Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Dummit and Foote 3e

)
Chapter 1 : Group Theory
Jason Rosendale
jason.rosendale@gmail.com
February 11, 2012
This work was done as an undergraduate student: if you really don’t understand something in one of these
proofs, it is very possible that it doesn’t make sense because it’s wrong. Any questions or corrections can be
directed to jason.rosendale@gmail.com.
Exercise 1.1.1
(a) is not associate: 3 −(2 −1) ,= (3 −2) −1. (b),(c),and (d) can be shown to be associative by grinding out the
algebra and showing that a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c. (e) is not associative, as can be shown by letting a = b = c = 2.
Exercise 1.1.2
(a) and (e) can be shown to not be commutative by letting a = 1, b = 2. (b),(c) and (d) can be shown to be
commutative by grinding out the algebra.
Exercise 1.1.3
a + b+ c
= a+ b+ c def. of modular addition
= a+ b + c def. of modular addition
Exercise 1.1.4
ab c
= a b c def. of modular multiplication
= a bc def. of modular multiplication
Exercise 1.1.5
To be a group, each element a would need a multiplicative inverse b such that ab = 1; but 0 has no such inverse.
Exercise 1.1.6
(b) is not closed: 1/14 + 1/14 = 1/7. (c) is not closed: 2/3 + 2/3 = 4/3. (d) is not closed: 2 + (−3/2) = 1/2.
(f) is not closed: 1/2 + 1/3 = 5/6. (a) and (e) are groups under addition.
Exercise 1.1.7
That xy is well-defined follows directly from the fact that +,-, and the greatest integer function are well defined
on R. To prove that G is a group: G has an identity element (0 ∈ G and 0 x = x 0 = x − [x] = 0), each
1
element a ∈ G has an inverse (1 − a ∈ G and a (1 − a) = 1 − [1] = 0 = (1 − a) a), and associativity can be
shown with a little tedious algebra. That G is abelian follows from the commutativity of addition:
x y = (x + y) −[x + y] = (y + x) −[y + x] = y x
Exercise 1.1.8a
G has an identity element (1 ∈ G and z1 = z = 1z) and an inverse (z
n
= 1 implies (z
−1
)
n
= 1 so z
−1
∈ G) and
complex multiplication is associative. To show closure:
→ x, y ∈ G assumed
→ (∃m, n ∈ Z
+
)x
m
= 1 ∧ y
n
= 1 def. of membership in G
→ (∃mn ∈ Z
+
)x
mn
= 1
n
= 1 ∧ y
mn
= 1
m
= 1
→ (∃mn ∈ Z
+
)x
mn
y
mn
= 1
→ (∃mn ∈ Z
+
)(xy)
mn
= 1
→ xy ∈ G def. of membership in G
Exercise 1.1.8b
The group is not closed under addition. 1 and −1 are both elements of G, but 1 + (−1) = 0 is not.
Exercise 1.1.9a
The identity is (0, 0), the inverse of (a, b) is (−a, −b), associativity and closure are trivial.
Exercise 1.1.9b
The identity is (1, 0), associativity and closure are trivial. The inverse of (a, b) can be found by solving (a +
b

2)x = 1 and is given by:
(a, b)
−1
=
_
a
a
2
−2b
2
,
b
a
2
−2b
2
_
Exercise 1.1.10
The definition of a symmetric matrix is that for all i, j we have a
ij
= a
ji
. In the group table, this is the case iff
for all i, j we have a
i
a
j
= a
j
a
i
which is the definition of abelian.
Exercise 1.1.11
General formula is: [a[ = lcm(a, 12)/a.
[0[ = 1
[1[ = 12
[2[ = 6
[3[ = 4
[4[ = 3
[5[ = 12
[6[ = 2
[7[ = 12
[8[ = 3
[9[ = 4
[10[ = 6
[11[ = 12
2
Exercise 1.1.12
[1[ = 1
[ −1[ = 2
[7[ = 2
[ −7[ = 2
[13[ = 2
Exercise 1.1.13
General formula is: [a[ = lcm(a, 36)/a.
[1[ = 38
[2[ = 18
[6[ = 6
[9[ = 4
[10[ = 18
[12[ = 3
[ −1[ = 36
[ −10[ = 18
[ −18[ = 2
Exercise 1.1.14
This would be tedious to type out. For each a we need to use the methods of exercises 0.3.15 to find y such that
36x + ay = 1
and this y would be the order of a.
Exercise 1.1.15
Proof by induction. For the n = 1 case, it’s clear that a
1
= a
−1
1
. Supposing the equality holds for the n = k
case, we have:
(a
1
a
2
. . . a
k
a
k+1
)(a
−1
k+1
a
−1
k
. . . a
−1
1
)
= (a
1
a
2
. . . a
k
)a
k+1
a
−1
k+1
(a
−1
k
. . . a
−1
1
) associativity
= (a
1
a
2
. . . a
k
)1(a
−1
k
. . . a
−1
1
) definition of inverses
= (a
1
a
2
. . . a
k
)(a
−1
k
. . . a
−1
1
) definition of identity
= e equality holds for n = k
and thus (a
−1
k+1
a
−1
k
. . . a
−1
1
) is shown to be the right inverse of (a
1
a
2
. . . a
k
a
k+1
). The proof for left inverse is
similar. Thus equality holds for the n = k + 1 case. By induction, equality holds for all n ∈ Z
+
.
Exercise 1.1.16
This follows directly from the definition of [x[. The order of x is the smallest integer n such that x
n
= 1; if
x
2
= 1, then this smallest integer must be less than or equal to 2. Thus it can be only 1 or 2.
Exercise 1.1.17
If [x[ = n, then x
n
= 1, and thus x x
n−1
= 1, which makes x
n−1
the inverse of x.
3
Exercise 1.1.18
→ xy = yx assumed
→ y
−1
xy = y
−1
yx left multiplication
→ y
−1
xy = 1x = x definition of inverse
→ x
−1
y
−1
xy = x
−1
x left multiplication
→ x
−1
y
−1
xy = 1 definition of inverse
→ (x
−1
y
−1
)
−1
= xy definition of inverse
→ xy = yx consequence of exercise 1.1.15
Exercise 1.1.19a
Part (a) is a direct consequence of associativity.
Exercise 1.1.19a
Part (b) is a special case of exercise 1.1.15.
Exercise 1.1.19c
Parts (a) and (b) trivially hold when a = 0 or b = 0. Parts (a) and (b) can be shown to hold for a, b ≤ 0
by taking the inverses of each side of each equation. The only thing left to show is that part (a) holds when
a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a:
Assume that a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a. If [a[ = [b[ (absolute value, not order) then clearly
x
a+b
= x
0
= x
a
x
−a
= x
a
x
b
ow assume, without loss of generality, that [a[ < [b[ Then b has the same sign as −a and b has the same sign as
a + b. Therefore −a has the same sign as a + b and we can deduce:
x
a
x
b
= x
a
x
−a+b+a
from b = b + a −a
= x
a
x
−a
x
b+a
from part (a), since −a and b + a have same sign
= (x
b+a
left cancellation
Exercise 1.1.20
From 1.1.19(b), we have
x
n
= 1 ↔ (x
n
)
−1
= 1
−1
= 1 ↔ x
−n
= 1 ↔ (x
−1
)
n
= 1
Thus the least n such that x
n
= 1 must also be the least n such that (x
−1
)
n
= 1.
Exercise 1.1.21
→ x
2k+1
= 1 assumed, since n = 2k + 1
→ x
2k+1
x = 1x = x right multiplication
→ x
2k+2
= x 1.1.19(a)
→ (x
2
)
k+1
= x 1.1.19(a)
4
Exercise 1.1.22
→ x
n
= 1 assumed
↔ (xgg
−1
)
n
= 1 gg
−1
= 1
↔ xg(g
−1
xg)
n−1
g
−1
= 1 tricky associativity
↔ g
−1
xg(g
−1
xg)
n−1
g
−1
g = g
−1
1g = 1 left and right multiplication
↔ g
−1
xg(g
−1
xg)
n−1
= 1 right cancellation
↔ (g
−1
xg)
n
= 1 1.1.19(a)
This shows that the least n such that x
n
= 1 must also be the least n such that (g
−1
xg)
n
= 1. To prove that
[ab[ = [ba[, let x = ab and g = b
−1
in the preceeding proof and conclude that the least n such that (ab)
n
= 1
must also be the least n such that (babb
−1
)
n
= (ba)
n
= 1.
Exercise 1.1.23
(x
s
)
t
= x
st
= x
n
= 1, so [x
s
[ ≤ t. But if there were some k such that 0 ≤ k < t such that (x
s
)
k
= 1, then we
would have 0 ≤ sk < st = n with x
sk
= 1 contradicting the assumption that [x[ = n.
Exercise 1.1.24
Proof by induction. The n = 0 and n = 1 cases are trivial. Assume the equality holds for n = k:
(ab)
k+1
= a(ba)
k
b tricky associativity
(= a(ab)
k
b a, b commute
(= aa
k
b
k
b equality holds for n = k
(= a
k+1
b
k+1
Thus equality holds for all n ∈ N. To prove that this holds for negative n, just take the inverse of each side of
the equation to yield (ab)
−n
= b
−n
a
−n
, then apply commutativity to conclude (ba)
−n
= b
−n
a
−n
.
Exercise 1.1.25
Given that x
2
= 1, we see that (ab)(ab) = b(aa)b = 1. Right-multiplying by b
−1
a
−1
yields ab = ba.
Exercise 1.1.26
We’re told that H is nonempty so it contains some element h; it’s closed under inverses and the binary operation,
it contains the identity element hh
−1
= 1. It inherits associativity from G. That’s sufficient for H to be a group.
Exercise 1.1.27
Let H = x
n
: n ∈ Z. The identity x
0
= 1 exists in n; if x
n
∈ H then x
−n
∈ H so H is closed under inverses; it’s
trivially closed under the binary operation; and (x
i
x
j
)x
k
= x
i+j+k
= x
i
(x
j
x
k
) so it is associative.
Exercise 1.1.28
All parts of this exercise can be proven through simple but tedious algebra.
Exercise 1.1.29
→ (a, b) (c, d) = (c, d) (a, b)
↔ (ac, bd) = (ca, db) def. of
↔ ac = ca and bd = db def. of equality in AB
5
Exercise 1.1.30
To prove commutativity:
(a, 1)(1, b) = (a1, 1b) = (a, b) = (1a, b1) = (1, b)(a, 1)
Now let p = [a[, q = [b[, and x = [p, q]. Then:
(a, b)
x
= (a
x
, b
x
) = ((a
p
)
x/p
, (b
q
)
x/q
) = (1
x/p
, 1
x/q
) = (1, 1) = 1
Thus the order of (a, b) divides [p, q] = x. Now let n = [(a, b)[. From exercise 1.1.24:
(1, 1) = (a, b)
n
= [(a, 1)(1, b)]
n
= (a, 1)
n
(1, b)
n
Right-multiplying gives us:
(1, b)
−n
= (a, 1)
n
which means
(1, b
−n
) = (a
n
, 1)
thus a
n
= b
−n
= 1. Thus p and q both divide n, which means that [p, q] divides n. We’ve now shown that
n = [(a, b)[ divides x = [p, q] and that x divides n: therefore x = n.
Exercise 1.1.31
To prove that t(G) has an even number of elements, establish an equivalence relation a b : (ab = 1ora = b)
on t(G). This is clearly reflexive,symmetric, and easily shown to be transitive. There are two elements per
equivalence class on t(G): one element and its inverse. Thus t(G) has an even number of elements.
Thus the set G−t(G) (that is, g ∈ G[g = g
−1
) must also have an even number of elements. It contains the
identity, so it must contain at least one nonidentity element. Each element in G−t(G) has g
2
= 1, and therefore
must have order 1 or 2 by exercise 1.1.16. Only the identity has order 1, so this nonidentity element must have
order 2.
Exercise 1.1.32
Suppose x
i
= x
j
for 0 ≤ i < j ≤ n −1. Then 1 = x
j
x
−i
= x
j−i
, which would contradict the claim that [x[ = n.
Exercise 1.1.33a
Part (a) is the contrapositive of exercise 1.1.31.
Exercise 1.1.33b
It’s trivial to show that i = k implies x
i
x
i
= x
2k
1 and therefore x
i
= x
−1
. To prove in the other direction:
→ x
i
= x
−i
assumed
↔ x
i
x
i
= x
−i
x
i
↔ x
2i
= 1
This shows that x
i
= x
−i
iff n (the order of x) divides 2i. But 2i < n by the previous exercise, so n[2i implies
2i = 0 or 2i = n. And we’re asked to assume that i > 0, so we must have 2i = n = 2k and so i = k.
Exercise 1.1.34
Were it the case that x
m
= x
n
for some m ,= n, then we would have x
|m−n|
= 1 which would contradict the
assumption that x was of infinite order.
Exercise 1.1.35
Let x ∈ G have order n. Let k be an arbitrary power of x. By the division algorithm, we can find unique values
of a, b with 0 ≤ b < n such that k = an + b. Thus we have
x
k
= x
an+b
= x
a
nx
b
= x
b
6
Exercise 1.1.36
We know that at least one element must be its own inverse from exercise 1.1.31. WLOG, assume that this
element is a. From 1.1.31 we know that b is its own inverse iff c is its own inverse: if both are their own inverses,
then the group is abelian by 1.1.25 and we are done.
If neither b nor c are their own inverses, then they must have order 3 (b
3
= c
3
= 1). We cannot have
b
2
= b (for we would have o(b) = 1) or b
2
= 1 (for we would have o(b) = 2) or b
2
= a (for we would have
b = b, b
2
= a, b
3
= ab, b
4
= a
2
= 1 so that o(b) = 4) so we must have b
2
= c. And this gives us a contradiction,
since it would imply that o(b
2
) = o(c) = o(b).
Exercise 1.2.2
We know that D
2n
has order 2n with distinct elements r
0
, r
1
, . . . r
n−1
, r
0
s, r
1
s, . . . r
n−1
s. So any element that is
not equivalent to r
k
for some k is equivalent to sr
k
for some k. We can now use a proof by induction: the case
for x = r
0
s and x = r
1
s is trivial. Now assume that the equality holds for x = r
k
s:
r(r
k+1
)s = rr(r
k
)s = r(r
k
)sr
−1
= r
k+1
sr
−1
and thus equality holds for x = r
k+1
s.
Exercise 1.2.3
As above, every element of D
2n
which is not a power of r has the form r
k
s = sr
−k
. Thus:
(r
k
s)
2
= (r
k
s)(r
k
s) = sr
−k
r
k
s = ss = 1
This proves only that the order of (r
k
s) divides 2; we must show that it is 2. Proof by contradiction: If the
order were 1, then we would have r
k
s = 1 which would imply s = r
−k
which would imply that all 2n elements
could be written uniquely as a power of r; but r
n
= 1 so there could be at most n such elements. Thus the
order of (r
k
s) cannot be 1.
To show that s, sr are generators is suffices to show that ssr = r, so all powers of r can be generated.
Exercise 1.2.4
z
2
= r
2k
= r
n
= 1, so o(z) = 2 (k > 1, so z is not the identity element). r
2
k trivially commutes with elements
of D
2n
that are powers of r; since o(z) = 2 it commutes with all other elements of order 2 (cf 1.1.33); that is,
all elements of D
2n
that are not a power of r (previous exercise).
To show that this is the only element other than the identity that commutes with all elemenets of D
2n
, we
use a very unsatisfying proof by exhaustion of cases. Let a be an element such that ab = ba for all b ∈ D
2n
.
Either a = r
i
or a = sr
i
for some i ∈ 0 . . . 2k −1.
case i) Suppose a = r
i
and let b be an arbitrary element of D
2n
. The element a obviously commutes for all b
of the form b = r
j
. If b = sr
j
, then ab = ba when:
→ ab = ba assumed
↔ r
i
sr
j
= sr
j
r
i
definition of a, b
↔ sr
−i
r
j
= sr
j
r
i
from relation rs = sr
−1
↔ r
−i+j
= r
j+i
left cancellation
↔ r
−i+j
r
−j−i
= 1 right multiplication by r
−(j+i)
↔ r
−2i
= 1
↔ n[2i o(r) = n
↔ k[i n = 2k
This shows that, for this choice of a = r
i
, ab = ba for all b iff i is a multiple of k. But we’ve assumed that
i ∈ 0, . . . , 2k −1 so either i = 0 or i = k. Thus a = r
i
commutes with all b iff a = r
0
(the identity) or
a = r
k
.
7
case ii) Suppose a = sr
i
. Then this a does not commute with all b: let b = r. Then we have
→ ab = ba assumed
↔ sr
i
r = rsr
i
definition of a, b
↔ sr
i+1
= sr
−1+i
from relation rs = sr
−1
↔ r
i+1
= r
i−1
left cancellation
↔ r
i+1
r
1−i
= 1 right multiplication by r
−(−j+i)
↔ r
2
= 1
But n is defined by the order of r, so r
2
= 1 implies n = 2, contradicting the requirement that n ≥ 4. Thus
we have shown that the only nonidentity element that commutes with all elements of D
2n
(n = 2k, n ≥ 4)
is r
k
.
Exercise 1.2.5
As shown in the previous exercise, the only element that commutes with element of D
2n
for n > 2 is r
i
where
n[2i. If n is odd then the requirements that i ∈ 0, . . . , n and i = kn together imply i = 0 and thus the only
commuting element is r
0
= 1.
Exercise 1.2.6
Since o(x) = o(y) = 2, we have x = x
−1
, y = y
−1
. Thus we have
tx = xyx right-multiply t = xy by x
tx = xy
−1
x
−1
y = y
−1
, x = x
−1
tx = x(xy)
−1
tx = xt
−1
Exercise 1.2.7
Let a = s and b = sr so that ab = r. The relations follow from each other: a
2
= s
2
= 1, (ab)
n
= r
n
= 1, and
b
2
= (sr)
2
= ssr
−1
r = 1.
Exercise 1.2.8
n is, by definition, the smallest r such that r
n
= 1 so o(r) = n.
Exercise 1.2.9 through 1.2.13
A tetrahedron has four three-sided faces; a cube has six four-sided faces; an octahedron has eight three-sided
faces; a dodecahedron has twelve five-sided faces; an icosahedron has twenty three-sided faces. Each side (pair
of vertices) can be flipped, so the total number of positions for a side is : The number of rigid motions for a
given solid is given by:
2 ∗ (number of sides) =
(number of faces) ∗ (number of sides per face)
number of faces connected to each side
Each solid has two faces connected to each side, so this reduces to (number of faces) * (number of sides per
face).
Exercise 1.2.14
For addition, 1. For multiplication, p : p is prime (by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic).
Exercise 1.2.15
For addition, p : (p, n) = 1. For multiplication, p < n : p is prime.
8
Exercise 1.2.16
Letting n = 2, we have r
2
= s
2
= 1. So let x = r, y = s. The relations follow: x
2
= r
2
= 1,y
2
= s
2
= 1, and
xy = y
−1
x :
xy = (xy)
−1
from o(xy) = 2
= y
−1
x
−1
= yx
−1
from o(y) = 2
Exercise 1.2.17a
The presentation in 1.2 is ¸x, y[x
n
= y
2
= 1, xy = yx
2
¸. The text demonstrated that xy = yx
2
implies x
3
= 1.
Thus, if n = 3k then x
3
= 1 but x
0
, x
1
, x
2
are distinct elements. Letting x = r, y = s gives us x
3
= r
3
= 1,
y
2
= s
2
= 1, and rs = sr
−1
:
rs = xy from o(xy) = 2
= yx
2
= yx
−1
xx
2
= 1 → x
2
= x
−1
= sr
−1
Exercise 1.2.17b
We know that x
3
= 1 so x
3k
= 1. By definition, x
n
=1. If (3, n) = 1 then either n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k + 2 =
3(k + 1) −1 for some k. In either case, we have
1 = x
n
= x
3k±1
= x
3k
x
±1
= x
±1
But x
−1
= 1 iff x = 1, so in either case we have x = 1 and X
2n
is generated uniquely by s, which has order 2.
Exercise 1.2.18
The presentation in 1.3 is ¸u, v[u
4
= v
3
= 1, uv = v
2
u
2
¸.
a) If v
3
= vv
2
= 1, then v
2
= v
−1
. Similarly, u
2
= u
−2
and u
3
= u
−1
.
b) u
3
= u(v
3
)u
2
from v
3
= 1
= (uv)(v
2
u
2
) associative property
= (v
2
u
2
)(uv) from uv = v
2
u
2
= v
2
u
3
v associative property
= v
−1
u
3
v from part (a)
Left-multiplying both sides by v gives us vu
3
= u
3
v; right-multiplying by v
−1
gives us u
3
v
−1
= v
−1
u
3
.
c) From part (b), we have u
3
v
−1
= v
−1
u
3
. Using part (a) this becomes u
−1
v
−1
= v
−1
u
−1
. Taking inverses of
each side yields vu = uv.
d) We’re told uv = v
2
u
2
; by commutativity of u, v this becomes uv = (uv)
2
; by left- or right-cancellation this
becomes uv = 1.
e) 1 = (uv)
4
= u
4
v
3
v = v, and uv = 1 implies u = v
−1
= 1.
Exercise 1.3.8
Define the function f : N → S
ω
to be f(n) = (1n). The function is clearly injective (albeit not surjective) so
[S
ω
[ ≥ [N[.
Exercise 1.3.9
See exercise 1.3.11.
9
Exercise 1.3.10
Trivial proof by induction on i. Since σ
m
maps a
k
→ a
k
, it must be the identity function; since m is the least
integer such that σ
m
= I, we have o(σ) = m.
Exercise 1.3.11
Let k be the order of σ
i
. It must be the case that m[ik or, by the division algorithm, we could find ik such that
ik = xm + b with 0 < b < m which would give us

