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The Official Journal of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society of Australia Inc
Editorial No nursing home here !!! Letters President’s Column IEA Column Reports Articles Ergonomics risk assessment in a large German car manufacturing organization. Dieter Welwei New Interactions? The role of ‘Affective Human Factors’ in design. Jonathan Talbot Forum Danger of life in the slow lane Noticeboard Conference Calendar Information for Contributors Information for Advertisers Caveats 2 2 3 5 6 11
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The Official Journal of the HFESA Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of Australia Volume 19, Number 1 (March 2005), ISSN 1033-1875 Editor Dr Shirleyann M Gibbs Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Design and Layout Acute Concepts Pty Ltd Tel: 03 9381 9696 Printer Impact Printing National Secretariat The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of Australia Inc. Creeda Business Centre 281 Goyder Street Narrabundah ACT 2604 Tel: 02 6295 5959 Fax: 02 6295 5946 Email: email@example.com Office Hours: Monday and Wednesday 9am - 5 pm Friday 12.30pm - 5.00pm
HFESA Mission Statement
Promoting systems, space and designs for People
The start of another academic year down-under and the wider community is emerging from its summer holiday mood. Even contributors to Ergonomics Australia are reappearing! It is pleasing to note that a steady trickle of overseas ergonomists is inquiring about the possibility of publishing work in this journal. This is an interesting development and there is a need for more reviewers to offer themselves to assess the diverse material. It has highlighted another aspect of editorial services that are needed … ability to assist potential authors with writing formal English language constructions — whether they are local, European, or from developing countries that are emerging into the more sophisticated communication categories. The editor would be delighted to hear from colleagues who could assist in this regard. The CybErg 2005 Conference abstracts have now been assessed and ninety papers selected from the some two hundred submitted. There will be another ten papers from invited keynote speakers so this next IEA cyberspace event should be well worth investigating. The Conference site is now open for registration online and the more people who take part the greater the benefit. This opportunity is especially helpful for people who find it difficult to travel to face-to-face international conferences for any number of reasons — and especially helpful for developing nations. In the past it had been thought that the Internet may not be accessible in many of those countries but it now seems that more people are able to access a common shared access site even if they do not have a personal computer link. The month long CybErg Conference will overlap with some northern hemisphere conferences to allow land conference participation in CybErg as well. The discussion on ergonomics and ageing begun at CybErg 2002 will be continued this year. It is a topic that is generating interest in most western countries where there is an ageing population requiring complex adjustments to political agendas, work systems, financial planning, retirement support, and community infrastructure. As a member of the ageing category, the editor has a vested interest in the discussion! In the past there has been an expectation of general decline and decrepitude leading inevitably to a nursing home if family members or retirement villages were unable to offer shelter after age 55 … nowadays a very youthful cut-off! Even in the not so recent past with shorter life expectations only about five percent of the elderly required nursing home care. However health services and ergonomists tended to concentrate on that sector rather than the active and independent aged. Should ergonomists be addressing the different scenarios required to accommodate active or inactive mental states as much as general physical environments? Max Hely sent the editor an item from the journal Ergonomics quoted in the Sydney Morning Herald earlier this year … noting his pleasure at seeing this ergonomics item picked up by the general media. Popular opinion would seem to assume that slow drivers are usually elderly. According to this item, there are numerous issues causing slow driver problems. In the past it was generally women who were blamed for poor driving behaviour … and the term woman driver could be used as an expletive for offending males or females. While it is politically incorrect to say anything derogatory about racial groups, there are certain driver characteristics that are likely to be highlighted in any informal gathering … including weekend drivers! We need to look further at the issues surrounding road rage, car design capabilities and road conditions and their combined effect on driver and pedestrian safety. In this issue we have an article by Dieter Welwei about ergonomics in a German car manufacturing plant. The charts and diagrams offer a valuable reference for any ergonomists involved in the motor industry. The other major article is by Jonathan Talbot whose invited paper about a new approach to design considerations (given at HFESA Conference 2004) was not included on the Conference CD. It offers a new approach that should stimulate pedagogical discussion in the ergonomics design community. There is a wealth of information about forthcoming events and general ergonomics in this edition. There is room and indeed a need for lively discussion of various contemporary issues in future editions. Please take the opportunity to contribute your views and opinions in the Forum section of this journal that has languished from lack of recent contributions and is re-started with the newspaper item about Dangers of life in the slow lane. Shann Gibbs PhD Editor
No nursing home here!!!!
This lady has the right idea! I'm thinking......... About 2 years ago my wife and I were on a cruise through the Western Mediterranean aboard a Princess liner. At dinner we noticed an elderly lady sitting alone along the rail of the grand stairway in the main dining room. I also noticed that all the staff, ship's officers, waiters, busboys, etc., all seemed very familiar with this lady. I asked our waiter who the lady was, expecting to be told she owned the line, but he said he only knew that she had been on board for the last four cruises, back to back.
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As we left the dining room one evening I caught her eye and stopped to say hello. We chatted and I said, “I understand you've been on this ship for the last four cruises.” She replied, “Yes, that's true.” I responded, “I don't understand.”She replied, without a pause, “It's cheaper than a nursing home.” So, there will be no nursing home in my future. When I get old and feeble, I am going to get on a Princess Cruise Ship. The average cost for a nursing home is $200 per day. I have checked on reservations at Princess and I can get a long-term discount and senior discount price of $135 per day. That leaves $65 a day for: 1. Gratuities, which will only be $10 per day. 2. I will have as many as 10 meals a day if I can waddle to the restaurant, or I can have room service (which means I can have breakfast in bed every day of the week). 3. Princess has as many as three swimming pools, a workout room, free washers and dryers, and shows every night. 4. They have free toothpaste and razors, and free soap and shampoo. 5. They will even treat you like a customer, not a patient. An extra $5 worth of tips will have the entire staff scrambling to help you. 6. I will get to meet new people every 7 or 14 days 7. TV broken? Light bulb needs changing? Need to have the mattress replaced? No Problem! They will fix everything and apologise for your inconvenience. 8. Clean sheets and towels every day, and you don't even have to ask for them. 9. If you fall in the nursing home and break a hip you are on Medicare; if you fall and break a hip on the Princess ship they will upgrade you to a suite for the rest of your life. Now hold on for the best! Do you want to see South America, the Panama Canal, Tahiti, Australia, New Zealand, Asia, or name where you want to go? Princess will have a ship ready to go. So don't look for me in a nursing home, just call shore to ship. P.S. And don't forget, when you die, they just dump you over the side at no charge. [Ed: The above is another gem from my Internet network.]
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1. HFESA Secretariat says “Good-bye”
Most of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society members know me as the voice on the other end of the phone at the Society. Members may possibly have also met me at one of the annual conferences over the last few years. Well, after almost three years with the HFESA, I am moving onto new and different challenges. I will be leaving the Society at the end of March. The plan is to move to Sydney shortly thereafter with my fiancé to see if we take well to life in the ‘Big Smoke’. I have sincerely enjoyed my time with the Society. I have learned so many wonderful, practical lessons regarding office and time management, customer service, working for a not-for-profit, organisation, budget and event management. My awareness regarding human factors and ergonomics has risen sharply since my time here and this has been a wonderful benefit of the position. I can honestly say that every member of the board has been a joy to deal with, as have the membership. I look forward to continuing the many friendships I have built as a result of being a ‘servant’ of the Society. Here’s to a wonderful future for the Society. I wish you and yours all the best in your work, your lives and your passions. I trust that the Society will thrive and grow under new energy and leadership as I pass the torch. Sincerely and with great respect Jennifer Allen
2. Trudy Tilbury arrives with a ‘bang’ in Canada
[Ed: this piece also appeared in HFESA Newsletter but as not all our members are online it is reproduced here.] In case some of you missed the message on aus_ergo, I left Australia for a year to return to my native land ostensibly to take up a job as a Best Practice Specialist in Edmonton, Alberta. As part of the goal was to surprise my parents at Christmas (and comply with my promise of spending my birthday overseas every year after 40) this necessitated a hasty departure from sunny Cairns in early December. Luckily I had enough frequent flyer points accumulated that my round the world trip is courtesy of one world, but my options were limited for flights. I can’t really complain about my flights, but I was happy to be travelling through the USA on a Canadian passport considering the security measures in place.
