What are the factors affecting Brand Image?

By BMS Team on June 6, 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing BRAND IMAGE &VARIOUS FACTORS AFFECTING IT Brand Relationship = Brand Image + Brand Attitude Brand Image = Brand Associations + Brand Personality Brand Associations = Link up in memory with brands attributes benefits and looks Brand Looks = Brand Symbol + Brand Name Brand Symbol = Brand Character + Brand Logo

Brand image is one of the two critical elements of brand relationship. It is a combination of association and personality of a brand. Brand image includes a set of BAs usually structured in a logical fashion. For example- Sunsilk helps one have good healthy hair and good knight helps one ensure a good sleep for the family. One or more BAs can generate a brand image and while reading a brand image statement based on BA quite often one may feel like reading a BA statement as both are closely linked.

Associations can exist on a host of parameters/aspects such as- provides immediate relief, relief does not last long is affordable, is easy to get has no side effects it is okay for children doesn‟t have a bad taste its smell is somewhat floral etc. similarly image based on BA can exist on a range of factors like quality, effectiveness, value for money etc.

BRAND IMAGE = Brand Associations + Brand Personality

What factors should be considered for selecting an Ad Agency?
By BMS Team on June 6, 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing SELECTION OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY

First and foremost, the agency must be known. Previously unknown agencies are not preferred. Secondly, the agency must have creativity. Creative people are a little crazy, nonconformists. Creativity does not follow any logical pattern. Creative people are like naughty children. The secret of creativity is simplicity.

Thirdly, the agency must have a sound track record, a good deal of experience. Fourthly, the accounts executive must have ability to understand the client‟s problems.

Fifthly, you may look t the accounts they handle, and the accounts they have gained and lost. In other words, the work they have produced for other clients does matter.

Sixthly, the personal equation of the client with the agency also matters. If you know them personally, they are compatible with you.

Seventhly, their ability and presentation may make you opt for them. Premier Auto (the company that makes Fiat cars) was shopping around for an agency to launch its 118 NE. It invited presentations from various agencies and then shifted its account from its old agency Sistas to Ulka. More and more clients prefer to invite presentations for campaigns of new products and then award the campaign to the agency who they think has made the best presentations.

Lastly, there are some unique considerations, some prefer a small, some a medium, some a large agency. Increasingly, clients prefer to fragment their business, giving different products to different agencies.

Other factors that need consideration is the staff of the agency and its caliber, its flexibility, practical and consumer oriented approach, the use it makes of MR, its media understanding, the attention it gives to the client, its growth, the ability to handle below-the-line publicity and its international tie-ups.

g. (For e. They are acting as the custodians of the brands of the clients. „I like the agency. He is link between the agency and clients. Unfortunately many think „Creativity‟ is just another way of saying.K Swamy BBDO is renowned for print. O&M. and LOWE are called full service advertising agencies because they are ONE STOP SHOP for all services that are offered to the clients. O&M is known for creativity. R. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing FUNCTIONS OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY Big agencies like JWT. The number of clients it holds. He suggests what the client exactly wants to his advertising agency.‟ EVALUATION OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY The agency is evaluated on the past performance. 1. Leo Burnett is renowned for consumer insights.g. . Today‟s agencies are providing total communications packages for the client brands. CLIENT SERVICING: Also called as “Accounts executives”. commitment to client and the quality of its top management go a long way in the selection of an agency. Timely delivery of advertising materials (especially for Cola ads) Explain the Functions of an Advertising Agency By BMS Team on June 6. for e.So creativity. O & M works on 240 brands at a time) The reputation the agency has in advertising circles (JWT is renowned for its reputation) The particular USP of the agency (on what areas the agency is specialized in. He is the one who carries the client brief and is also responsible for approvals.

