners at an angle which imparts a swirling motion to the powdered coal to enhance mixing of the coal powder with the incoming preheated combustion air and thus to enhance the combustion.

To provide sufficient combustion temperature in the furnace before igniting the powdered coal, the furnace temperature is raised by first burning some light fuel oil or processed natural gas (by using auxiliary burners and igniters provide for that purpose).

3.2.4 AIR PATH:


External fans are provided to give sufficient air for combustion. The forced draft fan takes air from the atmosphere and, first warming it in the air preheater for better combustion, injects it via the air nozzles on the furnace wall.

AIR PREHEATER
The induced draft fan assists the FD fan by drawing out combustible gases from the furnace, maintaining a slightly negative pressure in the furnace to avoid backfiring through any opening. At the furnace outlet, and before the furnace gases are handled by the ID fan, fine dust carried by the outlet gases is removed to avoid atmospheric pollution.

ID FAN
This is an environmental prescribed by law, and additionally minimizes erosion of the ID fan.

limitation

3.3 OPERATION AND WORKING OF TURBINE:

TURBINE
Steam turbines are used in all of our major coal fired power stations to drive the generators or alternators, which produce electricity. The turbines themselves are driven by steam generated in 'Boilers' or 'Steam Generators' as they are sometimes called. Energy in the steam after it leaves the boiler is converted into rotational energy as it passes through the turbine. The turbine normally consists of several stages with each stage consisting of a stationary blade (or nozzle) and a rotating blade. Stationary blades convert the potential energy of the steam (temperature and pressure) into kinetic energy (velocity) and direct the flow onto the rotating blades.
The rotating blades convert the kinetic energy into forces, caused by pressure drop, which results in the rotation of the turbine

shaft. The turbine shaft is connected to a generator, which produces the electrical energy.

The rotational speed is 3000 rpm for Indian System (50 Hz) systems and 3600 for American (60 Hz) systems.

In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam.

After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced.

The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. High-pressure oil is injected into the bearings to provide lubrication.

3.4 BOILER DRUM:

Drum is of fusion-welded design with welded hemispherical dished ends.

It is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes, i.e. down comers, risers, pipes, saturated steam outlet. The function of steam drum internals is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm and also take care of the sudden change of steam demand for boiler.

The secondary stage of two opposite banks of closely spaced thin corrugated sheets, which direct the steam and force the remaining entertained water against the corrugated plates.

Since the velocity is relatively low this water does not get picked up again but runs down the plates and off the second stage of the two steam outlets.

From the secondary separators the steam flows upwards to the series Of screen dryers, extending in layers across the length of the drum. These screens perform the final stage of the separation.

Once water inside the boiler or steam generator, the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway.

The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer.

From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers.

THE ECONOMIZER

The function of an economizer in a steam-generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue

gases and add as a sensible heat to the feed water before the water enters the evaporation circuit of the boiler.

From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls, the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum. The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. The steam separators and dryers remove the water droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. This process is known as natural circulation.

The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns, soot blowers, water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior.

Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start-up. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources.

Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids.

Nuclear plants also boil water to raise steam, either directly passing the working steam

through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger.

3.5

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR:

This dust collector employs an electrostatic field between two sets of electrodes other and between which the flue gases are made to pass. The dust particles are joined as the gases passes through the electric field, and are attracted by the collecting electrode which is grounded.

Then the roller hammers, which are operated with the help of motors, strike the electrode simultaneously to bring the ash down to the hoppers.

Ash collected in hoppers is then mixed with water and mixed with the slurry coming through scrapper conveyor. The efficiency of ESP is 90% in dust collection.

3.6 PRIMARY AIR FAN:


PA Fan if flange-mounted design, single stage suction, NDFV type, backward curved bladed radial fan operating on the principle of energy transformation due to centrifugal forces.

PRIMARY AIR FAN


Some amount of the velocity energy is converted to pressure energy in the spiral casing.

The fan is driven at a constant speed and varying the angle of the inlet vane control controls the flow. The special feature of the fan is that is provided with inlet guide vane control with a positive and

precise link mechanism.

