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Elaheh Rabbani Head Principal and founder of Rabbani Institute of Culture and Education, Iran & Abbas Adl-Tabatabai Director of Parents Teachers Association, Iran Abstract In this paper, a weighted managing quantum teaching/learning system is used to increasing the quality of schoolteachers’ teaching and students learning. This weighted management system is based on a time dependent adapted quantum formula, which takes in consideration both the schoolteachers’ personal state condition as well as that of the students. Two 11th grade classes (24 pupils each) were selected as a pilot to conduct the Weighted Quantum Management case study. The adapted quantum formula is defined as follows: (ħ/i) (dY/dt) H
Y = Where:
Y = resulting possible personal State Condition (teacher or student) Function
H = energy operator for the system (teacher/student environmental condition)
ħ = momentum factor (teacher/student state and manner of learning, teaching,
i = degree of state of importance (degree of processing an action visually, logically, etc.) t = activity duration (time consumed in teaching, learning, recreation, etc.)
Data for above parametric values were obtained via questionnaires and were evaluated according to a special newly developed system called the ISB system to fit the state condition function Y. Environments were selected very carefully as to fit the management conditions of the school with special attention given to teachers/students and parents/students interaction. The results of this study indicated an 85% performance improvement in teaching/learning management.
WQM = Weighted Quantum Management IBS = Injective, Bijective, Surjective (used in grading system) PSCB = Pilot Study Controlling Body QTLM = Quantum Teaching/Learning Management
Today teachers/students are entering an era that offers an unlimited choice of opportunities and where virtually all things are possible. Therefore, their future will depends on the ability to new concepts, make new choices, and go on teaching/learning and adapting throughout life with ease and having at the same time the capacity and capability to stretch time for their personal leisure. To do so each teachers/student must learn how to deal methodically with time and take it as utensil for the benefit of his or her goals and success in life.
The objective of this study was to combined teaching and management experiences of Mrs. Elaheh Rabbani with quantum methods developed by Abbas Adl-Tabatabai, as to obtain a higher improvement in teaching/learning school management system and in order to reduce the load and stress in students in general and especially to those who want to take the universities’ competitive entrance examinations.
Theory and Discussion
Among fundamental considerations to take in the management of a school are the awareness of the change of human behavior in different environments and the knowledge of the interaction between the existing environments when overlapping and constituting the entity of the school system. A school is a body formed by many environments, which overlap each other and are continuously targeting in an interaction state with them. To control and manage those unceasing interactions in a manner to increase the efficiency of teaching and learning during limited time, the school’s system needed to rely on concrete statistical data, which interprets and analyzed the matter without discrimination. To do so, and to cover those interactions simultaneously with time, a Quantum Teaching/Learning Management was developed as an attempt to give a concrete weight to parameters influencing such existing interactions. The QTLM system bases itself on the following probability function (Equation E-1): HΨ = (ħ/i) (dY/dt) (E-1)
Where: Ψ = possible state function H = energy operator of the system ħ = momentum factor of the system i = degree of state importance t = time State Functions In QTLM, possible state functions (Ψ) are defined plateaus in which an individual (Teacher/student) chooses it as its daily environment. An individual can stand in one defined plateau during its daily routine activities, the plateau which was defined for each student as its daily environment was limited to: 1) Home, 2) 2
School, 3) Friends and 4) himself/herself. Diagram D-1 shows such defined plateaus or environments. State functions are associative and can repeat themselves daily. The result of each state function totalizes to a final state function Ψt (Equation E-2) Ψt = Ψ1 + Ψ2 + Ψ3 + Ψ4 (E-2)
Energy Operators Four type of energy operators were set for the school and each correspoding respectively to the following quantum states (see diagrams D-2 trough D-5): Operator Home (HH): Relation with parents (Ha) Nutrition (Hb) Free time at home (Hc) Daily hours of slee (Hd) Operator School (HS): Teacher knowledge level (Ha) Teacher flexibility level (Hb) Teacher teaching experiences (Hc) Teacher teaching abilities Hd)
Diagram D-2 Operator Friends (HF): Committed to others (Ha) Deep friendship (Hb) Self centered (Hc) Superficial friendship (Hd)
