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# Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Dummit and Foote 3e

)

Chapter 1 : Group Theory

Jason Rosendale

jason.rosendale@gmail.com

February 11, 2012

This work was done as an undergraduate student: if you really don’t understand something in one of these

proofs, it is very possible that it doesn’t make sense because it’s wrong. Any questions or corrections can be

directed to jason.rosendale@gmail.com.

Exercise 1.1.1

(a) is not associate: 3 −(2 −1) ,= (3 −2) −1. (b),(c),and (d) can be shown to be associative by grinding out the

algebra and showing that a ∗ (b ∗ c) = (a ∗ b) ∗ c. (e) is not associative, as can be shown by letting a = b = c = 2.

Exercise 1.1.2

(a) and (e) can be shown to not be commutative by letting a = 1, b = 2. (b),(c) and (d) can be shown to be

commutative by grinding out the algebra.

Exercise 1.1.3

a + b+ c

= a+ b+ c def. of modular addition

= a+ b + c def. of modular addition

Exercise 1.1.4

ab c

= a b c def. of modular multiplication

= a bc def. of modular multiplication

Exercise 1.1.5

To be a group, each element a would need a multiplicative inverse b such that ab = 1; but 0 has no such inverse.

Exercise 1.1.6

(b) is not closed: 1/14 + 1/14 = 1/7. (c) is not closed: 2/3 + 2/3 = 4/3. (d) is not closed: 2 + (−3/2) = 1/2.

(f) is not closed: 1/2 + 1/3 = 5/6. (a) and (e) are groups under addition.

Exercise 1.1.7

That xy is well-deﬁned follows directly from the fact that +,-, and the greatest integer function are well deﬁned

on R. To prove that G is a group: G has an identity element (0 ∈ G and 0 x = x 0 = x − [x] = 0), each

1

element a ∈ G has an inverse (1 − a ∈ G and a (1 − a) = 1 − [1] = 0 = (1 − a) a), and associativity can be

shown with a little tedious algebra. That G is abelian follows from the commutativity of addition:

x y = (x + y) −[x + y] = (y + x) −[y + x] = y x

Exercise 1.1.8a

G has an identity element (1 ∈ G and z1 = z = 1z) and an inverse (z

n

= 1 implies (z

−1

)

n

= 1 so z

−1

∈ G) and

complex multiplication is associative. To show closure:

→ x, y ∈ G assumed

→ (∃m, n ∈ Z

+

)x

m

= 1 ∧ y

n

= 1 def. of membership in G

→ (∃mn ∈ Z

+

)x

mn

= 1

n

= 1 ∧ y

mn

= 1

m

= 1

→ (∃mn ∈ Z

+

)x

mn

y

mn

= 1

→ (∃mn ∈ Z

+

)(xy)

mn

= 1

→ xy ∈ G def. of membership in G

Exercise 1.1.8b

The group is not closed under addition. 1 and −1 are both elements of G, but 1 + (−1) = 0 is not.

Exercise 1.1.9a

The identity is (0, 0), the inverse of (a, b) is (−a, −b), associativity and closure are trivial.

Exercise 1.1.9b

The identity is (1, 0), associativity and closure are trivial. The inverse of (a, b) can be found by solving (a +

b

√

2)x = 1 and is given by:

(a, b)

−1

=

_

a

a

2

−2b

2

,

b

a

2

−2b

2

_

Exercise 1.1.10

The deﬁnition of a symmetric matrix is that for all i, j we have a

ij

= a

ji

. In the group table, this is the case iﬀ

for all i, j we have a

i

a

j

= a

j

a

i

which is the deﬁnition of abelian.

Exercise 1.1.11

General formula is: [a[ = lcm(a, 12)/a.

[0[ = 1

[1[ = 12

[2[ = 6

[3[ = 4

[4[ = 3

[5[ = 12

[6[ = 2

[7[ = 12

[8[ = 3

[9[ = 4

[10[ = 6

[11[ = 12

2

Exercise 1.1.12

[1[ = 1

[ −1[ = 2

[7[ = 2

[ −7[ = 2

[13[ = 2

Exercise 1.1.13

General formula is: [a[ = lcm(a, 36)/a.

[1[ = 38

[2[ = 18

[6[ = 6

[9[ = 4

[10[ = 18

[12[ = 3

[ −1[ = 36

[ −10[ = 18

[ −18[ = 2

Exercise 1.1.14

This would be tedious to type out. For each a we need to use the methods of exercises 0.3.15 to ﬁnd y such that

36x + ay = 1

and this y would be the order of a.

Exercise 1.1.15

Proof by induction. For the n = 1 case, it’s clear that a

1

= a

−1

1

. Supposing the equality holds for the n = k

case, we have:

(a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

a

k+1

)(a

−1

k+1

a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

)

= (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

)a

k+1

a

−1

k+1

(a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) associativity

= (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

)1(a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) deﬁnition of inverses

= (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

)(a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) deﬁnition of identity

= e equality holds for n = k

and thus (a

−1

k+1

a

−1

k

. . . a

−1

1

) is shown to be the right inverse of (a

1

a

2

. . . a

k

a

k+1

). The proof for left inverse is

similar. Thus equality holds for the n = k + 1 case. By induction, equality holds for all n ∈ Z

+

.

Exercise 1.1.16

This follows directly from the deﬁnition of [x[. The order of x is the smallest integer n such that x

n

= 1; if

x

2

= 1, then this smallest integer must be less than or equal to 2. Thus it can be only 1 or 2.

Exercise 1.1.17

If [x[ = n, then x

n

= 1, and thus x x

n−1

= 1, which makes x

n−1

the inverse of x.

3

Exercise 1.1.18

→ xy = yx assumed

→ y

−1

xy = y

−1

yx left multiplication

→ y

−1

xy = 1x = x deﬁnition of inverse

→ x

−1

y

−1

xy = x

−1

x left multiplication

→ x

−1

y

−1

xy = 1 deﬁnition of inverse

→ (x

−1

y

−1

)

−1

= xy deﬁnition of inverse

→ xy = yx consequence of exercise 1.1.15

Exercise 1.1.19a

Part (a) is a direct consequence of associativity.

Exercise 1.1.19a

Part (b) is a special case of exercise 1.1.15.

