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Lovely Professional University
Term Paper
Topic: Fatigue analysis of bearings in an automobile

Submitted By:Gopal Gupta 10905943 RM1R02B46

Submitted To:Mr. Gurdeep Mann Ass. Prof. (LPU)

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Content:     Introduction Function of a Bearing Basics Concept Bearing Loads Types of Bearing a) Plain or slider bearing
b) Rolling or anti-friction bearing

    

Bearing Arrangement Bearing fits Bearing Design Considerations Causes of Premature Bearing Failure Bearing Failure : Causes and Cures a) Excessive Loads:b) Overheating c) True Brinelling d) False Brinelling e) Normal Fatigue Failure f) Reverse Loading g) Contamination h) Lubricant Failure i) Corrosion j) Misalignment k) Loose Fits l) Tight Fits  References

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Introduction:A bearing is any of various machine elements that constrain the relative motion between two or more parts to only the desired type of motion. This is typically to allow and promote free rotation around a fixed axis or free linear movement; it may also be to prevent any motion, such as by controlling the vectors of normal forces. Bearings may be classified broadly according to the motions they allow and according to their principle of operation, as well as by the directions of applied loads they can handle. Bearings allow smooth, low-friction motion between two surfaces loaded against each other. The motion can be either rotary (such as a shaft turning within a housing) or linear (one machine element moving back and forth across another). The term "bearing" comes ultimately from the verb "to bear", and a bearing is thus a machine element that allows one part to bear another, usually allowing (and controlling) relative motion between them. The simplest bearings are nothing more than bearing surfaces, which are surfaces cut or formed into a part, with some degree of control over the quality of the surface's form, size, surface roughness, and location (from a little control to a lot, depending on the application). Many other bearings are separate devices that are installed into the part or machine. The most sophisticated bearings, for the most demanding applications, are very expensive, highly precise devices, whose manufacture involves some of the highest technology known to human kind.

Function of a Bearing: The main function of a rotating shaft is to transmit power from one end of the line to the other.  It needs a good support to ensure stability and frictionless rotation. The support for the shaft is known as “bearing”.  The shaft has a “running fit” in a bearing. All bearing are provided some lubrication arrangement to reduced friction between shaft and bearing.

Basics Concept:The concept behind a bearing is very simple: Things roll better than they slide. The wheels on your car are like big bearings. If you had something like skis instead of wheels, your car would be a lot more difficult to push down the road. That is because when things slide, the friction between them causes a force that tends to slow them down. But if the two surfaces can roll over each other, the friction is greatly reduced. A simple bearing, like the kind found in a skate wheel. Bearings reduce friction by providing smooth metal balls or rollers, and a smooth inner and outer metal surface for the balls to roll against. These balls or rollers "bear" the load, allowing the device to spin smoothly.

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Bearing Loads:Bearings typically have to deal with two kinds of loading, radial and thrust. Depending on where the bearing is being used, it may see all radial loading, all thrust loading or a combination of both. The bearings in the electric motor and the pulley pictured above face only a radial load. In this case, most of the load comes from the tension in the belt connecting the two pulleys.

Figure The bearings that support the shafts of motors and pulleys are subject to a radial load

The bearing is like the one in the hub of your car wheel. This bearing has to support both a radial load and a thrust load. The radial load comes from the weight of the car, the thrust load comes from the cornering forces when you go around a turn.

Figure The bearings in a car wheel are subject to both thrust and radial loads

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Types of Bearing:Plain or slider bearing:In which the rotating shaft has a sliding contact with the bearing which is held stationary. Due to large contact area friction between mating parts is high requiring greater lubrication.

Figure Slider Bearing

Classification of the slider Bearing:Journal bearing :In this the bearing pressure is exerted at right angles to the axis of the axis of the shaft. The portion of the shaft lying within the bearing in known as journal.Shaft are generally made of mild steel.