i
)
k
= σ
ik
= σ
xm+b
= (σ
m
)
x
σ
b
= σ
b
which would contradict the previous exercise’s conclusion that o(σ) = m.
Having proven that ik must be a multiple of m, we see that the least such multiple of ik is ik = lcm(m, ik). If
we want the o(σ
i
) = m, we must have im = lcm(m, im) = lcm(m, i) which occurs only when gcd(m, i) = 1:
ab = lcm(a, b) gcd(a, b) → lcm(a, b) =
ab
gcd(a, b)
Exercise 1.3.12a
yes: let σ = (1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10) and k = 5.
Exercise 1.3.12b
no. Let k be the smallest k such that σ
k
= (1 2)(3 4 5). Then σ
2k
= (3 5 4). Thus σ
2k
(1) = 1 (implying that
m[2k from exercise 10) but σ
2k
(3) = 5 (implying m 2k by exercise 10). This establishes a contradiction so
there can be no k such that σ
k
= τ.
Exercise 1.3.13
Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting 2-cycles, we have
σ
2
= [(a
1
b
1
) . . . (a
k
b
k
)]
2
= (a
1
b
1
)
2
. . . [(a
k
b
k
)
2
= (1)
2
. . . (1)
2
= (1)
so that o(σ) = 2.
If we assume that o(σ) = 2 then σ maps a → σ(a) and maps σ(a) → σ(σ(a)) = a (with the possiblity
that σ(a) = a). Consider the set of 2-cycles:
¦(a σ(a)) : a ∈ 1, . . . , m and a < σ(a)¦
We can define σ as the product of every element of this set:
σ = (a
1
σ(a
1
))(a
2
σ(a
2
)) . . . (a
k
σ(a
k
))
Each a ∈ 1, . . . , m appears in at most one of these disjoint 2-cycles, and appears iff a ,= σ(a).
Exercise 1.3.14
Follow the preceeding proof. Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting p-cycles, we have
σ
p
= [(a
1
b
1
) . . . (a
k
b
k
)]
p
= (a
1
b
1
)
p
. . . [(a
k
b
k
)
p
= (1)
p
. . . (1)
p
= (1)
And we can write σ as the product of elements of the disjoint collection of p-cycles:
¦(a σ
1
(a) σ
2
(a) . . . σ
p−1
(a)) : a ∈ 1, . . . , m and a = min(a, σ(a), . . . , σ
m−1
(a))¦
If p is not prime then we can find a, b > 1 such that p = ab = lcm(a, b) and the element
(1 2 . . . a)(a + 1 a + 2 . . . a + b)
has order p despite not being a product of disjoint p-cycles. A more explicit example: In S
6
we have
(1 2 3)(4 5)
which has order 6.
10
Exercise 1.3.15
Choose σ ∈ S
n
and let k be the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its cycle decomposition.
From exercise 1.1.24 we know that σ
k
= (1) means that (a
1
. . . a
i
)
k
= (1) for each cycle in the decomposition
of σ, so k must be a common multiple of the order (length) of each cycle in the decomposition of σ; thus the
order of σ must be the least such k, which is the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles of σ.
Exercise 1.3.16
From n elements, there are
_
n
m
_
ways of selecting m elements and m! ways of writing an m−cycle with them.
Each distinct m-cycle can be written in m different ways. Thus the number of distinct m-cycles in S
n
is given
by
_
n
m
_
m!
m
=
n!m!
m!(n −m)!m
=
n(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −m + 1)
m
Exercise 1.3.17
There are
_
n
4
_
ways of selecting the elements of two disjoint 2-cycles, and 3 unique ways to construct the two
2-cycles with them. Thus the number of distinct products of two disjoitn 2-cycles is:
_
n
4
_
1
3
=
n!
(n −4)!4!
1
3
=
n(n −1)(n −2)(n −3)
8
Exercise 1.3.18
For each S
n
we can choose i, k > 0 such that i + k ≤ n and construct following disjoint product S
n
:
(1 2 . . . i)(n n −1 . . . n −(k −1))
By exercise 15, this element has order of lcm(i, k). Thus for S
5
we can construct elements of orders 1,2,3,4,5
(trivially) and 6. The order 6 element is given by
(1 2 3)(4 5)
Exercise 1.3.19
With the explanation from the previous exercise we see that S
7
has elements of order 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (trivially),
lcm(2, 5) = 10, and lcm(3, 4) = 12.
Exercise 1.3.20
Let a = (1 2), b = (2 3) and define the generator to be ¸a, b[a
2
= b
2
= 1, abab = ba¸. All other elements of S
3
can be written with these two elements:
(1) = a
2
= b
2
(1 3) = aba = bab
(1 2 3) = ab
(1 3 2) = ba
The fact that a
2
= b
2
= 1 means that every element of S
3
can be reduced to an alternating string of a, b. The
choice of the relation abab = ba (and its equivalents, ab = baba and aba = bab) means that any such alternating
string of length n ≥ 4 can be reduced to a string of length n −2. Thus S
3
can be represented as string of 3 or
fewer alternating elements a, b. There are only 6 such strings: 1, a, b, ab, ba, and aba = bab.
Exercise 1.4.1
Proof by enumeration. Consider all 16 possible 2 2 matrices with entries in ¦0, 1¦ and show that exactly 6 of
them have nonzero determinants.
11
Exercise 1.4.2
_
0 1
1 0
_
2
=
_
1 1
0 1
_
2
=
_
1 0
1 1
_
2
= I
_
1 0
0 1
_
1
_
0 1
1 1
_
3
=
_
1 1
1 0
_
3
= I
Exercise 1.4.3
_
1 0
1 1
_ _
1 1
0 1
_
=
_
1 1
1 0
_
,=
_
0 1
1 1
_
=
_
1 1
0 1
_ _
1 0
1 1
_
Exercise 1.4.4
Suppose n is not prime, and let a(1 < a < n) be a divisor of n. Then a has no multiplicative inverse. Proof
by contradiction: assume that ak = 1. Then we would have ak + mn = 1 (by definition of equivalence mod n)
which means that gcd(a, n) = 1 which contradicts our assumption that a(1 < a < n) is a divisor of n.
Exercise 1.4.5
If [F[ = q is finite, then there are at most q
n
2
possible n n matrices; GL
n
(F) is a subset of these matrices
and at least one such matrix has a zero determinant, so [GL
n
(F)[ ≤ q
n
2
and thus GL
n
(F) is finite. If [F[ is
infinite, then fI ∈ GL
n
(F) for each f ∈ F (where I is the identity matrix) and thus [GL
n
(F)[ ≥ [F[ which
means [GL
n
(F)[ is infinite.
Exercise 1.4.6
see previous exercise
Exercise 1.4.7
The determinant of a 2 2 matrix is given by the formula
det
__
a b
c d
__
= ad −bc
So we see that the deterimant is zero if ad = bc. Using basic combinatorics, it’s easy to show that:
• We can choose a, d such that ad = 0 in p + (p −1) distinct ways
• We can choose a, d such that ad = 1 in p −1 distinct ways
• We can choose a, d such that ad = 2 in p −1 distinct ways
• . . .
• We can choose a, d such that ad = p −1 in p −1 distinct ways
The same holds true for the number of ways we can choose b, c. Which means
• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 0 in (p + (p −1))
2
distinct ways
• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 1 in (p −1)
2
distinct ways
• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 2 in (p −1)
2
distinct ways
• . . .
• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = p −1 in (p −1)
2
distinct ways
12
Thus there are (2p − 1)
2
ways to have ad and bc equal to 0, and (p − 1)
2
ways to have them equal each of the
(p −1) other values. Thus the total number of ways we can construct a 2 2 matrix with ad = bc is
(2p −1)
2
+ (p −1)(p −1)
2
= p
3
+ p
2
−p
And since there are p
4
possible 2 2 matrices over F
p
, the total number of such matrices with nonzero deter-
minants is
p
4
−p
3
−p
2
+ p
Exercise 1.4.8
Let A be the matrix with a
1,2
= 1 as the only nonzero entry, and let B be the matrix with a
2,1
as the only
nonzero entry. Then AB has a
1,1
= 1 as the only nonzero entry while BA has a
2,2
as the only nonzero entry.
Exercise 1.4.9
We want to show that
__
a
1
b
1
c
1
d
1
_ _
a
2
b
2
c
2
d
2
___
a
3
b
3
c
3
d
3
_
=
_
a
1
b
1
c
1
d
1
_ __
a
2
b
2
c
2
d
2
_ _
a
3
b
3
c
3
d
3
__
This can be done tediously through algebra.
Exercise 1.4.10a
_
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
_ _
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
_
=
_
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+ b
1
c
2
0 c
1
c
2
_
Exercise 1.4.10b
We want to find values of a
2
, b
2
, and c
2
such that the product in part (a) is the identity matrix. It’s immediately
clear that we need to have a
2
= a
−1
1
and c
2
= c
−1
1
. With these substitutions, we have
a
1
b
2
+ b
1
c
2
= a
1
b
2
+ b
1
c
−1
1
which equals 1 exactly when b
2
= a
−1
1
(1 −b
1
c
−1
1
). So the inverse is
_
a
−1
1
a
−1
1
(1 −b
1
c
−1
1
)
0 c
−1
1
_
This is an element of G since a
−1
1
,= 0, c
−1
1
,= 0.
Exercise 1.4.10c
G is a group: we’ve shown closure under the operation in part (a), closure of inverses in part (b), associativity
in exercise 9, and it’s clear that the identity matrix is an element of G. We’re told that a ,= 0 and c ,= 0, so all
elements of G have a nonzero determinant ac −0b = ac.
Exercise 1.4.10d
Parts (a) through (c) are still valid after adding the further restriction that a
1
= c
1
. The proof changes very
little.
13
Exercise 1.4.11a
XY =
_
_
1 a b
0 1 c
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
1 d e
0 1 f
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 d + a e + af + b
0 1 f + c
0 0 1
_
_
To prove non-abelianism, we see calculate Y X:
Y X =
_
_
1 d e
0 1 f
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
1 a b
0 1 c
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 a + d b + dc + e
0 1 c + f
0 0 1
_
_
So we have XY ,= Y X whenever af ,= cd. An explicit example can be given by letting a = b = f = 0, c = d =
e = 1.
Exercise 1.4.11b
We want to find values of d, e, and f such that both of the products in part (a) are the identity matrix. This
immediately yields a system of equations:
d + a = 0
e + af + b = 0
b + dc + e = 0
c + f = 0
Whose solution is d = −a, f = −c, e = ac −b. So the inverse matrix is
X
−1
=
_
_
1 −a ac −b
0 1 −c
0 0 1
_
_
Exercise 1.4.11c
Associativity can be proven with tedious algebra. The previous parts of this exercise show that H(F) is a group.
The fact that each of the 3 entries can take [F[ possible values implies that o(H(F)) = [F[
3
.
Exercise 1.4.11d
Too tedious to typeset.
Exercise 1.4.11e
Let X be an arbitrary element of H(R). We prove by induction that for all n ∈ N, the matrix X
n
has the form
X
n
=
_
_
1 na nb +
n(n−1)
2
ac
0 1 nc
0 0 1
_
_
The case for k = 1 is trivial. For k = 2 we have
X
2
=
_
_
1 a b
0 1 c
0 0 1
_
_
2
=
_
_
1 2a 2b + ac
0 1 2c
0 0 1
_
_
Now assume that we have established the form of X
k
. For X
k+1
:
X
k+1
= XX
k
=
_
_
1 a b
0 1 c
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 ka kb +
k(k−1)
2
ac
0 1 kc
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 (k + 1)a (k + 1)b +
k(k+1)
2
ac
0 1 (k + 1)c
0 0 1
_
_
So that the proof by induction is complete. From this, we see that X
n
= I only if na = 0, nc = 0, and
nb + n(n + 1)ac = 0. This occurs only when a = b = c = 0: that is, when X is the identity matrix. Thus every
nonidentity element has infinite order.
14
Exercise 1.5.1
o(1) = 1, o(−1) = 2, o(±i) = o(±j) = o(±k) = 4.
Exercise 1.5.3
All the given relations of Q
8
can be derived from ¸1, i, j, k[i
2
= j
2
= k
2
= −1, ij = k¸:
ij = k → iij = ik → −j = ik, i = −kj
ij = k → −kij = 1 → −ij = −k → j = ki, −i = kj
Exercise 1.6.1
Trivial proof by induction on n. It’s trivial for n = 1, and true by definition of homomorphism for n = 2.
Assuming it holds for n = k, we have
ϕ(x
k+1
) = ϕ(x
k
x) = ϕ(x
k
)ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)
k
ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)
k+1
From this, we have
1 = ϕ(x
0
) = ϕ(x
−n
x
n
) = ϕ(x
−n
)ϕ(x
n
) = phi(x
−n
)ϕ(x)
n
so that, by the definition of inverses,
ϕ(x
−n
) = (ϕ(x)
n
)
−1
= ϕ(x)
−n
Exercise 1.6.2 lemma
From the previous exercise, we know that ϕ(x
0
) = ϕ(x)
0
so that ϕ(1
G
) = 1
H
. Now, choose an arbitrary x ∈ G
and suppose o(x) = n is finite.
→ x
n
= 1
G
assumed
→ ϕ(x
n
) = ϕ(1
G
) ϕ is well-defined
→ ϕ(x)
n
= 1
H
from previous exercise
→ o(ϕ(x))[n
→ o(ϕ(x))[o(x) definition of n
Note that this last step also implies that o(ϕ(x)) is finite. Now assume that o(ϕ(x)) = m is finite:
→ ϕ(x)
m
= 1
H
assumed
→ ϕ(x
m
) = ϕ(1
G
) ϕ is well-defined
→ x
m
= 1
G
ϕ is an isomorphism, thus 1-to-1
→ o(x)[m
→ o(x)[o(ϕ(x)) definition of m
This last step implies that o(x) is finite. Thus we have shown that o(x) is finite iff oϕ(x) is finite, and if either is
finite then o(x) = o(ϕ(x)). The result is not true if ϕ is only assumed to be a homormorphism (the step requir-
ing isomorphism is clearly labeled). As a counter example, consider the following homormorphism : f : Z → Z
defined as f(n) = 1. f(3)f(2) = 1 1 = 1 = f(6), but clearly o(3) = ∞ while o(f(3)) = 1.
Exercise 1.6.3
→ G is abelian assumed
↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ab = ba def. of abelianism
↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) isomorphisms are well-defined and bijective
↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) def. of homomorphisms
↔ ϕ(G) is abelian def. of abelianism
↔ H is abelian isomorphisms are surjective
Each step in this proof is bidirectional, so we’ve proven that when ϕ is isomorphic, then G is abelian iff H is
15
abelian. If ϕ is only a homomorphism, then we have the unidirectional proof:
→ G is abelian assumed
→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ab = ba def. of abelianism
→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) isomorphisms are well-defined
→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) def. of homomorphisms
→ ϕ(G) is abelian def. of abelianism
This shows that when ϕ is a homormorphism, then G is abelian implies ϕ(G) is abelian.
Note that nothing can be assumed from the abelianism of H or ϕ(G). Consider ϕ : G → 1
H
defined as ϕ(g) = 1
H
.
ϕ(G) = H is trivially abelian, but G can be any group whatsoever.
Exercise 1.6.4
C −¦0¦ has an element of order 4 (i), but no such element exists in R. This contradicts exercise 1.6.2.
Exercise 1.6.5
Proof 1: There can be no bijective function between the two sets, as proven by Cantor’s Theorem.
Proof 2: suppose ϕ : Q → R were an isomorphism. Let x ∈ R be the element such that ϕ(2) = x; let a ∈ Q be
the element such that ϕ(a) =