Diagram D-3 Operator Within Self (HW): Visualize (Ha) Verbalize (Hb) Perform (Hc) Simulate (Hd)
Diagram D-4 3
They are called “Energy Operators” or symply “Operators” because actions taken within the selected environment come from the potentiality of an individual. All energy operators are evaluated through a set of questionnaires (see table T-1) relating for example student to activities specific to the plateau in which he stand. Questions asked relate mostly factors, which reveal the energy state of the teacher/student interactive situations. For example in questionnaires related to student’s home environment, emphasis is given to the type of nutrition, relaxing time period, sleep duration and stress (if any) caused by student-parents interactions. Table T-1 Energy Operators and Corresponding Energy Levels Operators Energy Level Questionnaires Relation with parents Nutrition Free time at home Daily hours of sleep Teacher knowledge level School Teacher flexibility level Teacher teaching experiences Teacher teaching abilities Committed to others Friend Deep friendship Self centered Superficial friendship Visualize Within Self Verbalize Perform Simulate Home QMH-H-a QMH-H-b QMH-H-c QMH-H-d QMS-H-a QMS-H-b QMS-H-c QMS-H-d QMF-H-a QMF-H-b QMF-H-c QMF-H-d QMW-H-a QMW-H-b QMW-H-c QMW-H-d
Energy operators are additive (Equations E-1 trough E-7) and are expressed as: For each operator ---HH = Ha + Hb + Hc + Hd HS = Ha + Hb + Hc + Hd HF = Ha + Hb + Hc + Hd HW = Ha + Hb + Hc + Hd For all the group ----Ht = HH + HS + HF + Hw (E-7) (E-3) (E-4) (E-5) (E-6)
Momentum Factors For each operator, a set of processes are defined and evaluated through momentum factors. They are called momentum factors, since most environmental process dealing with human behavior, are vulnerable to many external factors (stress for example) which can give a negative or positive momentum to the whole proces by changing their speed, effect and path. 4
Energy Operators operates through physical human potential path (process) comprised of five successive dynamic “active boxes” in a row, where the central box (the third in the row) act as a pivot. Decision for changes, evaluation and feedback during a specific action in a quantic momentum process is done during actions taking place in the third box (pivotal box). Examples of process’ boxes are given in diagrams D-6 through D-7.
Diagram D-6 In teaching, for example, five decisive steps form the teaching process, each governed by a momentum factor (diagram D-6). During class hours, the first box introduces the material to be covered and the second box audio-visualizes the selected material. The third box is a pivotal box that means during a class period, the teacher feeds back the material by questioning the pupils and getting back an answer from them. Through this feedback communication, the teacher will decide (box four), if the presented material has to be re-evaluation and reviewed or the material can proceed. Before class ending, student whom attention and material readiness was noticeable get a reward.
Diagram D-7 Teaching and learning process usually go in pair. In learning process (diagram D-7), when studying a book or a chapter, the student is encouraged to locate the subject be covered in class as concrete as possible (first box). After locating the subject, the pupil must explore the chapter and captivate the essential material that constitutes the subject (second box). Before proceeding further to the pivotal box, the student is encouraged to choose and arrange the material in a way that it will use as tools for its reinforcement action (taking notes, using card index, etc.), (third box). In the fourth box, the student reinforces the material he has taken knowledge of by rehearsing it (a tape recorder can be used) or writing it down in a piece of paper (recommended). The last box (fifth box) is where the inquiry action takes place. In this process’ stage, the student compares his written material (or recorded voice) with the material covered in the lesson and evaluates his standing. If the standing was satisfactorily, he can stop the process, if not he has to repeat the activities set in the fourth box until he gets satisfaction. Diagrams D-8 and D-9 show respectively similar momentum processes with respect to student’s communication skill when exposed to different environments on one hand and student’ procedure of what to do when exposed to mild stress on the other hand. Concern stress, it can have, depending on the type, a positive or negative impact to an individual (see diagram D-10). Momentum factor from negative stress is deduced from the total. Both communication and stress are important factors in a learning environment. Giving maximum comfort and trust to students will clean their environment from high stresses and futile factors affecting their potential of learning. 5
Students and teachers should build good relationship as to avoid a decrease in efficiency in learning as well as in teaching.