I knew I would be finding it difficult to acclimatize back to a Northern Alberta winter, but I didn’t realize what was in store for me. In a case of failing to identify the risk, I fell down the top flight of stairs in my brother’s townhouse in Calgary the morning after I arrived in Canada and fractured/dislocated my right ankle. My rescue was a bit involved as I didn’t have his address and, once I found it, had to make my way down five flights of stairs to let the paramedic in. How I got there I don’t know, but it wasn’t a pretty sight… It’s always interesting being a physio in the emergency room (I’ve been there once or twice). I’m happy to say the emergency department in Calgary was extremely professional, and did everything appropriately and efficiently. I was just lucky that it wasn’t busy at that time of the morning mid week… Needless to say, things kind of went downhill from there. I had to wait three days for surgery and spend 5 days in hospital. I did get quite a bit of insight into potential organizational ergonomics issues for health care in Alberta – and did a comparison with health care in Queensland while I was there. I can’t see that comparison being published in the near future, however. I finally arrived to my new workplace and job a week late and on my self designed GRTW program. I don’t even think the surgeon considered the fact that I would try and return to work before the 3 week review date! I’m composing this just over 7 weeks post surgery. I was able to give back my walker (I did a risk assessment on using crutches in the snow and ice and didn’t like the results) last week, and am now on either a crutch (outdoors) or a walking stick (indoors). Although I’m pictured here in what many may consider a bad position, I’ve changed it since the photo was taken (I promise!). My new job is very office based as I’m researching, developing and evaluating best practice health and safety publications, systems and submissions with the focus on meeting the needs of industry groups in Alberta. Luckily I have a big desk with lots of storage space as I’m rapidly accumulating massive binders of information. Trudy Tilbury firstname.lastname@example.org
3. Special Symposium on Occupational Health Ergonomics
We would like to bring your attention to the calls for papers to the special symposium on occupational health ergonomics being held as part of ACOH 2005 Conference - The 18th Triennial Asian Conference of Occupational Health 11-13 May 2005. This special symposium on occupational health ergonomics is being staged by the New Zealand Ergonomics Society (NZES) and we would appreciate your assistance in promoting this event. Jane Galle email@example.com
4. ICOH International Conference on Psychosocial Factors at Work
WHO is planning to organize a Symposium on the work of WHO and its Collaborating Centres that will be present at this Conference. We would like to give an overview of the WHO work in general, as well as its Occupational Health Program with particular emphasis on work on psychosocial issues of the Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health. This will provide an excellent opportunity to set the context for international work in this area, to explain where we are going, what our challenges and successes are. So if you are planning to participate in this event, please contact me urgently with an idea about your input to the WHO Symposium. - East meets West 23-26 August 2005, Okayama, Japan www.wops2005.jp I look forward to hearing from you in due course. With best regards and I would also like to take this opportunity to wish you a happy, healthy and successful year 2005. Evelyn Kortum Occupational Psychologist. Occupational Health Team WHO/SDE/PHE/OEH 20, Avenue Appia 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland Tel. +41.22.7913531 firstname.lastname@example.org www.who.int/occupational_health
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5. Discount subscriptions for ergonomics journals
Very frequently, individual members of IEA federated and affiliated societies address the IEA secretariat enquiries about possible discount in the subscription rates of scientific ergonomics-related journals. This may suggest that many members do not know a tangible benefit provided by IEA. In order to spread this information, you are kindly asked by the President of IEA, Pierre Falzon, to inform the members of your Society that they are entitled to a reduced subscription rate for all IEA endorsed journals. Up to now the endorsed journals are: Ergonomics (The Official Journal of IEA), Applied Ergonomics, International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Ergonomia, and Cognition, Technology & Work (CTW). Information on IEA-endorsed journals can also be found on the IEA website (www.iea.cc) Thank you for your collaboration. Best regards Sebastiano Bagnara General Secretary of IEA The opening of 2005 has been unexpectedly busy for the Executive with the resignation of our Secretariat, Jennifer Allen, who is moving from Canberra to Sydney to develop her own business. We have said our formal farewells and thank-you to Jennifer in the HFESA Newsletter but it should also be recognised here that we owe her a great debt of gratitude for the diligence and professionalism she brought to her work with us over the last few years. Thank you from all of us, Jennifer, and all the very best for the future. Advertising, interviewing and hiring Jennifer’s replacement was a challenging experience which tested, in my case, an entirely undeveloped set of skills. However, thanks to the combined skills and efforts of Treasurer Louise Whitby, General Secretary Rebecca Mitchell and Jennifer herself, we can now introduce and offer a warm welcome to our new Secretariat, Jane Thompson. Jane commences an induction period with Jennifer until the end of March after which she takes the reins. Please make her very welcome in any contact you have with our Head Office. In another recent transition in our Federal Board ranks, Roger Hall has stood down from the position of the Computer Human Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) representative to make way for ‘new blood’ in the form of Todd Bentley. Our Society is very much in Roger’s debt for the wise, lucid and experienced counsel he has provided us over the years. As Roger has said, after four ‘official years’ (and many more previously) helping to guide both the Society and CHISIG, he has earned a well deserved rest… although we hope there will be many more ‘unofficial years’ yet. Welcome Todd and we look forward to your company and contributions. We have also, more or less simultaneously with our staffing activities, compiled and submitted an HFESA submission to the NSW Law Reform Committee enquiry into the use of Expert Witnesses in the legal system. This was prepared in collaboration with the NSW Branch Chair, Jennifer Long, and those Certified Professional Ergonomists who contributed. It can be viewed on our website under Events & News. This exercise focused our minds on at least three further professional issues: (1) competencies, recognition and accreditation for human factors and ergonomics professionals; (2) the development of formal HFESA policy and position statements; and (3) the development and use of our website for both disseminating information as well as for acquiring information from our members. Each of these are complex and, potentially, contentious issues, so while we will continue to work on them, we will avoid any snap decisions. They were the subject
6. CybErg 2005
Please distribute the online registration details for CybErg 2005 as widely as possible: We are pleased to announce that online registration for CybErg 2005, the Fourth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics, is now open. The registration page (http://cyberg.wits.ac.za/onlineregister.html) can be accessed off the CybErg 2005 homepage at http://cyberg.wits.ac.za. CybErg 2005 is the leader in online Ergonomics and Human Factors conferences. There will be approximately 100 papers presented at CybErg 2005 from authors from more than 30 different countries. CybErg 2005 will be live from 15 September to 15 October 2005. Participation can take place directly from any Internet connection anywhere in the world. More details on CybErg 2005 are available from the conference website: http://cyberg.wits.ac.za Yours sincerely Dr Andrew Thatcher CybErg 2005 Chair
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of submissions to the last Federal Board meeting and will be on the agenda again in our March teleconference. As always, if any member wishes to contribute or be heard on these or any other matters, we are as close as your ‘phone or keyboard. Finally, in a pleasing reflection of our increasing profile in both industry and government as a professional group central to the concerns of safe design, the HFESA has been very recently invited to join two separate Safe Design working groups. The first, an Expert Reference Group for Review of the Safe Design Guideline is an Australian Safety & Compensation Council (ASCC), formerly National Occupational Health & Safety Commission (NOHSC) initiative. Meetings will shortly be held in Melbourne and Sydney and the draft guideline which we will be asked to review can be found on their website. The second is the Safe Design Advisory Group of WorkCover NSW which has a series of workshop meetings scheduled for 2005 at which current safe design initiatives, government responses to the NSW Workplace Safety Summit, and proposals for future recommendations will be addressed. No doubt there will be many more opportunities in the future and we need to position ourselves to exploit these to our, and thus ultimately the community’s, advantage. If you know of, or are on, any other working or reference groups, committees or the like in any State or Territory, please let us know so we can both provide you with support and develop an up-to-date database of our Society’s combined expertise and professional activities. The terms human factors and ergonomics are cropping up ever more frequently both in formal documentation such as legislation, codes of practice and guidance materials and, more generally, in the media. The Sydney Morning Herald had an article (p 5, 28/02/05) reporting on Australian research published in the journal Ergonomics on the links between aging, slow driving, design of road signs and street lighting, and crash risk. I can’t recall in recent times having seen such an explicitly ergonomics article. Many more page one news items have recently appeared that would have benefited from some insight provided from human factors and ergonomics. So keep talking about it, and us… we are getting there, and our efforts are working. Max Hely President, HFESA March 2005 The major world event during the Christmas holiday period has been the Tsunami in Asia. It has been a time when many of us have wondered how and in what way, we could assist. Of course, the IEA has Federated Societies in affected countries so the IEA President circulated the following email of support. This was particularly relevant to the South East Asian Ergonomics Society (SEAES) and the Indian Ergonomics Society (IES). To the South-East Asian Ergonomics Society To the Indian Ergonomics Society The world has been stunned by the earthquake and tsunami that struck your region. In these circumstances, I would like, on behalf the IEA, to express the sympathy of the whole ergonomics community to the members of the SEAES and of the IES. This disaster, that caused countless deaths and wounds, has not been felt as a far away, exotic, event. On the contrary, it has created or strengthened the feeling of a shared destiny of the peoples of the world. In all countries, poor or rich, a spontaneous movement of compassion has arisen, in many cases pushing governments towards more involvement and increased assistance. This feeling of global solidarity is unprecedented. Let us hope it announces an era of more awareness of the humanity common fate. Pierre Falzon President of the IEA