k. From this, we have
ϕ(a
2
) = ϕ(a)
2
= (

k)
2
= k = ϕ(2)
Which, since ϕ is a bijection, means that a
2
= 2 and thus a =

2. But this can’t be true of any a ∈ Q.
Exercise 1.6.6
Let Q has an element of order 3 (
1
3
), but there is no such element in Z. This contradicts exercise 1.6.2.
Exercise 1.6.7
D
8
has only one element of order 4 (o(r) = 4) while Q
8
has three such elements (i, j, k). This contradicts exercise
1.6.2.
Exercise 1.6.8
Assuming m, n > 0, S
m
contains m! elements while S
n
contains n!, so there can be no bijection between them
unless n = m.
Exercise 1.6.9
D
24
has an element of order 12 (r) while S
4
can have no such element (exercise 1.3.15)
Exercise 1.6.10a
→ a = b
→ θ
−1
(a) = θ
−1
(b) θ is bijective
→ σ ◦ θ
−1
(a) = σ ◦ θ
−1
(b) permutations are well-defined
→ θ ◦ σ ◦ θ
−1
(a) = θ ◦ σ ◦ θ
−1
(b) permutations are well-defined
Exercise 1.6.10b
The same logic used in part (a) can show that θ ◦ σ
−1
◦ θ
−1
is well-defined, and this clearly acts as an inverse
to ϕ.
16
Exercise 1.6.10c
ϕ(σ ◦ τ) = θ ◦ (σ ◦ τ) ◦ θ
−1
= θ ◦ (σ ◦ θ
−1
◦ θ ◦ τ) ◦ θ
−1
= ϕ(σ) ◦ ϕ(τ)
Exercise 1.6.11
The function f : AB → B A defined as f(a, b) = (b, a) is easily shown to be an isomorphism.
Exercise 1.6.12
The function f : (A B) C → A (B C) defined as f( ((a, b), c) ) = (a, (b, c)) is easily shown to be an
isomorphism.
Exercise 1.6.13
Verifying the group properties is tedious but easy. We just need to show that 1
H
∈ ϕ(G) and that ϕ(G) is
closed under its operation and inverses. If ϕ is injective then the homomorphism is bijective, since ϕ is clearly
surjective onto ϕ(G), and bijective homomorphisms are isomorphisms.
Exercise 1.6.14
Verifying the group properties of K is tedious but easy. It’s clear that ϕ can’t be injective if more than one
element maps to 1 ∈ H, so ϕ is injective only if K = ¦1
G
¦. Proof by contrapositive that ϕ is injective if
K = ¦1
G
¦: Assume that K = ¦1
G
¦.
→ ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)
→ ϕ(a)ϕ(b)
−1
= 1
H
ϕ(G) is a group by previous exercise
→ ϕ(a)ϕ(b
−1
) = 1
H
→ ϕ(ab
−1
) = 1
H
→ ab
−1
= 1
G
K = ¦1
G
¦
→ a = b
Exercise 1.6.15
(x, y) is in the kernel of π if π(x, y) = x = 1, so the kernel is
K = ¦(x, y) ∈ R
2
[x = 1¦ = ¦1¦ R
Exercise 1.6.16
Following the logic above, we see that the kernel of π
1
is
K = ¦(a, b) ∈ AB [ a = 1
A
¦ = ¦1
A
¦ B
and the kernel of π
2
is
K = ¦(a, b) ∈ AB [ b = 1
B
¦ = A¦1
B
¦
Exercise 1.6.17
Let ϕ : G → G be defined by ϕ(g) = g
−1
. This function is clearly onto, so ϕ(G) = G. So we are asked to prove
that ϕ is a homomorphism iff G is abelian. First assume that ϕ is a homomorphism:
→ ϕ(a
−1
b
−1
) = ϕ(a
−1
)ϕ(b
−1
) assumed
→ ϕ((ba)
−1
) = ϕ(a
−1
)ϕ(b
−1
) properties of inverses
→ ba = ab definition of ϕ
Thus ϕ(G) = G is abelian. Now assume that G is abelian:
17
→ b
−1
a
−1
= a
−1
b
−1
assumed
→ (ab)
−1
= a
−1
b
−1
property of inverses
→ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) definition of ϕ
Thus ϕ is a homomorphism.
Exercise 1.6.18
Let ϕ : G → G be defined by ϕ(g) = g
2
.
→ ba = ab
↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b
↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b left- and right-multiplication
↔ (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb) associativity
↔ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) definition of ϕ
Exercise 1.6.19
As definied here, G is the set of finite roots of unity in C. From complex analysis, we know that for each
k ∈ N there are k distinct elements of order k. Let k be fixed and define f
k
as f
k
(z) = z
k
. This is clearly a
homomorphism, and is surjective since
z ∈ G → z
1/k
∈ G → f
k
(z
1/k
) = z
But by exercise 14, f
k
cannot be injective: the k roots of unity of order k mean that the kernel of f
k
is of size k.
Exercise 1.6.20
The identity element is the identity mapping; isomorphisms are invertible and therefore have inverses in Aut(G).
Associativity and closure is inherited from the properties of function composition.
Exercise 1.6.21
Define f
k
: Q → Q to be f
k
(q) = kq. This function is clearly injective and a homomorphism. To prove
surjectivity:
q ∈ Q →
q
k
∈ Q → f
k
_
q
k
_
= q
Exercise 1.6.22
Define f
k
: A → A to be f
k
(a) = a
k
. Since A is abelian, we have
f
k
(ab) = (ab)
k
= a
k
b
k
= f
k
(a)f
k
(b)
If k = −1, then the function is injective (a = b → a
−1
= b
−1
→ f(a) = f(b)) and surjective (a ∈ A →
f(a
−1
) = a).
Exercise 1.6.23
Let σ be an automorphism such that σ
2
is the identity map and σ(g) = g iff g = 1. Choose arbitrary elements
a, b ∈ G. σ is bijective, so there are x, y ∈ G such that σ(x) = a, σ(y) = b. From this we have
→ σ(xy)
2
= xy = σ(x)
2
σ(y)
2
σ
2
is the identity map
→ σ(x)σ(y)σ(x)σ(y) = σ(x)σ(x)σ(y)σ(y) σ is a homomorphism
→ abab = aabb definition of a, b
→ ba = ab left- and right- cancellation of previous step
and since a, b were arbitrary this suffices to prove that G is abelian.
18
Exercise 1.6.24
We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. We’re told that x
2
=
r
2
= 1 and y
2
= s
2
= 1. From the exercise 1.2.6, the fact that x
2
= y
2
= 1 is sufficient to conclude that
xy = yx
−1
.
Exercise 1.6.25a
Let v = [v[ cos(φ) +[v[ sin(φ) be an arbitrary vector. The given matrix transforms v as follows:
_
cos(θ) −sin(θ)
sin(θ) cos(θ)
_ _
[v[ sin(φ)
[v[ cos(φ)
_
=
_
[v[[cos(φ) cos(θ) −sin(φ) sin(θ)]
[v[[sin(φ) cos(θ) + cos(φ) sin(θ)]
_
which, via the angle addition formulas from the trigonmetric identities, is equivalent to
_
[v[ cos(φ + θ)
[v[ sin(φ + θ)
_
which is, of course, the original vector with its endpoint rotated by an additional φ radians counterclockwise
about the origin. Our vector v was arbitrary, so every vector endpoint (and thus every point in R
2
) is also
rotated in the same way.
Exercise 1.6.25b
We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. ϕ represents a rotation
of 2π/n radians, so clearly o(ϕ(r)) = n. And ϕ(s)
2
= I, so o(ϕ(s)) = 2. We can show that the relationship
rs = sr
−1
has an associated relationship ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(s)ϕ(r)
−1
by some tedious algebraic verification. The
text (bottom of p38) assures us that this is sufficient to guarantee an isomorphism between G and D
2n
.
Exercise 1.6.26
Further define ϕ as follows:
ϕ(1) = I, ϕ(k) =
_
0 −

