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AS/NZS 1301.

449s:1997

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Australian/New Zealand Standard®
Methods of test for pulp and paper Method 449s: Description of crush testing equipment

AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997 This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee PK/19, Methods of Test for Pulp and Paper. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 12 September 1997 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 18 August 1997. It was published on 5 November 1997.

The following interests are represented on Committee PK/19: Australian Government Analytical Laboratories Australian Government Publishing Service CSIRO — Division of Forestry and Forest Products National Association of Forest Industries New Zealand Forest Research Institute New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry Association Printing Industries Association of Australia Pulp and Paper Manufacturers Federation of Australia The Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry (APPITA) Additional interests participating in preparation of Standard: Paper manufacturers Pulp manufacturers Research interests Manufacturers of paper testing instruments Suppliers of paper testing instruments

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Review of Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Joint Australian/ New Zealand Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto. Full details of all Joint Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazines ‘The Australian Standard’ and ‘Standards New Zealand’, which subscribing members receive, and which give details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggestions for improvements to Joint Standards, addressed to the head office of either Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand, are welcomed. Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in a Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 95439.

AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997

This is a free 7 page sample. Access the full version at http://infostore.saiglobal.com.

Australian/New Zealand Standard®
Methods of test for pulp and paper Method 449s: Description of crush testing equipment

Originated in Australia as AS 1301.449s—1988. Final Australian edition AS 1301.449s— 1992. Originated in New Zealand as NZS 1301.449s— 1987. Final New Zealand edition NZS 1301.449s— 1992. Jointly revised and designated AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997.

PUBLISHED JOINTLY BY: STANDARDS AUSTRALIA 1 The Crescent, Homebush NSW 2140 Australia STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND Level 10, Radio New Zealand House, 155 The Terrace, Wellington 6001 New Zealand
ISBN 0 7337 1513 3

AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997

Contents
Page 1 2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Annexes A Care, maintenance and calibration of crush testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

B Suggested procedure for checking parallelism of crush testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 C
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Suggested procedure for checking platen parallelism under load conditions . . . . . . 7

ii

AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997

Foreword
This Standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee PK/19, Methods of Test for Pulp and Paper, as a part of AS/NZS 1301, Methods of test for pulp and paper. This edition cancels and replaces AS 1301.449s — 1992 and NZS 1301.449s —1992. This revision is necessary due to changes in the parallelism requirements of crush testers as specified in other parts of AS/NZS 1301, Methods of test for pulp and paper. Since 1986 the ‘P’ has been omitted from the AS 1301 number identification; but, until all AS 1301 standards are reprinted, the ‘P’ will continue to appear in some of them. Annex A forms an integral part of AS/NZS 1301.449s. Annex B and Annex C are for information only.

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© Copyright

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/ STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate royalty payment. Australian requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards Australia. New Zealand requests should be directed to Standards New Zealand. Up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard may be copied for use exclusively in-house by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand. Inclusion of copyright material in computer software programs is also permitted without royalty payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified. The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at any time.

ii i

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AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997

iv NOTES

AS/NZS 1301.449s:1997

Description of crush testing equipment
1 Scope
This standard describes the test instruments used to perform crush tests as prescribed in other parts of AS/NZS 1301. The instruments are the beam deflection crush testing machine and the fixed platen crush testing machine.

2

Apparatus

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Either of the instruments described in Clauses 2.1 and 2.2 is allowed. However, it has been established that the two types of crush testing machines described, namely the beam deflection type and the fixed platen type, usually give different results. The extent of that difference varies, depending on the test being conducted and on the characteristics, particularly the elastic characteristics, of the material being tested. Annex A gives instructions for the care, maintenance and calibration of crush testers. 2.1 a) b) Beam deflection crush testing machine, incorporating the following features: A beam, which deflects 1.00 ±0.01 mm for each 300 N of applied load. An upper and lower platen, both of which are sufficiently rigid to resist significant deformation by the compressive forces, one of which rests on the beam and the other is movable. The surfaces of the platens shall be flat and parallel to each other to within 50 µm per 100 mm of platen surface, and be so mounted as to have not more than 50 µm movement in the horizontal plane. A suggested method for checking parallelism is given in Annex B. For determination of flat crush resistance, emery cloth (grade 00), or its equivalent, may be secured to the surface of the platens with double-sided tape. For all other tests that use the equipment described in this Standard, emery paper shall not be used.
NOTE 1 — For the measurement of flat crush resistance, the emery cloth should be replaced as soon as any defect is observed. On no account should a knife or other sharp instrument be used to remove emery cloth or other material adhering to the platens.

c)

Means of driving the movable platen, at a fixed uniform speed of about 22 mm/min so as to exert a force on an object between the platens. The speed of platen movement is such that, when the platens are in contact, the force between them increases at the rate of 110 ±10 N/s. Means of measuring the applied load. This may be either — i) a 0 to 10 mm dial gauge or other means of measuring the deflection of the beam to the nearest 0.01 mm or 1%, whichever is the greater; the reading provided may be the direct linear displacement of the beam in millimetres or may include a system whereby the reading is converted to force units to the nearest 1 N; or

d)

COPYRIGHT

1

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