In May 2005, the SEAES is hosting their 20th Conference is Bali. I encourage any HFESA members who may be interested to spend a few days in Bali and support our colleagues. I will be attending to host a workshop prior to the conference on the ILO “Ergonomic Checkpoints” publication. If any HFESA members have used this book, or would like to contribute ideas, I would be most appreciative. The HFESA Professional Affairs Board is currently discussing certification of CPE. This is timely as the IEA is encouraging benchmarking at an international level on this issue. New Zealand is one of the most proactive countries in this area. If may be yet another opportunity for us to continue our cooperative interaction. Best wishes, David C Caple IEA Delegate, HFESA
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IEA INFORMATION UPDATE
1. IEA AWARDS 2005 - OPEN CALL FOR NOMINATIONS i) The IEA/Liberty Mutual Prize in Occupational Safety and Ergonomics http://www.iea.cc/awards/libertymutual_prize.cfm The IEA/Liberty Mutual Prize in Occupational Safety and Ergonomics was instituted in 1998. The award and a cash prize of US$ 5,000 recognize outstanding original research leading to the reduction or mitigation of work-related injuries and/or to the advancement of theory, understanding, and development of occupational safety research. The absolute deadline for receipt of applications is 15 April 2005. Applicants will be notified of the results by June 30, 2005. Official announcement of the award winner will be made public in July 2005. ii) IEA Fellow Award http://www.iea.cc/awards/ To be considered for IEA Fellow Award, a candidate must meet two eligibility criteria: International Service and Membership in Society. In addition, a Fellow, an ergonomics professional, must have made outstanding contributions to ergonomics/human factors. There are many ways in which this contribution can be demonstrated. The candidate could have had the primary responsibility for the technical direction, supervision or management of a significant effort during a sustained period of time. The Candidate could be a renowned researcher, designer, or consultant of great distinction. To download the IEA Fellow Nomination Form go to: http://www.iea.cc/awards/ The nominations can be sent at any time. The absolute deadline for nominations for 2005 is 15th May 2005. Prof. Waldemar Karwowski, Sc.D., PhD, PE, CPE Immediate Past President, IEA Chair, IEA Awards Committee Center for Industrial Ergonomics Lutz Hall, Room 445 University of Louisville Warnock Street Louisville, KY 40292, USA Tel + 1 502 852 7173 Fax + 1 502 852 7397 E-mail: email@example.com www.louisville.edu/speed/ergonomics www.iea.cc
2. IEA HAAMAHA 2005 + Council Meeting Please distribute this Call for Papers for the IEA HAAMAHA 2005 conference and the site of the IEA 2005 Council Meeting in San Diego, CA, USA on 18 – 21 July to members of your respective societies and beyond. Please note reduced registration fees for IEA Council Members and members of the IEA federated and affiliated societies. 10th International Conference on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing: Agility and Hybrid Automation — HAAMAHA 2005 — jointly with 3rd International Conference on Ergonomics and Safety for Global Business Quality and Productivity - ErgonAxia 2005. The conference will focus on topics related to people-centered issues in the design, operation and management of broadly defined manufacturing, production, and service enterprises; information technologies and systems; web-based services; digital worlds; knowledge support systems; and other human operational environments. The theme of the conference will be: Knowledge Management and Intelligent Enterprises in a Digital World Submission Deadlines Deadline for abstracts Deadline for camera-ready papers [electronic format only] Deadline for Posters Deadline for proposals for Workshops and Panel Discussions April 15, 2005 May 15, 2005 May 15, 2005 May 15, 2005
Abstract submission will be available online at: http://www.ergonet.net/haamaha/2005/online/ The Conference Proceedings will be published as an edited CD-ROM and selected papers will be published in a special issue of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing (Wiley), http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi bin/jhome/38903 To indicate interest in the Conference, please contact Conference Chair: Bradley Chase — firstname.lastname@example.org Contributions in the following areas are welcome: digital technologies, manufacturing knowledge and technology management, organizational design, human resource management, cognitive work design and cognitive engineering, occupational safety and health,
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ergonomics / human factors, manufacturing technology and operations. special sessions will be organized on topics of interest, to be determined. This Conference is organized in cooperation with the International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing. Thank you very much for your cooperation. Waldemar Karwowski Honorary Chair http://2005.haamaha.org
Could David Caple please arrange to send us CDs from the SEAES 2003, ODAM 2003, IEA 2003 conferences and ergonomics texts for ergonomics teaching? Best Wishes, Alexis Ovdijenko Representative Russian Inter-Regional Ergonomic Association (Interdepartmental Centre of Ergonomic Development and Research) 117405, Russia, Moscow, Varshavskoe highway 152, 6, 427 Email: email@example.com
3. 4th International Conference “Psychology and ergonomics: the unity of theory and practice” We invite all ergonomists and other who are interested to join the conference. 4th International Conference “Psychology and ergonomics: the unity of theory and practice” (August 22-23 2005, Tver, Russia) is a logical continuation of three previous events conducted in Russia (Tver) in 1999, 2001 and 2003. It is anticipated that the results of fundamental and applied research will be discussed and will relate in part to the development and elaboration of a methodology for social psychology, human engineering and ergonomics. Attention will be focused on the creation of highly efficient production and organizational structures with a good psychological climate and high corporate culture; provision of psychological stability and safety of people in work activities; humanization, attractiveness and prestigious labour; creation of high-quality and competitive products; undertaking efficient action for the provision of vital quality of life activities for specialists and general populations. The conference is also concerned with the presentation of practical recommendations evolving from the economic crisis in Russia, as developed in psychology and ergonomics over the last 2 years, for a broad circle of leaders in branches and enterprises; producers of domestic industrial products; psychologists and ergonomics specialists; teachers at institutes of higher education; managers and marketing specialists.
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4. Annual Conference of the European Association of Cognitive Ergonomics EACE 2005 29 September-1 October 2005, Chania, Crete, GREECE (Incorporating the 10th Conference on Cognitive Science Aspects of Process Control and the 13th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics) A three-section conference on Cognitive Ergonomics Theories, Methods and Practices. Section I: Reflecting on theories, methods and practice. We seek papers which critically discuss theories and methodological frameworks for ergonomic interventions, artefacts or systems design. Case studies which explicitly consider the consequences of use of specific theories, both positive and negative, are also welcome. Of particular interest will be theoretical perspectives such as phenomenology, cultural psychology, semiotics, cultural anthropology or activity theory, and theoretical concepts such as contextual and distributed cognition, embodied cognition or emotional design. Background: During its 25 years of research and practice, Cognitive Ergonomics has broadened its domains of study and intervention, to include not only process control domains, but also educational, medical, clerical, engineering design, leisure and other domains. These new worlds of study are typically less tightly coupled than the traditional ones; this leads to the emergence of new theoretical and methodological questions, such as: - are the traditional approaches appropriate for intervening in these new words? - which theories are best adapted for a sufficient understanding of these new studied worlds? - how to frame the world studied, i.e. what boundaries to consider in order to effectively identify what counts for the human agents behaviour? - which should be the unit of analysis? - how to achieve design recommendations which fit to the local work ecology of the studied world and/or change it towards desired directions? - when should one stop the analysis and start the design?