before it goes for shooting.2. for pre-testing and post-testing of media respectively consumer insights and brand usages are also tested at times according to client in many situations 6. Appropriate media mix is developed. 3. It will be headed by VP Strategic Planning and assisted by strategic planners. These days the clients require a well prepared advertising strategy before the design of the advertisement and hence strategic planning has grown past 4 years. THE FINANCE DEPT (ACCOUNTING): This dept looks after the accounts (financial records) for the agency. RESEARCH DEPT. 5. However. big agencies have a strong Strategic Planning dept whereas in small and medium agencies. 7. The final layout is sent to the client for approval. THE MEDIA DEPT. prepare and place advertising on advertising media . Usually MBA‟s from reputed management institutes are recruited in these dept. THE PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: The production department is responsible to convert the storyboard in to a finished layout (technical storyboard if it‟s for print medium or outdoor. The final storyboard is made into a technical storyboard. An advertising agency is: a) An independent business organization b) Composed of creative and business people c) Who develop. DEFINITION OF AN ADVERTISING AGENCY It is the core of advertising profession and industry.: The Media Planner along with the Media manager and brand manager/media dept of the client prepares the final media budget and purchases Insertions for print media (space buying) or purchases radio spots if it‟s for Radio or purchases TV time if it‟s on television. THE CREATIVE DEPARTMENT: Under the Creative Director there are a team of Copywriters and Visualisers who arrive at the “BIG IDEA”. 4. STRATEGIC PLANNING: Strategic planning is a heart of an advertising agency. the television commercial will be outsourced to a production house (like Prasoon Pandey‟s CORCOISE FILMS). Accordingly the storyboard is prepared and script work is done.: In fact Research dept functions before and after a commercial is made. it is handled by the creative dept itself.

In some agencies account management takes care of the strategic planning involved in their respective brands. take briefs and understand the marketing issues involved. they brief the creative and media on the jobs and co-ordinate the entire „work processes „inside the agency. ACCOUNT PLANNING It is the second core function in the agency. planning is the research face of the agency. However. all agencies do not necessarily have a separate unit for planning. But often they ideate and work together. Four Key Functions of an Ad agency ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT Account Management is the pivot on which the entire agency‟s work revolves. The „suits‟ are the agency‟s face to the client. Together they serve 6000 clients in India.d) For sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services -American Advertising Agency Association (AAA) There are an estimated 200 advertising agencies in India accredited to INS (Indian Newspaper Society. CREATIVES Creative form the third core function of the agency. A headline may come from the art . However they rarely conduct research themselves. Internally.to be eligible for 15 percent commission) and 8000 odd agencies which are unregistered. They evaluate the ad campaign and media plan internally and often present these to the clients. the copywriters write the headline and copy and the art directors do the visualizations and layouts. It is also referred to as „strategic planning‟. Also called as Client Servicing or suits. Whether as a separate unit or not. They are also at the core of the production process of the agency as they are the ones who create ads. though sometimes they may co-ordinate it through research agencies if required. Generally. They interact with the clients. it is the agency‟s big window to the outside world.

Creatives are the agencies lifeline the one who can make or break the agency. TOKYO (US $ 4938 BILLION) . What are the Key Functions of an Ad agency? By BMS Team on June 6. TOKYO (US $10846. LONDON (18485.967 BILLION) OMNICOM GROUP. NEW YORK ( US $ 13. They also monitor releases.3 BILLION) SAATCHI & BILLION) YOUNG & RUBICAM. With increased media fragmentations.3 BILLION) INTERPUBLIC GROUP. Media planning involves a lot of number crunching and good „quantitative‟ abilities are a critical requirement. NEW YORK( US $ 7559 BILLION) FRANCE (US $ 6508 BILLION) EURO RSCG.839 BILLION) DENTSU. SAATCHI COMPETITORS . media planning and media buying have emerged as two specialized functions within media. NEW YORK (US $ 13. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISING AGENCY Media forms the fourth and the last core function of an agency. Media Buyers not only look other media relations and negotiate rates but also supervise the media operational word like sending release order and ad material to the respective media.person and visualizations from the writer. NEW YORK( US $ 5171 BILLION) HAKUHODO. THE WORLD’S TOP TEN ADVERTISING AGENCIES WPP GROUP. LONDON(US $ 10809 GREY ADVERTISING . Sometimes the planners may also extend expertise to the both.

Though at a first glances an ad agency would seem like any other corporate office. DDB NEEDHAM. AHMEDABAD (RS1200 CRORE) FCB ULKA. MUMBAI (RS 1800 CRORE) LOWE LINTAS & PARTNERS. client calls and chasing of work and people both inside and outside the agency. CONE AND BELDING (FCB).2500 CRORE) JWT. So is the pressure of deadlines.CHICAGO ( US $5336 BILLION) SOURCE: THE ASIAN AGE INDIA’S TOP 5 ADVERTISING AGENCIES O & M. Usually a working day in the agency for . But „politics‟ and „fashions‟ world have pushed it down the ladder a bit since. the real world of advertising is most certainly a world of high and intensity but in a different way. Well. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing INTRODUCTION An outsider‟s perception of the work in an ad agency is one of glamour and glitz. you are in the battle zone. MUMBAI( RS 1500 CRORE) MUDRA. Once inside.FOOTE. ECONOMICS TIMES Explain the Five M’s of Advertising By BMS Team on June 6. The decibel levels and chaos is often striking arguably second only to the commodity and stock exchange pits. NEW DELHI (RS. Till a few years ago people would have ranked it second only to the world of films in terms of the “glamour” co-efficient. BANGLORE (RS. socializing and partying. It is often assumed that working in an ad agency means being surrounded by glam dolls and hunks. often the similarity would end at the office reception. That it is a profession of high profile and high living with a lot of showmanship.800 CRORE) SOURCE: BRAND EQUITY.