Figure Journal Bearing

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The main disadvantage of this type of bearing are  There is no provision for wear and adjustment on account of wear.  The shaft must be passed into the bearing axially, i.e. endwise.  Limited load on shaft and speed of shaft is low.

Foot step or pivot bearing: In this bearing the bearing pressure is exerted parallel to the shaft whose axis is vertical. Note that in this case the end of the shaft rests within the bearing.  suitable for supporting a vertical shaft with axial loads.  In a footstep bearing a gun metal bush having a collar on top is placed inside the C.I. sole. The end of the shaft rests on a gun metal disc placed at the bottom in the bush. The disc is prevented from rotation with the help of a pin or sung fitted in the sole. The disc act as a thrust bearing whereas the bush fitted in the casting supports the shaft in position. The bush can take radial loads, if any, on the shaft.  The disadvantage of footstep bearing is that it cannot be efficiently lubricated and there is unequal wear on the bottom disc.

Figure Foot Step Bearing

Thrust bearing:In this bearing supporting pressure is parallel to the axis of the shaft having end thrust. Thrust bearing are used in bevel mountings, propeller drives, turbines, etc. note here the shaft ,unlike

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foot-strep bearing passes through and beyond the bearing. Thrust bearings also known as “collar bearing”.

Figure Thrust Bearing

Advantage: Plain bearing are cheap to produce and have noiseless operation. They can be easily machined, occupy small radial space and have vibration damping properties. Also they can cope with tapped foreign matter.

Disadvantage: Disadvantages are they require large supply of lubricating oil, they are suitable only for relative low temperature and speed; and starting resistance is much greater than running resistance due to slow build up of lubricant film around the bearing surface.

Rolling or anti-friction bearing :Due to less contact area rolling friction is much lesser than the sliding friction , hence these bearings are also known as antifriction bearing.

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Figure 1 Rolling Bearing

The ball and roller bearing consists of following parts
 Inner ring or race which fits on the shaft.  Outer ring or race which fits inside the housing.  Ball and roller arranged between the surfaces of two races. These provide rolling action between the races.  the radius of the track for balls is slightly greater 5 to 10 % than that of the ball themselves.  Note that the rotating surfaces rotate in opposite directions.  Cage which separates the balls or rollers from one another

Classification of the Rolling Bearing:     Deep groove ball bearing Angular contact ball bearing Cylindrical roller bearing Taper roller bearing Self-aligning roller bearing

Applications of roller bearings:Tapered roller bearing (TRB):

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 TRB can take both radial and axial loads and used for gear boxes for heavy trucks, bevel-gear transmission, lathe spindles, etc. Thrust ball bearing:  It can take only thrust loads.  Thrust ball bearing are used for heavy axial loads and low speeds. Needle roller bearing:  It use small diameter of rollers. They are used for radial load at slow speed and oscillating motion.  They have the advantage of light weight and occupy small space.  They are used in aircraft industry, live tail stock centers, bench-drill spindles, etc.

Advantage: Frictional resistance considerably less than in plain bearings  Rotating – non-rotating pairs separated by balls or rollers  Ball or rollers has rolling contact and sliding friction is eliminated and replaced by much lower rolling friction.  In plain bearing the starting resistance is much larger than the running resistance due to absence of oil film.  In ball and rolling bearings the initial resistance to motion is only slightly more than their resistance to continuous running.  Hence ball and rolling bearing are more suitable to drives subject to frequent starting and stopping as they save power.  Owing to the low starting torque, a low power motor can be used for a line shaft running in ball bearing.

Disadvantage: The disadvantage of the ball and roller bearings are high cost, they cannot be used in half, and greater noise.

Bearing Arrangement: Shafts are generally supported by two bearings in the radial and axial directions.  The side that fixes relative movement of the shaft and housing in the axial direction is called the “fixed side bearing," and the side that allows movement is called the "floating side bearing."  The floating side bearing is needed to absorb mounting error and avoid stress caused by expansion and contraction of the shaft due to temperature change.  In the case of bearings with detachable inner and outer rings such as cylindrical and needle roller bearings, relative movement is accomplished by the raceway surface.