Our Annual EACE Conference aims to be an occasion for introspecting in our practice, theoretical and methodological armature. Section II: Research and applications in the medical domain. We seek papers presenting cognitive ergonomics research in the medical domain (e.g. analysis and design of artefacts for the medical practice in the operating theatre, the examination room, the hospital …). Background: The medical domain attracts the interest of many cognitive ergonomic researchers and applications in recent years. Owing to the complexity and the particularities of the medical domain, research in this domain highlights the limitations of more traditional approaches developed and tested in the domain of process control, and calls for new research and design paradigms. Section III: Doctoral forum PhD students are invited to present their research on any domain of Cognitive Ergonomics. They will be free to choose the form of presenting their work; e.g. classical oral presentation, poster presentation, presentation of designed prototypes, or any other form they will propose. Furthermore, PhD students are invited to organize special events such as experiments, participatory design sessions, usability tests, etc., throughout the three days of the conference. Important dates: Deadline for extended abstracts: 10 March 2005 Notification to authors: 10 May 2005 Final submission of paper in camera-ready form: 1 August 2005 Nicolas Marmaras : firstname.lastname@example.org Tom Kontogiannis: email@example.com Conference Chairs Associate Professor Nicolas Marmaras National Technical University of Athens School of Mechanical Engineering GR 15780 Zografos Athens Greece Tel. +30 210 772 3492 Fax. +30 210 772 3571 http://www.eace2005.gr
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Economic Evaluation of Occupational Health and Safety Interventions at the Company Level
This was an invited conference organised, and paid for, by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) along with the World Health Organization (WHO). It was held in Washington from 3rd to 5th November and spanned the USA Presidential election. As an aside, nobody (American or otherwise) at the conference seemed to be at all pleased with the result of the election. The conference of about 70 participants had six ‘keynote’ speakers, each describing their cost benefit analysis model. These, in fact, were the only models specifically designed for analysis of occupational health and safety interventions that the organisers were able to find. The papers given by these six speakers will be published in the Journal of Safety Research (published by National Safety Council (USA) and Elsevier) hopefully later this year. Briefly describing the models: One model was designed specifically for large corporations. This was the ROHSEI model and has been used on large scale interventions and design projects. It requires a huge amount of computer-based information. It was interesting to know that the OH&S people in large companies co-operate so well but it was not useful outside large companies. A presentation was also given from the Ford Motor Company but, similarly, their computer system was useful only for very large organisations. A model known as CERSSO was developed for large textile factories (500+ workers) in Nicaragua and in South America. Interestingly enough, the front end of the model is a risk analysis and thus directs the user to the points of most interest from the OH&S/injury point of view. The system is computer based. The model is taught to factory workers/safety officers who then go and use the system in their factories. The data is generated at the shop floor level and is participative. It is expected that they will be able to further develop the model to encompass other types of industries. Presently it is in Spanish but it is hoped that there will be sufficient funds for an English version for the English-speaking West Indies. Another of the tools submitted is for ergonomics consultant use in the building/construction industry and was presented by the chairman of the committee for the next IEA (2006 in The Netherlands). It has a good success rate in The Netherlands but is not generally applicable for those not trained in ergonomics. The University of Massachusetts, Lowell, is developing a comprehensive economic model that they will eventually be using, in co-operation with ergonomists, to reduce back injury in developing countries. When they were developing their model the University requested information from about 40 companies but only had useful replies from three! The safety officer from a truck manufacturing factory in USA gave a paper from one of these case studies. It was an excellent case study on the use of this economic model but this complex model may only prove useful to economists or those highly trained or motivated in ergonomics.
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I gave a paper on my model, the Productivity Assessment Tool, that is designed for workplace/work station interventions and there was a Finnish paper on their model, The Potential. This latter was developed from an earlier version of the Productivity Assessment Tool and now encompasses more economics than does mine! As they did with an earlier version of my (Finnish language) model, the Finnish Occupational Health and Safety Institute have training sessions for the use of The Potential but, unfortunately, have not followed up to see how much the model is used in industry. Many of the speakers noted that they also have difficulty in seeing how well used their models are and whether or not they address company issues. There were ‘breakout sessions’ on special topics. These were: large corporations; small and medium sized enterprises (SME); economic theory; developing nations. I took part in the developing nations sessions, of particular interest to the WHO, and one of the many OH&S problems concerns: • precarious (part-time, casual, etc.) workers which, of course, is the same situation in the developed countries, • lack of, or reduction in, organised labour/unions, and • a dispersed work force. The session participants had problems coming to grips with these and how to use cost benefit analysis for the benefit of these workers. When the ‘breakout sessions’ came together, we came to the not surprising conclusion that it is relatively easy to use cost benefit analysis in OH&S for large companies and even for medium sized companies (say 100+ people on one site) but for small companies and precarious workers the use of cost benefit analysis is not easy. One of the NIOSH economists is writing a paper comparing the models presented at the conference but it may be some time before it gets into press. The outcome of the conference was the need to develop a model that could be used generally, but it was also discussed that two models are needed. One that has just enough data to convince management that an intervention would be in their best financial interests and one that is detailed enough to check the financial benefits of the intervention after it has taken place.
NIOSH are to continue to work on the cost benefit analysis project, perhaps developing a general model and collecting case studies, and they solicited assistance from the participants for various aspects of their work. I volunteered to participate in a project in Viet Nam where some people have already started using my model. As usual, such projects depend upon soliciting funds! At the conclusion of the conference I announced that we (Pepe Marlow and I) were planning a seminar on cost benefit analysis at IEA 2006 and asked people to get in touch with me if they wanted to take part. Some of us will remember the seminar on cost benefit analysis at the IEA at Tempere, Finland, in 1997 and we hope to repeat the experience. Maurice Oxenburgh FHFESA
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Ergonomics risk assessment in a large German Car Manufacturing Organization
1. An appreciation of Ergonomics in a German Car Manufacturing Organization
Ergo = work Nomos = study Ergonomics = study of work Ergonomics is the scientific study of human capabilities and limitations which can be applied to the development of vehicle designs, workstations and job processes with the goal of preventing manufacturing work-related exposure to ergonomic stressors. GM-Opel is a large car manufacturer which recognizes that ergonomics is a shared interest field for all workers and management within its organization — in consonance with its President’s Council Statement which considers employees’ health and safety to be an overriding priority. To this end, the company assumes that the overall philosophy of every present and future project, work station, tool and machinery design or working process will fit the job to the person, rather than making the person fit to the job. By this means the organization hopes to achieve better health and safety conditions for its employees in addition to quality improvements as a consequence of better processes and a good working environment. This approach is believed to create greater harmony between people and their workplace, Company management understands ergonomics to be everybody’s responsibility within the organization and consequently will provide procedures and tools that enable every employee to contribute towards ergonomic improvements.
Table 1: Diseases identified in German Car Plants showing percentage of absenteeism Heart / Blood circulation Physical Indigestion Injuries Respiration Other Musculo-skeletal
(Source: Insurance report from BKK 2003)
6 6.6 6.9 14.7 15.7 18.8 32.2
Picture 1: Distribution of assembly jobs for “Opel Astra HB/5 Doors“
2. Why ergonomics in the automotive industry?
The increases of musculoskeletal disorders (Table 1) and the related costs of absence, quality and productivity ensure that ergonomics has a higher priority in the German car industry than it did ten years ago. Especially in the car industry there is a high incidence of job demands involving postures with potential ergonomics problems. Many of them only can be solved by individual solutions. Overhead work (13%) and jobs in the passenger compartment (31%) present the greatest concern.
The level of consideration given to ergonomics factors in car construction will determine the overall ergonomics environment of the workplace. This is one of the reasons that ergonomics issues have to be considered at an early phase of the product development process. Otherwise often necessary improvements or technical solutions will not be implemented because of the initial high investment costs. This may lead to an increase in health & safety related problems during the production phase.
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Pictures 2+3: Ergonomics solutions in the Elizabeth plant (Flying Seats, Holden Australia)
Certain jobs in the passenger compartment and under the car involve high risk of personnel injury if the tasks are not properly evaluated and designed to minimize the potential hazards. Jobs requiring a bent posture are sometimes combined with overhead work (eg headliner, insulation dash panel ...) and represent some of the more hazardous tasks from an ergonomics perspective. In this respect any improvements and solutions are likely to be specific to the particular plant infrastructure.
3. The new production worksheet
There was an agreement between GM-North America, GM-Europe and the International Development Centre (ITDC) to create an ergonomics analysis tool which is compatible with applicable international and national standards. This ergonomics process should be supported by risk assessment tools for the evaluation of the workers’ physical workload on the shop floor. Based on the worldwide GM health and safety philosophy (President’s Council) and the legal requirements from the EU-Framework, an ergonomics risk assessment tool was developed in 1998 as a joint venture between the German Opel plants. This process was supported by Dr Schaub, a specialist in industrial science from the Institute of Ergonomics, Darmstadt University of Technology.
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Purpose of the tool • Production with protection by ergonomics analysis. Prevention of Work Related musculoskeletal disorders, also safety, productivity and product enhancement. • Effective and efficient communication between countries, programs, engineers, plants, ergonomists and phases in the Vehicle Development Process (VDP). • Analysis of ergonomics risks and opportunities and tracking of ergonomics problems during the lifecycle of a product.