3.7 ASH HANDLING PLANT:

Ash Handling System at Badarpur Thermal Power Station

At the bottom of every boiler, a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash

from the bottom of the furnace. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from

the furnace. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers

and bottom ash to a storage site.

3.8

COAL HANDLING PLANT:

The old coal handling plant caters to the need of units 2,3,4,5 and 1 whereas the latter supplies coal to units 4 and V.O.C.H.P. supplies coal to second and third stages in the advent coal to usable form to (crushed) form its raw form and send it to bunkers, from where it is send to furnace.

COAL HANDLING PLANT(C.H.P.) 3.9 MAJOR COMPONENTS: 1)


o o

WAGON TIPPLER
Wagons from the coal yard come to the tippler and are emptied here. Tippler has raised lower system which enables is to switch off motor when required

till is wagon back to its original position. It is titled by weight balancing principle. o o The motor lowers the hanging balancing weights, which in turn tilts the conveyor. Estimate of the weight of the conveyor is made through hydraulic weighing machine.

2)
o

CONVEYER
Conveyors have a capacity of carrying coal at the rate of 400 tons per hour. Few

conveyors are double belt, this is done for imp. o Conveyors so that if a belt develops any problem the process is not stalled.

The conveyor belt has a switch after every 25-30 m on both sides so stop the belt in

case of emergency. The conveyors are made of chemically treated vulcanized rubber. The max angular elevation of conveyor is designed such as never to exceed half of the

angle of response and comes out to be around 20 degrees.

3)
o

CRUSHER
Both the plants use TATA crushers powered by BHEL,MOTORS. The crusher is of ring type. Crusher is practically considered as the optimum size of transfer via conveyor.

4)
o o

RC FEEDER
It transports pre crust coal from raw coal bunker to mill. The quantity of raw coal fed in mill can be controlled by speed control of aviator drive

controlling damper and aviator change.

5)
o

BOWL MILL
The bowl mill crushes the raw coal to a certain height and then allows it to fall down. Due to impact of bowl on coal and attraction as per the particles move over each other

as well as over the Armor lines, the coal gets crushed. Large particles are broken by impact and full grinding is done by attraction. The Drying and grinding option takes place simultaneously inside the mill.

6)
o

MILLS FANS
It is of 3 types:

(a) ID Fans: - Located between electrostatic precipitator and chimney. Type-radical Lubrication-by oil (b) FD Fans: - Designed to handle secondary air for boiler. 2 in number and provide ignition of coal. Type-axial (c)Primary Air Fans: - Designed for handling the atmospheric air up to 50 degrees Celsius, 2 in number And they transfer the powered coal to burners to firing. Type-Double suction radial Lubrication-by oil Type of operation-continuous

4.

DETAILS OF WORK/JOB ASSIGNED

4.1 CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION(C&I):


Control and instrumentation deals with the various measurement, indication, transmission and control in different technical fields. Instrumentation is for measurement of various parameters.

And controlling various parameters from a remote control room.

Basically in the plant the hardware is used only in boiler so the instruments present in the labs are used at the boiler site mainly.

Instruments are used for measuring various physical quantities like a. Pressure b. Temperature c. Level d. Flow e. Turbovisory Vibration Speed etc. f. Analytical Ph Conductivity

Silica etc. Measuring electrical parameters such as a. Load b. Mvar c. Frequency d. Voltage current etc. Indicators a. Local b. Remote Recorders a. Single point b. Multipoint c. Continuous d. Dotted

4.1.1 OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE


Control and Instrumentation Department has following Control Units:

1. Unit Control Board 2. Main Control Board This department is the brain of the plant because from the relays to transmitters followed by the electronic computation chipsets and recorders and lastly the controlling circuitry, all fall under this.

A VIEW OF CONTROL ROOM AT BTPS


Control and instrumentation department is divided among the following labs:

3
a. b. c.

MANOMETRY LAB

This components with which this lab deals with are used for the measurement of Pressure Level Flow

a.

Pressure
Pressure measurement is one of the most common measurement taken and recorded

in the power station ranging from very low,i.e. condenser vaccum to very high i.e. hydraulic pressure in some actuator system. between these two limits are to be the measurement of different process media steam water,oil,air,gas etc. For the low pressure measurement water filled and mercury filled manometers are

used.