Exercise 1.1.19c

Parts (a) and (b) trivially hold when a = 0 or b = 0. Parts (a) and (b) can be shown to hold for a, b ≤ 0

by taking the inverses of each side of each equation. The only thing left to show is that part (a) holds when

a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a:

Assume that a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a. If [a[ = [b[ (absolute value, not order) then clearly

x

a+b

= x

0

= x

a

x

−a

= x

a

x

b

ow assume, without loss of generality, that [a[ < [b[ Then b has the same sign as −a and b has the same sign as

a + b. Therefore −a has the same sign as a + b and we can deduce:

x

a

x

b

= x

a

x

−a+b+a

from b = b + a −a

= x

a

x

−a

x

b+a

from part (a), since −a and b + a have same sign

= (x

b+a

left cancellation

Exercise 1.1.20

From 1.1.19(b), we have

x

n

= 1 ↔ (x

n

)

−1

= 1

−1

= 1 ↔ x

−n

= 1 ↔ (x

−1

)

n

= 1

Thus the least n such that x

n

= 1 must also be the least n such that (x

−1

)

n

= 1.

Exercise 1.1.21

→ x

2k+1

= 1 assumed, since n = 2k + 1

→ x

2k+1

x = 1x = x right multiplication

→ x

2k+2

= x 1.1.19(a)

→ (x

2

)

k+1

= x 1.1.19(a)

4

Exercise 1.1.22

→ x

n

= 1 assumed

↔ (xgg

−1

)

n

= 1 gg

−1

= 1

↔ xg(g

−1

xg)

n−1

g

−1

= 1 tricky associativity

↔ g

−1

xg(g

−1

xg)

n−1

g

−1

g = g

−1

1g = 1 left and right multiplication

↔ g

−1

xg(g

−1

xg)

n−1

= 1 right cancellation

↔ (g

−1

xg)

n

= 1 1.1.19(a)

This shows that the least n such that x

n

= 1 must also be the least n such that (g

−1

xg)

n

= 1. To prove that

[ab[ = [ba[, let x = ab and g = b

−1

in the preceeding proof and conclude that the least n such that (ab)

n

= 1

must also be the least n such that (babb

−1

)

n

= (ba)

n

= 1.

Exercise 1.1.23

(x

s

)

t

= x

st

= x

n

= 1, so [x

s

[ ≤ t. But if there were some k such that 0 ≤ k < t such that (x

s

)

k

= 1, then we

would have 0 ≤ sk < st = n with x

sk

= 1 contradicting the assumption that [x[ = n.

Exercise 1.1.24

Proof by induction. The n = 0 and n = 1 cases are trivial. Assume the equality holds for n = k:

(ab)

k+1

= a(ba)

k

b tricky associativity

(= a(ab)

k

b a, b commute

(= aa

k

b

k

b equality holds for n = k

(= a

k+1

b

k+1

Thus equality holds for all n ∈ N. To prove that this holds for negative n, just take the inverse of each side of

the equation to yield (ab)

−n

= b

−n

a

−n

, then apply commutativity to conclude (ba)

−n

= b

−n

a

−n

.

Exercise 1.1.25

Given that x

2

= 1, we see that (ab)(ab) = b(aa)b = 1. Right-multiplying by b

−1

a

−1

yields ab = ba.

Exercise 1.1.26

We’re told that H is nonempty so it contains some element h; it’s closed under inverses and the binary operation,

it contains the identity element hh

−1

= 1. It inherits associativity from G. That’s suﬃcient for H to be a group.

Exercise 1.1.27

Let H = x

n

: n ∈ Z. The identity x

0

= 1 exists in n; if x

n

∈ H then x

−n

∈ H so H is closed under inverses; it’s

trivially closed under the binary operation; and (x

i

x

j

)x

k

= x

i+j+k

= x

i

(x

j

x

k

) so it is associative.

Exercise 1.1.28

All parts of this exercise can be proven through simple but tedious algebra.

Exercise 1.1.29

→ (a, b) (c, d) = (c, d) (a, b)

↔ (ac, bd) = (ca, db) def. of

↔ ac = ca and bd = db def. of equality in AB

5

Exercise 1.1.30

To prove commutativity:

(a, 1)(1, b) = (a1, 1b) = (a, b) = (1a, b1) = (1, b)(a, 1)

Now let p = [a[, q = [b[, and x = [p, q]. Then:

(a, b)

x

= (a

x

, b

x

) = ((a

p

)

x/p

, (b

q

)

x/q

) = (1

x/p

, 1

x/q

) = (1, 1) = 1

Thus the order of (a, b) divides [p, q] = x. Now let n = [(a, b)[. From exercise 1.1.24:

(1, 1) = (a, b)

n

= [(a, 1)(1, b)]

n

= (a, 1)

n

(1, b)

n

Right-multiplying gives us:

(1, b)

−n

= (a, 1)

n

which means

(1, b

−n

) = (a

n

, 1)

thus a

n

= b

−n

= 1. Thus p and q both divide n, which means that [p, q] divides n. We’ve now shown that

n = [(a, b)[ divides x = [p, q] and that x divides n: therefore x = n.

Exercise 1.1.31

To prove that t(G) has an even number of elements, establish an equivalence relation a b : (ab = 1ora = b)

on t(G). This is clearly reﬂexive,symmetric, and easily shown to be transitive. There are two elements per

equivalence class on t(G): one element and its inverse. Thus t(G) has an even number of elements.

Thus the set G−t(G) (that is, g ∈ G[g = g

−1

) must also have an even number of elements. It contains the

identity, so it must contain at least one nonidentity element. Each element in G−t(G) has g

2

= 1, and therefore

must have order 1 or 2 by exercise 1.1.16. Only the identity has order 1, so this nonidentity element must have

order 2.

Exercise 1.1.32

Suppose x

i

= x

j

for 0 ≤ i < j ≤ n −1. Then 1 = x

j

x

−i

= x

j−i

, which would contradict the claim that [x[ = n.

Exercise 1.1.33a

Part (a) is the contrapositive of exercise 1.1.31.

Exercise 1.1.33b

It’s trivial to show that i = k implies x

i

x

i

= x

2k

1 and therefore x

i

= x

−1

. To prove in the other direction:

→ x

i

= x

−i

assumed

↔ x

i

x

i

= x

−i

x

i

↔ x

2i

= 1

This shows that x

i

= x

−i

iﬀ n (the order of x) divides 2i. But 2i < n by the previous exercise, so n[2i implies

2i = 0 or 2i = n. And we’re asked to assume that i > 0, so we must have 2i = n = 2k and so i = k.

Exercise 1.1.34

Were it the case that x

m

= x

n

for some m ,= n, then we would have x

|m−n|

= 1 which would contradict the

assumption that x was of inﬁnite order.

Exercise 1.1.35

Let x ∈ G have order n. Let k be an arbitrary power of x. By the division algorithm, we can ﬁnd unique values

of a, b with 0 ≤ b < n such that k = an + b. Thus we have

x

k

= x

an+b

= x

a

nx

b

= x

b

6

Exercise 1.1.36

We know that at least one element must be its own inverse from exercise 1.1.31. WLOG, assume that this

element is a. From 1.1.31 we know that b is its own inverse iﬀ c is its own inverse: if both are their own inverses,

then the group is abelian by 1.1.25 and we are done.