Since August 2001 there has been an agreement between the boards of management and the involved unions to use a risk assessment strategy. The agreement contains all the essential rules for an ergonomics analysis tool. This tool is known by the name “New Production Worksheet” (Table 3) and gives answers for ergonomics risks in industrial workplaces. The tool considers all national legal requirements and actual knowledge in the science of work. (Table 2 ’below’)
Table 2: LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NPW Load Manual Material Handling Postures & Movements EU Regulations EU machinery directive EN 1005-2 manual handling EU machinery directive EN1005-3 EU machinery directive EN 1005-3 International regulations ISO 11228 IEA/TG musculo-skeletal disorders ISO 11226 IEA/TG on MSD subgroup upper limb disorders ISO 11226 IEA/TG on MSD subgroup upper limb disorders
The NPW is structured into several sections and covers: • unfavourable postures and movements with low loads or force exertions; • action forces and loads for the hand-arm system in typical postures; • typical manual materials handling for automotive assembly; and • additional load situations that are common in automotive industries. The NPW grants load points for physically demanding work and dependant on the total load score assigns a traffic light colour to the work situations that have been analysed with respect to EN614 and EN1050.
Fig 1: Traffic light categories for physically demanding work Points Colour 0-25 green Risk Low risk – recommended, no action is needed Possible risk – not recommended, redesign if possible or take action to control the risk otherwise High risk – to be avoided, action to lower the risk is necessary
Structure of the New Production Worksheet 1. Head of the sheet. 2. Basic body positions “trunk and arm posture”. 3. Additional posture load (per minute/cycle/operation/shift). 4. Forces/additional load aspects/RSI points. 5. Manual Material Handling. 6. Special load situations.
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1. Head of the sheet
3. Additional postural load
3. Additional postural load (per minute / cycle / operation / shift)
4. Forces /additional load aspect / RSI points
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5. Manual Material Handling
6. Special load situations
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4. Implementation of the tool
The local plant ergonomists were responsible for the implementation in the German plants. The realization of NPW-analysis in the Bochum plant is the responsibility of the Kaizen-teams with support from the responsible plant ergonomist. Before somebody is allowed to analyse jobs, he is given special training by the plant ergonomist. After some practical lessons and successful completion of a test the analyst will be issued with a certificate. Basic assumptions for users of the tool are experiences and knowledge in Method Time Measurement (MTM).
• the NPW is a helpful tool for discussions with union representatives; • the NPW gives the operators an easy understanding of ergonomics factors; and • visualization of the ergonomics situation is possible within teams.
Picture 4: Results of ergonomics assessment
Design Publications Signage
Jobs in the production areas are the focus of the NPW. It is then possible to get an overview of the ergonomics situation in respective manufacturing areas.. Improvements since implementation of the tool include: • ergonomics problems can be identified and quantified; • a common understanding supports communication between plant and development departments (ITDC); • results of analysis show potential for continuous improvement (CIP); • easy identification of the reasons for bad ergonomics workplaces; • specialists from safety departments can identify the reasons for absences and accidents;
38-40 Kent Street Ascot Vale 3032 Tel: 03 9381 9696 Fax: 03 9372 3444 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.acuteconcepts.com.au
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Picture 5: Ergonomics Layout of the new plant in Rüsselsheim
When the new Rüsselsheim plant was built, most of the workplaces were evaluated using the NPW following the launch of the Vectra car model. This was the first step in obtaining an overview of the activities needed to improve the general ergonomics situation in one of the most modern production plants in the world. General Motors made a special effort in Rüsselsheim and spent a lot of money on ergonomics improvements in the infrastructure of the new plant. In this new plant there is a highly developed understanding of the relationship between ergonomics, productivity and quality because during the preparation phase for the new plant the workforce received special ergonomics training. These efforts are only possible when building a new plant. Older plants like Bochum involve a different approach to manage the ergonomics problems. By implementing the New Production Worksheet many ergonomics problems can be identified. Ergonomics is part of Kaizen “CIP” mainstream and improvements may be made by a low investment cost. This is made possible only when there is an agreed process and a global understanding of ergonomics in the organizations. The New Production Worksheet offers opportunities to discuss technical solutions and job organization (rotation concepts and higher flexibility in teams). One of the most important pillars in this process is
continuity in training for operators and service departments, because internal training supports the understanding and the sensibility for ergonomics in the workforce.
Since the implementation of the New Production Worksheet (NPW) there is a better understanding of ergonomics in the German Opel plants and engineering departments. This NPW is only used in German plants and enjoys a high acceptance by the hierarchies and works councils. Notably it has made the communication between plants, production and technical service departments much easier if any ergonomics related problems are identified. When this occurs at an early phase in the development process, the NPW helps supervisors on the production line convince operators of the need for organizational changes. This in turn provides additional opportunities to avoid later rectification costs before start of production of a new product. In this system the local ergonomists have to control their processes and are responsible for improvements and solutions. When special ergonomics questions arise as a result of ergonomics studies, the ergonomists have to find compromises to get the best ergonomics solutions for employee and employer. The New Production
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2. New interactions?
Worksheet, in combination with the global ergonomics GM-tools like the Design Ergonomics Worksheet, is an excellent approach for continuity in improvements to the health & safety conditions in these production plants. As it also meets the EU-legal requirements for the improvement of working conditions, the NPW is a good example of a practical application of the dual European system for health & safety at work. About the author Dieter Welwei is a 42 year old mechanical engineer with an additional degree in business administration. He has worded for Opel in the Bochum plant for 26 years and became plant ergonomist in 1995. He was responsible for the implementation of an ergonomics risk management Process; and now is consulted by the organization on all questions relating to ergonomics. Over the past three years he has visited Australia three times and met people from the HFESA and from Holden representatives in order to exchange ergonomics experience. He may be contacted by email: Dieter.Welwei@de.opel.com or by phone: +49 2302 33118.
The role of ‘Affective Human Factors’ in design
The application of human factors principles and methods in design activity continues to present a range of challenges to designers and human factors practitioners alike. New technologies and changing social and organizational contexts place both consumers and producers in new territory. These changes offer new ways of interacting with products and systems and place new demands on the processes by which these products and systems are created. This paper looks at the interest in ‘Affective Human Factors’ that has emerged in recent years. Case studies of design projects which have incorporated Affective Human Factors tools and techniques are presented and the implications for both design and human factors fields are discussed. Are these new tools really expanding the designer’s toolkit? Or are they tools for a new type of human factors practitioner?
The interaction between human factors and design is an ongoing theme in the literature and an ongoing challenge in the practical working-out of human use issues in the design of new products and systems. Ten years ago, Green (1994) made the broad observation that the contribution of ergonomics to design had been strongest in areas related to the physical features of products and systems. He suggested at that time that information about cognitive aspects of user-product interactions was still not accessible to designers in a usable form. One can argue that there has been some positive response to Green’s assertion in the subsequent decade (and he has been no small player in this). There has also been a response over this time to the oft-heard lament that Human Factors input tended to be sought far too late in the design process. Usercentred design has become established, at least as an acceptable conceptual framework for designing, if not as universal practice. Emerging rapid-prototyping technologies have enabled more reliable evaluation and revision of designs prior to major tooling expenditure. Even the notion of ‘beta’ testing seems to have played its part, spreading beyond the world of software development and influencing a shift in thinking about the role of end-users in the development of new products. It seems that improved tools are now available to help create products and systems that are usable with regard to their physical and cognitive ‘fit’ with the people they serve.
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Authors such as Jordan (2000) and Sanders (2000) suggest that the discourse has moved on from the goal of merely attaining system usability. The ‘New Human Factors’ must also support designs which address people’s emotional responses and aspirations. ‘Mere’ usability still demands a great deal of attention both in research and practice. The focus of this paper, however, is on the interaction between design activity and the consideration of affective needs. Consideration of these needs has generally fallen within the designer’s sphere of activity, through the designer’s holistic contribution to the aesthetic and functional dimensions of human-product interaction. They have thus tended to be interpreted and explored through creative, subjective design processes rather than through the application of analytical, objectively determined methods. In recent years we have seen a growing interest in various knowledge areas and methods that might enhance the consideration of affective needs in the development of products and systems. Evidence for this in the design community can be seen in the sequence of ‘Design and Emotion’ conferences since 1999. In the Ergonomics/Human factors field, Symposia at the 1997 and 2000 International Ergonomics Association (IEA) congress explored this area and the first International Conference on Affective Human Factors was held in 2001. In Human Computer Interaction, similar interest has been evident over this period. A range of tools and methods have been described which are intended to assist in gaining insight into user experiences and informing the design process. Many of these are variants of established interview and ‘focus group’ techniques. Others have a participative-design aspect; requiring potential users to engage in creative activities which help reveal ideas about their needs and possible types of design solutions. These tools and methods draw on the knowledge areas related to social research and there are a growing number of examples where people with backgrounds in fields such as anthropology, ethnography and psychology have been working with design teams to help address the affective aspects of their designs. (Sanders 2000) These approaches purport to bring more organized forms of inquiry to bear on aspects of the design that have typically been locked within the creative domain of the designer. This raises the question: how does the designer’s role accommodate the expanding knowledge, tools and methods associated with affective human factors? Design practitioners still wrestle with the practicalities of user-centred design.
