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1

Convolution

In mathematics and, in particular, functional analysis, convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions f and g, producing a third function that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions. Convolution is similar to cross-correlation. It has applications that include probability, statistics, computer vision, image and signal processing, electrical engineering, and differential equations.

Convolution of two square pulses: the resulting waveform is a triangular pulse. One of the functions (in this case g) is first reflected about and then offset by t, making it . The area under the resulting product gives the convolution at t. The horizontal axis is for f and g, and t for .

The convolution can be defined for functions on groups other than Euclidean space. In particular, the circular convolution can be defined for periodic functions (that is, functions on the circle), and the discrete Convolution of a square pulse (as input signal) with the impulse response of an RC circuit convolution can be defined for to obtain the output signal waveform. The integral of their product is the area of the yellow region. In both animations the function g is symmetric, and so is unchanged under functions on the set of integers. These reflection. generalizations of the convolution have applications in the field of numerical analysis and numerical linear algebra, and in the design and implementation of finite impulse response filters in signal processing. Computing the inverse of the convolution operation is known as deconvolution.

History

The operation

is a particular case of composition products considered by the Italian mathematician Vito Volterra in 1913.[1] Convolution is also sometimes called "Faltung" (which means folding in German); both Faltung and convolution were used as early as 1903, though the definition is rather unfamiliar in older uses.[2] [3] The term Faltung was sometimes used in English through the 1940s, before the notion of convolution became widely used, along with other terms such as composition product, superposition integral, and Carson's integral.[4]

But in that context. find the integral of their product. cyclic. Express each function in terms of a dummy variable 2. which is therefore called the impulse response. In other words. then their convolution may be defined as the integral: Visual explanation of convolution. the convolution formula can be described as a weighted average of the function ƒ(τ) at the moment t where the weighting is given by g(−τ) simply shifted by amount t. It is defined as the integral of the product of the two functions after one is reversed and shifted. ƒ. if f and g are complex-valued functions on Rd. If f(t) is a unit impulse. which allows to slide along the -axis. Wherever the two functions intersect. or periodic convolution of ƒ and g. the convolution is also periodic and identical to: where to is an arbitrary choice. Reflect one of the functions: → 3. such that ƒ∗gT exists. As such. More generally. 1. As t changes. . then for functions. Circular convolution When a function gT is periodic. The summation is called a periodic summation of the function ƒ. using an asterisk or star. it need not represent the time domain. compute a sliding. 4. Start t at -∞ and slide it all the way to +∞. g. where the weighting function is The resulting waveform (not shown here) is the convolution of functions f and g. it is a particular kind of integral transform: (commutativity) While the symbol t is used above.Convolution 2 Definition The convolution of ƒ and g is written ƒ∗g. Add a time-offset. with period T. then ƒ∗gT is known as a circular. weighted-average of function . If gT is a periodic summation of another function. the weighting function emphasizes different parts of the input function. t. the result of this process is simply g(t).

this is known as the Cauchy product of the coefficients of the two polynomials.2). Specifically. use fast Fourier transforms in other rings. Fast convolution algorithms In many situations. and then performing an inverse FFT. the circular convolution of two finite-length sequences is found by taking an FFT of each sequence. discrete convolutions can be converted to circular convolutions so that fast transforms with a convolution property can be used to implement the computation. The most common fast convolution algorithms use fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms via the circular convolution theorem. such that f∗gN exists. . That can be significantly reduced with any of several fast algorithms. N − 1]. If gN is a periodic summation of another function.3.1) {{{}}} The notation for cyclic convolution denotes convolution over the cyclic group of integers modulo N. multiplying pointwise.C. convolution of digit sequences is the kernel operation in multiplication of multi-digit numbers. the convolution is also periodic and identical to: The summation on k is called a periodic summation of the function f. then f∗gN is known as a circular convolution of f and g. g. the discrete convolution of f and g is given by: (commutativity) When multiplying two polynomials. Circular discrete convolution When a function gN is periodic. For example. the coefficients of the product are given by the convolution of the original coefficient sequences. Eq. Convolutions of the type defined above are then efficiently implemented using that technique in conjunction with zero-extension and/or discarding portions of the output. f∗gN reduces to these common forms: {{{}}} (Eq. with period N. §4. When the non-zero durations of both f and g are limited to the interval [0. Other fast convolution algorithms. extended with zeros where necessary to avoid undefined terms.3. §8. such as the Schönhage–Strassen algorithm. which can therefore be efficiently implemented with transform techniques (Knuth 1997. f. von zur Gathen & Gerhard 2003. g defined on the set Z of integers.1 requires N arithmetic operations per output value and N2 operations for N outputs.Convolution 3 Discrete convolution For complex-valued functions f. then for functions. Digital signal processing and other applications typically use fast convolution algorithms to reduce the cost of the convolution to O(N log N) complexity.