If neither b nor c are their own inverses, then they must have order 3 (b

3

= c

3

= 1). We cannot have

b

2

= b (for we would have o(b) = 1) or b

2

= 1 (for we would have o(b) = 2) or b

2

= a (for we would have

b = b, b

2

= a, b

3

= ab, b

4

= a

2

= 1 so that o(b) = 4) so we must have b

2

= c. And this gives us a contradiction,

since it would imply that o(b

2

) = o(c) = o(b).

Exercise 1.2.2

We know that D

2n

has order 2n with distinct elements r

0

, r

1

, . . . r

n−1

, r

0

s, r

1

s, . . . r

n−1

s. So any element that is

not equivalent to r

k

for some k is equivalent to sr

k

for some k. We can now use a proof by induction: the case

for x = r

0

s and x = r

1

s is trivial. Now assume that the equality holds for x = r

k

s:

r(r

k+1

)s = rr(r

k

)s = r(r

k

)sr

−1

= r

k+1

sr

−1

and thus equality holds for x = r

k+1

s.

Exercise 1.2.3

As above, every element of D

2n

which is not a power of r has the form r

k

s = sr

−k

. Thus:

(r

k

s)

2

= (r

k

s)(r

k

s) = sr

−k

r

k

s = ss = 1

This proves only that the order of (r

k

s) divides 2; we must show that it is 2. Proof by contradiction: If the

order were 1, then we would have r

k

s = 1 which would imply s = r

−k

which would imply that all 2n elements

could be written uniquely as a power of r; but r

n

= 1 so there could be at most n such elements. Thus the

order of (r

k

s) cannot be 1.

To show that s, sr are generators is suﬃces to show that ssr = r, so all powers of r can be generated.

Exercise 1.2.4

z

2

= r

2k

= r

n

= 1, so o(z) = 2 (k > 1, so z is not the identity element). r

2

k trivially commutes with elements

of D

2n

that are powers of r; since o(z) = 2 it commutes with all other elements of order 2 (cf 1.1.33); that is,

all elements of D

2n

that are not a power of r (previous exercise).

To show that this is the only element other than the identity that commutes with all elemenets of D

2n

, we

use a very unsatisfying proof by exhaustion of cases. Let a be an element such that ab = ba for all b ∈ D

2n

.

Either a = r

i

or a = sr

i

for some i ∈ 0 . . . 2k −1.

case i) Suppose a = r

i

and let b be an arbitrary element of D

2n

. The element a obviously commutes for all b

of the form b = r

j

. If b = sr

j

, then ab = ba when:

→ ab = ba assumed

↔ r

i

sr

j

= sr

j

r

i

deﬁnition of a, b

↔ sr

−i

r

j

= sr

j

r

i

from relation rs = sr

−1

↔ r

−i+j

= r

j+i

left cancellation

↔ r

−i+j

r

−j−i

= 1 right multiplication by r

−(j+i)

↔ r

−2i

= 1

↔ n[2i o(r) = n

↔ k[i n = 2k

This shows that, for this choice of a = r

i

, ab = ba for all b iﬀ i is a multiple of k. But we’ve assumed that

i ∈ 0, . . . , 2k −1 so either i = 0 or i = k. Thus a = r

i

commutes with all b iﬀ a = r

0

(the identity) or

a = r

k

.

7

case ii) Suppose a = sr

i

. Then this a does not commute with all b: let b = r. Then we have

→ ab = ba assumed

↔ sr

i

r = rsr

i

deﬁnition of a, b

↔ sr

i+1

= sr

−1+i

from relation rs = sr

−1

↔ r

i+1

= r

i−1

left cancellation

↔ r

i+1

r

1−i

= 1 right multiplication by r

−(−j+i)

↔ r

2

= 1

But n is deﬁned by the order of r, so r

2

= 1 implies n = 2, contradicting the requirement that n ≥ 4. Thus

we have shown that the only nonidentity element that commutes with all elements of D

2n

(n = 2k, n ≥ 4)

is r

k

.

Exercise 1.2.5

As shown in the previous exercise, the only element that commutes with element of D

2n

for n > 2 is r

i

where

n[2i. If n is odd then the requirements that i ∈ 0, . . . , n and i = kn together imply i = 0 and thus the only

commuting element is r

0

= 1.

Exercise 1.2.6

Since o(x) = o(y) = 2, we have x = x

−1

, y = y

−1

. Thus we have

tx = xyx right-multiply t = xy by x

tx = xy

−1

x

−1

y = y

−1

, x = x

−1

tx = x(xy)

−1

tx = xt

−1

Exercise 1.2.7

Let a = s and b = sr so that ab = r. The relations follow from each other: a

2

= s

2

= 1, (ab)

n

= r

n

= 1, and

b

2

= (sr)

2

= ssr

−1

r = 1.

Exercise 1.2.8

n is, by deﬁnition, the smallest r such that r

n

= 1 so o(r) = n.

Exercise 1.2.9 through 1.2.13

A tetrahedron has four three-sided faces; a cube has six four-sided faces; an octahedron has eight three-sided

faces; a dodecahedron has twelve ﬁve-sided faces; an icosahedron has twenty three-sided faces. Each side (pair

of vertices) can be ﬂipped, so the total number of positions for a side is : The number of rigid motions for a

given solid is given by:

2 ∗ (number of sides) =

(number of faces) ∗ (number of sides per face)

number of faces connected to each side

Each solid has two faces connected to each side, so this reduces to (number of faces) * (number of sides per

face).

Exercise 1.2.14

For addition, 1. For multiplication, p : p is prime (by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic).

Exercise 1.2.15

For addition, p : (p, n) = 1. For multiplication, p < n : p is prime.

8

Exercise 1.2.16

Letting n = 2, we have r

2

= s

2

= 1. So let x = r, y = s. The relations follow: x

2

= r

2

= 1,y

2

= s

2

= 1, and

xy = y

−1

x :

xy = (xy)

−1

from o(xy) = 2

= y

−1

x

−1

= yx

−1

from o(y) = 2

Exercise 1.2.17a

The presentation in 1.2 is ¸x, y[x

n

= y

2

= 1, xy = yx

2

¸. The text demonstrated that xy = yx

2

implies x

3

= 1.

Thus, if n = 3k then x

3

= 1 but x

0

, x

1

, x

2

are distinct elements. Letting x = r, y = s gives us x

3

= r

3

= 1,

y

2

= s

2

= 1, and rs = sr

−1

:

rs = xy from o(xy) = 2

= yx

2

= yx

−1

xx

2

= 1 → x

2

= x

−1

= sr

−1

Exercise 1.2.17b

We know that x

3

= 1 so x

3k

= 1. By deﬁnition, x

n

=1. If (3, n) = 1 then either n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k + 2 =

3(k + 1) −1 for some k. In either case, we have

1 = x

n

= x

3k±1

= x

3k

x

±1

= x

±1

But x

−1

= 1 iﬀ x = 1, so in either case we have x = 1 and X

2n

is generated uniquely by s, which has order 2.