Taking on the role of ‘Designer-as-Ergonomist’ does appear to present difficulties in practice. What can we expect from the designer when we expand the design agenda further to include the use of formal social research methods? And what are the practical connections between these activities and the designer’s intuitive synthesis of design concepts? Since 2000 at UNSW, we have been gaining experience with these issues working with senior industrial design students. A sequence of design projects has been run with the aim of promoting a more structured engagement between the designers and the affective needs and responses of the people they are designing for. Two of these projects are described in this paper.
Case Example 1: Mo’bile (Bernabei and Talbot 2001)
The anticipated outcomes of this project were designs which would demonstrate new ideas about the role of furniture in contemporary living. The aim was to demand ‘breadth-first’ thinking about human interaction with environments or systems. Rather than being required to focus on products per se, the designers had to identify issues or ideas that are linked to contemporary social/cultural experience. Issues such as: emotional response, globalism/nationalism, environmental concern, technology and communication/interaction were investigated. These issues were used as starting points for a five-week exploration of key ideas that would underpin the design work. In addition to conventional literature review and information gathering, the designers received instruction and gained experience in a number of methods based on Sanders (2000) ‘generative search’ approach. This approach involved engaging people in reflective and creative activities that would help to identify their needs and emotional responses and hopefully provide insight into their ‘deeper’ aspirations. The methods used by the designers included interview and focus group inquiries and activities such as diary keeping and collage making. These investigations were supplemented with presentations from visiting experts; social researchers, ecologists, art history/theory commentators and design practitioners. This phase of the project was an attempt to ‘steep’ the designers in information relating to user experiences. The information was to be broadly relevant to their design task but focussed on peoples’ experience and attitudes rather than products. This phase included structured reflective and creative work by the designers and provided an extensive incubation period during which the main aspects of the design problems were framed. The design work was developed from this base. It was hoped that designs would emerge not only as product proposals but also as explorations of more fundamental aspects of human experience. Interactions with these
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designs were intended to transcend functional utility and engage people at an emotional level. Two of the designs are shown below. The Connect Bench (Fig. 1) worked with ideas relating to social interaction. The result is a public seating solution which encourages human interaction in a way that is not initially anticipated by the ‘sitters’. The outer seats of Connect are linked and move up and down when someone sits on them, making the user acknowledge the presence (or absence) of another. The thinking underpinning the design explores the decline in social involvement and a move away from face-to-face contact in public spaces. The Anemone Light (Fig.2) explored relationships between users’ responses to the spatial characteristics of the product and its function. The design centres on the idea that the space that a product consumes when it is 'in-use' should be returned when it is not 'in-use'. Anemone's lights are illuminated by pulling down each arm around a rotating base. This can be done individually allowing the user to determine the amount of light given off in a way that interacts with the size and shape of the space that Anemone consumes. A final phase of this project involved exhibiting the work at an international exhibition and gaining feedback from people about their experience with the prototypes. Fig.1: Connect Bench - Belinda Giles
Case Example 2: The Great Divide (Talbot and Pandolfo 2003)
This project used a similar overall approach to the Mo’bile project. The brief was structured so that students focused their investigation on a particular family relationship, for example; grandparents and grandchildren, children and their (separated) parents or siblings. We believed that investigating these relationships would lead the designers to consider the impact of major social changes on certain groups within society. By gaining an awareness of the factors that influence these relationships, the designers would be able to identify opportunities for design outcomes which fit the social context and support the aspirations of the people they were designing for. The tools and methods used were similar to those used in the Mo’bile project and the investigations were again supported by input from visiting experts from the fields of a psychology, sociology, industrial design and new-media design. The project focus on relationships was chosen to ensure an ‘emotionally loaded’ context for designing which would allow the designers to challenge stereotypical notions of lifestyles/living conditions and to capture insights into ‘deeper’ user needs. Sanders’ (2000) descriptions of tacit needs which relate to peoples’ knowledge and feelings and latent needs which relate to their aspirations and dreams were particularly useful concepts which helped to articulate ideas about the relationships being investigated. The resulting design proposals ranged from communication products to furniture and environments. Three examples selected from this project are shown here. The Table by Kenneth Lam in Figures 3 and 4 connects with the ideas surrounding the shared activities at the communal table in a family household which expands and contracts as daily circumstances change. Fig.3 & 4: Table - Kenneth Lam
Fig.2: Anemone Light - Sophie Ellis
The UanRug (Fig. 5) by Helen Chen is made from a slow memory ‘technogel’. The rug ‘remembers’ who has been in the room by keeping their imprints for a while. It serves to connect people who share a space but often don’t have the chance to share time together.
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Fig.5: Uan rug - Helen Chen
These projects were successful in generating design outcomes which afforded interaction at an emotional level. The methods used in the investigations provided a rich source of cues for design ideas. These ‘social research’ aspects of the projects did contribute positively to the design process overall, but they required of the designer additional skills and knowledge that have not traditionally been part of his/her role. The projects presented here did not involve complex usability issues, so the affective aspects tended to be ‘contained’ within the visual appearance and straightforward physical interaction with the product. In these cases, the Affective Human Factors might be seen as pertaining only to the designer’s role. One might ask whether these issues need to be the concern of Human Factors/Ergonomics practitioners or whether they should remain part of the ‘X-Factor’ that designers are supposed to conjure up. However, for design problems involving more complex interfaces, the affective response may overlap significantly with the full range of other human-use issues. In such cases, the Affective Human Factors may be inseparable from ‘traditional’ Human Factors/Ergonomics concerns. (our current experiences at UNSW with communications products and household appliances tend to support this). It seems that there is a challenge for both the Design and Human Factors/Ergonomics communities to develop the knowledge and tools to contribute to this area of human-system interaction. These new tools may help to clarify the respective roles of the disciplines. They may even help to ‘demystify’ the designer’s initial interpretation of, and response to, the design problem. We expect our involvement in the development of products and systems will offer people safety, utility, usability and comfort. To be able to reliably facilitate experiences such as delight and satisfaction is a design challenge which may require us to expand our collective toolkit.
