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THE SOURCE

AND

DETECTION

OF LOW FREQUENCY MODES POWER SYSTEMS.

TN

TNDUSTRlAL

S. S. -Aiau

The Papua

New

lEng(PNGUT), MSPE( PNG ) crLinea University of Technology Papua Nen Guinea

ABSTRACT

This paper invesligal]es the effect of low frequencv osciflations in interconnected power systens. The PaPer analyses a speciaL power system configuration encountered in industriaf conplexes' where the synchronous generators and notors are connected to a connon bus and then tied to the main power systen' which is incl'-rdes .luanlilative usua1l)' very Iarge. The investigation necessarv lo predict safe operating condition analysis which is and lhus avoid risky loading 1eve1s. The frequencv content of lhe tie-1ine power signals Provide useful informatron regarding the reasons behind growing osciffations. Adaptive estimation of these frequencies can be used to alleviate risky operating conditions' Nunerical exanpfes are included. 1.0
INTRODUCTION

Under steady state condi lions in farge power sl'stems , these 1or,' of frequency oscillallons do not create a hazard to Lhe slabilitv systens, especial.ly where the stringing the systen. 1n snaller nachines are not strongly ti ed t'o the main power svstem, the oscillations can cause concern [1-7] The usual approaeh is to set equations describing alf inwolved oscillating the dilferential nachines, ihen linearise these equations around an operat,ing point. InporLant factors such as relative inertia conslants of the nachines, network reactances and loading levels affect the equalions. The effe.t of ihese paranelers of the differenlial hor'ever, becones implicit and noL easy factors on the sofutions, alp|oach is adopted :in this paper io understand. A sinplified !,'hereby Lhe effect of these factors can be er.Plicitlv evaluated. A l-ypical exarLpLe is in an induslrial conplex which has its own high synchronous generators and molors linked via refativelv whiclr inturn is linked lo the main inpedances to a connon bus inpedance An-r. po!,er system through a 1ow, but significant instance will carise the nain bus to dis1-urbance on the motors for The oscillate which inturn wil I cause generators to oscilIaLe !aper is organised as folfo-*s: Sect,ion 2 describes a tyPicaf industrial pot"'er svsten which is used to describe lhe probten. Ttre derivation of fornulae to evaluate the nagnitude and frecruencl of oscillation are included in sect.ion 3, The nunerical solution of the swing equation is presented 1n section 4. Adaptive estima|ion of the 1o1l 'frequencv nodes is discussed in section 5 and sonLe concluding remarks are i ncl rrrled 1n section 6,

2.0

LOW FRLQUE\CY OSCILLATIONS

IN AN INDIISTRIAT,

r]NMDI FY

Figure 1i A sanr!1e poner s].stern. A speciaf power systenr configuratlon Lo tre investigated in this paper is shown in Figure 1. c represents an equivalent generator of a relatively snall capacity which is connectecl to B1, a local bus bar which afso supplies a synchronous motor !1, Thls ninl-ststem is connected to a large systen via transmission fines. This configuration is typically encountered in the foll owj re. 1. Where a tocal industry has its own refatively snall generating station to supplenent the energv received from a farge interconnected power systenr. This nay be necessar-\r for naintaining continuity of supply for vital services, e.gJ in steel and rnining industries. 2. Where the introduction of new industry in an isofated location necessitates additional generating capacity to supplement the locaf power station. 3. l{here surplus stean is available in farge porjer stations and is utilised in cogeneration. The special configuratlon gives rise to an identifiable problen refated to low frequency oscilfations experienced by generator c. Sudden impact loading motor M initiates fo" frequency oscillations whi.ch becar-rse of the inpedance belweerr B1 and the nain power systen are reffected on busbar B1 causing it to oscj l1ate and hence producing oscitlations in G. In situations where t'he ratlng of the moLor is sinitar to that of the generator, there is a risk that the nagnitude of oscitlations will affect the The j dentifiabfe of risk is when the frequency of oscil.latlons are quite close to the natural frequency of the generator in whlch case osciffations of grorrinq anpiltutles can be prodLrced in poorly damped power systens. Thus the ratio o. (the frequency of osciflation of motor M and hence bus 91 ) to {,r iihe s natural fiequency of oscillation of generator G) factor i{hich affects the anplitude of oscilfation.