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 Bearings with non-detachable inner and outer rings, such as deep groove ball bearings and self-aligning roller bearings, are designed so that the fitting surface moves in the axial direction.  If bearing clearance is short, the bearings can be used without differentiating between the fixed and floating sides. In this case, the method of having the bearings face each other, such as with angular contact ball bearings and tapered roller bearings, is frequently used.

Bearing fits: Extreme fits, whether loose or tight, are not recommended. The effect of press fits on contact angle or radial play must be considered. As a rule of thumb, mounted radial play (and hence contact angle) will be reduced by approximately 75% of the press fit. This is important where precise control on deflection rates is required or where low-radial-play bearings are used.  Size tolerance of the shaft and housing should be equal to those of the bearing bore and OD. Roundness and taper should be held to one-half of size tolerance. Surface finish should be held as close as possible.  Extreme fits will depend upon tolerances on the bearings, shaft, and housing. Upon request, the bearing manufacturer will code the bearing bores and OD into increments within the size tolerance. These increments are normally 0.0001 in., but can be supplied as low as 0.00005 in.  When operating at a temperature considerably different from room temperature, material expansion differences must be considered.  Adhesives offer several advantages in producing proper fits:  End play can be removed by applying a light external thrust load during curing time.  Extreme fits can be eliminated, since the adhesive will fill up any reasonable clearance.  Rotational accuracy can be improved by driving the shaft at slow speed during cure time.  Disadvantages to using adhesives include:  Certain adhesives are attacked by lubricants or solvents.  To ensure a good bond, bearing surface, shaft, and housing must be thoroughly clean of oil and dirt.  Adhesives may get into the bearing and cause damage.  To ensure a good bond without rotational inaccuracies, clearance should be held reasonably close. The tolerances on the shaft and housing should be of the same magnitude as standard-fits practice. Actual clearance depends upon the specific adhesive.  Under vibration, some adhesives may break loose.

Bearing Design Considerations:-

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     

Load strength Compatibility Conformability Embedability Heat conduction Corrosion resistance

Causes of Premature Bearing Failure:       Dirt 44.9% Improper assembly 13.4% Misalignment 12.7% Insufficient lubrication 10.8% Overloading 9.5% Corrosion 4.2% Other 4.5%

Bearing Failure : Causes and Cures:Excessive Loads: Excessive loads usually cause premature fatigue. Tight fits, brinelling and improper preloading can also bring about early fatigue failure.  The solution is to reduce the load or redesign using a bearing with greater capacity.

Figure Bearing failure due to Excessive load

Overheating: Symptoms are discoloration of the rings, balls, and cages from gold to blue.  Temperature in excess of 400F can anneal the ring and ball materials.  The resulting loss in hardness reduces the bearing capacity causing early failure.

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 In extreme cases, balls and rings will deform. The temperature rise can also degrade or destroy lubricant.

Figure Bearing failure due to Overheating

True Brinelling: Brinelling occurs when loads exceed the elastic limit of the ring material.  Brinell marks show as indentations in the raceways which increase bearing vibration (noise).  Any static overload or severe impact can cause brinelling.

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Figure Bearing failure due to Brinelling

False Brinelling: False brinelling - elliptical wear marks in an axial direction at each ball position with a bright finish and sharp demarcation, often surrounded by a ring of brown debris – indicates excessive external vibration.  Correct by isolating bearings from external vibration, and using greases containing antiwear additives.

Figure Bearing Failure due to false brineliing

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Normal Fatigue Failure: Fatigue failure - usually referred to as spalling - is a fracture of the running surfaces and subsequent removal of small discrete particles of material.  Spalling can occur on the inner ring, outer ring, or balls.  This type of failure is progressive and once initiated will spread as a result of further operation. It will always be accompanied by a marked increase in vibration.  The remedy is to replace the bearing or consider redesigning to use a bearing having a greater calculated fatigue life.