−1


−1 0
_
We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. There are a lot of
relations that need to be algebraically verified (e.g., ϕ(i)
2
= −ϕ(1), ϕ(i)ϕ(j) = k) but they are trivial (albeit
tedious). The identity is the only element of Q
8
that maps to I ∈ GL
2
(C), so by exercise 1.6.14, this is sufficient
to prove that ϕ is injective.
Exercise 1.7.1
Let F be a field and define a group action of G = F
×
on A = F by g a = ga. The element 1 ∈ F
×
satisfies
property (i) of group actions (1 a = a for all a ∈ F). To prove property (ii), we note that (F, ) is not a group
(0 has no inverse), but it is still a semigroup (it’s associative and closed under its operation). Property (ii) is
then justified as follows:
(g
1
g
2
) a
= g
1
g
2
a definition of the group action; F is closed under multiplication
= g
1
(g
2
a) multiplication in F is associative
= g
1
(g
2
a) definition of group action
= g
1
(g
2
a) definition of group action
19
Exercise 1.7.2
The element 0 ∈ Z satisfies property (i) of group actions (0 a = a for all a ∈ Z). To justify property (ii), let
g
1
, g
2
, a be arbitrary elements of Z:
(g
1
+ g
2
) a
= (g
1
+ g
2
) + a definition of the group action; Z is closed under addition
= g
1
+ (g
2
+ a) addition in Z is associative
= g
1
+ (g
2
a) definition of group action
= g
1
(g
2
a) definition of group action
Exercise 1.7.3
The element 0 ∈ R satisfies property (i) of group actions. To justify property (ii), let r
1
, r
2
be arbitrary elements
of R and let (x, y) be an arbitrary point in R R:
(r
1
r
2
) (x, y)
= (r
1
+ r
2
) (x, y) operation on R is addition
= (x + (r
1
+ r
2
)y, y) definition of group action
= (x + (r
1
+ r
2
)y, y) operation on R is addition
= ((x + r
1
y) + r
2
y, y associativity, distributive property of field R R
= r
2
(x + r
1
y, y) definition of group action
= r
2
(r
1
(x, y)) definition of group action
= g
1
+ (g
2
+ a) addition in Z is associative
= g
1
+ (g
2
a) definition of group action
= g
1
(g
2
a) definition of group action
Exercise 1.7.4a
Let K represent the kernel of the action (g ∈ G : g a = a for all a ∈ A). By the subgroup criterion (proven in
chapter 2), we need show that a left identity exists and that a, b ∈ K → ab
−1
∈ K. It’s clear that 1 ∈ K, so an
identity exists. Now assume that g
1
, g
2
∈ K:
→ 1, g
1
, g
2
∈ K assumed
→ (∀a ∈ A)g
1
a = a ∧ g
2
a = a ∧ 1 a = a definition of K
→ (∀a ∈ A)g
1
(g
2
a) = a algebraic substitution
→ (∀a ∈ A)(g
1
g
2
) a = a property (ii) of group actions
→ g
1
g
2
∈ K definition of K
Exercise 1.7.4b
Fix some a ∈ A and let S represent the stabilizer of a in G. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2), we
need show that a left identity exists and that a, b ∈ S → ab
−1
∈ S. It’s clear that 1 ∈ S, so an identity exists.
Now assume that g
1
, g
2
∈ S:
20
→ 1, g
1
, g
2
∈ S assumed
→ g
1
a = a ∧ g
2
a = a ∧ 1 a = a definition of S
→ g
1
(g
2
a) = a algebraic substitution
→ (g
1
g
2
) a = a property (ii) of group actions
→ g
1
g
2
∈ S definition of S
Exercise 1.7.5
Each step in the following proof is bidrectional (iff):
→ g ∈ K assumed
↔ (∀a ∈ A)ga = a definition of K
↔ (∀a ∈ A)σ
g
(a) = a definition of σ
g
↔ σ
g
is the identity permutation on G definition of the identity function
↔ σ
g
is the identity element of S
A
definition of the group S
A
↔ g is in the kernel of ϕ : G → S
A
definition of kernel, ϕ
Exercise 1.7.6
Proof by contradiction. Assume that G is not faithful: then there are distinct nonidentity elements g
1
, g
2
such
that g
1
a = g
2
a for all a ∈ A. From this, we obtain
(g
−1
1
g
2
) a = g
−1
1
(g
2
a) = g
−1
1
(g
1
a) = (g
−1
1
g
1
) a = 1 a = a
and thus g
−1
1
g
2
∈ K. And this element cannot be the identity since g
1
,= g
2
. Thus the kernel contains a
nonidentity element. By contrapositive, if K = ¦1¦ then G is faithful.
Exercise 1.7.7
The kernel of the given action is ¦1¦; by the previous exercise, this suffices to prove that the action is faithful.
Exercise 1.7.8a
Let G = S
A
and let B = T(A). The identity permutation σ
1
satisfies property (i) of group actions (σ
1
(b) = b for
all b ∈ B). To show that property (ii) is satisfied, let σ
g
, σ
h
be arbitrary elements of G and let b be an arbitrary
element of B:

g
◦ σ
h
) b
= (σ
g
◦ σ
h
)(b) definition of
= σ
g

h
(b)) definition of ◦
= σ
g

h
b) definition of
Exercise 1.7.8b
The element (1 2) acts on each subset by replacing 1 (if it exists) with 2 and vice-versa. For example, (1 2)¦1, 4¦ =
¦2, 4¦. The element (1 2 3) replaces each 1 with 2, each 2 with 3, and each 3 with 1. For example, (1 2 3)¦2, 3, 4¦ =
¦3, 1, 4¦.
Exercise 1.7.9
The proof in 1.7.8(a) and the description in 1.7.8(b) still apply when subsets are replaced with ordered k-tuples.
21
Exercise 1.7.10a
We prove that the action is faithful for k < [A[ or k ≥ [Z[.
case 1) Suppose [A[ is finite and k < [A[. We show that the action of S
n
on k-element subsets of A is faithful.
Let σ
x
, σ
y
∈ S
n
be any two distinct permutations of A. Since these permutations are distinct, there is
some a ∈ A such that σ
x
(a) ,= σ
y
(a). From the invertibility of permutations this gives us the inequality
σ
x
(a) ,= σ
y
(a) → σ
−1
y
σ
x
(a) ,= σ
−1
y

y
(a)) = a
Since 1 ≥ k < n, we can choose a k-element subset B ⊂ A such that a ∈ B but σ
−1
y

x
(a)) ,∈ B. We
can now demonstrate that the action is faithful, since σ
x
(B) contains σ
x
(a), but σ
y
(B) does not contain
σ
y

−1
y

x
(a))) = σ
x
(a). Thus σ
x
and σ
y
do not perform the same action on B. But these were arbitrary
elements of S
A
, thus no two elements of S
A
perform the same action. By definition, this means that S
A
is faithful on the set of k-element subsets of A.
case 2) Suppose [A[ is finite and k = [A[. There is only one distinct subset of size k: A itself. And every
permutation of A is still the same set (just rearranged). Thus S
n
is the trivial action on k-element subsets
of [A[.
case 3) Suppose [A[ is infinite. For all finite k, we can follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action
is faithful. If k is also infinite, then we can still choose an arbitrary a ∈ A and let B = A−¦a¦, and then
follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is still faithful.
Exercise 1.7.10b
Choose two arbitrary permutations σ
x
, σ
y
∈ S
n
. For these to be distinct, there must be some a ∈ A such that
σ
x
(a) ,= σ
y
(a). Having chosen such an a, let B be the k-tuple consisting of the element a repeated k times. It’s
clear that σ
x
(B) ,= σ
y
(B), so the action of S
A
is faithful. But the value of k was never specified, so this proof
holds for all values of k (finite and infinite).
Exercise 1.7.12
Note that a regular n-gon is a two-dimensional shape; the three-dimensional version is a regular n-hedron. Let n
be even, and label the vertices of the n-gon clockwise as 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1. Let the n/2 pairs of opposite vertices
be represented by the set of ordered pairs ¦a
i
¦ defined as
¦a
i
¦ =
__
i,
n
2
+ i
_
: 0 ≤ i <
n
2
_
We define the action of D
2n
on the elements of ¦a
i
¦ so that the elements of D
2n
permute the set as follows:
r
k
a
i
= a
(i−k) mod n
s
k
a
i
= a
(i−kn/2) mod n
To prove this is an action, we note that r
0
a
i
= a
i
for all a
i
, so property (i) of group actions is satisfied. To
verify property (ii), let r
a
s
b
and r
x
s
y
be two arbitrary elements of D
2n
:
(r
a
s
b
r
x
s
y
) a
i
= a
j
, with j = ((((i −ny/2) −x) −nb/2) −a) mod n definition of , associativity of modular arith-
metic
= r
a
s
b
a
k
, with k = ((i −ny/2) −x) mod n definition of , associativity of modular arith-
metic
= r
a
s
b
(r
x
s
y
a
i
) definition of
The kernel of this action is ¦r
0
¦ = ¦1¦.
22
Exercise 1.7.13
We prove that the identity element of G is the only element in the kernel K. Property (i) of group actions
guarantees that 1
G
∈ K. But let g ∈ G be an arbitrary non-identity element of G and choose 1
G
∈ A = G.
Then g1
G
,= 1
G
and so g ,∈ K.
Exercise 1.7.14
We prove by contradiction that property (ii) of group actions is not satisfied. Assume A = G is non-abelian and
define the action g a = ag. Let g
1
, g
2
be arbitrary elements of G. Hypothesis to be contradicted: suppose that
property (ii) of group actions were satisfied.
(g
1
g
2
) a
= a(g
1
g
2
) definition of this group action
= (ag
1
)g
2
) associativity of operation on G
= g
2
(ag
1
)) definition of this group action
= g
2
(g
1
a)) definition of this group action
= (g
2
g
1
) a)) property (ii) of group actions
This demonstrates that g
1
commutes with g
2
. But these were arbitrary elements of G so all elements of G
commute, which means that G is abelian. This contradicts our initial assumption that property (ii) of group
actions is satisfied.
Exercise 1.7.15
Let A = G and define the action g a = ag
−1
. The identity element 1
G
satisfies the condition 1 a = a for all
a ∈ A. To verify property (ii):
(g
1
g
2
) a
= a(g
1
g
2
)
−1
definition of this group action
= a(g
−1
2
g
−1
1
) property of inverses
= (ag
−1
2
)g
−1
1
associativity of operation on G
= g
1
(ag
−1
2
) definition of this group action
= g
1
(g
2
a)) definition of this group action
Exercise 1.7.16
Let A = G and define the action g a = gag
−1
. The identity element 1
G
satisfies the condition 1 a = a for all
a ∈ A. To verify property (ii):
(g
1
g
2
) a
= (g
1
g
2
)a(g
1
g
2
)
−1
definition of this group action
= (g
1
g
2
)a(g
−1
2
g
−1
1
) property of inverses
= g
1
(g
2
(ag
−1
2
)g
−1
1
associativity of operation on G
= g
1
(g
2
ag
−1
2
) definition of this group action
= g
1
(g
2
a)) definition of this group action
Exercise 1.7.17
Let G be a group and fix a value for g ∈ G. Define a mapping f : G → G as f(x) → gxg
−1
. We want to prove
that the given function is an isomorphism. We do so by showing that it’s a bijective homomorphism.
23
f is a homomorphism
f(xy) = g(xy)g
−1
= g(xg
−1
gy)g
−1
= (gxg
−1
)(gyg
−1
) = f(x)f(y)
f is surjective
Choose h ∈ G. Then g
−1
hg ∈ G and f(g
−1
hg) = h. Thus f is surjective
f is injective:
f(x) = 1 iff gxg
−1
= 1 iff x = g
−1
g = 1. The kernel of f consists only of the identity element; by exercise 1.6.14,
this is sufficient to prove that f is injective.
Exercise 1.7.18
reflexive:
1 ∈ H and a = 1a so a ∼ a.
transitive:
If a ∼ b then a = hb, which implies b = h
−1
a, which implies b ∼ a.
symmetric:
If a ∼ b and b ∼ c, then a = bh
1
and b = ch
2
, which implies a = ch
2
h
1
, which implies a ∼ c.
Exercise 1.7.19
Let H be a subgroup of finite group G, and let H act on G by left multiplication. Fix an element x ∈ G and
let O
x
be the orbit of x under the action of H. Define the map f : H → O
x
as h → hx. We prove that f is a
bijection.
f is surjective:
O
x
is defined as the set ¦hx : h ∈ G¦ which is exactly the image of f(H).
f is injective:
h(a) = h(b) iff ha = hb iff a = b (by left-cancellation).
We’ve shown that [H[ = [O
x
[. But H was an arbitrary subgroup and x was an arbitrary element of G: thus
[O
x
[ = [O
y
[ for all x, y ∈ G. Applying the preceeding exercise, we conclude that G can be partitioned into
disjoint sets of size [O
x
[ = [H[; this can only occur if [G[ is an integer multiple of [H[.
Exercise 1.7.20
Label the 4 vertices of the tetrahedron as 1, 2, 3, 4. Let G be the group of rigid motions of the tetrahedron.
Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 vertices, so define the function ϕ : G → S
4
so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism:
ϕ(g
1
g
2
) = ϕ(g
1
)ϕ(g
2
), since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g
1
followed by the rigid motion
g
2
. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G, so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.6.14.
Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G), which is a subgroup by exercise 1.6.13.
24
Exercise 1.7.21
Choose one face of the cube to call the ’front’ and label its vertices a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
. On the opposite face, label
the diagonally opposite points to be b
1
, b
2
, b
3
, b
4
. This labels all eight vertices of the cube. No matter how we
rotate this cube, we know several things:
• exactly four of these vertices will be on the front of the cube
• for each i exactly one of a
i
, b
i
will be on the front of the cube (because they are diagonally opposite)
• no rigid motion consists only of swapping one or more points with the points diagonally opposite (i.e.,
swap one or more a
i
with its corresponding b
i
)
This last point is particuarly important: it means that if there were a set of rigid motions that would give us
front vertices of (arbitrary example) (a
1
, b
2
, b
3
, a
4
), then none of the 15 other ordered 4-tuples we could form
from replacing a
i
with b
i
(or vice-versa) would represent a rigid motion. This means that each rigid motion of
the cube can be uniquely expressed as a permutation of (1, 2, 3, 4). We now follow the logic of the preceeding
exercise to prove an isomorphism.
Let G be the group of rigid motions of the cube. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the
4 pairs of opposite vertices, so define the function ϕ : G → S
4
so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to
the rigid motion g. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g
1
g
2
) = ϕ(g
1
)ϕ(g
2
), since each side of the equation
represents the rigid motion g
1
followed by the rigid motion g
2
. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the
identity element of G, so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.6.14. Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G), which is a subgroup
by exercise 1.6.13.
Exercise 1.7.22
We can apply the preceeding exercise with opposite faces taking the place of opposite vertices. This is intuitively
true: we could place a cube inside an octohedron by placing one vertex of the cube in the center of each face
of the octohedron, and the rigid motions of the octohedron would correspond perfectly with the rigid motions
of the cube. So the rigid motions of an octahedron are isomorphic to S
4
itself (the errata for this textbook
eliminates the ’subgroup’ qualification, although S
4
is technically a subgroup of S
4
).
Exercise 1.7.23
Label the front, top, and one side face of the cube as (respectively) A, B, C. Label the respective opposite faces
D, E, F. The set of rigid motions of the cube can be made up from various combinations of the three basic
rotations:
r
1
= (A B D E), r
2
= (A C D F), r
3
= (C B F E)
When these rotations act on the set of opposite vertices, the action faithful. But when they act on the set of
opposite faces, they are equivalent to
r
1
= (¦A, D¦ ¦B, E¦), r
2
= (¦A, D¦ ¦C, F¦), r
3
= (¦C, F¦ ¦B, E¦)
so that r
2
1
, r
2
2
, and r
2
3
are all equal to the identity motion. The kernel of the action becomes
K = ¦i, r
2
1
, r
2
2
, r
2
3
¦
(Any product of elements of K can be simplified to one of these elements). Note that 4[24, in concordance with
exercise 19.
25