“Increase in sales figure” will be a very broad and to a certain context a vague objective.when a new product is launched. we tend to think about Pepsi. unpredictable. According to Mr.most people is long. attracting consumers towards the brand Reminder: This objective is relevant for well-established companies. stressful. company‟s earmarked budget (Money). often including the weekends. Same way we tend to associate “two minutes” with Maggie noodles. a renowned authority in this field.from interpersonal communication to Internet.Persuading people to actually go out and buy the product. Today government bodies as well as non. yet loads of fun. there can be three possible objectives behind advertising: Information. the purpose should only be to inform people about the product Persuasion. FIVE M’s OF ADVERTISING Advertising is an important promotional tool for any marketing campaign.government organizations go for high profile advertising campaigns. The purpose here is not to increase the sales figure but to increase the awareness of people regarding the relevant topics. Deciding on a correct option calls for detailed analysis aspects like objective behind advertising (Mission). advertising vehicle (Media) and impact of advertising (Measurement). Today the marketing manager has a range of advertising options to choose from. The marketing manager . Any advertisement must be persuasive in nature. full of drama. This objective is of paramount importance because of cutthroat competition. Philip Kotler. hectic. These types of advertisements only try to remind the consumers of the brand existence. MISSION First of all the marketing manager must be clear on the company‟s purpose for advertising. So much so that whenever we think of marketing we think of advertising although it is just one of the marketing tools. content of communication through advertising (Message). These can be broadly classified as the five M‟s of advertising. For instance whenever we hear or read yeh dil maange more.

But then like each individual each company is also different. People have no time to read or see them. The company needs to spend more on advertising when sales are down. Many industries face seasonal fluctuations and pass through cycles. MESSAGE As a common experience. Companies often go in for a media mix. there are some problems with this method. newspapers. Therefore a company has to be very clear about its target audience. i. In fact sales are a result of promotion. Though this method is used widely. An appealing advertising will win consumers and will consequently induce them to purchase the product. persuasion or reminder. Everyone of this has its advantages and disadvantages. this would mean increase in advertising expenditure when sales are up and less spending when sales are down. This is the job of message. The tone should be appealing. Under this method. Words used should be catchy and retentive. What is said is definitely important but what is more important is how it is said. TV. which has professionals to make impact -making ads. the next step is to decide upon the budget. Moreover it should convincingly highlight upon the products USP. The first issue is what percentage the company should take? Even if a company somehow decides a percentage figure. because logically the reverse should happen. The message that company wants to convey should be put in a manner that will arouse interest. we love some advertisements. radio and hoardings. MONEY After the objective has been decided upon. Timing is of great significance here. direct mails. irritating advertising will create an adverse effect. information. magazines. and therefore they have to be attractive enough to target audience‟s attention. This is why many companies hand over this task to advertising agencies. a certain percentage of sales are allotted for advertising expenditure. Choices available are Internet. The most common among them is the percentage of sales method. On the other hand. MEDIA Selecting the proper media vehicle for communicating the message goes a long way in the success of any kind of advertising.e.should establish a clear goal as on the purpose of advertising. This method claims that it would prevent promotional wars. This in some ways is quite paradoxical. It may not make any sense in spending like your competitor because competitor might be on a different footing. These days both electronic as well as print media are overflowing with ads. while the others just irritate us. they select more than one of the available choices. There are several methods for deciding on the advertising budget. But this method uses circular reasoning and views sales as cause for promotion. Therefore advertising should be timed that way to . Each media vehicle has its positive and negative points with a different reach and impact. Another method suggests that a company should spend as much as its competitors are spending.