Exercise 1.2.18

The presentation in 1.3 is ¸u, v[u

4

= v

3

= 1, uv = v

2

u

2

¸.

a) If v

3

= vv

2

= 1, then v

2

= v

−1

. Similarly, u

2

= u

−2

and u

3

= u

−1

.

b) u

3

= u(v

3

)u

2

from v

3

= 1

= (uv)(v

2

u

2

) associative property

= (v

2

u

2

)(uv) from uv = v

2

u

2

= v

2

u

3

v associative property

= v

−1

u

3

v from part (a)

Left-multiplying both sides by v gives us vu

3

= u

3

v; right-multiplying by v

−1

gives us u

3

v

−1

= v

−1

u

3

.

c) From part (b), we have u

3

v

−1

= v

−1

u

3

. Using part (a) this becomes u

−1

v

−1

= v

−1

u

−1

. Taking inverses of

each side yields vu = uv.

d) We’re told uv = v

2

u

2

; by commutativity of u, v this becomes uv = (uv)

2

; by left- or right-cancellation this

becomes uv = 1.

e) 1 = (uv)

4

= u

4

v

3

v = v, and uv = 1 implies u = v

−1

= 1.

Exercise 1.3.8

Deﬁne the function f : N → S

ω

to be f(n) = (1n). The function is clearly injective (albeit not surjective) so

[S

ω

[ ≥ [N[.

Exercise 1.3.9

See exercise 1.3.11.

9

Exercise 1.3.10

Trivial proof by induction on i. Since σ

m

maps a

k

→ a

k

, it must be the identity function; since m is the least

integer such that σ

m

= I, we have o(σ) = m.

Exercise 1.3.11

Let k be the order of σ

i

. It must be the case that m[ik or, by the division algorithm, we could ﬁnd ik such that

ik = xm + b with 0 < b < m which would give us

(σ

i

)

k

= σ

ik

= σ

xm+b

= (σ

m

)

x

σ

b

= σ

b

which would contradict the previous exercise’s conclusion that o(σ) = m.

Having proven that ik must be a multiple of m, we see that the least such multiple of ik is ik = lcm(m, ik). If

we want the o(σ

i

) = m, we must have im = lcm(m, im) = lcm(m, i) which occurs only when gcd(m, i) = 1:

ab = lcm(a, b) gcd(a, b) → lcm(a, b) =

ab

gcd(a, b)

Exercise 1.3.12a

yes: let σ = (1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10) and k = 5.

Exercise 1.3.12b

no. Let k be the smallest k such that σ

k

= (1 2)(3 4 5). Then σ

2k

= (3 5 4). Thus σ

2k

(1) = 1 (implying that

m[2k from exercise 10) but σ

2k

(3) = 5 (implying m 2k by exercise 10). This establishes a contradiction so

there can be no k such that σ

k

= τ.

Exercise 1.3.13

Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting 2-cycles, we have

σ

2

= [(a

1

b

1

) . . . (a

k

b

k

)]

2

= (a

1

b

1

)

2

. . . [(a

k

b

k

)

2

= (1)

2

. . . (1)

2

= (1)

so that o(σ) = 2.

If we assume that o(σ) = 2 then σ maps a → σ(a) and maps σ(a) → σ(σ(a)) = a (with the possiblity

that σ(a) = a). Consider the set of 2-cycles:

¦(a σ(a)) : a ∈ 1, . . . , m and a < σ(a)¦

We can deﬁne σ as the product of every element of this set:

σ = (a

1

σ(a

1

))(a

2

σ(a

2

)) . . . (a

k

σ(a

k

))

Each a ∈ 1, . . . , m appears in at most one of these disjoint 2-cycles, and appears iﬀ a ,= σ(a).

Exercise 1.3.14

Follow the preceeding proof. Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting p-cycles, we have

σ

p

= [(a

1

b

1

) . . . (a

k

b

k

)]

p

= (a

1

b

1

)

p

. . . [(a

k

b

k

)

p

= (1)

p

. . . (1)

p

= (1)

And we can write σ as the product of elements of the disjoint collection of p-cycles:

¦(a σ

1

(a) σ

2

(a) . . . σ

p−1

(a)) : a ∈ 1, . . . , m and a = min(a, σ(a), . . . , σ

m−1

(a))¦

If p is not prime then we can ﬁnd a, b > 1 such that p = ab = lcm(a, b) and the element

(1 2 . . . a)(a + 1 a + 2 . . . a + b)

has order p despite not being a product of disjoint p-cycles. A more explicit example: In S

6

we have

(1 2 3)(4 5)

which has order 6.

10

Exercise 1.3.15

Choose σ ∈ S

n

and let k be the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its cycle decomposition.

From exercise 1.1.24 we know that σ

k

= (1) means that (a

1

. . . a

i

)

k

= (1) for each cycle in the decomposition

of σ, so k must be a common multiple of the order (length) of each cycle in the decomposition of σ; thus the

order of σ must be the least such k, which is the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles of σ.

Exercise 1.3.16

From n elements, there are

_

n

m

_

ways of selecting m elements and m! ways of writing an m−cycle with them.

Each distinct m-cycle can be written in m diﬀerent ways. Thus the number of distinct m-cycles in S

n

is given

by

_

n

m

_

m!

m

=

n!m!

m!(n −m)!m

=

n(n −1)(n −2) . . . (n −m + 1)

m

Exercise 1.3.17

There are

_

n

4

_

ways of selecting the elements of two disjoint 2-cycles, and 3 unique ways to construct the two

2-cycles with them. Thus the number of distinct products of two disjoitn 2-cycles is:

_

n

4

_

1

3

=

n!

(n −4)!4!

1

3

=

n(n −1)(n −2)(n −3)

8

Exercise 1.3.18

For each S

n

we can choose i, k > 0 such that i + k ≤ n and construct following disjoint product S

n

:

(1 2 . . . i)(n n −1 . . . n −(k −1))

By exercise 15, this element has order of lcm(i, k). Thus for S

5

we can construct elements of orders 1,2,3,4,5

(trivially) and 6. The order 6 element is given by

(1 2 3)(4 5)

Exercise 1.3.19

With the explanation from the previous exercise we see that S

7

has elements of order 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (trivially),

lcm(2, 5) = 10, and lcm(3, 4) = 12.