Diagram D-10 Momentum Factors used in the pilot plant study with Corresponding Boxes and Questionnaires are listed in table T-2. Table T-2
Process First Potential to Teach Potential to Learn Capability to Solve Problems Speed in Resolving Problems Capability in Analyzing Problems Capability to Create New Relations Interactive Stability in Communication Capability to Confront Stress Introduce Locate Second
Momentum Factors and Corresponding Boxes and Questionnaires
Momentum Factor’s Boxes Third Fourth Teaching-Learning Interaction Audio-visualize Feed Back Evaluate/Review Explore Arrange Reinforce Fifth Encourage/Reward Enquire QMF-h-PT QMF-h-PL Questionnaires
Describing the subject Level of knowledge
Learning-Intelligence Interaction Recognizing Selecting Solving the main factors best problem solutions Mental process Decision to Solving the arrangement select a path problem Recognizing subject status Selecting the interaction Interacting with the subject Reinforce
Analyzing the results Analyzing the results Perceiving the subject Enquire
Introducing Picturing the subject subjects mentally Selecting the subject Exploring
Accept the school
Communication-Personalities Interaction Recognize your Take advise Inner friends from parent communication Moral strength-Stress Interaction Mind Excitation Selecting Programming Target Target
Be able to deal with strangers
Like other parameters of the state functions, momentum factors of each process are additive and are expressed as follows: ħt = ħa + ħb + ħc + ħd + ħe (E-5)
Degree of State Importance In general, no human action is without style. When somebody wants to drink water, he/she may take the glass with either two hands or one. He/she may drink the whole glass at once or stepwise. These different types of drinking define different styles of drinking water. Styles involved in human actions have a certain degree of importance. When a teacher is teaching aggressively or incomprehensibly her style is definitely less important than when she teaches passively and comprehensibly. In QTLM, the “Degree of State Importance” Diagram D-11 is the grade given to human behavioral styles called. Diagrams D-11 shows different teaching styles, where each one are graded with respect to their state of importance. Teaching different subjects in class involved different styles; therefore, the degree of state importance for each style may not be equal for all class’ subjects. When teaching math, for example, visual and logical style may get higher degree of state importance than when teaching poetry where aural and physical style predominate. In all momentum factors’ boxes stated in table T-2, a human action/reaction style grades the importance of the process. Degrees of state importance are additive for the whole process but analyzed individually for each specific style and expressed as: it = ia + ib + ic + id (E-6)
Time Relation Each energy operator runs with its own time. Time spent in school (classes), time spent to study, time spent to eat, time spent to sleep, and time spent for other activities (movies, sport, etc.) are more or less planned and scheduled in advance. A time schedule is given to students to follow the time routines at home. The given schedule is just a recommendation and not obligatory, but however, the more the student follows strictly his/her schedule, the higher will be his/her performances and success during school year.
The grading system in QTLM, relies on a specific logic developed by the author to fit the quantum states function. Since the (Ψ) function cannot be observed directly only its square can be measured in any experiment therefore to concretize human behavior a weight has to be given to normalize the function. Therefore, three conditional boundaries: 1) Injective, 2) Surjective and 3) Bijective for a committed action were set to do so. The action can be arisen from the decision of an individual or by any other external operator (stimulant) such as a medicine, a physical factor such as stress or a teaching-learning program. All actions are at the end related to time as to optimize their duration. Conditions describing the boundaries of an action are as follows (diagram D-12): 7
1) Any action when inducing a displacement from one conditional state to another cannot be reversed is an injective action and gets one (1) point 2) Any action when inducing a displacement from one conditional state to another, when reversed does not return to its original conditional state is a surjective action and gets two (2) points. 3) Any action when inducing a displacement from one conditional state to another, when reversed does return to its original conditional state is called a bijective action and gets three (3) points.
Diagram D-12 Some examples on physical actions are: 1) Injective 2) Surjective 3) Bijective 1) Injective 2) Surjective 3) Bijective 1) Injective 2) Surjective 3) Bijective A student cannot take a missed exam A student can take a missed exam but point will be deduced due to its careless attitude A student can unconditionally take a missed exam. A teacher is not willing to give any makeup classes A teacher is willing to gives makeup classes only for weak students A teacher is willing to gives makeup classes for all students A student has lost his time for study and cannot recuperate the time lost because he played to much the next day A student has lost his time for study but recuperate the time lost by cutting from his pleasure’s time the next day A student try to keep himself on schedule each day
Sample of Grading Sheets Grading is done by using an Excel spread sheet especially designed for this purpose and which includes questions asked in all questionnaires. Each set of questionnaire is set according to its respective plateau and accompanied with a visual interpretation (graphical interpretation) (see figure F_1 and F-2). The final result is calculated simultaneously as the data are entered in the data sheet. A visual basic program is linked to the spread sheet to get the value of dt by iteration. The visual basic program has two subroutines, and the other to get the value of the total state function (Ψ). The Excel spread sheet contains a hidden sheet that can be unhidden. This hidden sheet includes tabulated data from which is possible to get the values dt and Ψ (see figure F-3). 8
However using tabulated data might be very time consuming and cumbersome for operators unfamiliar with quantum tables.