The Twin Locator (Figure 6) by Michael Kwan is intended for use by twin brothers. The devices communicate with each other and provide subtle clues to the wearer about the location of the other twin. The design explores the idea that a twin’s social interactions and emotional state are often affected by the presence or absence of the other twin. Fig.6: Twin Locator - Michael Kwan
Bernabei, R. and Talbot, J. 2002 Terra Nova: reflections of student design work as exhibited in the Salone Satellite 2001, In Collina, L. and Simonelli, G. (Eds) Designing Designers 2002; 3rd International Convention of University Courses in Industrial Design Fondazione Cosmit Eventi, Milan Green, W.S. 1994 Product Safety and Ergonomics: directions for further research, In Adams, N. Coleman, N. and Stevenson, M. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Ergonomics Society of Australia, Sydney
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Jordan, P. 2000 Designing Pleasurable Products: and introduction to the new human factors, Taylor and Francis, London Sanders, E. B.-N, 2000 Generative tools for Co-Designing In Scrivener, Ball and Woodcock (Eds), Collaborative Design Springer-Verlag, London, 2000 Talbot, J. and Pandolfo, B. 2004 Enhancing investigation and insight in design studio projects: ‘ The great divide’- a studio project case study Designing Designers 2003; 3rd International Convention of University Courses in Industrial Design Fondazione Cosmit Eventi, Milan (in Press) Jonathan Talbot email@example.com Industrial Design Program University of New South Wales, Australia Max Hely forwarded a cutting from the Sydney Morning Herald 28th February 2005 that seems a good way to open a discussion in these pages. It is quoted below with due acknowledgement to Alexandra Smith who was reporting on Australian research published in Ergonomics:
Dangers of life in the slow lane
Stuck behind a dawdler on a Sunday afternoon? Don’t blame the greying hair behind the wheel. It may be the undersized road signs and poorly lit streets slowing the driver down. Driving too slowly is emerging as a serious problem likely to worsen as the population ages. After recording the speeds of 6480 cars in Perth and surveying 240 licence holders, a team from Murdoch and Monash universities has found that speeding is no longer the only danger on the roads. “Slow driving, though widely once believed to be the safest form of driving, is, however, not without risk,” says the team’s study, published in the journal Ergonomics. The slowest drivers were the elderly, the study finding that people over 55 drove on average almost seven kilometres under the speed limit. The under 30s were clocked on average at three kilometres under the limit. “When asked about what causes people to drive slowly, by far the most popular factors were over-caution and lack of confidence.” The study says. The study says that international research suggests that drivers over 65 struggle to drive and navigate at the same time. And with more people driving until later in life, slow driving is likely to become an even more significant road safety problem in the next decade. “Large-scale media campaigns exhorting drivers to speed up is not an option that should be considered” the study says. Instead, it suggest, governments may need to redesign roads, make traffic signs larger, improve street lighting and toughen laws on slow driving on freeways.” Alexandra Smith
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UTS Engineering Students’ Involvement in Road Safety Research
The Australian Transport Council has prepared a document The National Road Safety Strategy 2001–2010 that is being studied this semester by some 290 undergraduate engineering students who are enrolled in the Engineering Communication course at the University of Technology Sydney. They will be using this reference in conjunction with material provided by New South Wales Roads & Traffic Authority (RTA) in conjunction with the National Roads and Motorists Association (NRMA) in order to explore safety issues associated with people, vehicles and roads in New South Wales. The students have been given this topic as the semester scenario on which all their assignments will be graded. Their early research will be done in small groups from their respective fields of practice and they will then be divided into engineering consultancy groups (with representatives from each specialty) to prepare a written group report and recommendations … as well as making a formal presentation of their findings to members of the RTA and NRMA research teams. It promises to be an interesting and valuable exercise; as one of their instructors I am looking forward to an informative and challenging time ahead this autumn semester. Shirleyann Gibbs PhD Shirleyann.Gibbs@uts.edu.au
New HFESA Members
November 2004 Marie Joy Belger Anne-Maree Lucas Belinda White December 2004 Suzanne Johnson Deidre Crosbie Sandra Samarin January 2005 Jean Mangarham Design Resource Australia WA NSW CPE Corp Yes QLD NSW WA M M M State NSW VIC NSW Grade M A M Upgrade
Gitte Lingaard (CHISIG Award)
The recipient of the Gitte Lingaard Award was announced at the OZCHI Conference in November 2004. Congratulations to PG Krogh, M Ludvigsen & A Lykke-Olesen for their entry – “Help me pull that cursor; A collaborative interactive floor enhancing community interaction.”
Google Scholar: http://scholar.google.com/
Google Scholar enables you to search specifically for scholarly literature, including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, preprints, abstracts and technical reports from all broad areas of research. Use Google Scholar to find articles from a wide variety of academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories and universities, as well as scholarly articles available across the web. Robin Burgess-Limerick PhD
James Reason Workshops in Australia
James Reason will be in Australia during May 2005 to conduct a series of workshops. Dates for the eastern states are known but he will also be visiting Western Australia. Further details will be available on aus_ergo as they become available. The first workshop will be held at Leura, in the Blue Mountains NSW 15–18 May. Then he will go to Queensland where the Rail and Minerals Industry Safety and Health Centre at Queensland University will host workshops in:
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Townsville on 24 May from 10.00 am – 3.30 pm; Rockhampton on 25 May from 10.45 am – 4.15 pm; and Brisbane on 26 May from 10.00 am – 3.39 pm Robin Burgess-Limerick PhD
Short Papers/Posters/Panels/Demos/Doc consortium 26 September 2005
We invite contributions on all topics related to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) including practical, technical, empirical and theoretical aspects. In keeping with the theme "Citizens online: Considerations for Today and the Future", topics of interest include, but are not limited to: • • • • • • • • • • • • • User-centred analysis, design and evaluation Organizational context HCI methods, tools & techniques Novel Interface Tangible, Mixed Reality Interfaces Multi-modal Interfaces
First call for participation to OZCHI 2005
Citizens Online: Considerations for Today and the Future Annual conference of the Australian ComputerHuman Interaction Special Interest Group 21 - 25 November 2005 Canberra, Australia Internet: http://www.ozchi.org/ OZCHI is the annual conference for the ComputerHuman Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society of Australia, a non-profit event. It is Australia's leading forum for work in all areas of Human-Computer Interaction. OZCHI attracts an international community of practitioners, researchers, academics and students from a wide range of disciplines including user experience designers, information architects, software engineers, human factors experts, information systems analysts, social scientists or managers. We look forward to your involvement at this year's OZCHI conference. Workshops and tutorials will run on the 21st and 22nd November. The Doctorial Consortium will run on the 22nd November. Presentations of papers, short papers, posters, industry case studies, panels and demonstrations will run on the 23rd, 24th and 25th November.
Usability Multi-user Interaction Mobile & Ubiquitous Computing User studies and fieldwork e-Government Online accessibility Participatory design and cooperative design techniques • Context-aware interaction • Government contracting • Supporting diverse user populations In addition, contributions that advance the theory or practice of any aspect of HCI are welcome.
Submissions will be accepted in various categories as described below. All submissions must be written in English. It is necessary for at least one author of any accepted submission to register and attend the conference. For all submissions, for guidelines and submission details see the conference web site: http://www.ozchi.org/. In addition, for long and short papers, please follow the detailed instructions in the paper template available from the website. Both long and short papers will be subject to a double blind review process by an international panel and evaluated on the basis of their significance, originality, and clarity of writing. Accepted long papers, short papers and doctoral consortium, and summaries for posters, industry case studies, panels and demonstrations will be available in the published proceedings.
Initial Submissions: Long Papers/Tutorials/Workshops/Industry Case Studies 3 June 2005 Short Papers/Posters/Panels/Demos/Doc consortium 1 August 2005 Notification of Acceptance: Long Papers/Tutorials/Workshops/Industry Case Studies 25 July 2005 Short Papers/Posters/Panels/Demos/Doc consortium 19 September 2005 Camera Ready Papers: Long Papers/Tutorials/Workshops/Industry Case Studies 12 August 2005
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Long-length papers, up to 10 pages, on original and substantive new work in any area of HCI are invited. Research papers should describe work that makes significant contribution to the state of the art. Experience papers should describe broad insights gained from practical applications of HCI.
Demonstrations of original applications, technologies and approaches to user interface design are encouraged. Peer reviewed demonstrations show early implementations of novel, interesting, and important interface systems and design approaches. They can also serve to showcase commercial products not previously described in the research literature. The following aspects of the submission will be considered in the selection process: Contribution to the field of HCI Originality of the concept Quality of the presentation
Long Paper submission date: 3rd June 2005 Notification date: 25th July 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 12th August 2005 Program committee Co-Chairs: Sandrine Balbo & Todd Bentley, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Short papers and posters
Short papers, up to 4 pages, and Posters provide the opportunity to describe new work or work that is still in progress. Poster sessions provide an interactive forum in which authors can present work to conference attendees while short papers are presented as a 15 minute seminar. The display space allocated for posters will be 2.5m wide by 1.2 m high (or 8 feet wide by 4 feet high). Short paper and posters submission date: 1st August 2005 Notification date: 19th September 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 26th September 2005 Poster & Short-Paper Co-Chairs: Brett Campbell & Dr. Anxo Roibás, Email: email@example.com
Demonstrations submission date: 1st August 2005 Notification date: 19th September 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 26th September 2005 Demonstrations Chair: Vijay Balachandran Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Industry Case Studies
The sessions allow current practitioners in the HCI industry to present practical and applied case studies that illustrate their ideas and experience. The emphasis is on advanced professional practice that utilise HCI principles. Case studies could include: New or improved techniques and methodologies Techniques for measuring performance and ROI Issues and developments in implementing research methods such as - surveys, workshops and on-site observations Translating user requirements into design Issues and challenges in particular industries or contexts such as online applications or mobile technologies Refining and realising business strategy and working with clients Incorporating usability in product development Testing usability with emerging technology.