element a ∈ G has an inverse (1 − a ∈ G and a (1 − a) = 1 − [1] = 0 = (1 − a) a), and associativity can be shown with a little tedious algebra. That G is abelian follows from the commutativity of addition: x y = (x + y) − [x + y] = (y + x) − [y + x] = y x

Exercise 1.1.8a
G has an identity element (1 ∈ G and z1 = z = 1z) and an inverse (z n = 1 implies (z −1 )n = 1 so z −1 ∈ G) and complex multiplication is associative. To show closure: → x, y ∈ G → (∃m, n ∈ Z )x → (∃mn ∈ Z )x
+ + m

assumed =1∧y =1 =1 =1∧y
n mn n

def. of membership in G =1
m

mn

=1

→ (∃mn ∈ Z+ )xmn y mn = 1 → (∃mn ∈ Z+ )(xy)mn = 1 → xy ∈ G def. of membership in G

Exercise 1.1.8b
The group is not closed under addition. 1 and −1 are both elements of G, but 1 + (−1) = 0 is not.

Exercise 1.1.9a
The identity is (0, 0), the inverse of (a, b) is (−a, −b), associativity and closure are trivial.

Exercise 1.1.9b
The identity is (1, 0), associativity and closure are trivial. The inverse of (a, b) can be found by solving (a + √ b 2)x = 1 and is given by: a b (a, b)−1 = , a2 − 2b2 a2 − 2b2

Exercise 1.1.10
The definition of a symmetric matrix is that for all i, j we have aij = aji . In the group table, this is the case iff for all i, j we have ai aj = aj ai which is the definition of abelian.

Exercise 1.1.11
General formula is: |a| = lcm(a, 12)/a. |0| = 1 |1| = 12 |2| = 6 |3| = 4 |4| = 3 |5| = 12 |6| = 2 |7| = 12 |8| = 3 |9| = 4 |10| = 6 |11| = 12

2

.1. then this smallest integer must be less than or equal to 2. ak ak+1 ). . Exercise 1.1. ak )(a−1 .1. ak )ak+1 a−1 (a−1 . By induction. |1| = 38 |2| = 18 |6| = 6 |9| = 4 |10| = 18 |12| = 3 | − 1| = 36 | − 10| = 18 | − 18| = 2 Exercise 1. . a−1 ) 1 k .15 to find y such that 36x + ay = 1 and this y would be the order of a. . . we have: (a1 a2 . ak )1(a−1 . . The order of x is the smallest integer n such that xn = 1. it’s clear that a1 = a−1 . . Thus equality holds for the n = k + 1 case. . Supposing the equality holds for the n = k 1 case. if x2 = 1. . and thus x · xn−1 = 1.Exercise 1.12 |1| = 1 | − 1| = 2 |7| = 2 | − 7| = 2 |13| = 2 Exercise 1.1. .3.16 This follows directly from the definition of |x|.15 Proof by induction. . a−1 ) 1 k+1 k = = (a1 a2 . equality holds for all n ∈ Z+ . .1. The proof for left inverse is similar. ak ak+1 )(a−1 a−1 . Exercise 1. . a−1 ) 1 k (a1 a2 . Exercise 1.13 General formula is: |a| = lcm(a. .1. a−1 ) 1 associativity definition of inverses definition of identity equality holds for n = k =e (a−1 a−1 k+1 k and thus is shown to be the right inverse of (a1 a2 . . then xn = 1. . Thus it can be only 1 or 2. For each a we need to use the methods of exercises 0. 36)/a. . For the n = 1 case. a−1 ) 1 k+1 k = (a1 a2 .17 If |x| = n. which makes xn−1 the inverse of x.14 This would be tedious to type out. . . . 3 .

21 → x2k+1 = 1 → x2k+1 x = 1x = x → x2k+2 = x → (x ) 2 k+1 assumed. not order) then clearly xa+b = x0 = xa x−a = xa xb ow assume.19(a) 1. we have xn = 1 ↔ (xn )−1 = 1−1 = 1 ↔ x−n = 1 ↔ (x−1 )n = 1 Thus the least n such that xn = 1 must also be the least n such that (x−1 )n = 1.20 From 1. Parts (a) and (b) can be shown to hold for a. Exercise 1.Exercise 1.19(b). The only thing left to show is that part (a) holds when a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a: Assume that a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a. that |a| < |b| Then b has the same sign as −a and b has the same sign as a + b. If |a| = |b| (absolute value.1.19(a) =x 4 . without loss of generality.19c Parts (a) and (b) trivially hold when a = 0 or b = 0.19a Part (b) is a special case of exercise 1.1.19a Part (a) is a direct consequence of associativity.1.1.1. since −a and b + a have same sign left cancellation Exercise 1. b ≤ 0 by taking the inverses of each side of each equation. Exercise 1.1.1.15.15 xy = 1x = x y xy = 1 ) = xy → x−1 y −1 xy = x−1 x →x −1 −1 → (x −1 −1 −1 y → xy = yx Exercise 1.1.18 → xy = yx →y →y −1 −1 assumed −1 xy = y yx left multiplication definition of inverse left multiplication definition of inverse definition of inverse consequence of exercise 1. since n = 2k + 1 right multiplication 1. Therefore −a has the same sign as a + b and we can deduce: xa xb = xa x−a+b+a = xa x−a xb+a = (xb+a from b = b + a − a from part (a). Exercise 1.1.1.1.

1. if xn ∈ H then x−n ∈ H so H is closed under inverses. just take the inverse of each side of the equation to yield (ab)−n = b−n a−n . Exercise 1. Right-multiplying by b−1 a−1 yields ab = ba. Assume the equality holds for n = k: (ab)k+1 = a(ba)k b (= a(ab)k b (= aa b b k+1 k+1 k k tricky associativity a.1. Exercise 1. b) · (c. we see that (ab)(ab) = b(aa)b = 1. let x = ab and g = b−1 in the preceeding proof and conclude that the least n such that (ab)n = 1 must also be the least n such that (babb−1 )n = (ba)n = 1.1.1.24 Proof by induction. and (xi xj )xk = xi+j+k = xi (xj xk ) so it is associative. b commute equality holds for n = k (= a b Thus equality holds for all n ∈ N. Exercise 1. Exercise 1.26 We’re told that H is nonempty so it contains some element h. it’s closed under inverses and the binary operation. of × def.27 Let H = xn : n ∈ Z. b) ↔ (ac. It inherits associativity from G.Exercise 1. Exercise 1. so |xs | ≤ t. Exercise 1. it’s trivially closed under the binary operation.23 (xs )t = xst = xn = 1. That’s sufficient for H to be a group. bd) = (ca.1. The identity x0 = 1 exists in n.28 All parts of this exercise can be proven through simple but tedious algebra. Exercise 1. The n = 0 and n = 1 cases are trivial. To prove that this holds for negative n.25 Given that x2 = 1.1.19(a) n ↔ xg(g −1 xg)n−1 g −1 = 1 ↔ g −1 xg(g −1 xg)n−1 g −1 g = g −1 1g = 1 ↔ g −1 xg(g −1 xg)n−1 = 1 ↔ (g −1 xg) = 1 n This shows that the least n such that x = 1 must also be the least n such that (g −1 xg)n = 1.1.1. To prove that |ab| = |ba|. then apply commutativity to conclude (ba)−n = b−n a−n . it contains the identity element hh−1 = 1. db) ↔ ac = ca and bd = db def.1. then we would have 0 ≤ sk < st = n with xsk = 1 contradicting the assumption that |x| = n. d) · (a. But if there were some k such that 0 ≤ k < t such that (xs )k = 1.22 → xn = 1 ↔ (xgg −1 n assumed ) =1 gg −1 = 1 tricky associativity left and right multiplication right cancellation 1. d) = (c.29 → (a. of equality in A × B 5 .

(bq )x/q ) = (1x/p . But 2i < n by the previous exercise.symmetric. b)| divides x = [p.1.1. Let k be an arbitrary power of x. g ∈ G|g = g −1 ) must also have an even number of elements. 1) = (a. then we would have x|m−n| = 1 which would contradict the assumption that x was of infinite order. and easily shown to be transitive. so n|2i implies 2i = 0 or 2i = n. b) divides [p. we can find unique values of a.31 To prove that t(G) has an even number of elements.1. Exercise 1. b)n Right-multiplying gives us: (1.33b It’s trivial to show that i = k implies xi xi = x2k 1 and therefore xi = x−1 . 1b) = (a. b−n ) = (an . We’ve now shown that n = |(a. q = |b|.1.1.24: (1. b)x = (ax . q] divides n. and x = [p. Thus the set G − t(G) (that is.30 To prove commutativity: (a. Exercise 1. b)|. 1)(1.35 Let x ∈ G have order n.32 Suppose xi = xj for 0 ≤ i < j ≤ n − 1. Now let n = |(a. b1) = (1. Exercise 1.Exercise 1. Each element in G − t(G) has g 2 = 1. To prove in the other direction: → xi = x−i assumed ↔ xi xi = x−i xi ↔ x2i = 1 This shows that xi = x−i iff n (the order of x) divides 2i. which would contradict the claim that |x| = n. From exercise 1. Thus p and q both divide n.1. Exercise 1.33a Part (a) is the contrapositive of exercise 1. Exercise 1. Then: (a. It contains the identity. b)]n = (a. 1) Now let p = |a|. q]. Thus t(G) has an even number of elements.34 Were it the case that xm = xn for some m = n. 1) = 1 Thus the order of (a. so this nonidentity element must have order 2. 1x/q ) = (1. There are two elements per equivalence class on t(G): one element and its inverse. and therefore must have order 1 or 2 by exercise 1. Then 1 = xj x−i = xj−i .1. b)(a. 1)n which means (1. so it must contain at least one nonidentity element. establish an equivalence relation a b : (ab = 1ora = b) on t(G). so we must have 2i = n = 2k and so i = k. 1)n (1.31. b with 0 ≤ b < n such that k = an + b. b)−n = (a. Exercise 1. b) = (1a.1. By the division algorithm. b)n = [(a. which means that [p. Only the identity has order 1. 1) thus an = b−n = 1.1. This is clearly reflexive. b) = (a1. q] and that x divides n: therefore x = n. q] = x. 1)(1. bx ) = ((ap )x/p .1. And we’re asked to assume that i > 0.16. Thus we have xk = xan+b = xa nxb = xb 6 .