Figure F-2 9
Elements Forming the Pilot System
To achieve improvement in student’s learning performance, many factors were to be taking in consideration. Between these factors, the most important was to have a psychologist in the team throughout the performance of the case study. The team forming the system of the pilot study included the school principal, a professional children psychologist, head of parent-student association, scientific advisors, professional trained teachers and the student as previously specified above. Diagram D-11 shows how the main elements to manage the whole system were setup. The school principal had to be in full control of the study in order to impede wrong data interference in her case study. A feedback process (point 1) was setup between the school principal and the Pilot study Controlling Body (PSCB), and direct individual checking points (A) and (B) between teachers and students. An independent feedback process was also set between the PSCB and teachers (2) as well as students (3). Teachers-Students interference shown at point (4) is the teaching-learning activities taking place in classes.
Diagram D-13 10
Consideration Applied During the Study
Many considerations were taken during this pilot study as to get an optimum result in teaching-learning program management. Within these considerations, we can name the following interest and concerns: • • • • • • • Taking interest about student nutrition Taking interest about student stress Taking in consideration student status at home, at school, with friends and within self Taking in consideration student environment in class during teaching Taking in consideration student-parents attitudes Taking interest about student-student friendship Taking interest about student-teachers interactions
To help the students to get throughout this program with ease the following periodicals were issued during this case study: • • • • Nutrition in a learning environment (Periodical 1) How to improve your memory (Periodical 2) Managing High Stress (Periodical 3) How to Learning Efficiently (Periodical 4)
Periodical 3 is attached as an appendix to this document as to show how materials were adapted to the applied system.
The program did not involved only students’ questionnaires but also questionnaires from the teaching staff. In this paper emphasis is given to students questionnaires as to show more clearly the procedures involved. From a sample of 48 students the following results were obtain (table T-3): Table T-3 Results of the Pilot Program Students Subject Learning performance Speed of adaptation to the program Willingness to collaborate Students-Teachers interaction Response to continue the program Good 85 55 91 88 90 Output (%) Average Mediocre 12 3 35 10 7 2 10 2 9 1 Sample 48 48 48 48 41
As table T-2 indicates the lowest result comes from the speed of adaptation to the program. Almost half of the students had difficulty to adapt themselves at the beginning of the program. However the speed to adaptation increased after the second periodical examination results. Many students start even to compete within themselves after they realized the benefit and efficiency of the program, especially within those who were willing to take the universities’ competitive entrance examinations. 11
Even though the speed of adaptation was low, nevertheless the willingness to collaborate was very satisfactory.
Learning performance was more than that expected. Collaboration between students and teachers was very good; however at the beginning of the program, the teacher had difficulties to accept some changes in their method of teaching. The most effective effect was to the school management system, which not only builds a sense of confidence between teacher and students but also between teachers and school principal which eased the teaching system and improves the class performance. The system should be expanded to other classes as to see the efficiency in a larger scale and its impact to the overall school management system.
References G. DeJong. AAAI workshop on Explanation- Based Learning. Sponsored by AAAI, 1988. R. Greiner and C. Elkan. “Measuring and Improving the Effectiveness of Representation,” In Proceedings of IJCAI-91, 1991. S. and E. S. Sokolinof, “Higher Mathematics for Enginers and Physicists,” McGraw-Hill, Ney York, 1934. T. Dean and M. Boddy, “An analysis of time-dependent planning,” In Proceeeding of AAAI-88, 1988. W. Heisenberg, “The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory,” University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1930. (Reprinted by Dover, New York) Wakter Kauzmann, “Quantum Chemistry,” Academic Press Inc., New York, 1957.
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