CHAPTER 51 ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION  Production of a new individual by the joining of 2 haploid gametes  Fertilization is the union of haploid egg and sperm to produce a diploid zygote  Most species reproduce sexually  Sexual reproduction allows for greater genetic variation  Allows more rapid adaptation to environmental changes  May make it easier to eliminate harmful alleles GAMETOGENESIS  Formation of gametes  Germ cells multiply by mitosis resulting in spermatogonia (2n) or oogonia (2n)  Spermatogonia (2n) or oogonia (2n) multiply again by mitosis to produce primary spermatocytes and primary oocytes SPERMATOGENESIS  Primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis I to produce 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes  Undergo meiosis II to produce 4 haploid spermatids  Eventually become sperm  1 cell becomes 4 gametes  Sperm has head (with acrosome), midpiece, and tail OOGENESIS  1 gamete from each primary oocyte  Each meiotic division results in 1 large cell (secondary oocyte in meiosis I and ovum in meiosis II) and 1 small cell (polar body)  One or many ova can develop at a time  2 layers around ova (zona pellucida and cumulus mass)  Most female mammals are born with all the primary oocytes they will ever have  About 1 million at birth but degeneration leaves about 200,000 in each ovary at puberty FERTILIZATION  is a process, not a single event, that begins when a sperm cell first makes contact with the coverings of the egg and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes at the metaphase plate prior to the first cleavage division.  Involves a haploid egg and sperm uniting to form diploid zygote  Important components:  Initial membrane contact between egg and sperm  Entry of the sperm cell into the egg  Prevention of polyspermy by the egg  Metabolic activation of the egg  Completion of meiosis by the egg  Formation and fusion of male and female pronuclei, leading to the first cleavage division    Sperm swims toward egg following chemical attractant molecules Sperm will only respond to attractants from ova of their own species Sperm contact plasma membrane of ova using proteolytic enzymes in acrosome to digest zona pellucida Once sperm fuses with egg, other sperm are prevented from entering

HUMAN MALE REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES  Genitalia consist of penis and scrotum  Scrotum holds testes where sperm develop at 2°C lower than core body temperature  Each testis composed of seminiferous tubules (site of spermatogenesis) and Leydig cells (secrete testosterone)  Sperm released into lumen of seminiferous tubules  Sertoli cells provide nutrients and protection to developing sperm  Sperm then move into epididymis to complete their differentiation by becoming motile and capable of fertilization  Then to vas deferens leading to ejaculatory duct and urethra  Semen contain fluid and sperm  Sperm about 5% of volume  Fluid from seminal vesicles (fructose), bulbourethral glands (alkaline mucus), and prostate gland (protective fluid)  Testosterone  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) made by hypothalamus stimulates anterior pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and folliclestimulating hormone (FSH)  LH stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone  Testosterone acts on  Sertoli cells and germ cells to stimulate spermatogenesis  Stimulates growth of male reproductive tract and genitalia during development and puberty  Stimulates development of male secondary sexual characteristics – facial hair, horns on bulls, bright feathers of peacocks  FSH (with testosterone) stimulates Sertoli cells and spermatogenesis  Controlled by negative feedback  Increased GnRH at puberty initiates release of LH and FSH