Bellows for medium pressure. Bourdon tube gauges for medium and high pressure measurements. Transducers of capacitive type, lvdt type and strain gauge type are used for all ranges

for measurement purpose 3.2.2 Manometers

Types of manometers U tube manometers

1.

The U tube manometers are widely used in laboratories usually for low pressure measurements.

The length of the column of water or mercury gives the reading in the tube in case of water it is mm wel and in case of mercury. it is mm hg.

2.

Capsule type manometers

In this type of manometer different diaphragms are connected to each other. pressure is applied at one end, where the sensor is connected. Due to the pressure the diaphragm expand and give momentum at the other end. the other end, as shown in the schematic diagram, is connected by a rack and pinion arrangement. Thus we get the reading on a scale.

3. C-type bourdon pressure gauge


This type of pressure gauge makes use of the bourdon tube. The sensor is present at the bottom of the tube. the tube expands due to pressure, which is turn moves the rack and pinion arrangement, and thus we get the reading on the scale by the indicator. The spring is used for bringing back the indicator to its zero position once the pressure is removed.

4. Compound gauge
This type is similar to the bourdon tube gauge, the only difference being in the marking on the scale. this gauge gives readings, both, for pressure as well as vaccum.

5. Spiral gauge
A gauge similar to the C type Bourdon tube pressure gauge, with the bourdon tube replaced with a spiral. the spiral gauge is more accurate than the bourdon tube gauge, because in this we obtain more expansion for small values of pressure. This gauge is used for high pressure measurement.

6. Helical type gauge


In this the bourdon tube is replaced by a helix.

7.

Diaphragm type

This type of gauges are used basically for the measurement of acid and oil pressure. The diaphragm is used in these instruments because the image the material gauge if contained directly is used.

b.

Level
The level flow can be measured through floats and liquid displacers.\ The level flow can also be measured through head pressure measurement,DP

type,ultrasonic,direct viewing and strain gauge. In closed pressurized vessels, differential pressure measurement is used to measure

the level. One side condensate pot is used where constant level is maintained. Other side is connected to the bottom of the vessel. Difference between these two heads gives the vessel.

c.

Flow
Controlling the flow rate of liquids is a key control mechanisms for any process plant. There are many different types of devices available to measure flow. For the measurement of flow type head types are used that consists of: Orifice plate. Rota meters. Venture tubes. Target meters. Head type devices measure flow by constricting stream and measuring the resulting

pressure drop.

The pressure drop can then be related to a flow.

For the measurement of flow the velocity type instruments are used that consists of: Magnetic Vertex Also the displacement types are used: Turbine meter

3.2.2.1

Differential pressure transmitter

Its principle is that it is used for the accurate measurement of differential pressure such as liquid flow, level etc. the quality of the measurement is a function of proper installation.

Construction

Mode of connection of transmitter is that it is connected through two wire and four wire. It consists of sensor element, two metal pieces separated by the sensor as a diaphgram. It has two states high and one low. An insulator covers the oil filled in the system. The pressure is applied on either side which passes through the middle and hence acts as a capacitor due to two plates separated by an insulator. On application of pressure the capacitance c2 increases and c1 decreases leading to formation of differential pressure. The pressure transmitter has a variable capacitance sensing element that converts electronically to a two wire 4-20ma dc signal. o Specifications of transmitter: microprocessor based 2 wire type capacitance piezo-electric +/- 0.1% of span 4-20 ma dc(analog) 30:1

Type of transmitter Sensor type Accuracy Output signal range Turn down ratio

Zero and span drift min.span

+/- 0.015%per deg.c at max span and 0.11% per deg.c at

3.2.2.2 o

FC series differential pressure transducer

Introduction

FC series capacitance type electronic differential pressure transmitters provides an accurate measurement of differential pressure. Liquid level or pressure of various fluids and converts it into 4 to 20 ma dc output signal for transmission. Direct sensing mechanism of the detector and lightweight design make this transmission high by accurate and stable. Zero,span,damping and output check and arranged on the front panel of amplifier unit to assure easy adjusting.