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MATHEMATICAL MODELITIIIG oF LOli FREQUENCY OSCILLATIONS

Inter-sysi:en oscillations can be represented by a nathenaticaf node1. The nodel wiIl describe the performance of the interconnected synchronous machines in the network during tow frequency oscilfations. From this rnodet expticit fornulae are derived to evaluate the distinct modes that rnight affect the stabil.i.ly of the power systen. The power-angfe retationshi! for a synchronous nachine connected lo an infinite bus is P -;: sin 6 ,l)
where E is the notor excitation voILage, V is the woftage of the infinite bus, XL is lhe tie-line reactance and 6 is the power angle. The power floir' through the system is indicated by this equation. The swing equation of generator c with respect to busbar Bl is given be Iow

"

d'6 *
d,L2

o d=p

EV

(2)

XI

is the generator constrit of inertiars K is the dampi nC coefficient, and Pnis the nechanical input power to the generaror. For snall perturbation, the change in power is approximately proportional to the change 1n angle. Assuning smalL oscillations, 6 changes fron its initial value 5o by a smali amount A6J we cel
5=6^rAo, P=p-+Apdrdp
L

)A6

W- .lLlrLher observe lhal

,A - .it

di

d{^6)

(^.'

and substituting t.he above equation is now LINEARISED as shot'n below.

di equalions into

Equat i

l2

!i d2(45)
dt2

d(46) -' ,, -:= ^" all


0

EV

x L 'os o rao or

(3) (4)

(D2 * Kn'D + or 2 )46 =

d wnere U : -i:t

,,' K

K
__g
M

.nd os = llxrya .o"

Sone sudden Ioading of the synchronous generator wlfl cause the infinite bus to swing as well. Agaln using snalt oscitfation nodef, this can be represented by adding a snatf chanBe in poNer AP, to rhe swING EQUATION.

tq1

dt2

d!-p nndt

-IY si1 6+dl


x,

(s)

where the bus swing is represented by


LINEARISED

AP

= li sin (

nodel

becone s

(,) s

t + d ).

The

d2 (46

.ltz

,- d{46 ) h-(a..osbJa6: Ev n dt ^L
)ao =

Ksin{oqt+0)
,

(6) (7)

(D * Kg D ,.ot

( .rn r .n , e

whereD=:E,Ks
4.0

,K
Ti

2EV ..d oo = ffi, .o.

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE SWING EQUATION

The tine donain solutlon of n.ruation (7) are presented for three bus differenl frequenc ies of cjb = 3,1 2n and 12 rad/sec ' respeclivefy. The generatorr s natLlral frequencv i= 2rt "n = rads/sec, which is lietl const.rnlr lor the three inotor bus frequencies. The danpinq coeffi.cienl Kg=0.15 and the dist,urbance lewel K=3.95 Fere also kel,t const,ant for the t,hree cases, Fiqure 2 shows the generator power angle oscillations for the three cases. Three different nagni|udes of oscillations were obt,ained for the sane dislurbance level. In one case t,his nagnit,ude nas alnost three times as high as the other which enphasis the role of the

16. G<.)

Figure 2: Geneiator power angfe oscillations FiCure 3 sho\,,s the wariation in power flow wher:e the generator nalural frequency is significanlly different frorn lhat of the notor (H=8). For zero danping, lhe power waveshape is nade up of the two fre<luencies and is consequently distorted as shown in FiCure 3(a). If danping is present, the natural frequenc-rr' of the generato! is danped out and the resultant waveshape is the sane as thal of the oscjllat'ing bus as shown in Flgure 3(b). I1here the generator naturaf frequency is close to lhat of the notor (H=3), the magnitude of the oscillat'ions depend on the danping as sholrn in the pfots of Figure 4. As the danping is decreased, the

oscillations increase as shown in Figure 4(a) and with no damping the syster, becones unstable as shown in Figure 4(b) The results clearly show that the oscilfation of the generator is sensitive to the generalor danping and its natural frequency.