which tissue secretes progesterone that stimulates uterus to  Clitoris same erectile tissue as penis sustain embryo  Ovaries  If there is no pregnancy. induced ovulation (endometrium) and outer muscular layer  Luteal phase (myometrium)  Corpus luteum develops and secretes  Vagina progesterone  Inhibits FSH and LH secretion and prepares  a fibromuscular tube that extends from the uterus to receive embryo cervix to the vestibule of the vulva. maintains corpus luteum  serves as the birth canal  If fertilization does not occur. Blastocyst is a ball of 32-150 cells that enters uterus OVARIAN CYCLE  Ovarian cycle last approximately 28 days in humans  Several oocytes begin maturation but only 1 is ovulated each cycle  Menopause. then regresses after  LH spike induces ovulation – rupture of follicle menopause. narrow portion of the uterus  Menstruation initiated when corpus luteum where it joins with the top end of the vagina.  Genitalia differentiate from the same embryonic which secretes estradiol tissue as male genitalia  At ovulation.about 1-2 inches long and opens in the  Other mammals have estrous cycles (uterine cycle vulva between the clitoris and the vaginal without bleeding) opening. and cumulus mass  Labia minora same tissue as urethra primordial  Empty follicle becomes the corpus luteum. After childbirth. cervix. only 1 follicle and its primary oocyte continue developing  Primary oocyte undergoes meiosis to become secondary oocyte HUMAN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES  Secondary oocyte surrounded by cumulus mass. degenerates  Urethra . and into  Endometrium becomes thicker and more uterus vascularized  Typically. corpus luteum degenerates and a new set of follicles begin  the main reproductive organs of a woman developing about the size and shape of almonds  Follicular phase  produce female hormone(estrogens and  First half when growth and differentiation of progesterone) and eggs (ova) through the follicle occurring ovarian follicles it contains.  Fairly low LH levels stimulate follicular cells to  Fallopian tubes . zona  Labia majora same tissue as scrotum pellucida. follicle ruptures releasing egg. one egg released into abdominal cavity . resulting in an LH spike the uterus is usually larger.oocytes become depleted and ovulation stops  During first week. estradiol exerts a negative feedback  Has fimbriae that draws current to cause the action on LH and FSH to prevent their blood egg to enter it levels from rising until the follicle is ready to  Equipped with cilia ovulate  Where fertilization takes place  When the follicle is ready.a hollow cavity about the size of a pear (in production jumps women who have never been pregnant) that  Feedback switches from negative to positive houses a developing fertilized egg. cells surrounding embryo  provides a passageway for menstrual blood produce chorionic gonadotropin which flow to leave the body.  If fertilization occurs. several primary oocytes begin to develop. corpus luteum  receptive organ for penis during sexual degenerates in 2 weeks and cycle begins intercourse again  The upper portion of the vaginal canal surrounds the cervix of the uterus UTERINE (MENSTRUAL) CYCLE  Cervix . has inner glandular lining  Spontaneous vs. its estradiol  Uterus .uterine tubes or oviducts= make estradiol transport ova(egg cells) from the ovaries to the  Estradiol levels slowly increase uterus  Initially.  Proliferative phase  External opening leads to vagina. each within a follicle  By second week.the lower.

pregnancy begins       Positive feedback cycle In most mammals. young are nurtured for a period by milk Lactation – production of milk During pregnancy.   Secretory phase  Glands develop that secrete nutritive substances to sustain embryo for first 2 weeks If embryo does not implant. lining shed If embryo does implant. pregnancy begins when the embryo is established in the uterine lining  Length varies widely and is roughly related to adult size  Prolonging gestation protects developing embryo and offspring is more fully developed at birth  First event of pregnancy is implantation  In humans within 1-2 weeks  Endometrial glands provide initial nutrients  Placenta then develops from maternal and fetal tissue  Placenta’s fetal portion (chorion) has chorionic villi providing a large surface area for gas and nutrient/waste exchange  Blood of mother and fetus does not mix BIRTH OR PARTURITION  Initiated by hormonal action and other factors  Initial event is increase in estradiol and oxytocin in mother’s blood  Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary stimulates smooth muscle contraction in the uterus  Hugh levels of estradiol stimulate the production of oxytocin receptors in uterine smooth muscle which increases sensitivity to oxytocin  Pressure of the fetus’ head stretches smooth muscle  Triggers more oxytocin release . elevated progesterone inhibits prolactin secretion Prolactin increases shortly after birth as progesterone declines Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle surrounding secretory ducts in the breast to release milk CONTROL OF REPRODUCTION  Contraception – blocks fertilization or implantation of fertilized egg  Abortion – after implantation  Spontaneous or induced  Vasectomy and tubal ligation prevent the transport of gametes  Barrier methods prevent sperm from reaching egg (vaginal diaphragms or condoms)  Oral contraceptives prevent ovulation  No chemical contraceptives currently for men PREGNANCY OR GESTATION  Time during which a developing embryo grows within the uterus of the mother  Physiologically.

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