towards the brand. the advertisements can create the impression that the brand is favored by the consumer‟s peers. Second. Explain the Advertising Model and Mc Cann Erickson Model By BMS Team on June 6. It is not easy to isolate the impact of advertising on sales. or experts. through the choice of the spokesperson & image for the brand. leading to a feeling of familiarity with it. Good advertising is one that generates brand awareness and consequently brand preference. An ad can be judged on the basis of its reach and impact on sales. MEASUREMENT It is necessary that effectiveness of any advertising be judged. These five effects can create favorable liking. Fourth. Sometimes the advertisers will attempt to spur purchasing action directly by providing a reminder or by attacking reasons why the consumer may be postponing that action. exposure to the advertisement can create awareness about brand. A limited budget should be prudently allotted among these media vehicles. Thus a systematic and balanced understanding of these five Ms of advertising will help in designing better advertising campaigns that create a favorable impact on the target audience. is a difficult question to answer. Nonetheless there are some advanced statistical techniques available that can be used with the help of computer software‟s like SPSS. Third. Fifth. can further decisions regarding continuation or termination of the particular advertising campaign be taken. How much of sales can be attributed to advertising. This is often how products & brands are presented as being fashionable. or attitude. Sales are influenced by many factors besides advertising.individuals & group the consumer likes to emulate. Only on the basis of this measurement. advertisements can also generate feelings in an audience that they begin to associate with the brand or its consumption. information about the brand‟s benefits & the attributes on which the benefits are based can register with the consumer can also result from exposure to the ad. Mc CANN ERICKSON MODEL FOR COMMUNICATION .take care of these fluctuations. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing ADVERTISING EXPOSURE MODEL First. often called “brand personality”. which in turn should lead to purchasing action.

source of effects. Understanding information processing invariably leads to the need for understanding a wide range of other important psychological constructs.” -Northwestern University. ^ Mc CANN SELLING: Transforming Consumer Insight into effective advertising. These two models help us to understand how & why consumers acquire process &use advertising information. learning attitude formation & change.Mc CANN PULSE: Technique of transforming consumer information into consumer insight. Medill School of Journalism Review of Marketing Plan Examine overall marketing plan & objectives Role of advertising & promotions Competitive analysis . Explain Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) By BMS Team on June 6. such as perception. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC) DEFINITION “The process of managing all sources of information about a product service to which a customer or prospect is exposed which behaviorally moves the customer towards a sale and maintains customer loyalty. brand personality & image. It is also important to at the planning stage to develop a good understanding of where advertising fits into the total pool of information & influence sources to which consumer is exposed. + Mc FOOTPRINT: Method of transforming brands from one market opportunities into expanded multinational platforms.

Assess environmental influence Analysis of Promotional Program Situation Internal analysis External analysis Promotional department Organization Market Segmentation & Target Firm‟s ability to implement Promotional program Review of previous program result Marketing Consumer Behavior Analysis ANALYSIS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS Analyze receiver‟s response processes Analyze source. message. channel factors Establish communications goals & objectives BUDGET DETERMINATION Set tentative marketing communications budget Allocate tentative budget DEVELOP INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION PROGRAM Advertising: Set advertising objectives Determine advertising budget Develop advertising message Develop advertising media strategy .

DIRECT MARKETING Set direct marketing objectives Determine direct marketing budget Develop direct marketing message Develop direct marketing media strategy INTERACTIVE/INTERNET MARKETING Set interactive/internet marketing objectives Determine interactive/internet marketing budget Develop interactive/internet message Develop interactive/internet media strategy SALES PROMOTION Set sales promotion objectives Determine sales promotion budget Develop sales promotion tools & develop messages Develop sales promotion media strategy PUBLIC RELATION/PUBLICITY Set PR/publicity objectives Determine PR/publicity budget Develop PR/publicity messages Develop PR/publicity media strategy PERSONAL SELLING Set personal selling & sales objectives Determine personal selling & sales budget Develop sales messages Develop selling roles & responsibilities .