Exercise 1.3.20

Let a = (1 2), b = (2 3) and deﬁne the generator to be ¸a, b[a

2

= b

2

= 1, abab = ba¸. All other elements of S

3

can be written with these two elements:

(1) = a

2

= b

2

(1 3) = aba = bab

(1 2 3) = ab

(1 3 2) = ba

The fact that a

2

= b

2

= 1 means that every element of S

3

can be reduced to an alternating string of a, b. The

choice of the relation abab = ba (and its equivalents, ab = baba and aba = bab) means that any such alternating

string of length n ≥ 4 can be reduced to a string of length n −2. Thus S

3

can be represented as string of 3 or

fewer alternating elements a, b. There are only 6 such strings: 1, a, b, ab, ba, and aba = bab.

Exercise 1.4.1

Proof by enumeration. Consider all 16 possible 2 2 matrices with entries in ¦0, 1¦ and show that exactly 6 of

them have nonzero determinants.

11

Exercise 1.4.2

_

0 1

1 0

_

2

=

_

1 1

0 1

_

2

=

_

1 0

1 1

_

2

= I

_

1 0

0 1

_

1

_

0 1

1 1

_

3

=

_

1 1

1 0

_

3

= I

Exercise 1.4.3

_

1 0

1 1

_ _

1 1

0 1

_

=

_

1 1

1 0

_

,=

_

0 1

1 1

_

=

_

1 1

0 1

_ _

1 0

1 1

_

Exercise 1.4.4

Suppose n is not prime, and let a(1 < a < n) be a divisor of n. Then a has no multiplicative inverse. Proof

by contradiction: assume that ak = 1. Then we would have ak + mn = 1 (by deﬁnition of equivalence mod n)

which means that gcd(a, n) = 1 which contradicts our assumption that a(1 < a < n) is a divisor of n.

Exercise 1.4.5

If [F[ = q is ﬁnite, then there are at most q

n

2

possible n n matrices; GL

n

(F) is a subset of these matrices

and at least one such matrix has a zero determinant, so [GL

n

(F)[ ≤ q

n

2

and thus GL

n

(F) is ﬁnite. If [F[ is

inﬁnite, then fI ∈ GL

n

(F) for each f ∈ F (where I is the identity matrix) and thus [GL

n

(F)[ ≥ [F[ which

means [GL

n

(F)[ is inﬁnite.

Exercise 1.4.6

see previous exercise

Exercise 1.4.7

The determinant of a 2 2 matrix is given by the formula

det

__

a b

c d

__

= ad −bc

So we see that the deterimant is zero if ad = bc. Using basic combinatorics, it’s easy to show that:

• We can choose a, d such that ad = 0 in p + (p −1) distinct ways

• We can choose a, d such that ad = 1 in p −1 distinct ways

• We can choose a, d such that ad = 2 in p −1 distinct ways

• . . .

• We can choose a, d such that ad = p −1 in p −1 distinct ways

The same holds true for the number of ways we can choose b, c. Which means

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 0 in (p + (p −1))

2

distinct ways

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 1 in (p −1)

2

distinct ways

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = 2 in (p −1)

2

distinct ways

• . . .

• We can choose a, b, c, d such that ad = bc = p −1 in (p −1)

2

distinct ways

12

Thus there are (2p − 1)

2

ways to have ad and bc equal to 0, and (p − 1)

2

ways to have them equal each of the

(p −1) other values. Thus the total number of ways we can construct a 2 2 matrix with ad = bc is

(2p −1)

2

+ (p −1)(p −1)

2

= p

3

+ p

2

−p

And since there are p

4

possible 2 2 matrices over F

p

, the total number of such matrices with nonzero deter-

minants is

p

4

−p

3

−p

2

+ p

Exercise 1.4.8

Let A be the matrix with a

1,2

= 1 as the only nonzero entry, and let B be the matrix with a

2,1

as the only

nonzero entry. Then AB has a

1,1

= 1 as the only nonzero entry while BA has a

2,2

as the only nonzero entry.

Exercise 1.4.9

We want to show that

__

a

1

b

1

c

1

d

1

_ _

a

2

b

2

c

2

d

2

___

a

3

b

3

c

3

d

3

_

=

_

a

1

b

1

c

1

d

1

_ __

a

2

b

2

c

2

d

2

_ _

a

3

b

3

c

3

d

3

__

This can be done tediously through algebra.

Exercise 1.4.10a

_

a

1

b

1

0 c

1

_ _

a

2

b

2

0 c

2

_

=

_

a

1

a

2

a

1

b

2

+ b

1

c

2

0 c

1

c

2

_

Exercise 1.4.10b

We want to ﬁnd values of a

2

, b

2

, and c

2

such that the product in part (a) is the identity matrix. It’s immediately

clear that we need to have a

2

= a

−1

1

and c

2

= c

−1

1

. With these substitutions, we have

a

1

b

2

+ b

1

c

2

= a

1

b

2

+ b

1

c

−1

1

which equals 1 exactly when b

2

= a

−1

1

(1 −b

1

c

−1

1

). So the inverse is

_

a

−1

1

a

−1

1

(1 −b

1

c

−1

1

)

0 c

−1

1

_

This is an element of G since a

−1

1

,= 0, c

−1

1

,= 0.

Exercise 1.4.10c

G is a group: we’ve shown closure under the operation in part (a), closure of inverses in part (b), associativity

in exercise 9, and it’s clear that the identity matrix is an element of G. We’re told that a ,= 0 and c ,= 0, so all

elements of G have a nonzero determinant ac −0b = ac.

Exercise 1.4.10d

Parts (a) through (c) are still valid after adding the further restriction that a

1

= c

1

. The proof changes very

little.

13

Exercise 1.4.11a

XY =

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

1 d e

0 1 f

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 d + a e + af + b

0 1 f + c

0 0 1

_

_

To prove non-abelianism, we see calculate Y X:

Y X =

_

_

1 d e

0 1 f

0 0 1

_

_

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 a + d b + dc + e

0 1 c + f

0 0 1

_

_

So we have XY ,= Y X whenever af ,= cd. An explicit example can be given by letting a = b = f = 0, c = d =

e = 1.

Exercise 1.4.11b

We want to ﬁnd values of d, e, and f such that both of the products in part (a) are the identity matrix. This

immediately yields a system of equations:

d + a = 0

e + af + b = 0

b + dc + e = 0

c + f = 0

Whose solution is d = −a, f = −c, e = ac −b. So the inverse matrix is

X

−1

=

_

_

1 −a ac −b

0 1 −c

0 0 1

_

_

Exercise 1.4.11c

Associativity can be proven with tedious algebra. The previous parts of this exercise show that H(F) is a group.

The fact that each of the 3 entries can take [F[ possible values implies that o(H(F)) = [F[

3

.