Specification:

Operational principle

The figure shows a block diagram of the FC series differential pressure transmitter. The input differential pressure is converted into electrostatic capacitance in the detecting unit. The variation of electrostatic capacitance is then amplified and computed in the electronic circuit to transmit output current.

o
transmitter.

Detecting unit

The differential pressure produced at the orifice is transferred to the measuring chamber in the

3.2.2.3 Orifice

plates

An orifice plate is a very simple device installed in a straight run of pipe. The orifice plate contains a hole smaller than the pipe diameter. The flow constricts,experiences a pressure drop, and the differential pressure can be

related to a flow. 3.2.2.4 Rota

meters
Rather than using a constant restriction area and a variable pressure

differential,rotameters use a variable restriction and a constant pressure differential to

measure flow. Typically,rotameters are used to measure smaller flows and the reading is usually

done locally, although transmission of the readings is possible. The rot meter consists of a float that moves vertically through a slightly tapered tube. As fluid enters the bottom of the rotameter,the float is forced upward until the force is

balanced by gravitational forces. Most rot meters are made of glass with markings on the outside so that flow readings

can be taken visually. The advantage to rot meters is the simplicity of the device and a constant pressure

drop.

Also, rot meters do not require straight pipe runs for installation so they cab be

installed just about anywhere.

3.2.2.5 Venturi

tubes

A venture tube also measures flow rates by constricting fluids measuring a differential

pressure drop.

Venture tubes allow for flow measurement with lower head loss

than orifice plates.

4 o

Protection and interlocking lab Interlocking

It is basically interconnecting two or more equipments so that if one equipment fails other one can perform the tasks. This type of interdependence is also created so that equipments connected together are started and shut down in the specific sequence to avoid damage. For protection of equipments tripping are provided for all the equipments. Tripping can be considered as the series of instructions connected through OR GATE, which trips the circuit. The main equipments of this lab are relay and circuit breakers. Some of the instrument uses for protection are:.

Relay

It is a protective device. It can detect wrong condition in electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities flowing under normal and faulty conditions. Some of the electrical quantities are voltage, current, phase angle and velocity. FUSES It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts when heavy current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit.

Usually silver is used as a fuse material because: a) The coefficient of expansion of silver is very small. As a result no critical fatigue occurs and thus the continuous full capacity normal current ratings are assured for the long time.

b) The conductivity of the silver is unimpaired by the surges of the current that produces temperatures just near the melting point. c) Silver fusible elements can be raised from normal operating temperature to vaporization quicker than any other material because of its comparatively low specific heat.

o Miniature Circuit Breaker They are used with combination of the control circuits to. Enable the staring of plant and distributors. Protect the circuit in case of a fault. In consists of current carrying contacts, one movable and other fixed. When a fault occurs the contacts separate and are is stuck between them. There are three types of trips I. MANUAL TRIP II. THERMAL TRIP III. SHORT CIRCUIT TRIP.

Protection and interlock system

HIGH TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT for high tension system the control system are excited by separate D.C supply. For starting the circuit conditions should be in series with the starting coil of the equipment to energize it. Because if even a single condition is not true then system will not start. LOW TENSION CONTROL CIRCUIT For low tension system the control circuits are directly excited from the 0.415 KV A.C supply. The same circuit achieves both excitation and tripping. Hence the tripping coil is provided for emergency tripping if the interconnection fails.

Automation labs

This lab deals in automating the existing equipment and feeding routes. Earlier, the old technology

dealt with only (DAS) Data Acquisition System and came to be known as primary systems. The modern technology or the secondary systems are coupled with (MIS) Management Information System. But this lab universally applies the pressure measuring instruments as the controlling force. However, the relays are also provided but they are used only for protection and interlocks.