Panels are intended to provide a forum for participants to discuss controversial or emerging topics related to the conference theme: "Citizens Online: Considerations for today and the future". Panels should target a specific audience and be debate-oriented rather than consisting of a series of short presentations. Each panel will last approximately 90 minutes and should be comprise 3 to 4 panel participants. Proposals for panels should include a topic title, an abstract (including a short statement about the relevance of the panel and the aims of the panel); a list of panel participants (including their contact details, affiliation and a short biography); industry relevance; and a preliminary list of questions that will be posed to the panellists. Panels submission date: 1st August 2005 Notification date: 19th September 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 26th September 2005 Panel Chair: Daniel Harman Email: email@example.com
Industry case studies submission date: 3rd June 2005 Notification date: 25th July 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 12th August 2005 Industry Case Study Chair: Frances Miller Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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The Doctoral Consortium offers PhD students a special forum where they can present their research plans and discuss them with their peers and established senior researchers. PhD candidates wishing to attend the consortium should submit a research proposal in the format given on the OZCHI 2005 website by the date below. Positions at the consortium will be offered based on a review of the submitted proposals. Doctoral Consortium submission date: 1 August 2004. Notification date: 19th September 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 26th September 2005 Doctorial consortium Chair: Peter Hyland Email: email@example.com
or contact the appropriate conference chair (contact details for conference chairs are available above or on the conference website).
New Book Release — Beating stress at work
Many ergonomists will be familiar with various “Pocket Books” and papers written by an HFESA member, David Brown. One of his most recent papers, Ergonomics in a subjective world, was published in September 2000 edition of Ergonomics Australia. Thomson Safeguard New Zealand has just published his Beating Stress at work, A SAFEGUARD Survival Guide. The 136 pages are a practical guide for employers and employees and are written in David’s humorous conversational style that Peter Bateman, editor of Safeguard Magazine, says offers “clear and practical strategies for digging yourself out of a stressful hole at work, based on David’s long experiences and observations, and underpinned by the latest in worldwide research.” New Zealand readers have the added benefit of several pages on the amended 2003 NZ health and safety legislation which according to Bateman “provoked frenzied commentary (and not a great deal of enlightenment)”. This should provoke some interesting discussion in relation to Australia’s attempt to upgrade some of its relevant legislation. Further information contact: SAFEGUARD: Information and inspiration to save lives and strengthen business —www.safeguard.co.nz Or David Brown: www.pocket-stress.com Shann Gibbs
Workshops and Tutorials
Workshops provide a valuable opportunity for small communities of people with diverse perspectives to engage in vibrant discussions about a topic of common interest. Workshops can focus on research or applied topics. Each workshop should generate ideas that give the HCI community a new, organized way of thinking about the topic and that suggests promising directions for future research. Workshops will take place on Nov 21st and 22nd and are one day or half day events at which participants explore particular research topics. A workshop should have specific objectives, raise stimulating issues, and aim to report its activity as a conference poster or subsequent publication. Workshop proposals submission date: 3rd June 2005 Notification date: 25th July 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 12 August 2005 Tutorials are one day or half-day events designed to offer a small number of participants the opportunity to learn about specific HCI related concepts, methods and techniques. They are one of the best means of conveying introductory and advanced instruction on specific topics to an interested audience. Tutorials are a significant attraction to attendants and provide exposure in depth and breadth to HCI topics. We welcome both research and industry tutorial submissions. It is important that you specify the audience for your tutorial, as reviewers will be drawn from the expertise you indicate is relevant. Tutorial proposals submission date: 3rd June 2005 Notification date: 25th July 2005 Camera-ready papers due: 12 August 2005 Workshop & Tutorials Co-Chairs: Daniela Busse & Michael Haller Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Further details please check the conference web site: htpp://www.ozchi.org/
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11–13 May 2005 —ACOH 2005 Special Symposium on Occupational Health Ergonomics New Zealand, Internet: www.acoh2005.org T: +62 4 939 7498 24–27 May 2005 — Gerontechnology 2005 The International Society for Gerontechnology Nagoya, Japan 25-28 May 2005 — CAES 2005 International conference on computer-aided ergonomics and safety, Kosice, Slovak Republic http://www.tuke.sk/caes/ Organizational committee: Dipl.-Ing. Zuzana Lavrinova E-mail: email@example.com Dipl.-Ing. Melichar Kopas E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 7 - 9 June 2005 — 3rd International Conference on Whole-Body Vibration Injuries, France Contacts: Scientific secretariat Patrice Donati Institut National de Recherche et de Securite Ingenierie des Equipements de Travail email: email@example.com Tel: +33 3 83 50 20 49 Fax: +33 3 83 50 21 03 Registration: Secretariat Congress WBV 2005 Lorraine Congres, BP 663 54063 Nancy Cedex France email: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: +33 3 83 36 81 81 Fax: +33 3 83 36 81 80 22–27 July 2005 — HCI International 2005 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1st International Conference on Augmented Cognition Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, USA Internet: www.hcii2005.engr.wisc.edu 23–26 August 2005 — ICOH International Conference Psychosocial Factors at Work Okayama, Japan Internet: www.wops2005.jp 11–15 September 2005 — International Conference Fatigue Management in Transportation Operations Seattle, Washington, USA Contact: Shelley Feese Internet: www.engr.washington.edu/epp/fmto/ Tel: + 1 301 347 0100 15 September–15 October 2005 — Cyberg 2005 Fourth IEA International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics Internet: www.cyberg.wits.ac.za 19-23 September 2005 — IOHA 2005 International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA) 6th International Scientific Conference, Pilanesberg National Park South Africa Internet: www.saioh.org/ioha2005/ 29 September–1 October 2005 — EACE 2005 Annual Conference European Association of Cognitive Ergonomics Crete, Greece Chair: Nicholas Mamaras Internet: www.eace2005.gr 31 October–2 November 2005 — Smart Moves — finding the balance 2nd Biennial Conference Manual Handling of People Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Contact: Michelle Bordignon, IAM Events Internet: www.iamevents.com.au/aamhp Tel: 07 3256 2444 21–25 November 2005 — OZCHI 2005 Citizens Online: Considerations for Today and the Future Annual conference of the Australian Computer Human Interaction Special Interest Group (CHISIG) Canberra, Australia Internet: http://www.ozchi.org
30 March - 2 April 2005 International Conference - HEPS 2005 - Healthcare systems Ergonomics and Patient Safety Florence, Italy Internet: www.heps2005.org 11–16 June 2006 — ICOH International Conference on Occupational Health Milan Italy For more information as it comes to hand consult: ICOH website: www.icoh.org.sg 10 – 14 July 2006 — IEA 16th Triennial Congress — Meeting Diversity in Ergonomics MECC Congress Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands Conference Website: www.iea2006.org Contact: Ernst AP Koningsveld Congress Chairman E: email@example.com
21–24 May 2007 — WWCS2007 Work with Computer Systems – Computer systems for human benefits Stockholm, Sweden Internet: www.wwcs2007.se
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Information for Contributors
Articles published in Ergonomics Australia are subject to peer review. Editor
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Contributions to Ergonomics Australia are always welcomed and encouraged. Articles are subject to peer review and members of a referee panel assist authors in achieving an optimal standard for publication. The activities, achievements, experiences, views and opinions of members are always of interest. These can be in the form of letters, notices, notes, reports, commentaries or articles. Graphics (photos, illustrations, drawings, computer graphics etc) are particularly welcome and should be camera ready. Photos need not be black and white and negatives are not required. However it should be noted that ordinary digital photographs generally do not allow for good reproduction if only submitted electronically. It is preferable to include the digital photo in the text but to additionally provide an actual photograph which the publisher can scan with commercial quality equipment to produce a quality result. The preferred form of submissions is via e-mail, either in the body of a message (short notices), or as an attachment (articles / letters). Files may also be mailed on floppy disc or CD. Microsoft Word, Corel WordPerfect or Adobe files are the preferred formats (the editor cannot transcribe Mac files that are not in IBM compatible format.) Handwritten or hard copy submissions will only be accepted in exceptional circumstances. Any inquiries about contributions should be directed in the first instance to the Editor.
Must be camera ready and must arrive at the HFESA Federal Office by the Copy Deadline Submission Date for the Edition in question. A professional advertising service is available for producing camera ready copy if required. For further inquiries regarding this service contact: Mr Goro Jankulovski, Acute Concepts Pty Ltd Tel: 03 9381 9696 Mobile: 0414 605 414 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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Advertising and sponsorship opportunities also exist in the electronic version of Ergonomics Australia (EAOL) which is uploaded by Dr Robin Burgess-Limerick at Department of Human Movement, Queensland University. It is downloaded by more than 100 Australian and International readers each week. To view EAOL: http://www.uq.edu.au or enter via the HFESA website: http://ergonomics.org.au
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