Exercise 1.4.11d

Too tedious to typeset.

Exercise 1.4.11e

Let X be an arbitrary element of H(R). We prove by induction that for all n ∈ N, the matrix X

n

has the form

X

n

=

_

_

1 na nb +

n(n−1)

2

ac

0 1 nc

0 0 1

_

_

The case for k = 1 is trivial. For k = 2 we have

X

2

=

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

2

=

_

_

1 2a 2b + ac

0 1 2c

0 0 1

_

_

Now assume that we have established the form of X

k

. For X

k+1

:

X

k+1

= XX

k

=

_

_

1 a b

0 1 c

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 ka kb +

k(k−1)

2

ac

0 1 kc

0 0 1

_

_

=

_

_

1 (k + 1)a (k + 1)b +

k(k+1)

2

ac

0 1 (k + 1)c

0 0 1

_

_

So that the proof by induction is complete. From this, we see that X

n

= I only if na = 0, nc = 0, and

nb + n(n + 1)ac = 0. This occurs only when a = b = c = 0: that is, when X is the identity matrix. Thus every

nonidentity element has inﬁnite order.

14

Exercise 1.5.1

o(1) = 1, o(−1) = 2, o(±i) = o(±j) = o(±k) = 4.

Exercise 1.5.3

All the given relations of Q

8

can be derived from ¸1, i, j, k[i

2

= j

2

= k

2

= −1, ij = k¸:

ij = k → iij = ik → −j = ik, i = −kj

ij = k → −kij = 1 → −ij = −k → j = ki, −i = kj

Exercise 1.6.1

Trivial proof by induction on n. It’s trivial for n = 1, and true by deﬁnition of homomorphism for n = 2.

Assuming it holds for n = k, we have

ϕ(x

k+1

) = ϕ(x

k

x) = ϕ(x

k

)ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)

k

ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)

k+1

From this, we have

1 = ϕ(x

0

) = ϕ(x

−n

x

n

) = ϕ(x

−n

)ϕ(x

n

) = phi(x

−n

)ϕ(x)

n

so that, by the deﬁnition of inverses,

ϕ(x

−n

) = (ϕ(x)

n

)

−1

= ϕ(x)

−n

Exercise 1.6.2 lemma

From the previous exercise, we know that ϕ(x

0

) = ϕ(x)

0

so that ϕ(1

G

) = 1

H

. Now, choose an arbitrary x ∈ G

and suppose o(x) = n is ﬁnite.

→ x

n

= 1

G

assumed

→ ϕ(x

n

) = ϕ(1

G

) ϕ is well-deﬁned

→ ϕ(x)

n

= 1

H

from previous exercise

→ o(ϕ(x))[n

→ o(ϕ(x))[o(x) deﬁnition of n

Note that this last step also implies that o(ϕ(x)) is ﬁnite. Now assume that o(ϕ(x)) = m is ﬁnite:

→ ϕ(x)

m

= 1

H

assumed

→ ϕ(x

m

) = ϕ(1

G

) ϕ is well-deﬁned

→ x

m

= 1

G

ϕ is an isomorphism, thus 1-to-1

→ o(x)[m

→ o(x)[o(ϕ(x)) deﬁnition of m

This last step implies that o(x) is ﬁnite. Thus we have shown that o(x) is ﬁnite iﬀ oϕ(x) is ﬁnite, and if either is

ﬁnite then o(x) = o(ϕ(x)). The result is not true if ϕ is only assumed to be a homormorphism (the step requir-

ing isomorphism is clearly labeled). As a counter example, consider the following homormorphism : f : Z → Z

deﬁned as f(n) = 1. f(3)f(2) = 1 1 = 1 = f(6), but clearly o(3) = ∞ while o(f(3)) = 1.

Exercise 1.6.3

→ G is abelian assumed

↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ab = ba def. of abelianism

↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) isomorphisms are well-deﬁned and bijective

↔ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) def. of homomorphisms

↔ ϕ(G) is abelian def. of abelianism

↔ H is abelian isomorphisms are surjective

Each step in this proof is bidirectional, so we’ve proven that when ϕ is isomorphic, then G is abelian iﬀ H is

15

abelian. If ϕ is only a homomorphism, then we have the unidirectional proof:

→ G is abelian assumed

→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ab = ba def. of abelianism

→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) isomorphisms are well-deﬁned

→ (∀a, b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) def. of homomorphisms

→ ϕ(G) is abelian def. of abelianism

This shows that when ϕ is a homormorphism, then G is abelian implies ϕ(G) is abelian.

Note that nothing can be assumed from the abelianism of H or ϕ(G). Consider ϕ : G → 1

H

deﬁned as ϕ(g) = 1

H

.

ϕ(G) = H is trivially abelian, but G can be any group whatsoever.

Exercise 1.6.4

C −¦0¦ has an element of order 4 (i), but no such element exists in R. This contradicts exercise 1.6.2.

Exercise 1.6.5

Proof 1: There can be no bijective function between the two sets, as proven by Cantor’s Theorem.

Proof 2: suppose ϕ : Q → R were an isomorphism. Let x ∈ R be the element such that ϕ(2) = x; let a ∈ Q be

the element such that ϕ(a) =

√

k. From this, we have

ϕ(a

2

) = ϕ(a)

2

= (

√

k)

2

= k = ϕ(2)

Which, since ϕ is a bijection, means that a

2

= 2 and thus a =

√

2. But this can’t be true of any a ∈ Q.

Exercise 1.6.6

Let Q has an element of order 3 (

1

3

), but there is no such element in Z. This contradicts exercise 1.6.2.

Exercise 1.6.7

D

8

has only one element of order 4 (o(r) = 4) while Q

8

has three such elements (i, j, k). This contradicts exercise

1.6.2.

Exercise 1.6.8

Assuming m, n > 0, S

m

contains m! elements while S

n

contains n!, so there can be no bijection between them

unless n = m.

Exercise 1.6.9

D

24

has an element of order 12 (r) while S

4

can have no such element (exercise 1.3.15)

Exercise 1.6.10a

→ a = b

→ θ

−1

(a) = θ

−1

(b) θ is bijective

→ σ ◦ θ

−1

(a) = σ ◦ θ

−1

(b) permutations are well-deﬁned

→ θ ◦ σ ◦ θ

−1

(a) = θ ◦ σ ◦ θ

−1

(b) permutations are well-deﬁned

Exercise 1.6.10b

The same logic used in part (a) can show that θ ◦ σ

−1

◦ θ

−1

is well-deﬁned, and this clearly acts as an inverse

to ϕ.