6 Pyrometry lab
Pyrometry lab consists of different temperature measuring instruments as we know that accurate measurement of temperature is very important for ant industry. pyrometer lab consists of different instruments and sensors for the measurement of temperature that are as follows:

3.2.2.6 Thermocouple
Thermocouple is one of the simplest an most commonly used method of measuring the process temperature. the operation of thermocouple is based upon see back effect. Thermocouple is made up of two dissimilar wires joined together forming reference and hot junction to which the heat is applied. a see back voltage is developed across the reference or cold junction. this voltage changes in accordance with temperature. in this way the signal obtained from the cold junction can be used as a measure of the temperature. 3.2.2.7 Resistance temperature detector(rtd) It performs the function of thermocouple basically but the difference is of a resistance. In this due to the change in the resistance the temperature difference is measured. In this lab, also the measuring devices can be calibrated in the oil bath or just boiling water (for low range devices) and in small furnace (for high range devices).

3.2.2.8 Liquid in glass thermometer


Mercury in the glass thermometer boils at 340 C which limits the range of temperature that can be measured. It is L shaped thermometer which is designed to reach all inaccessible places.

7 Electronics lab The FCx a series transmitter which is available as an analog or smart type, detects the differential pressure or pressure of various fluids converts it into a current signal of 4-20ma dc and transmit it. The operating principle of fcx-a series transmitter is shown in block diagram. The input pressure is charged into on electrostatic capacitance in the conditioning and amplification in the transmission unit, and is then output as a current of 4 to 20 ma dc.

o
Detection unit

Description:
detects pressure, differential pressure or level of fluid converts the detected signal into an output signal

Transmission unit

Drain plug

used for gas discharge

Zero/span adjusting screw

adjusts zero

REQUIREMENTS: I. COAL TIE UP(COAL MINING):


As if we want to prepare coal or the electricity through coal so some company has to provide coal. There are seven core blocks of coal provided to the NTPC.
II.

WATER:

For power plant we need a lot of water so with the little amount of water also we can generate electricity. So, there should be water nearby and at NTPC there is a Water Treatment Plant(WTP) in which firstly the water is demineralised so that it can be used for generation of electricity so there is a chlorine treatment plant also which is established at NTPC because sometimes it happens that even after demineralising the water some hazardous gases like chlorine remain in the water which produces rust in water so after going through the chlorine treatment plant the water becomes useful to be used in boiler.

III. IV.
NTPC

LAND: CAPITAL: entertain trainees, local people around plant. With these conditions

Good amount of area is required to set up a plant.

NTPC has to compete with the private sector also. So, with this NTPC moves forward with the aim to Gain the capital by not causing harm to anyone but by gaining name and fame along with capital through serving for the nation and meeting the need and demand of electricity throughout and at least some people who really want to work but are not able to do so. So, somehow NTPC gain capital by giving employment to poor people also.

SOME POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED RELATED TO THE

REQUIREMENTS FOR SETTING UP A PLANT:


a. b. How many rupees are required to set up 1 mw. At NTPC badarpur the whole plant consists of 705 mw so as 1MW is of 6 crore rupees

so at Badarpur the cost of whole set up is 705*6= 4230crore rupees. c. Although 700mw is not a big plant in comparison to new plants but we require huge

capital to have A large amount of set up. d. e. f. g. Now a days the power plant has been set up nearby fuel. Electricity transmission is cheaper than coal. The maximum life of a plant is 25 years. The bill of coal at btps is equal to the bill of railway.

1.

SOFTWARE/HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS DESCRIPTION OF HARDWARES USED IN VARIOUS

DEPARTMENTS AT NTPC BADARPUR 3.1 ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT

3.2

1. BTPS IT VISION

INTEGRATED IT ENABLEMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES FOR EFFICIENTPLANT MANAGEMENT.

INFORMATION ANYTIME ANYWHERE.

2. IT ROLE & RESPONSIBILITIES @ BTPS

Development, Implementation & Support for Local Applications Procurement & Maintenance of IT Infrastructure ( PCs, Printers, Servers & Network LAN,WAN etc) Support to users for ERP & modules to supplement ERP. Customization & Implementation support for BTPS Applications to other projects.

3.