I ;

Figure

of lower fl.)\'

Figure 4t Variation of power flot") 4.1 freauenc\ Rasponse Anal \ s is


The linearised Equation (?) can be nodified to include the of the danping. The equation can be written as / r D , 2CL D I Jgb )Ab = { -:n ( r I ' ! )
e

fect
(8)

.K whereu:;anoS=Zo
g

The anplitude of the oscillation will be amplified or attenuated depending on the vafue of the damping factor C. This observation the reason why sone is of speciaf inportance as it clarifies !rith respe't to other generators oscitlate at higher nagniludes an area of risk al the generators. In additlonJ it identlfies : 1' which results in increasing ratio, critical "orrn that nay PulI the generatoi oul of step. It is oscillations to note that the ratio ob/os is cont"rolfabl e since it inportant depends to some extent on the loading of the generator and systen connections.

Another useful interpretation of Equation (8) is to consider it as the perfornance of a linear tine-invariant system or sone anafog filter. The filter is lnjected with a sinusoidat input signal anJ the output being the change in the rotor angle, Three different vafues of the damping factor ldere considered. These are ( = 0 . 0.15 and 0.3. FlCure 5 shows the txpical frequency response of the s-vsten under consideration. The ciltical condition is lrhere the two fre{tuencies are close to one another, in which case the naenitude of the oscillations depend on the danping factor, Fron the three responses, lrhe osclllation is atready anptified at q < 0.3 and this represents a critical situation,

Figure 5: Effect of the damping factor e. The all-pole lransfer function given by Equation (8) iCnores the excil-atlon controf loops which incfudes the autonatic voltage regulators (AvR) and the power system stabillzer {pSS), The pSS arc d-srgred ro inprovF .l-t- damDina cha-acrFrrsl:-. oI Lhe Do*er systen thus reducing the risk of anplification of fow fre.1uenc1. oscillations in interconnected sy,rtelns where two frequencies are close to each other. i{hen the effects of the AVR and the pSS are inclr"rded, the resuft is a higher order transfer function witir a nunber of additlonal poles and zeros depending on nodelling details, nhich is beyond the scope of this paper.
s.o The Fast Fourier Tfansform (FFT) is the tra._litionat method used to

identify distinct frequencies in a recorded signat, Howewer t-here are solne linitations to lhe appfication of the FFT. An alternat_ive approach is to use sone nethod lo measure the presence of these two frequencies, If this is done then it is possible lo deternine a st,rateqy to prevent the two frequencies gctting too close and lo dampen their oscillations [ 8-10 ] . A t-vpical expliclt expression for the t\.,o frequencies is given b,v Equation (9). For the slnple case considered in the paper these frecluencies can be easift- der:ived but in practicaf cases, which are nuch more complex, paranelers are not always accuratefJ- known and where there are non-linearities, it is not possible to do this calculation. The eafculation is further nade difficult because of load variation and clrcuil switching.

Identification
be represented by

Mode

I connecting t\ro power poofs is assuned to

The power P of a tie-fine

P(t) = F(t) + P(t) and P(t) : \ a ^in/2rf

pr - -r

(s)

where P(t) is the lie-1ine por,ier after filterinC the Iori frecluency modes, a. is the anplilude, fr is the frequency and l/rris the phase

of the ilh sinusoidal slgnal , m is the nunber of distinct low fre.tuencies in the signal and e(t) is the noise in the siqnal . The objective is to idenlify f.. There is a nore difficult rirobfen, $hich is to ridenLify both n and f . Howeyer fron the speci?rl power systen configr.rration &'e know that m = 2

It is assuned lh:rl- i is sanprea bl' an on-line conpuLer s'ith


s--,r ine. p.riod sanpled signal P =P +P n(2nl\T I U
)

-eL!t-ds.