16

Exercise 1.6.10c

ϕ(σ ◦ τ) = θ ◦ (σ ◦ τ) ◦ θ

−1

= θ ◦ (σ ◦ θ

−1

◦ θ ◦ τ) ◦ θ

−1

= ϕ(σ) ◦ ϕ(τ)

Exercise 1.6.11

The function f : AB → B A deﬁned as f(a, b) = (b, a) is easily shown to be an isomorphism.

Exercise 1.6.12

The function f : (A B) C → A (B C) deﬁned as f( ((a, b), c) ) = (a, (b, c)) is easily shown to be an

isomorphism.

Exercise 1.6.13

Verifying the group properties is tedious but easy. We just need to show that 1

H

∈ ϕ(G) and that ϕ(G) is

closed under its operation and inverses. If ϕ is injective then the homomorphism is bijective, since ϕ is clearly

surjective onto ϕ(G), and bijective homomorphisms are isomorphisms.

Exercise 1.6.14

Verifying the group properties of K is tedious but easy. It’s clear that ϕ can’t be injective if more than one

element maps to 1 ∈ H, so ϕ is injective only if K = ¦1

G

¦. Proof by contrapositive that ϕ is injective if

K = ¦1

G

¦: Assume that K = ¦1

G

¦.

→ ϕ(a) = ϕ(b)

→ ϕ(a)ϕ(b)

−1

= 1

H

ϕ(G) is a group by previous exercise

→ ϕ(a)ϕ(b

−1

) = 1

H

→ ϕ(ab

−1

) = 1

H

→ ab

−1

= 1

G

K = ¦1

G

¦

→ a = b

Exercise 1.6.15

(x, y) is in the kernel of π if π(x, y) = x = 1, so the kernel is

K = ¦(x, y) ∈ R

2

[x = 1¦ = ¦1¦ R

Exercise 1.6.16

Following the logic above, we see that the kernel of π

1

is

K = ¦(a, b) ∈ AB [ a = 1

A

¦ = ¦1

A

¦ B

and the kernel of π

2

is

K = ¦(a, b) ∈ AB [ b = 1

B

¦ = A¦1

B

¦

Exercise 1.6.17

Let ϕ : G → G be deﬁned by ϕ(g) = g

−1

. This function is clearly onto, so ϕ(G) = G. So we are asked to prove

that ϕ is a homomorphism iﬀ G is abelian. First assume that ϕ is a homomorphism:

→ ϕ(a

−1

b

−1

) = ϕ(a

−1

)ϕ(b

−1

) assumed

→ ϕ((ba)

−1

) = ϕ(a

−1

)ϕ(b

−1

) properties of inverses

→ ba = ab deﬁnition of ϕ

Thus ϕ(G) = G is abelian. Now assume that G is abelian:

17

→ b

−1

a

−1

= a

−1

b

−1

assumed

→ (ab)

−1

= a

−1

b

−1

property of inverses

→ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) deﬁnition of ϕ

Thus ϕ is a homomorphism.

Exercise 1.6.18

Let ϕ : G → G be deﬁned by ϕ(g) = g

2

.

→ ba = ab

↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b

↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b left- and right-multiplication

↔ (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb) associativity

↔ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) deﬁnition of ϕ

Exercise 1.6.19

As deﬁnied here, G is the set of ﬁnite roots of unity in C. From complex analysis, we know that for each

k ∈ N there are k distinct elements of order k. Let k be ﬁxed and deﬁne f

k

as f

k

(z) = z

k

. This is clearly a

homomorphism, and is surjective since

z ∈ G → z

1/k

∈ G → f

k

(z

1/k

) = z

But by exercise 14, f

k

cannot be injective: the k roots of unity of order k mean that the kernel of f

k

is of size k.

Exercise 1.6.20

The identity element is the identity mapping; isomorphisms are invertible and therefore have inverses in Aut(G).

Associativity and closure is inherited from the properties of function composition.

Exercise 1.6.21

Deﬁne f

k

: Q → Q to be f

k

(q) = kq. This function is clearly injective and a homomorphism. To prove

surjectivity:

q ∈ Q →

q

k

∈ Q → f

k

_

q

k

_

= q

Exercise 1.6.22

Deﬁne f

k

: A → A to be f

k

(a) = a

k

. Since A is abelian, we have

f

k

(ab) = (ab)

k

= a

k

b

k

= f

k

(a)f

k

(b)

If k = −1, then the function is injective (a = b → a

−1

= b

−1

→ f(a) = f(b)) and surjective (a ∈ A →

f(a

−1

) = a).

Exercise 1.6.23

Let σ be an automorphism such that σ

2

is the identity map and σ(g) = g iﬀ g = 1. Choose arbitrary elements

a, b ∈ G. σ is bijective, so there are x, y ∈ G such that σ(x) = a, σ(y) = b. From this we have

→ σ(xy)

2

= xy = σ(x)

2

σ(y)

2

σ

2

is the identity map

→ σ(x)σ(y)σ(x)σ(y) = σ(x)σ(x)σ(y)σ(y) σ is a homomorphism

→ abab = aabb deﬁnition of a, b

→ ba = ab left- and right- cancellation of previous step

and since a, b were arbitrary this suﬃces to prove that G is abelian.

18

Exercise 1.6.24

We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. We’re told that x

2

=

r

2

= 1 and y

2

= s

2

= 1. From the exercise 1.2.6, the fact that x

2

= y

2

= 1 is suﬃcient to conclude that

xy = yx

−1

.

Exercise 1.6.25a

Let v = [v[ cos(φ) +[v[ sin(φ) be an arbitrary vector. The given matrix transforms v as follows:

_

cos(θ) −sin(θ)

sin(θ) cos(θ)

_ _

[v[ sin(φ)

[v[ cos(φ)

_

=

_

[v[[cos(φ) cos(θ) −sin(φ) sin(θ)]

[v[[sin(φ) cos(θ) + cos(φ) sin(θ)]

_

which, via the angle addition formulas from the trigonmetric identities, is equivalent to

_

[v[ cos(φ + θ)

[v[ sin(φ + θ)

_

which is, of course, the original vector with its endpoint rotated by an additional φ radians counterclockwise

about the origin. Our vector v was arbitrary, so every vector endpoint (and thus every point in R

2

) is also

rotated in the same way.

Exercise 1.6.25b

We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. ϕ represents a rotation

of 2π/n radians, so clearly o(ϕ(r)) = n. And ϕ(s)

2

= I, so o(ϕ(s)) = 2. We can show that the relationship

rs = sr

−1

has an associated relationship ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(s)ϕ(r)

−1

by some tedious algebraic veriﬁcation. The

text (bottom of p38) assures us that this is suﬃcient to guarantee an isomorphism between G and D

2n

.