since o(z) = 2 it commutes with all other elements of order 2 (cf 1. . . r1 .Exercise 1. . Exercise 1. sr are generators is suffices to show that ssr = r. rn−1 s. so o(z) = 2 (k > 1. rn−1 . . that is. b2 = a.25 and we are done. all elements of D2n that are not a power of r (previous exercise). . then ab = ba when: → ab = ba ↔ r sr = sr r −i j i j j i j i assumed definition of a. b3 = ab. If neither b nor c are their own inverses. Thus: (rk s)2 = (rk s)(rk s) = sr−k rk s = ss = 1 This proves only that the order of (rk s) divides 2. . so all powers of r can be generated. So any element that is not equivalent to rk for some k is equivalent to srk for some k. assume that this element is a.2. The element a obviously commutes for all b of the form b = rj . so z is not the identity element).3 As above. We can now use a proof by induction: the case for x = r0 s and x = r1 s is trivial. 7 .1.1.4 z 2 = r2k = rn = 1. . we must show that it is 2. Let a be an element such that ab = ba for all b ∈ D2n .2 We know that D2n has order 2n with distinct elements r0 . Now assume that the equality holds for x = rk s: r(rk+1 )s = rr(rk )s = r(rk )sr−1 = rk+1 sr−1 and thus equality holds for x = rk+1 s. Exercise 1. then we would have rk s = 1 which would imply s = r−k which would imply that all 2n elements could be written uniquely as a power of r.1. But we’ve assumed that i ∈ 0. Either a = ri or a = sri for some i ∈ 0 . From 1.1. WLOG. r0 s. And this gives us a contradiction.2. . . Thus a = ri commutes with all b iff a = r0 (the identity) or a = rk . then the group is abelian by 1.2. Exercise 1. for this choice of a = ri . r2 k trivially commutes with elements of D2n that are powers of r.1. .36 We know that at least one element must be its own inverse from exercise 1.31. To show that s. 2k − 1. . To show that this is the only element other than the identity that commutes with all elemenets of D2n . ab = ba for all b iff i is a multiple of k.31 we know that b is its own inverse iff c is its own inverse: if both are their own inverses.33). Thus the order of (rk s) cannot be 1. but rn = 1 so there could be at most n such elements. since it would imply that o(b2 ) = o(c) = o(b). case i) Suppose a = ri and let b be an arbitrary element of D2n . then they must have order 3 (b3 = c3 = 1). r1 s. We cannot have b2 = b (for we would have o(b) = 1) or b2 = 1 (for we would have o(b) = 2) or b2 = a (for we would have b = b. we use a very unsatisfying proof by exhaustion of cases. b4 = a2 = 1 so that o(b) = 4) so we must have b2 = c. every element of D2n which is not a power of r has the form rk s = sr−k . 2k − 1 so either i = 0 or i = k. Proof by contradiction: If the order were 1. If b = srj . b from relation rs = sr−1 left cancellation right multiplication by r−(j+i) o(r) = n n = 2k ↔ sr r = sr r ↔ r−i+j = rj+i ↔r −i+j −j−i r =1 ↔ r−2i = 1 ↔ n|2i ↔ k|i This shows that. .

Each side (pair of vertices) can be flipped. For multiplication.2. the only element that commutes with element of D2n for n > 2 is ri where n|2i.14 For addition. n) = 1. so r2 = 1 implies n = 2. . . and b2 = (sr)2 = ssr−1 r = 1.13 A tetrahedron has four three-sided faces. by definition. Exercise 1. . The relations follow from each other: a2 = s2 = 1. (ab)n = rn = 1. Exercise 1. For multiplication.7 Let a = s and b = sr so that ab = r. so the total number of positions for a side is : The number of rigid motions for a given solid is given by: 2 ∗ (number of sides) = (number of faces) ∗ (number of sides per face) number of faces connected to each side Each solid has two faces connected to each side.6 Since o(x) = o(y) = 2. Exercise 1.8 n is. an icosahedron has twenty three-sided faces. contradicting the requirement that n ≥ 4. Then this a does not commute with all b: let b = r. Exercise 1.2.case ii) Suppose a = sri . . a dodecahedron has twelve five-sided faces.2. 1.2.9 through 1. 8 .2.2. a cube has six four-sided faces. Exercise 1. we have x = x−1 . If n is odd then the requirements that i ∈ 0. y = y −1 . Thus we have tx = xyx tx = xy −1 −1 right-multiply t = xy by x x y = y −1 .2. Thus we have shown that the only nonidentity element that commutes with all elements of D2n (n = 2k. b from relation rs = sr−1 left cancellation right multiplication by r−(−j+i) = sr ↔ ri+1 = ri−1 ↔ ri+1 r1−i = 1 ↔ r2 = 1 But n is defined by the order of r.5 As shown in the previous exercise.15 For addition. p : (p. an octahedron has eight three-sided faces. Then we have → ab = ba ↔ sr r = rsr ↔ sr i+1 i i −1+i assumed definition of a. x = x−1 tx = x(xy)−1 tx = xt−1 Exercise 1. n and i = kn together imply i = 0 and thus the only commuting element is r0 = 1. Exercise 1. p < n : p is prime.2. so this reduces to (number of faces) * (number of sides per face). p : p is prime (by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic). n ≥ 4) is rk . the smallest r such that rn = 1 so o(r) = n.

The relations follow: x2 = r2 = 1. a) If v 3 = vv 2 = 1. Exercise 1.11. e) 1 = (uv)4 = u4 v 3 v = v. Thus.3. c) From part (b).Exercise 1. Using part (a) this becomes u−1 v −1 = v −1 u−1 . Similarly. d) We’re told uv = v 2 u2 . 9 .9 See exercise 1. by commutativity of u. if n = 3k then x3 = 1 but x0 .2. In either case.2. so in either case we have x = 1 and X2n is generated uniquely by s. So let x = r.3 is u. then v 2 = v −1 . x1 .3. The text demonstrated that xy = yx2 implies x3 = 1.2. n) = 1 then either n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k + 2 = 3(k + 1) − 1 for some k. Taking inverses of each side yields vu = uv. and xy = y −1 x : xy = (xy)−1 =y −1 −1 from o(xy) = 2 from o(y) = 2 x = yx−1 Exercise 1. uv = v 2 u2 . we have 1 = xn = x3k±1 = x3k x±1 = x±1 But x−1 = 1 iff x = 1. y 2 = s2 = 1.17b We know that x3 = 1 so x3k = 1. y = s. right-multiplying by v −1 gives us u3 v −1 = v −1 u3 . The function is clearly injective (albeit not surjective) so |Sω | ≥ |N|. Letting x = r.8 Define the function f : N → Sω to be f (n) = (1n). which has order 2. by left. xy = yx2 . xn =1. y = s gives us x3 = r3 = 1.2 is x. v this becomes uv = (uv)2 . and uv = 1 implies u = v −1 = 1.18 The presentation in 1. x2 are distinct elements. Exercise 1.2. and rs = sr−1 : rs = xy = yx 2 from o(xy) = 2 xx2 = 1 → x2 = x−1 = yx−1 = sr−1 Exercise 1.3. u2 = u−2 and u3 = u−1 .y 2 = s2 = 1. By definition.16 Letting n = 2. we have r2 = s2 = 1. y|xn = y 2 = 1. Exercise 1. b) u3 = u(v 3 )u2 = (uv)(v u ) = (v u )(uv) = v 2 u3 v =v −1 3 2 2 2 2 from v 3 = 1 associative property from uv = v 2 u2 associative property from part (a) u v Left-multiplying both sides by v gives us vu3 = u3 v. we have u3 v −1 = v −1 u3 . v|u4 = v 3 = 1.or right-cancellation this becomes uv = 1. If (3.17a The presentation in 1.

. . . . . . Exercise 1. since m is the least integer such that σ m = I. . (1)2 = (1) so that o(σ) = 2. Exercise 1. . Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting p-cycles. we have o(σ) = m.Exercise 1. .3. . This establishes a contradiction so there can be no k such that σ k = τ .3. It must be the case that m|ik or. Having proven that ik must be a multiple of m. m and a < σ(a)} We can define σ as the product of every element of this set: σ = (a1 σ(a1 ))(a2 σ(a2 )) . . b) and the element (1 2 . (ak σ(ak )) Each a ∈ 1. . we see that the least such multiple of ik is ik = lcm(m. 10 . b) → lcm(a. . (ak bk )]p = (a1 b1 )p . we have σ p = [(a1 b1 ) . Then σ 2k = (3 5 4). Thus σ 2k (1) = 1 (implying that m|2k from exercise 10) but σ 2k (3) = 5 (implying m 2k by exercise 10). . (1)p = (1) And we can write σ as the product of elements of the disjoint collection of p-cycles: {(a σ 1 (a) σ 2 (a) . it must be the identity function. i) = 1: ab = lcm(a. [(ak bk )p = (1)p . Exercise 1. . we have σ 2 = [(a1 b1 ) . b) · gcd(a. b) Exercise 1. a + b) has order p despite not being a product of disjoint p-cycles. σ(a). b) = ab gcd(a. . im) = lcm(m. b > 1 such that p = ab = lcm(a. and appears iff a = σ(a). . .14 Follow the preceeding proof. . . If we assume that o(σ) = 2 then σ maps a → σ(a) and maps σ(a) → σ(σ(a)) = a (with the possiblity that σ(a) = a). If we want the o(σ i ) = m. A more explicit example: In S6 we have (1 2 3)(4 5) which has order 6. . we must have im = lcm(m.3. . σ p−1 (a)) : a ∈ 1. we could find ik such that ik = xm + b with 0 < b < m which would give us (σ i )k = σ ik = σ xm+b = (σ m )x σ b = σ b which would contradict the previous exercise’s conclusion that o(σ) = m. (ak bk )]2 = (a1 b1 )2 . Exercise 1. .12b no.13 Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting 2-cycles. ik). . .12a yes: let σ = (1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10) and k = 5. . . . . i) which occurs only when gcd(m. a)(a + 1 a + 2 .3. σ m−1 (a))} If p is not prime then we can find a. m and a = min(a. . . . [(ak bk )2 = (1)2 . Let k be the smallest k such that σ k = (1 2)(3 4 5). .3.3. . m appears in at most one of these disjoint 2-cycles. by the division algorithm. Consider the set of 2-cycles: {(a σ(a)) : a ∈ 1. . Since σ m maps ak → ak . .11 Let k be the order of σ i .10 Trivial proof by induction on i.

. ba. All other elements of S3 can be written with these two elements: (1) = a2 = b2 (1 3) = aba = bab (1 2 3) = ab (1 3 2) = ba The fact that a2 = b2 = 1 means that every element of S3 can be reduced to an alternating string of a. Exercise 1.18 For each Sn we can choose i. 2. lcm(2. From exercise 1.3. .15 Choose σ ∈ Sn and let k be the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its cycle decomposition. Exercise 1. b. ab.19 With the explanation from the previous exercise we see that S7 has elements of order 1.20 Let a = (1 2).3. . Consider all 16 possible 2 × 2 matrices with entries in {0.Exercise 1. 1} and show that exactly 6 of them have nonzero determinants. . abab = ba . b|a2 = b2 = 1.3. .3.3. b = (2 3) and define the generator to be a.1. and 3 unique ways to construct the two 4 2-cycles with them. and lcm(3. this element has order of lcm(i.16 n From n elements. Exercise 1.17 There are n ways of selecting the elements of two disjoint 2-cycles. 3. Thus the number of distinct products of two disjoitn 2-cycles is: n 4 n! 1 n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − 3) 1 = = 3 (n − 4)!4! 3 8 Exercise 1. i)(n n − 1 .3. The order 6 element is given by (1 2 3)(4 5) Exercise 1. Thus S3 can be represented as string of 3 or fewer alternating elements a. thus the order of σ must be the least such k.1 Proof by enumeration. 6.24 we know that σ k = (1) means that (a1 . 11 .3. 4. so k must be a common multiple of the order (length) of each cycle in the decomposition of σ. 5) = 10. ai )k = (1) for each cycle in the decomposition of σ. b. Thus the number of distinct m-cycles in Sn is given by n!m! n(n − 1)(n − 2) .2. b.4. . 5.4. . there are m ways of selecting m elements and m! ways of writing an m−cycle with them. a. . n − (k − 1)) By exercise 15. Each distinct m-cycle can be written in m different ways.5 (trivially) and 6. (n − m + 1) n m! = = m!(n − m)!m m m m Exercise 1. 4) = 12. Thus for S5 we can construct elements of orders 1. k). and aba = bab. k > 0 such that i + k ≤ n and construct following disjoint product Sn : (1 2 . There are only 6 such strings: 1. which is the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles of σ. 7 (trivially). ab = baba and aba = bab) means that any such alternating string of length n ≥ 4 can be reduced to a string of length n − 2. The choice of the relation abab = ba (and its equivalents.

4 Suppose n is not prime. d such that ad = bc = 0 in (p + (p − 1))2 distinct ways • We can choose a. Exercise 1.2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 = 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 = = 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 2 =I =I Exercise 1.6 see previous exercise Exercise 1. c. b.4. n) = 1 which contradicts our assumption that a(1 < a < n) is a divisor of n.3 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 1 1 1 0 = 0 1 1 1 = 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 Exercise 1. d such that ad = bc = 1 in (p − 1)2 distinct ways • We can choose a. • We can choose a.5 If |F | = q is finite.7 The determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix is given by the formula det a c b d = ad − bc So we see that the deterimant is zero if ad = bc.4. c. it’s easy to show that: • We can choose a. b.4.4. d such that ad = 2 in p − 1 distinct ways • . Then we would have ak + mn = 1 (by definition of equivalence mod n) which means that gcd(a. c. Which means • We can choose a. then f I ∈ GLn (F ) for each f ∈ F (where I is the identity matrix) and thus |GLn (F )| ≥ |F | which means |GLn (F )| is infinite. GLn (F ) is a subset of these matrices 2 and at least one such matrix has a zero determinant. d such that ad = 0 in p + (p − 1) distinct ways • We can choose a. so |GLn (F )| ≤ q n and thus GLn (F ) is finite. d such that ad = bc = 2 in (p − 1)2 distinct ways • . b. 2 Exercise 1. Using basic combinatorics.4. Then a has no multiplicative inverse.4.Exercise 1. Proof by contradiction: assume that ak = 1.. c. then there are at most q n possible n × n matrices.. If |F | is infinite. and let a(1 < a < n) be a divisor of n. d such that ad = bc = p − 1 in (p − 1)2 distinct ways 12 . • We can choose a. b... d such that ad = 1 in p − 1 distinct ways • We can choose a. d such that ad = p − 1 in p − 1 distinct ways The same holds true for the number of ways we can choose b. c.

and c2 such that the product in part (a) is the identity matrix.8 Let A be the matrix with a1. 13 .9 We want to show that a1 c1 b1 d1 a2 c2 b2 d2 a3 c3 b3 d3 = a1 c1 b1 d1 a2 c2 b2 d2 a3 c3 b3 d3 This can be done tediously through algebra.4. 1 1 a−1 (1 − b1 c−1 ) 1 1 c−1 1 Exercise 1. and let B be the matrix with a2. associativity in exercise 9.10c G is a group: we’ve shown closure under the operation in part (a). Exercise 1.4.2 = 1 as the only nonzero entry.2 as the only nonzero entry.1 as the only nonzero entry. so all elements of G have a nonzero determinant ac − 0b = ac. and it’s clear that the identity matrix is an element of G. we have 1 1 a1 b2 + b1 c2 = a1 b2 + b1 c−1 1 which equals 1 exactly when b2 = a−1 (1 − b1 c−1 ).1 = 1 as the only nonzero entry while BA has a2.4.10a a1 0 b1 c1 a2 0 b2 c2 = a1 a2 0 a 1 b2 + b1 c 2 c1 c2 Exercise 1. With these substitutions. closure of inverses in part (b).4. Thus the total number of ways we can construct a 2 × 2 matrix with ad = bc is (2p − 1)2 + (p − 1)(p − 1)2 = p3 + p2 − p And since there are p4 possible 2 × 2 matrices over Fp . We’re told that a = 0 and c = 0. c−1 = 0. b2 . The proof changes very little.4.10b We want to find values of a2 .Thus there are (2p − 1)2 ways to have ad and bc equal to 0.4. Exercise 1. So the inverse is 1 1 a−1 1 0 This is an element of G since a−1 = 0. the total number of such matrices with nonzero determinants is p4 − p3 − p2 + p Exercise 1. Exercise 1.10d Parts (a) through (c) are still valid after adding the further restriction that a1 = c1 . It’s immediately clear that we need to have a2 = a−1 and c2 = c−1 . and (p − 1)2 ways to have them equal each of the (p − 1) other values. Then AB has a1.