TLe

on_ l i

rre computer collec]-s

a a

(i0)

\n-rF P= Pl l ) andP k/,t = )(rs


i=1

and k is the discrete-tine index. Our tie line power siqnaf is sinusoidal and the key poinl in derlving the identificaLion nodel j.s based on the fact t,hat Pri satisfies the foll.o1.'ing z-donain
equations
I

nll+dz

+ z"lP{2.

\=A

(11)
as
c1-1

where P(z) 1s the z-t,ransforn of P and z-1 can be interpreted backward shift operaLor, Using the backward shtft operator such that q Pu=Pu_, et.., Equation (11) can be written as
,Il(1
i ='t

+orq

+S-)Pr=0

\12)

in = 2 the sienal satisfies

the above equalion as


0
and
d

shown belolr.

(l . or9 ' P
where

q -)/
f

' .r/,1 I t-)PL


P

(13)
{12)p -? '

= -lrn r + u2ttp k-1 , I

l-r )l - \2 +

ar = -zcos(2nf1T" ) and az = -zcos(2nf:T")

Fron the
T

above

algebraic nodif ications the sinpl ified modef is

(1{)

whe.e T stands for the t.ransposed and


Pu

Pu-o

(14a)

t o,u
0= {e
t-!
Qru
T

oru ]
}

lwo conponent t\ro

conpone nt s

t-l

(14b

0=
'T

o.)

(14c) (14d)
( 14e
)

-12

Rased on the collected data Pr, 1-he vector ',r and lhe signaf Yr can be caLculated using equations (14a) to (14c). Equation (14) is then used to estinate the unknown veclor 6 and using equations (14d) and (14e), lhe paraneters (I1 and cr2 can be reir-ieved.

Extr:a processing is needed to obtain (I1 and az if explicit knowfedge of the frequencies is needed. This is not required in is to detect the case where this paper as the investieation frequency f1 and frequency f2 are close to each other ancl so a criterion based on the vector 6 is used for this purpose as shown in the numerical so lut ion.

5.2

Tdent

ification Algorithm

nodel an algorithn is developed to From the identification recursivefy identify the low frequency nodes closety spaced on the frectLrency scale. The steps inwolved in t,he identlficatlon algorithn are fairly standard in nany applications of diCital signal processinC 19,101. Hor.'ever the nain interest here is in the procedure involving the updatlng of vector 6 using a fi\ed-leneth data window idenlifier of width L steps. The vector 0 estinatlon based on L neasurements iis glven by 0=R'Q
where
(15
)

Rk

)0,,')0,,0., 19,'r,,1',,'

E;::
k L+1. Fron
0

and the sunmation are over i for i the above vector an algorithn to uldate neasurenents is developed.

5.3

consider a power signal given bY P(t) : sin(2ilfr1:) + sin(2ttf2t

+ 1t/10)

(16)

!:irere f1 = 2 Hz and fz = 1'5 Hz and t is the sanpling period' The and one lr.'o sirlusoidal signafs have a constanl anpLitude of one sanpling ;ii i;; p."". signals has a phase angle included For a lr.q.t.rtcy of 10 Hz the sarnpled power signal is (1?) p - sin(O.4nk) + sin(O.37rk + n/10)
-qccor

P sa1-isfies _lP -' ( 1 + .r1.1-1 + .1-21( 1 + ,rrc1 + o dinq to


EqLr.rt

ion

{ 13

The

s'"

inat ion niodef is

= 6o

+ 6d
(c!1+d2
)