r ≤ ∞ satisfy then so that the convolution is a continuous bilinear mapping from Lp×Lq to Lr. In particular. this shows that L1 is a Banach algebra under the convolution (and equality of the two sides holds if f and g are non-negative almost everywhere). it is possible to define the convolution of a function with a distribution.3). then so is the convolution ƒ∗g. Young's inequality implies that the convolution is a continuous bilinear map between suitable Lp spaces. then their convolution exists. it follows that the class of Schwartz functions is closed under convolution. Combined with the fact that convolution commutes with differentiation (see Properties). Compactly supported functions If ƒ and g are compactly supported continuous functions. then the convolution ƒ∗g is well-defined and continuous. if ƒ ∈ L1(Rd) and g ∈ Lp(Rd) where 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞. This is a consequence of Tonelli's theorem. Distributions Under some circumstances. if either function (say ƒ) is compactly supported and the other is locally integrable. then ƒ∗g is a smooth function defined by a distributional formula analogous to More generally. then ƒ∗g also decays rapidly. Conditions for the existence of the convolution may be tricky. More generally. and in this case ƒ∗g is also integrable (Stein & Weiss 1971. If ƒ is a compactly supported function and g is a distribution.Convolution 4 Domain of definition The convolution of two complex-valued functions on Rd is well-defined only if ƒ and g decay sufficiently rapidly at infinity in order for the integral to exist. The question of existence thus may involve different conditions on ƒ and g.q. then ƒ∗g ∈ Lp(Rd) and In the particular case p= 1. An important feature of the convolution is that if ƒ and g both decay rapidly. Likewise. if 1 ≤ p. Theorem 1. it is possible to extend the definition of the convolution in a unique way so that the associative law . Specifically. Integrable functions The convolution of ƒ and g exists if ƒ and g are both Lebesgue integrable functions (in L1(Rd)). or of two distributions. since a blow-up in g at infinity can be easily offset by sufficiently rapid decay in ƒ. functions that have sufficiently rapid decay at infinity can also be convolved. if ƒ and g are rapidly decreasing functions. More generally. Functions of rapid decay In addition to compactly supported functions and integrable functions. and is also compactly supported and continuous (Hörmander).

admit an identity under the convolution. where δ is the delta distribution. S(−1). §3. such as the space of continuous functions of compact support.3). The linear space of compactly supported distributions does. §4. at the very least (as is the case of L1) admit approximations to the identity. Specifically. and g a compactly supported distribution (Hörmander 1983. Other linear spaces of functions. convolution of measures can be treated with standard methods of functional analysis that may not apply for the convolution of distributions. since most collections of functions on which the convolution is performed can be convolved with a delta distribution or. however. Properties Algebraic properties The convolution defines a product on the linear space of integrable functions. are closed under the convolution. Because the space of measures of bounded variation is a Banach space.2).Convolution remains valid in the case where ƒ is a distribution. which is defined by The set of invertible distributions forms an abelian group under the convolution. The lack of identity is typically not a major inconvenience. Inverse element Some distributions have an inverse element for the convolution. 5 Measures The convolution of any two Borel measures μ and ν of bounded variation is the measure λ defined by This agrees with the convolution defined above when μ and ν are regarded as distributions. This product satisfies the following algebraic properties. No algebra of functions possesses an identity for the convolution. and so also form commutative algebras. Commutativity Associativity Distributivity Associativity with scalar multiplication for any real (or complex) number Multiplicative identity . as well as the convolution of L1 functions when μ and ν are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. which formally mean that the space of integrable functions with the product given by convolution is a commutative algebra without identity (Strichartz 1994. . The convolution of measures also satisfies the following version of Young's inequality where the norm is the total variation of a measure.