EVALUATE & PROGRAM CONTROL INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Evaluate promotional program results/effectives Take measures to control & adjust promotional strategies TOOLS OF IMC ADVERTISING SALES PROMOTION Contests. etc. Lotteries Premiums and gifts Sampling PUBLIC PERSONAL DIRECT MARKETING Catalogues Print and Broadcast Ads Packaging – Outer Packaging Inserts Motion Pictures RELATIONS SELLING Press Kits Sales Presentations Speeches Sales Meetings Incentive Programmes Samples Mailings Seminars Telemarketing Fairs and trade shows Exhibits Annual Report Charitable Electronic Shopping Brochures and Fair & Trade . Games. space. Design & implement direct marketing programs Design & distribute sales promotion materials Design & implement PR/publicity programs Design & implement interactive/internet marketing programs MONITOR.INTEGRATE STRATEGIES & IMPLEMENT MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Integrate promotional mix strategies Create & produce ads Purchase media time. Sweepstakes.

a powerful marketing tool.Booklets Posters and Leaflets Directories Reprints of Ads Donations Demonstrations Sponsorships Coupons Publications Rebates Community Relations Lobbying Shows Billboards Low interest Financing Entertainment Display Signs Identity Media Company Magazine Events Point-ofpurchase Displays Audio –Visual Material Symbols and logos Video Tapes Trade in allowances Continuity Programmes Tie – ins Write a note on Advertising Communication System By BMS Team on June 6. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISING Advertising is the backbone for any business. It is a form of mass When a market or a firm has developed a product to satisfy market demand after thoroughly analyzing the market. . Advertising helps in reaching to the target market. there is a need for establishing contact with the target market to eventually sell the product. communication.

tells you to do family planning etc. The source of a message in the advertising communication system is the point of which the message originates. an Indian citizen is exposed to more than 20 commercials per day. advertising prevails in all walks of life. the particular brand or the spokesperson used.STEPHEN R. . “Advertising” = “means to inform” COMMUNICATION DEFINED The steps between source and a resource that result in the transference and understanding of meaning . It is the world‟s fifth largest industry. Today it is a million dollar business. ROBINS ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Advertising communication always involves a perception process and four of the elements shown in the model: the source. It has acquired the distinction of being the most visible & glamorous method of marketing communication. a communication channel & a receiver. which tell us to drink more milk. There are many types of “sources” in the context of advertising. On an average. offices we are expose to many bill boards. gives you more information. This type of communication is termed word-of mouth communication and it involves social interactions between two or more people & the important ideas of group influence & the diffusion of information. When we go to our colleges.Advertising can thus aptly be called as the MOTHER OF ALL COMMUNICATION. In addition. such as the company offering the product. a message. Computers & Agriculture follow advertising in that order. radio &in the print. We are bombarded with ads (commercials) over TV. the receiver will sometimes become a source of information by talking to friends or associates. Oil. Advertising is all around us. donate are eyes. Automobiles. In modern times.

Of particular interest might be the receiver‟s involvement in the product & the extent to which he/she is willing to search for and/or process information. benefits sought. billboards. & so on. The receiver then becomes an interim source & the destination becomes another receiver. the use of humor & fear CHANNEL: The message is transmitted through some channel from the source to the receiver. Thus.mouth communication resulting from advertising can be a critical part of a campaign.g. lifestyle. The reality is that for some products the absence of word-of-mouth communication can be fatal. comprehensiveness. psychological. It is the characteristics of the receiver-the demographics. It is only the word-of-mouth communication that has credibility. .MESSAGE: The message refers to both the content and execution of the advertisement. The message can be executed in great variety of ways for e. point-of-purchase display. The impact of the communication can be different for different media. It is the totality of what is perceived by the receiver of the message. newspaper. persuasion & market processes. Advertising can actually stimulate word-ofmouth activity. the receiver can be described in terms of audience segmentation variables. knowledge of its appropriateness and power can be very helpful. & impact of affect the ultimate behavior of a portion of the audience. The channel in an advertising communication system consist of one or more kinds of media. Word-of. demographics. magazines. RECEIVER: The receiver in an advertising communication system is also called the target audience. &so on. DESTINATION: The communication model in above diagram does not stop at the receiver but allows for the possibility that the initial receiver might engage in word-of mouth communication to the ultimate destination of the message. TV. such as radio. even when it cannot stimulate it. & social characteristics-that provide the basis for understanding communication.

name awareness. It can: Create awareness Communicate information about attributes & benefits Develop or change an image or personality Associate a brand with feelings & emotions Create group norms Precipitate behavior Write a note on Brand Equity By BMS Team on June 6. these assets comprise brand equity.An advertising message can have a variety of effects upon the receiver. Brand can be linked to a quality image that buyers want to be associated with Can lead to greater loyalty from customers. MEASURING BRAND EQUITY Most evaluations of brand equity involve utility estimations. brand. trademarks etc. Offer a strong defence against new products and new competitors. building strong brands and establishing brand equity is becoming more and more challenging. The most important assets of any business are intangible: its company name. Brand Equity can provide strategic advantages by: Use leverage when introducing new products. 2012 in Special Studies in Marketing BRAND EQUITY In today‟s environment. a primary source of competitive advantage. due to buyer awareness of the brand. patents. A strong brand acts as a promise. perceived quality. The difference between total utility and utility of product features is the value of the brand. intangibles and perceived quality are also used in the brand equity measurement. Value (utility) of a product features and price level and also measuring the overall utility of a product. leading faithful customers to pay a premium over competitive products. Monetary value. symbols. . Can lead to higher product trails and repeat purchasing. including brand name.