This occurs only when a = b = c = 0: that is. An explicit example can be given by letting a = b = f = 0. e = ac − b. So the inverse matrix is   1 −a ac − b  −c X −1 =  0 1 0 0 1 Exercise 1. From this.11a  1 a b 1 XY =  0 1 c   0 0 0 1 0 To prove non-abelianism.11e Let X be an arbitrary element of H(R).11b We want to find values of d. we see calculate Y X:   1 d e 1 Y X =  0 1 f  0 0 0 1 0  d 1 0 a 1 0   e 1 f = 0 1 0   b 1 c = 0 1 0 d+a 1 0 a+d 1 0  e + af + b  f +c 1  b + dc + e  c+f 1 So we have XY = Y X whenever af = cd. Exercise 1. Thus every nonidentity element has infinite order. For X k+1 :   ka kb + k(k−1) ac 1 2 = 0 1 kc 0 1 0 (k + 1)a 1 0 (k + 1)b + (k + 1)c 1 ac   So that the proof by induction is complete. and nb + n(n + 1)ac = 0.4. We prove by induction that for all n ∈ N. The fact that each of the 3 entries can take |F | possible values implies that o(H(F )) = |F |3 . 14 . f = −c.11c Associativity can be proven with tedious algebra. the matrix X n has the form   1 na nb + n(n−1) ac 2  Xn =  0 1 nc 0 0 1 The case for k = 1 is trivial. For k = 2 we have  2  1 a b 1 X2 =  0 1 c  =  0 0 0 1 0 Now assume that we have established the    1 a b 1 X k+1 = XX k =  0 1 c  =  0 0 0 1 0 2a 1 0  2b + ac  2c 1 k(k+1) 2 form of X k .11d Too tedious to typeset. Exercise 1.4. when X is the identity matrix.4. e. This immediately yields a system of equations: d+a b + dc + e c+f = = = 0 0 0 0 e + af + b = Whose solution is d = −a.4. we see that X n = I only if na = 0.4. Exercise 1.Exercise 1. c = d = e = 1. The previous parts of this exercise show that H(F ) is a group. nc = 0. and f such that both of the products in part (a) are the identity matrix.

of abelianism ↔ H is abelian isomorphisms are surjective Each step in this proof is bidirectional.6. Now assume that o(ϕ(x)) = m is finite: → ϕ(x)m = 1H → ϕ(xm ) = ϕ(1G ) → xm = 1G → o(x)|m → o(x)|o(ϕ(x)) definition of m This last step implies that o(x) is finite. then G is abelian iff H is 15 . Exercise 1.6. and true by definition of homomorphism for n = 2. of homomorphisms def.Exercise 1. Now. i. f (3)f (2) = 1 · 1 = 1 = f (6). −i = kj Exercise 1. k|i2 = j 2 = k 2 = −1.5. b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) ↔ (∀a.3 All the given relations of Q8 can be derived from 1. we have 1 = ϕ(x0 ) = ϕ(x−n xn ) = ϕ(x−n )ϕ(xn ) = phi(x−n )ϕ(x)n so that. It’s trivial for n = 1. so we’ve proven that when ϕ is isomorphic. j. → xn = 1G → ϕ(x ) = ϕ(1G ) → ϕ(x) = 1H → o(ϕ(x))|n → o(ϕ(x))|o(x) definition of n Note that this last step also implies that o(ϕ(x)) is finite. ij = k : ij = k → iij = ik → −j = ik. and if either is finite then o(x) = o(ϕ(x)).6. The result is not true if ϕ is only assumed to be a homormorphism (the step requiring isomorphism is clearly labeled). assumed ϕ is well-defined ϕ is an isomorphism. b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) ↔ ϕ(G) is abelian assumed def. but clearly o(3) = ∞ while o(f (3)) = 1.5. i = −kj ij = k → −kij = 1 → −ij = −k → j = ki. choose an arbitrary x ∈ G and suppose o(x) = n is finite. Assuming it holds for n = k. by the definition of inverses. Thus we have shown that o(x) is finite iff oϕ(x) is finite.1 o(1) = 1. As a counter example. of abelianism isomorphisms are well-defined and bijective def.3 → G is abelian ↔ (∀a. b ∈ G)ab = ba ↔ (∀a. ϕ(x−n ) = (ϕ(x)n ) −1 = ϕ(x)−n Exercise 1. consider the following homormorphism : f : Z → Z defined as f (n) = 1. o(−1) = 2.1 Trivial proof by induction on n. o(±i) = o(±j) = o(±k) = 4. thus 1-to-1 n n assumed ϕ is well-defined from previous exercise Exercise 1. we have ϕ(xk+1 ) = ϕ(xk x) = ϕ(xk )ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)k ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)k+1 From this.2 lemma From the previous exercise. we know that ϕ(x0 ) = ϕ(x)0 so that ϕ(1G ) = 1H .

If ϕ is only a homomorphism. as proven by Cantor’s Theorem.6.6. Exercise 1.6.6.6. but G can be any group whatsoever.2. Sm contains m! elements while Sn contains n!. and this clearly acts as an inverse to ϕ. then we have the unidirectional proof: → G is abelian → (∀a. b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) → (∀a.6.2. of homomorphisms def.6.8 Assuming m. Exercise 1.15) Exercise 1. then G is abelian implies ϕ(G) is abelian. so there can be no bijection between them unless n = m.10b The same logic used in part (a) can show that θ ◦ σ −1 ◦ θ−1 is well-defined. of abelianism isomorphisms are well-defined def. 16 .7 D8 has only one element of order 4 (o(r) = 4) while Q8 has three such elements (i. we have √ ϕ(a2 ) = ϕ(a)2 = ( k)2 = k = ϕ(2) √ Which.abelian.3. j. of abelianism This shows that when ϕ is a homormorphism. b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) → ϕ(G) is abelian assumed def. Note that nothing can be assumed from the abelianism of H or ϕ(G).2. since ϕ is a bijection. Exercise 1. This contradicts exercise 1. Proof 2: suppose ϕ : Q → R were an isomorphism. n > 0. means that a2 = 2 and thus a = 2.10a →a=b → θ−1 (a) = θ−1 (b) → σ◦θ −1 θ is bijective −1 (a) = σ ◦ θ −1 (b) −1 permutations are well-defined (b) permutations are well-defined → θ◦σ◦θ (a) = θ ◦ σ ◦ θ Exercise 1. Let x ∈ R be the element such that ϕ(2) = x. let a ∈ Q be √ the element such that ϕ(a) = k. This contradicts exercise 1.5 Proof 1: There can be no bijective function between the two sets. This contradicts exercise 1. 3 Exercise 1. Consider ϕ : G → 1H defined as ϕ(g) = 1H .6. ϕ(G) = H is trivially abelian. but there is no such element in Z.9 D24 has an element of order 12 (r) while S4 can have no such element (exercise 1. but no such element exists in R. From this. But this can’t be true of any a ∈ Q.6.4 C − {0} has an element of order 4 (i).6 Let Q has an element of order 3 ( 1 ). k). b ∈ G)ab = ba → (∀a.6. Exercise 1. Exercise 1.6.

Exercise 1.10c ϕ(σ ◦ τ ) = θ ◦ (σ ◦ τ ) ◦ θ−1 = θ ◦ (σ ◦ θ−1 ◦ θ ◦ τ ) ◦ θ−1 = ϕ(σ) ◦ ϕ(τ ) Exercise 1. Exercise 1. This function is clearly onto.12 The function f : (A × B) × C → A × (B × C) defined as f ( ((a.17 Let ϕ : G → G be defined by ϕ(g) = g −1 . → ϕ(a) = ϕ(b) → ϕ(a)ϕ(b)−1 = 1H → ϕ(a)ϕ(b −1 ϕ(G) is a group by previous exercise ) = 1H K = {1G } → ϕ(ab−1 ) = 1H → ab−1 = 1G →a=b Exercise 1. y) is in the kernel of π if π(x.6. we see that the kernel of π1 is K = {(a.14 Verifying the group properties of K is tedious but easy. Now assume that G is abelian: 17 . since ϕ is clearly surjective onto ϕ(G). b) ∈ A × B | a = 1A } = {1A } × B and the kernel of π2 is K = {(a. b) = (b. c) ) = (a. so ϕ(G) = G.6.6. (b. So we are asked to prove that ϕ is a homomorphism iff G is abelian. c)) is easily shown to be an isomorphism. b) ∈ A × B | b = 1B } = A × {1B } Exercise 1.6. It’s clear that ϕ can’t be injective if more than one element maps to 1 ∈ H.6.15 (x.6. b). Proof by contrapositive that ϕ is injective if K = {1G }: Assume that K = {1G }.6. and bijective homomorphisms are isomorphisms. so the kernel is K = {(x.6.16 Following the logic above. We just need to show that 1H ∈ ϕ(G) and that ϕ(G) is closed under its operation and inverses. a) is easily shown to be an isomorphism. If ϕ is injective then the homomorphism is bijective.11 The function f : A × B → B × A defined as f (a. Exercise 1. y) = x = 1. so ϕ is injective only if K = {1G }. Exercise 1. y) ∈ R2 |x = 1} = {1} × R Exercise 1.13 Verifying the group properties is tedious but easy. First assume that ϕ is a homomorphism: → ϕ(a−1 b−1 ) = ϕ(a−1 )ϕ(b−1 ) → ϕ((ba) −1 assumed properties of inverses definition of ϕ ) = ϕ(a −1 )ϕ(b −1 ) → ba = ab Thus ϕ(G) = G is abelian.

To prove surjectivity: q q q ∈ Q → ∈ Q → fk =q k k Exercise 1.18 Let ϕ : G → G be defined by ϕ(g) = g 2 . then the function is injective (a = b → a−1 = b−1 → f (a) = f (b)) and surjective (a ∈ A → f (a−1 ) = a). we have fk (ab) = (ab)k = ak bk = fk (a)fk (b) If k = −1.22 Define fk : A → A to be fk (a) = ak .cancellation of previous step and since a. From this we have → σ(xy)2 = xy = σ(x)2 σ(y)2 → σ(x)σ(y)σ(x)σ(y) = σ(x)σ(x)σ(y)σ(y) → abab = aabb σ 2 is the identity map σ is a homomorphism definition of a. and is surjective since z ∈ G → z 1/k ∈ G → fk (z 1/k ) = z But by exercise 14.19 As definied here. Since A is abelian.21 Define fk : Q → Q to be fk (q) = kq.20 The identity element is the identity mapping. Exercise 1. Exercise 1. so there are x. fk cannot be injective: the k roots of unity of order k mean that the kernel of fk is of size k. Let k be fixed and define fk as fk (z) = z k . This is clearly a homomorphism. Choose arbitrary elements a.6.6. From complex analysis. σ is bijective. σ(y) = b. Associativity and closure is inherited from the properties of function composition.23 Let σ be an automorphism such that σ 2 is the identity map and σ(g) = g iff g = 1. isomorphisms are invertible and therefore have inverses in Aut(G). b → ba = ab left. b were arbitrary this suffices to prove that G is abelian.6. G is the set of finite roots of unity in C.6. Exercise 1. 18 . b ∈ G.6.6.and right-multiplication associativity definition of ϕ Exercise 1.→ b−1 a−1 = a−1 b−1 → (ab) −1 assumed property of inverses =a −1 −1 b → ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) definition of ϕ Thus ϕ is a homomorphism. we know that for each k ∈ N there are k distinct elements of order k. This function is clearly injective and a homomorphism.and right. Exercise 1. → ba = ab ↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b ↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b ↔ (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb) ↔ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) left. y ∈ G such that σ(x) = a.

via the angle addition formulas from the trigonmetric identities. but it is still a semigroup (it’s associative and closed under its operation). ϕ(k) = 0√ − −1 √ − −1 0 We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation.14. ϕ(i)2 = −ϕ(1). so clearly o(ϕ(r)) = n. ϕ(i)ϕ(j) = k) but they are trivial (albeit tedious). is equivalent to |v| cos(φ + θ) |v| sin(φ + θ) which is.6. We’re told that x2 = r2 = 1 and y 2 = s2 = 1.26 Further define ϕ as follows: ϕ(1) = I. The text (bottom of p38) assures us that this is sufficient to guarantee an isomorphism between G and D2n .6.g. There are a lot of relations that need to be algebraically verified (e. we note that (F.7. Exercise 1. And ϕ(s)2 = I. this is sufficient to prove that ϕ is injective. We can show that the relationship rs = sr−1 has an associated relationship ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(s)ϕ(r)−1 by some tedious algebraic verification. The identity is the only element of Q8 that maps to I ∈ GL2 (C). Property (ii) is then justified as follows: (g1 g2 ) · a = g1 g2 a = g1 (g2 a) = g1 (g2 · a) = g1 · (g2 · a) definition of the group action. To prove property (ii).. of course.6. Exercise 1. so o(ϕ(s)) = 2. so by exercise 1. ·) is not a group (0 has no inverse). ϕ represents a rotation of 2π/n radians. the fact that x2 = y 2 = 1 is sufficient to conclude that xy = yx−1 . Exercise 1.1 Let F be a field and define a group action of G = F × on A = F by g · a = ga.Exercise 1. From the exercise 1. the original vector with its endpoint rotated by an additional φ radians counterclockwise about the origin.24 We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. so every vector endpoint (and thus every point in R2 ) is also rotated in the same way.6. The element 1 ∈ F × satisfies property (i) of group actions (1 · a = a for all a ∈ F ).6.25a Let v = |v| cos(φ) + |v| sin(φ) be an arbitrary vector. F is closed under multiplication multiplication in F is associative definition of group action definition of group action 19 . Exercise 1. The given matrix transforms v as follows: cos(θ) sin(θ) − sin(θ) cos(θ) |v| sin(φ) |v| cos(φ) = |v|[cos(φ) cos(θ) − sin(φ) sin(θ)] |v|[sin(φ) cos(θ) + cos(φ) sin(θ)] which. Our vector v was arbitrary.6.2.25b We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation.