two-sided Laplace transform. These identities hold under the precise condition that ƒ and g are absolutely integrable and at least one of them has an absolutely integrable (L1) weak derivative. Versions of this theorem also hold for the Laplace transform. . as a consequence of Young's inequality. See also the less trivial Titchmarsh convolution theorem. Differentiation In the one-variable case. The same result holds if ƒ and g are only assumed to be nonnegative measurable functions. and is a constant that depends on the specific normalization of the Fourier transform (see “Properties of the Fourier transform”). For instance. In the discrete case. On the other hand. in the case of functions of several variables. Z-transform and Mellin transform. the difference operator D ƒ(n) = ƒ(n + 1) − ƒ(n) satisfies an analogous relationship: Convolution theorem The convolution theorem states that where denotes the Fourier transform of .Convolution Complex conjugation 6 Integration If ƒ and g are integrable functions. two positive integrable and infinitely differentiable functions may have a nowhere continuous convolution. then the integral of their convolution on the whole space is simply obtained as the product of their integrals: This follows from Fubini's theorem. an analogous formula holds with the partial derivative: A particular consequence of this is that the convolution can be viewed as a "smoothing" operation: the convolution of ƒ and g is differentiable as many times as ƒ and g are together. These identities also hold much more broadly in the sense of tempered distributions if one of ƒ or g is a compactly supported distribution or a Schwartz function and the other is a tempered distribution. More generally. by Tonelli's theorem. when ƒ is continuously differentiable with compact support. and g is an arbitrary locally integrable function. where d/dx is the derivative.

convolution is the most general translation invariant operation. To wit. It is known. that is Sƒ = gS∗ƒ. The preference of one over the other is made so that convolution with a fixed function g commutes with left translation in the group: Furthermore. More generally. Consider the family S of operators consisting of all such convolutions and the translation operators. Convolutions play an important role in the study of time-invariant systems. the convention is also required for consistency with the definition of the convolution of measures given below. On locally compact abelian groups. and if f and g are real or complex valued integrable functions on G. The representing function gS is the impulse response of the transformation S. A more precise version of the theorem quoted above requires specifying the class of functions on which the convolution is defined. the latter integral is preferred over the former. The circle group T with the Lebesgue measure is an immediate example. Thus any translation invariant operation can be represented as a convolution. that every continuous translation invariant continuous linear operator on L1 is the convolution with a finite Borel measure. However. So translation invariance of the convolution of Schwartz functions is a consequence of the associativity of convolution. T commutes with the translation operators. and especially LTI system theory. Furthermore. we have the following familiar operator acting on the Hilbert space L2(T): The operator T is compact. meaning that where τxƒ is the translation of the function ƒ by x defined by If ƒ is a Schwartz function. Convolutions on groups If G is a suitable group endowed with a measure λ. the convolution defined in this way is not the same as . then we can define their convolution by In typical cases of interest G is a locally compact Hausdorff topological group and λ is a (left-) Haar measure. unless G is unimodular. and also requires assuming in addition that S must be a continuous linear operator with respect to the appropriate topology. under certain conditions. Then S is given as convolution with a function (or distribution) gS. Informally speaking. a version of the convolution theorem holds: the Fourier transform of a convolution is the pointwise product of the Fourier transforms. For a fixed g in L1(T). Then . Also. every continuous translation invariant continuous linear operator on Lp for 1 ≤ p < ∞ is the convolution with a tempered distribution whose Fourier transform is bounded. the following holds • Suppose that S is a linear operator acting on functions which commutes with translations: S(τxƒ) = τx(Sƒ) for all x. A direct calculation shows that its adjoint T* is convolution with By the commutativity property cited above.Convolution 7 Translation invariance The convolution commutes with translations. then τxƒ is the convolution with a translated Dirac delta function τxƒ = ƒ∗τx δ. they are all given by bounded Fourier multipliers. with a right instead of a left Haar measure. In that case. T is normal: T*T = TT*. for instance.