{ 18

wher'e Yu = Pu+Pu-o r 61 = -

=1.?936: a,= -12+"{z) = '2.'i265

estinlation The proposed algorithn has been al?p1j'ed to the aboveanafvsis is L measurenents considered 1n this ,:roa.i. in" nunber of l"""iy. eig".. 6 show fast conwergence due to lhe reduction of the follo ins the proposed rearransement as shown ;;;;;; "f !ar.'.te.= and (14). utllizinc the final varues of 01 and (13) ;;-;;;"1i";; e2, a criterion can be developed to indicate the difference in the two frequencies and this can be used to ensure that the two do not approach each other: If expficit evaluation of i;;q";;.i"" f is needed, then Equations (14d) and {14e) can be used r ""a whrich inwolves Lhe solution of a second-oider algebraic equation in addition to looking up cosine stored tables ' 'lhe ext,ra compr.rlations do not prevent on-fine applications'

LA

Figure 6: Converqence of parameters based on L neasr'rrenenl-s

6.0

CONCLUS TON

of fow frequency osciLlation in a special power syslen configuration has been carried oLrt. This special configuratlon is frequently encountered in sone industries including mining, steel and sugar nanufacturing, The nain result presented in t'his |hesis is to er{pficitly evaluate tha nagnitnde ^ r..tion oi os^i J i-r ol ,a . r.t o .r .q. S,r.p t^t, natural freq encies are dependent on the loading levels, network reaci-ances and inertia conslan1's, these factors can be nonitored in order t'o ensure stable operation of the power systen. The analysis showed that \^hen trro fre.tuencies are very close to each ot'her, there is ar risk of erowinC oscillations and Lherefore strstem instabil ity. The resufts can afso be used for lrtanning purposes such that t'he network can be devoid of probtens retating to low frequency osciffations. On-line estination of the frecluency coirtent of the inter-tie power signal provide useful j.nformation whi.ch can be uLifised to identify poLential rlsliJ operat,ing conditions. 7,O
ACKNOWI,I]DGFMFNTS

We concfude that the analysis

The author $ishes to thank Professor Ken Mclean for t.he many invaluable discussions and suggestions and The papua Nen University of Technology for the support lowards this paper. 8.0
REFERENCES

Tse, C.T., and Tso, S.K. "Approach to the stu{]y of snaff perturbat'ion slabillty of nultinachine systems", IEE proc., Vo1. 135, Part C, No. 5, pp 396-405, 1988. F.R., and White, J.H. L2l Schleif, "Danping for the Norlhnest-Southwest tieline oscillatioDs - An analog study,,, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systens, Vol. PAS-85, No. 12, pp 1,239-7247, Decenber, 1966. t3l Mclean, li,J,, and Magdy, M.A. "Anatysis of power sls t'en oscllfations due to dist.urbances from the cotd roII n1I1", Internal Report, University of WoIloneone, 19?8. t4l Magdy, M.A., Coowar, F. ,. and Korzeniowski, K. "oscillations of cascaded synchronous machines", Departnent of Electricat and Computer Engineeiing, University of Woflongong, 1982. t5l Anderson, P.M., and Fouad, A.A., "power systen control and stabillly", Iowa State University press, USA, 19??. t6l BergenJ A,R, "Power systen analysis", prentice-HiII, 1986. t7l Sleveson, Jr., W.D. "ELements of power syslenr analysis,,, McGraw-Hi11, 1962. t8l Aiau. S.S., Magdy, M.A. and Coowar, F. ',An adaptiwe filtering appfication in lhe analysls of dynamic oscittations Ln efectric energy sl'stems", Institute of Radio and Efectronics Engineers, Proc. 1.8. (Aust), pp. 100-103, 1989. tel Maqdy, M.A. J Korzeniowski, K., and Jones, H.M. "on fine estination of low frequency nodes in etectric power Int. Journal of Electric Por,ier Systens Research , 14, pp 149-153, 1988 l10l widror, B. r and Stearns, S,D, "Adaptive S ignaf Processing", Prentice-Ha11, 1989.

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