graphs. ideas. composed of creative and business minded people. Desire. Action. Account means a client 9) DAGMAR = Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results/Effectiveness. goods and services by an identified sponsor. and so on which have direct.e. process involving transmission of information. figures. 600 Crores HLL brand has been valued at Rs. Interest. who develop. detergents. pictures. It states advertising has to perform a particular communication task and the task has to be accomplished among a well-defined audience within a specified period of time 10) AIDA = Attention . prepare and place advertising media for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services. message. toothpaste. money. 900 Crores Special Studies in Marketing Concept Testing By BMS Team on September 21.personal presentation and promotion of ideas. emotions. words. 7) Consumer products = products of daily use such as soaps. Emotional appeal could stir up positive or negative emotions which leads to an interest in the purchase of the products 6) Advertising = any paid form of non. mission and measurement 2) Corporate image = mental representation or a conception of a company 3) Communication = act. gestures and facial expressions 4) Communication objective v/s marketing objective = communication is the act of carrying a message whereas marketing is a total system of interacting business activities designed to plan price.Example: BPL brand has been valued at Rs. skills by the use of verbal or non verbal means i. regular and elastic demand 8 ) Account for advertising agency = advertising agency is an independent business organization. 2010 in Exam fundas 1) 5 Ms of Advertising = Media. Advertising as a tool of marketing communication is especially meant for a group of users of product called target audience . promote and distribute want satisfying products and services to the present and potential customers 5) Rational and emotional appeal = rational appeal are directed towards thinking faculty of the audience.

sales promotion measures. awareness and comprehension). copy/layout test. recall test. users category. attitude measurement test method. which is easily recognizable and distinguishable from its competitors 22) Brand positioning strategies = positioning by – price and quality. It describes the total weight of the media effort 25) CPM = process of measuring the target audience size against the cost of that audience is called efficiency or Cost Per Thousand (CPM) and Cost Per Rating (CPR) 26) Media vehicle = instrument of the media for carrying the message to the target audience 27) Promotion mix = advertising and publicity of the product. public relations techniques . sales-test method 18) Brand equity = incremental value of a business above the value of its physical assets due to the market position. evaluation). product use strategy. creative strategy and tactics 14) Public relations = philosophy and function of management expressed in policies and practices which serve the public to serve its understanding and goodwill 15) Corporate advertising = aims at creating market reputation and good image of the company among all social groups 16) Pre-testing methods for measuring effectiveness of advertising = checklist method. consumer-jury survey. mechanical/lab test 17) Post-testing methods = inquiry and coupon response. prepare creative personnel and product offer-target audience. sales-area test.11) Components of attitude = cognitive (knowledge. Conative (Action and tendency) 12) Advertising objectives based on attitude = use of persuasive process of communication as attitude change constantly and exact knowledge of consumer behavior as consumer behavior is the result of consumer attitudes 13) Steps required for developing an advertising programme = advertising objectives. achieved by its brands and the extension potential of the brand 19) Brand personality = brand develops a specific personality to the product and the brand personalities correspond to their target market personalities 20) Brand image = opinion/impression which the consumers cultivate about a particular brand provided by a manufacturer 21) Unique selling proposition = technique of differentiating quality of a product. Affective component (linking. product benefits 23) Pulsing strategy = regular advertising would be made for 2 or 3 weeks followed by low advertising for a short period 24) GRP = reach * average frequency. personnel selling. copy and layout design. readership survey test. portfolio test.

induce present customers to buy more. consumer contest. attract new customers.28) TRP = Television Rating Points. distribution of gifts to customers. help the firm remain competitive. door to door demonstration. increase sales in off season. Indicates the popularity of TV programmes and enables selection for spot advertisement 29) Objectives of sales promotion = to introduce new products. add to the stock of the dealers 30) Consumer sales promotion tools = free samples of the product. free trial offer .

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