then their convolution μ∗ν is defined by for each measurable subset E of G.3). Convolution of measures Let G be a topological group. This can be viewed as a version of the convolution theorem discussed above. then the convolution μ∗ν is the probability distribution of the sum X + Y of two independent random variables X and Y whose respective distributions are μ and ν. φ. A discrete example is a finite cyclic group of order n. then the convolution φ∗ψ is defined as the composition The convolution appears notably in the definition of Hopf algebras (Kassel 1995. and an analog of the convolution theorem continues to hold. A similar result holds for compact groups (not necessarily abelian): the matrix coefficients of finite-dimensional unitary representations form an orthonormal basis in L2 by the Peter-Weyl theorem. along with many other aspects of harmonic analysis that depend on the Fourier transform. ψ ∈ End(X). Specifically. that is. According to spectral theory. and μ and ν are absolutely continuous with respect to a λ. then the convolution μ∗ν is also absolutely continuous. Δ. whose total variation satisfies In the case when G is locally compact with (left-)Haar measure λ. unit η. Bialgebras Let (X. Convolution operators are here represented by circulant matrices. If μ and ν are finite Borel measures on a group G. This characterizes convolutions on the circle. we have 8 which are precisely the characters of T. and its density function is just the convolution of the two separate density functions.Convolution S is a commuting family of normal operators. ε. Let φ. ∇. and counit ε. and can be diagonalized by the discrete Fourier transform. §III. The convolution is also a finite measure. A bialgebra is a Hopf algebra if and only if it has an antipode: an endomorphism S such that . η) be a bialgebra with comultiplication Δ. so that each has a density function. there exists an orthonormal basis {hk} that simultaneously diagonalizes S.ψ : X → X are functions that respect all algebraic structure of X. multiplication ∇. The convolution is a product defined on the endomorphism algebra End(X) as follows. Each convolution is a compact multiplication operator in this basis. If μ and ν are probability measures.

A shadow (e. • In physics. At any given moment. • In kernel density estimation. a distribution is estimated from sample points by convolution with a kernel. • Convolution amplifies or attenuates each frequency component of the input independently of the other components. the convolution of one function (the input signal) with a second function (the impulse response) gives the output of a linear time-invariant system (LTI). many kinds of "blur" are described by convolutions. a weighted moving average is a convolution. • Similarly. • In electrical engineering. the probability distribution of the sum of two independent random variables is the convolution of their individual distributions. • In optics.. convolution is used to map the impulse response of a real room on a digital audio signal (see previous and next point for additional information). the output is an accumulated effect of all the prior values of the input function. Example of digital image sharpening using three 2D discrete convolutions (one for each primary color). as noted above. • In artificial reverberation (digital signal processing. pro audio).g. most part of all modern codes of calculation applies a convolution-superposition algorithm. a convolution operation makes an appearance. (Diggle 1995). wherever there is a linear system with a "superposition principle". • In statistics. • In digital signal processing and image processing applications. The spider is gold-coated for viewing with a scanning electron microscope. an echo is the convolution of the original sound with a function representing the various objects that are reflecting it. • In linear acoustics. . such as an isotropic Gaussian. the constraint that each output is the effect of only prior inputs can be relaxed. An out-of-focus photograph is the convolution of the sharp image with the shape of the iris diaphragm. the entire input function is often available for computing every sample of the output function. and the measured fluorescence is a sum of exponential decays from each delta pulse. The matrix used is related to the discrete Laplace operator. convolutional filtering plays an important role in many important algorithms in edge detection and related processes. • In radiotherapy treatment planning systems. the shadow on the table when you hold your hand between the table and a light source) is the convolution of the shape of the light source that is casting the shadow and the object whose shadow is being cast. • In time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The impulse response function provides that factor as a function of the elapsed time since each input value occurred. with the most recent values typically having the most influence (expressed as a multiplicative factor).Convolution 9 Applications Convolution and related operations are found in many applications of engineering and mathematics. The photographic term for this is bokeh. in digital image processing. In that case. • In probability theory. the excitation signal can be treated as a chain of delta pulses.