distributive property of field R × R definition of group action definition of group action addition in Z is associative definition of group action definition of group action Exercise 1. Z is closed under addition addition in Z is associative definition of group action definition of group action Exercise 1.7. y) = (x + (r1 + r2 )y.7. let g1 .2 The element 0 ∈ Z satisfies property (i) of group actions (0 · a = a for all a ∈ Z). we need show that a left identity exists and that a. b ∈ K → ab−1 ∈ K. y)) = g1 + (g2 + a) = g1 + (g2 · a) = g1 · (g2 · a) operation on R is addition definition of group action operation on R is addition associativity. g2 ∈ K: → 1. r2 be arbitrary elements of R and let (x. b ∈ S → ab−1 ∈ S. let r1 . we need show that a left identity exists and that a. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2).7. y) = (r1 + r2 ) · (x. y) be an arbitrary point in R × R: (r1 r2 ) · (x. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2). so an identity exists. Now assume that g1 . so an identity exists. y) = (x + (r1 + r2 )y. g2 ∈ S: 20 .7. y) = r2 · (r1 · (x.3 The element 0 ∈ R satisfies property (i) of group actions. It’s clear that 1 ∈ S.Exercise 1. g1 . It’s clear that 1 ∈ K. To justify property (ii). y) = ((x + r1 y) + r2 y. g2 .4b Fix some a ∈ A and let S represent the stabilizer of a in G. Now assume that g1 . g2 ∈ K → (∀a ∈ A)g1 · a = a ∧ g2 · a = a ∧ 1 · a = a → (∀a ∈ A)g1 · (g2 · a) = a → (∀a ∈ A)(g1 g2 ) · a = a → g1 g2 ∈ K assumed definition of K algebraic substitution property (ii) of group actions definition of K Exercise 1. To justify property (ii). a be arbitrary elements of Z: (g1 + g2 ) · a = (g1 + g2 ) + a = g1 + (g2 + a) = g1 + (g2 · a) = g1 · (g2 · a) definition of the group action.4a Let K represent the kernel of the action (g ∈ G : g · a = a for all a ∈ A). y = r2 · (x + r1 y.

4} = {2. g2 such that g1 · a = g2 · a for all a ∈ A.7.8(a) and the description in 1. The element (1 2 3) replaces each 1 with 2. For example. From this.7.5 Each step in the following proof is bidrectional (iff): →g∈K ↔ (∀a ∈ A)ga = a ↔ (∀a ∈ A)σg (a) = a ↔ σg is the identity permutation on G ↔ σg is the identity element of SA ↔ g is in the kernel of ϕ : G → SA assumed definition of K definition of σg definition of the identity function definition of the group SA definition of kernel. To show that property (ii) is satisfied. 4} = {3. 4}.8b The element (1 2) acts on each subset by replacing 1 (if it exists) with 2 and vice-versa.6 Proof by contradiction. and each 3 with 1.7. (1 2){1.7 The kernel of the given action is {1}. For example. Exercise 1. Exercise 1. 4}.7.7. we obtain −1 −1 −1 −1 (g1 g2 ) · a = g1 · (g2 · a) = g1 · (g1 · a) = (g1 g1 ) · a = 1 · a = a −1 and thus g1 g2 ∈ K. if K = {1} then G is faithful. g2 ∈ S → g1 · a = a ∧ g2 · a = a ∧ 1 · a = a → g1 · (g2 · a) = a → (g1 g2 ) · a = a → g1 g2 ∈ S assumed definition of S algebraic substitution property (ii) of group actions definition of S Exercise 1. 21 .8a Let G = SA and let B = P(A). g1 . let σg . The identity permutation σ1 satisfies property (i) of group actions (σ1 (b) = b for all b ∈ B). σh be arbitrary elements of G and let b be an arbitrary element of B: (σg ◦ σh ) · b = (σg ◦ σh )(b) = σg (σh (b)) = σg · (σh · b) definition of · definition of ◦ definition of · Exercise 1. Exercise 1.7. 3. ϕ Exercise 1. this suffices to prove that the action is faithful.→ 1. And this element cannot be the identity since g1 = g2 .7. 1. By contrapositive.8(b) still apply when subsets are replaced with ordered k-tuples.9 The proof in 1. by the previous exercise.7. Thus the kernel contains a nonidentity element. each 2 with 3. Assume that G is not faithful: then there are distinct nonidentity elements g1 . (1 2 3){2.

n − 1. It’s clear that σx (B) = σy (B). case 1) Suppose |A| is finite and k < |A|.10b Choose two arbitrary permutations σx . If k is also infinite. To verify property (ii). We show that the action of Sn on k-element subsets of A is faithful. 2. there is some a ∈ A such that σx (a) = σy (a). since σx (B) contains σx (a). and then follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is still faithful. σy ∈ Sn be any two distinct permutations of A. case 3) Suppose |A| is infinite. σy ∈ Sn . let ra sb and rx sy be two arbitrary elements of D2n : (ra sb rx sy ) · ai = aj . 22 0 definition of ·. we note that r0 ai = ai for all ai . but σy (B) does not contain −1 σy (σy (σx (a))) = σx (a). We can now demonstrate that the action is faithful.7. Having chosen such an a. with k = ((i − ny/2) − x) mod n = ra sb · (rx sy · ai ) The kernel of this action is {r } = {1}. the three-dimensional version is a regular n-hedron. Thus σx and σy do not perform the same action on B. we can choose a k-element subset B ⊂ A such that a ∈ B but σy (σx (a)) ∈ B. then we can still choose an arbitrary a ∈ A and let B = A − {a}. From the invertibility of permutations this gives us the inequality −1 −1 σx (a) = σy (a) → σy σx (a) = σy (σy (a)) = a −1 Since 1 ≥ k < n. and label the vertices of the n-gon clockwise as 0. Since these permutations are distinct. . so this proof holds for all values of k (finite and infinite). Let σx . By definition.7. Exercise 1. Exercise 1.Exercise 1. Let n be even. thus no two elements of SA perform the same action. associativity of modular arithmetic definition of · . But the value of k was never specified. so the action of SA is faithful. Thus Sn is the trivial action on k-element subsets of |A|. . this means that SA is faithful on the set of k-element subsets of A. For all finite k. . But these were arbitrary elements of SA . n n +i :0≤i< 2 2 We define the action of D2n on the elements of {ai } so that the elements of D2n permute the set as follows: rk ai s ai k = a(i−k) mod n = a(i−kn/2) mod n To prove this is an action.10a We prove that the action is faithful for k < |A| or k ≥ |Z|. let B be the k-tuple consisting of the element a repeated k times. so property (i) of group actions is satisfied.12 Note that a regular n-gon is a two-dimensional shape. And every permutation of A is still the same set (just rearranged).7. we can follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is faithful. associativity of modular arithmetic definition of ·. Let the n/2 pairs of opposite vertices be represented by the set of ordered pairs {ai } defined as {ai } = i. There is only one distinct subset of size k: A itself. 1. . with j = ((((i − ny/2) − x) − nb/2) − a) mod n = ra sb · ak . there must be some a ∈ A such that σx (a) = σy (a). For these to be distinct. case 2) Suppose |A| is finite and k = |A|.

16 Let A = G and define the action g · a = gag −1 . To verify property (ii): (g1 g2 ) · a = a(g1 g2 )−1 = = = −1 −1 a(g2 g1 ) −1 −1 (ag2 )g1 −1 g1 · (ag2 ) definition of this group action property of inverses associativity of operation on G definition of this group action definition of this group action = g1 · (g2 · a)) Exercise 1. But these were arbitrary elements of G so all elements of G commute. To verify property (ii): (g1 g2 ) · a = (g1 g2 )a(g1 g2 )−1 = = = −1 −1 (g1 g2 )a(g2 g1 ) −1 −1 g1 (g2 (ag2 )g1 −1 g1 · (g2 ag2 ) definition of this group action property of inverses associativity of operation on G definition of this group action definition of this group action = g1 · (g2 · a)) Exercise 1. Hypothesis to be contradicted: suppose that property (ii) of group actions were satisfied.14 We prove by contradiction that property (ii) of group actions is not satisfied. Assume A = G is non-abelian and define the action g · a = ag. The identity element 1G satisfies the condition 1 · a = a for all a ∈ A. Let g1 .7. We want to prove that the given function is an isomorphism. We do so by showing that it’s a bijective homomorphism.7.7.Exercise 1. Exercise 1. Define a mapping f : G → G as f (x) → gxg −1 . This contradicts our initial assumption that property (ii) of group actions is satisfied.13 We prove that the identity element of G is the only element in the kernel K.17 Let G be a group and fix a value for g ∈ G. g2 be arbitrary elements of G. Then g1G = 1G and so g ∈ K. The identity element 1G satisfies the condition 1 · a = a for all a ∈ A. Property (i) of group actions guarantees that 1G ∈ K. 23 .7. Exercise 1.15 Let A = G and define the action g · a = ag −1 . But let g ∈ G be an arbitrary non-identity element of G and choose 1G ∈ A = G. (g1 g2 ) · a = a(g1 g2 ) = (ag1 )g2 ) = g2 · (ag1 )) = g2 · (g1 · a)) definition of this group action associativity of operation on G definition of this group action definition of this group action = (g2 g1 ) · a)) property (ii) of group actions This demonstrates that g1 commutes with g2 . which means that G is abelian.7.

Exercise 1.6. which implies b ∼ a. Exercise 1. and let H act on G by left multiplication.20 Label the 4 vertices of the tetrahedron as 1.7.14. Thus f is surjective f is injective: f (x) = 1 iff gxg −1 = 1 iff x = g −1 g = 1. by exercise 1. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g1 g2 ) = ϕ(g1 )ϕ(g2 ). since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g1 followed by the rigid motion g2 . Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G). But H was an arbitrary subgroup and x was an arbitrary element of G: thus |Ox | = |Oy | for all x. Exercise 1. Fix an element x ∈ G and let Ox be the orbit of x under the action of H. which implies a ∼ c. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 vertices. which implies a = ch2 h1 . then a = bh1 and b = ch2 . which is a subgroup by exercise 1.7. Define the map f : H → Ox as h → hx.7. we conclude that G can be partitioned into disjoint sets of size |Ox | = |H|. f is surjective: Ox is defined as the set {hx : h ∈ G} which is exactly the image of f (H). 4. so define the function ϕ : G → S4 so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g. so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.14. which implies b = h−1 a.f is a homomorphism f (xy) = g(xy)g −1 = g(xg −1 gy)g −1 = (gxg −1 )(gyg −1 ) = f (x)f (y) f is surjective Choose h ∈ G. We prove that f is a bijection. 24 .18 reflexive: 1 ∈ H and a = 1a so a ∼ a. Applying the preceeding exercise. this is sufficient to prove that f is injective. f is injective: h(a) = h(b) iff ha = hb iff a = b (by left-cancellation). 2.6. transitive: If a ∼ b then a = hb.19 Let H be a subgroup of finite group G. Then g −1 hg ∈ G and f (g −1 hg) = h. Let G be the group of rigid motions of the tetrahedron. 3. this can only occur if |G| is an integer multiple of |H|. y ∈ G.13. We’ve shown that |H| = |Ox |. symmetric: If a ∼ b and b ∼ c.6. The kernel of f consists only of the identity element. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G.

in concordance with exercise 19. they are equivalent to r1 = ({A.7. Note that 4|24. then none of the 15 other ordered 4-tuples we could form from replacing ai with bi (or vice-versa) would represent a rigid motion.7. E. and one side face of the cube as (respectively) A. b3 . 4). and r3 are all equal to the identity motion. swap one or more ai with its corresponding bi ) This last point is particuarly important: it means that if there were a set of rigid motions that would give us front vertices of (arbitrary example) (a1 .6.6. So the rigid motions of an octahedron are isomorphic to S4 itself (the errata for this textbook eliminates the ’subgroup’ qualification. D} {C. We now follow the logic of the preceeding exercise to prove an isomorphism. which is a subgroup by exercise 1. 25 . top. b2 . But when they act on the set of opposite faces. No matter how we rotate this cube. so ϕ is injective by exercise 1. The kernel of the action becomes 2 2 2 K = {i. Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G). Label the respective opposite faces D. E}) 2 2 2 so that r1 . r3 = (C B F E) When these rotations act on the set of opposite vertices. 3. r2 . The set of rigid motions of the cube can be made up from various combinations of the three basic rotations: r1 = (A B D E). b3 . the action faithful. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G.. r1 . r3 = ({C. r2 . C.22 We can apply the preceeding exercise with opposite faces taking the place of opposite vertices. On the opposite face. This is intuitively true: we could place a cube inside an octohedron by placing one vertex of the cube in the center of each face of the octohedron. D} {B. so define the function ϕ : G → S4 so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g.14. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 pairs of opposite vertices. a4 . It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g1 g2 ) = ϕ(g1 )ϕ(g2 ). bi will be on the front of the cube (because they are diagonally opposite) • no rigid motion consists only of swapping one or more points with the points diagonally opposite (i. b2 . b4 . B. F . a4 ). F } {B. 2.13. This means that each rigid motion of the cube can be uniquely expressed as a permutation of (1. r3 } (Any product of elements of K can be simplified to one of these elements).21 Choose one face of the cube to call the ’front’ and label its vertices a1 . This labels all eight vertices of the cube.e.Exercise 1. although S4 is technically a subgroup of S4 ). we know several things: • exactly four of these vertices will be on the front of the cube • for each i exactly one of ai . Let G be the group of rigid motions of the cube. Exercise 1. a2 . F }). label the diagonally opposite points to be b1 . r2 = (A C D F ). and the rigid motions of the octohedron would correspond perfectly with the rigid motions of the cube. r2 = ({A.23 Label the front. E}). Exercise 1. a3 .7. since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g1 followed by the rigid motion g2 .

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