IT APPLICATION @ BTPS

At BTPS, Information Technology has been used extensively to manage following business processes1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Maintenance Management System Materials Management System Financial Accounting System Contracts Management System Operations & ABT Monitoring System

6. Coal Monitoring & Accounting System 7. Hospital Management System 8. HR, T/S & Training Management System 9. Office Automation & Communication System 10. E-Samadhan complaints monitoring system

4.
4.1

Benefits of IT Innovations @ BTPS


OPERATIONS

Important & critical parameters of Power Plant operation are monitored online to enable effective control on operation of various equipments and reduce down time. Online load analysis & Generation values are monitored to have optimum load balance of various units. Auxiliary power consumption monitored and controlled. Meritorial operation practicing enabled.

4.2

MAINTENANCE

Better control over maintenance cost by way of online information available through the system. Based on failure analysis and equipment history, modified maintenance strategy of Preventive, Predictive and Risk Based maintenance is implemented. Equipment spares planning are streamlined by way of Annual requirement, Vendor wise, linked to Equipment, Standardization of defects and repair codes for easy filling of Work Order Card, for future analysis.

4.3 MATERIALS
Material Planning and Procurement system streamlined, resulting in reduction in Administrative lead Time. Further, procurement on Annual Rate Contract basis enabled through the system, Ordering on actual need basis (just in time). This further reduces lead time and Inventory carrying. Detection of duplicate and obsolete items, standardization of material description and specification, Cleaning and Weeding of redundant data, resulting in overall system improvement and functionalities, Availability of coal stock status online, reduction in demurrages paid to railways. 4.4

OFFICE AUTOMATION AND COMMUNICATION

With implementation of e-Desk/e-broadcast, e-alerts, auto mail and BTPS website, information is available instantly to all and all time, resulting in tremendous reduction in paper communication and cost.

5. BTPS IT Applications Highlights


1. Single Login screen, Pass Word & Role based secured access . 2. G.U. Interface, Easy information retrieval/search facility. 3. Information captured once at source.

4. Automation of routine activities.

6. ERP/SAP MODULES IMPLEMENTED (ERP-ENTERPRISE RESOURCES PLANNING)


Maintenance Management- PM Finance Management- FI Materials Management- MM Human Resource Management- HR Operations Management- OPN Employee Self Service- ESS

7. Maintenance Management system, Anurakshan @ BTPS


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Permit to Work Issue with detailed feedback. Daily Plant Meeting minutes generated online. Trends of defects priority wise /department wise for a period. Equipment history with detailed feedback available. Analysis of repeated equipment failure for corrective action. Standardization of defects & repair codes. Interface with Materials Management System & CMS for WOC cost

8. Material & contract management system (CMS)


1. Initiation and approval of Contract Proposal. 2. Preparation of Tender Documents and approvals. 3. Preparation and processing of Bills.

9. FINANANCIAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (FAS)


1.

Status of Income Tax Details, PF slips, Leave, Accrued Interest, and Earning Card available online.

2. Fund Flow Statements & other Reports for day to day functioning. 3. Bank Reconciliation.

10.

Coal Accounting System (CAS)

1. Online uploading of Wagon wise Weight from Wagon Tipplers. 2. Coal and Rail Freight bill payments accounting & reconciliation. 3. Tariff Summary, coal accounting and MIS reports generated from the system.

11. HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (HMS)


1. Online patient registration 2. Doctors prescription 3. Medicines issues/availability 4. Investigation reports

12. HR/TRAINING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

1. Computerized Attendance recording system. 2. Employee database to record/ update information of employees 3. Township/Quarter management system. 4. Performance Management analysis & evaluation system.

AUTOMATION TOWARDS COMMUNICATION AND PAPERLESS & COMMUNICATION OFFICE DOCUMENT VARIOUS ESERVICES@ BTPS

13. SMS ALERT @ BTPS


1. One more IT initiative for fast & convenient way to information sharing thru SMS 2. Automatic SMS alert is already in use for plant load & unit Trip. 3. Send SMS instantly or scheduled date/time. 4. SMS to groups or individual numbers.

PLANT LOAD &UNIT TRIP SMS ALERT

14. REWARDS & RECOGNITION


Badarpur has achieved unique distinction of being; First site in NTPC, with independent initiative of Development & Implementation of new Oracle based integrated online. Applications, with in house effort. This has been appreciated by NTPC higher management. BTPS Received Golden Peacock award for IT Innovation in 2004.