40. Michiel. Donald (1997). L.de/C/c026430. No. M. (1995). Abstract harmonic analysis. Walter (1962). R. Springer.). . (1970).Y. N. Kenneth A. (1979). J. • Sobolev.: Chelsea Pub. Cambridge University Press. A. • Hewitt. google. • Knuth. New York: Springer-Verlag. [3] Leonard Eugene Dickson (1914). Distributions and Kernels. ISBN 0486453529. Bracewell (2005). • Hörmander. Paris 1913.htm). ISBN 978-0-387-94370-1. ISBN 0849382734. ISBN 0071160434. Modern Computer Algebra.). • Kassel. I. Academic Press. MR551496. ISBN 047152364X. New York: Springer-Verlag. E (1948). Analysis on locally compact Abelian groups. Cambridge University Press. V. Christian (1995).). In W. • Stein. Band 152. (2001). the source is Volterra. Math. (1994). J. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences]. ISBN 0-201-89684-2. Edwin. Weiss. 6–7]. Interscience Tracts in Pure and Applied Mathematics. (1983). • Rudin. • Diggle. ISBN 978-3-540-09434-0. 115 (2nd ed. Sitzungsberichte der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. ed. Fourier analysis on groups. 12.springer. "Convolution of functions" (http://eom. (1998). . Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Guido (1971). "Early work on imaging theory in radio astronomy" (http:/ / books. Seminumerical Algorithms (3rd. Springer. The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (2nd ed. Berlin. J.I. • von zur Gathen. Edwin. "A kernel method for smoothing point process data". References • Bracewell. p. T. Reading. Gauthier-Villars. ISBN 0-521-82646-2. 227 no. Ross. Interscience Publishers (a division of John Wiley and Sons). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Elias. Appl. Co. R. Cambridge University Press. 256. • Hewitt. J. New York: Springer-Verlag. [4] R. Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften.. A Guide to Distribution Theory and Fourier Transforms. New York. 2. • Titchmarsh. Abstract harmonic analysis. François (1967). N. ISBN 0-691-08078-X. the large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model uses the convolution operation to lower the range of length scales necessary in computation thereby reducing computational cost. Princeton University Press. Heft 2. • Strichartz. ISBN 978-0828403245. P. MR0717035. McGraw–Hill. com/ books?id=NIe4AAAAIAAJ& pg=PA40). "Einige Klassen quadratischer Integralgleichungen". The analysis of linear partial differential operators I. Kenneth A. ISBN 3-540-12104-8. Berlin. p. "Leçons sur les fonctions de linges". "On possible deterioration of smoothness under the operation of convolution". Vito (1913).Convolution • In computational fluid dynamics. p. CRC Press. Series C) 34 (1985) 138–147 . ISBN 978-1556080104. II: Structure and analysis for compact groups. in Hazewinkel. Berlin. Vol. Wiley. 155. Grundl. MR0152834. com/ books?id=LRGoAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA85). 335--358 • Treves. com/ books?id=v2SqL0zCrwcC& pg=PA172). J. Topological Vector Spaces. Vol. New York–London. The Early Years of Radio Astronomy: Reflections Fifty Years After Jansky's Discovery. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. (published 1986). Algebraic invariants (http:/ / books.). [2] John Hilton Grace and Alfred Young (1903). google. (1986). Band 128. Anal. Massachusetts: Addison–Wesley. Math. 172. . Quantum groups. (2003). MR1321145. Ross. Gerhard. ISBN 9780521616027. google. MR0262773. Wissenschaft. The algebra of invariants (http:/ / books. Introduction to the theory of Fourier integrals (2nd ed.. Introduction to Fourier Analysis on Euclidean Spaces. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics. • Uludag. 10 Notes [1] According to [Lothar von Wolfersdorf (2000). 85. Sullivan.

cern.archive.vuse.stanford.edu/~signals/convolve/index. • Lectures on Image Processing: A collection of 18 lectures in pdf format from Vanderbilt University. Lecture 7 is on 2-D convolution.edu/~signals/discreteconv2/index.html#SECTION000380000000000000000).Convolution 11 External links • Earliest Uses: The entry on Convolution has some historical information.html) at MathWorld • Freeverb3 Impulse Response Processor (http://freeverb3.fsu.pdf • Convolution (http://rkb. • http://www.jhu.ch/rkb/titleA. by Alan Peters.ac. .html Visual convolution Java Applet for Discrete Time functions.html Visual convolution Java Applet. on The Data Analysis BriefBook (http://rkb.home.com/Convolution.edu/~rap2/EECE253/EECE253_01_Intro.wolfram. (http://jeff560. (http://www.tripod.cern.org/details/Lectures_on_Image_Processing).com/c.edu/primer/java/ digitalimaging/processing/kernelmaskoperation/) • Convolution (http://mathworld.net/): Opensource zero latency impulse response processor with VST plugins • Stanford University CS 178 interactive Flash demo (http://graphics.ch/rkb/AN16pp/node38. • http://www.html) showing how spatial convolution works.sourceforge.jhu.pdf • Convolution Kernel Mask Operation Interactive tutorial (http://micro.html) • http://www.nitte.edu/courses/cs178/applets/ convolution.html) • http://www.vanderbilt.in/downloads/Conv-LTI.magnet.home.

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