Figure Bearing failure due to Normal fatigue failure

Reverse Loading: Angular contact bearings are designed to accept an axial load in one direction only.  When loaded in the opposite direction, the elliptical contact area on the outer ring is truncated by the low shoulder on that side of the outer ring.  The result is excessive stress and an increase in temperature, followed by increased vibration and early failure.  Corrective action is to simply install the bearing correctly

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Figure Bearing failure due to reverse loading

Contamination: Contamination is one of the leading causes of bearing failure.  Contamination symptoms are denting of the bearing raceways and balls resulting in high vibration and wear.  Clean work areas, tools, fixtures, and hands help reduce contamination failures.  Keep grinding operations away from bearing assembly areas and keep bearings in their original packaging until.

Figure Bearing failure due to Contamination

Lubricant Failure: Discolored (blue/brown) ball tracks and balls are symptoms of lubricant failure. Excessive wear of balls, ring, and cages will follow, resulting in overheating and subsequent catastrophic failure.  Ball bearings depend on the continuous presence of a very thin -millionths of an inch - film of lubricant between balls and races, and between the cage, bearing rings, and balls.

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 Failures are typically caused by restricted lubricant flow or excessive temperatures that degrade the lubricant’s properties

Figure Bearing failure due to lubricant failure

Corrosion: Red/brown areas on balls, race-way, cages, or bands of ball bearings are symptoms of corrosion.  This condition results from exposing bearings to corrosive fluids or a corrosive atmosphere.  In extreme cases, corrosion can initiate early fatigue failures.  Correct by diverting corrosive fluids away from bearing areas and use integrally sealed bearings whenever possible.

Figure Bearing failure due to corrosion

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Misalignment: Misalignment can be detected on the raceway of the non rotating ring by a ball wear path that is not parallel to the raceways edges.  If misalignment exceeds 0.001 in./in you can expect an abnormal temperature rise in the bearing and/or housing and heavy wear in the cage ball-pockets.  Appropriate corrective action includes: inspecting shafts and  housings for run out of shoulders and bearing seats; use of single point-turned or ground threads on non hardened shafts and ground threads only on hardened shafts; and using precision grade locknuts.

Figure Bearing failure due to Misalignment

Loose Fits: Loose fits can cause relative motion between mating parts. If The relative motion between mating parts is slight but continuous, fretting occurs.  Fretting is the generation of fine metal particles which oxidize,leaving a distinctive brown color. This material is abrasive and will aggravate the looseness. If the looseness is enough to allow considerable movement of the inner or outer ring, the mounting surfaces (bore, outer diameters, faces) will wear and heat, causing noise and runout problems.

Figure Bearing failure due to Loose fits

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Tight Fits: A heavy ball wear path in the bottom of the raceway around the entire circumference of the inner ring and outer ring indicates a tight fit.  Where interference fits exceed the radial clearance at operating temperature, the balls will become excessively loaded. This will result in a rapid temperature rise accompanied by high torque.  Continued operation can lead to rapid wear and fatigue.  Corrective action includes a decrease in total interference.

Figure Bearing failure due to Tight fits

Application:Earthquake-Proof Buildings
The new San Francisco International Airport uses many advanced building technologies to help it withstand earthquakes. One of these technologies involves giant ball bearings.

Figure Earthquake-Proof Buildings

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References: bl&srcid=ADGEEShE7k8qO9XxR-y0NrTemXdTlP0qMg8709kk_ieCtBnUKt8nsEx3rTadWkiN0yVmM7BnjXgkmgROwiAjkOKvH7ah_fGI9MxG1OHJAGf2jiMWzv udnb6qvgVccmuWuBN7Njt74v&sig=AHIEtbRpStoaM_oSCBJAv_sqIu GVwgIexg       

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