Exercise 1.6.26

Further deﬁne ϕ as follows:

ϕ(1) = I, ϕ(k) =

_

0 −

√

−1

−

√

−1 0

_

We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. There are a lot of

relations that need to be algebraically veriﬁed (e.g., ϕ(i)

2

= −ϕ(1), ϕ(i)ϕ(j) = k) but they are trivial (albeit

tedious). The identity is the only element of Q

8

that maps to I ∈ GL

2

(C), so by exercise 1.6.14, this is suﬃcient

to prove that ϕ is injective.

Exercise 1.7.1

Let F be a ﬁeld and deﬁne a group action of G = F

×

on A = F by g a = ga. The element 1 ∈ F

×

satisﬁes

property (i) of group actions (1 a = a for all a ∈ F). To prove property (ii), we note that (F, ) is not a group

(0 has no inverse), but it is still a semigroup (it’s associative and closed under its operation). Property (ii) is

then justiﬁed as follows:

(g

1

g

2

) a

= g

1

g

2

a deﬁnition of the group action; F is closed under multiplication

= g

1

(g

2

a) multiplication in F is associative

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

19

Exercise 1.7.2

The element 0 ∈ Z satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (0 a = a for all a ∈ Z). To justify property (ii), let

g

1

, g

2

, a be arbitrary elements of Z:

(g

1

+ g

2

) a

= (g

1

+ g

2

) + a deﬁnition of the group action; Z is closed under addition

= g

1

+ (g

2

+ a) addition in Z is associative

= g

1

+ (g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

Exercise 1.7.3

The element 0 ∈ R satisﬁes property (i) of group actions. To justify property (ii), let r

1

, r

2

be arbitrary elements

of R and let (x, y) be an arbitrary point in R R:

(r

1

r

2

) (x, y)

= (r

1

+ r

2

) (x, y) operation on R is addition

= (x + (r

1

+ r

2

)y, y) deﬁnition of group action

= (x + (r

1

+ r

2

)y, y) operation on R is addition

= ((x + r

1

y) + r

2

y, y associativity, distributive property of ﬁeld R R

= r

2

(x + r

1

y, y) deﬁnition of group action

= r

2

(r

1

(x, y)) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

+ (g

2

+ a) addition in Z is associative

= g

1

+ (g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

= g

1

(g

2

a) deﬁnition of group action

Exercise 1.7.4a

Let K represent the kernel of the action (g ∈ G : g a = a for all a ∈ A). By the subgroup criterion (proven in

chapter 2), we need show that a left identity exists and that a, b ∈ K → ab

−1

∈ K. It’s clear that 1 ∈ K, so an

identity exists. Now assume that g

1

, g

2

∈ K:

→ 1, g

1

, g

2

∈ K assumed

→ (∀a ∈ A)g

1

a = a ∧ g

2

a = a ∧ 1 a = a deﬁnition of K

→ (∀a ∈ A)g

1

(g

2

a) = a algebraic substitution

→ (∀a ∈ A)(g

1

g

2

) a = a property (ii) of group actions

→ g

1

g

2

∈ K deﬁnition of K

Exercise 1.7.4b

Fix some a ∈ A and let S represent the stabilizer of a in G. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2), we

need show that a left identity exists and that a, b ∈ S → ab

−1

∈ S. It’s clear that 1 ∈ S, so an identity exists.

Now assume that g

1

, g

2

∈ S:

20

→ 1, g

1

, g

2

∈ S assumed

→ g

1

a = a ∧ g

2

a = a ∧ 1 a = a deﬁnition of S

→ g

1

(g

2

a) = a algebraic substitution

→ (g

1

g

2

) a = a property (ii) of group actions

→ g

1

g

2

∈ S deﬁnition of S

Exercise 1.7.5

Each step in the following proof is bidrectional (iﬀ):

→ g ∈ K assumed

↔ (∀a ∈ A)ga = a deﬁnition of K

↔ (∀a ∈ A)σ

g

(a) = a deﬁnition of σ

g

↔ σ

g

is the identity permutation on G deﬁnition of the identity function

↔ σ

g

is the identity element of S

A

deﬁnition of the group S

A

↔ g is in the kernel of ϕ : G → S

A

deﬁnition of kernel, ϕ

Exercise 1.7.6

Proof by contradiction. Assume that G is not faithful: then there are distinct nonidentity elements g

1

, g

2

such

that g

1

a = g

2

a for all a ∈ A. From this, we obtain

(g

−1

1

g

2

) a = g

−1

1

(g

2

a) = g

−1

1

(g

1

a) = (g

−1

1

g

1

) a = 1 a = a

and thus g

−1

1

g

2

∈ K. And this element cannot be the identity since g

1

,= g

2

. Thus the kernel contains a

nonidentity element. By contrapositive, if K = ¦1¦ then G is faithful.

Exercise 1.7.7

The kernel of the given action is ¦1¦; by the previous exercise, this suﬃces to prove that the action is faithful.

Exercise 1.7.8a

Let G = S

A

and let B = T(A). The identity permutation σ

1

satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (σ

1

(b) = b for

all b ∈ B). To show that property (ii) is satisﬁed, let σ

g

, σ

h

be arbitrary elements of G and let b be an arbitrary

element of B:

(σ

g

◦ σ

h

) b

= (σ

g

◦ σ

h

)(b) deﬁnition of

= σ

g

(σ

h

(b)) deﬁnition of ◦

= σ

g

(σ

h

b) deﬁnition of

Exercise 1.7.8b

The element (1 2) acts on each subset by replacing 1 (if it exists) with 2 and vice-versa. For example, (1 2)¦1, 4¦ =

¦2, 4¦. The element (1 2 3) replaces each 1 with 2, each 2 with 3, and each 3 with 1. For example, (1 2 3)¦2, 3, 4¦ =

¦3, 1, 4¦.

Exercise 1.7.9

The proof in 1.7.8(a) and the description in 1.7.8(b) still apply when subsets are replaced with ordered k-tuples.

21

Exercise 1.7.10a

We prove that the action is faithful for k < [A[ or k ≥ [Z[.

case 1) Suppose [A[ is ﬁnite and k < [A[. We show that the action of S

n

on k-element subsets of A is faithful.

Let σ

x

, σ

y

∈ S

n

be any two distinct permutations of A. Since these permutations are distinct, there is

some a ∈ A such that σ

x

(a) ,= σ

y

(a). From the invertibility of permutations this gives us the inequality

σ

x

(a) ,= σ

y

(a) → σ

−1

y

σ

x

(a) ,= σ

−1

y

(σ

y

(a)) = a

Since 1 ≥ k < n, we can choose a k-element subset B ⊂ A such that a ∈ B but σ

−1

y

(σ

x

(a)) ,∈ B. We

can now demonstrate that the action is faithful, since σ

x

(B) contains σ

x

(a), but σ

y

(B) does not contain

σ

y

(σ

−1

y

(σ

x

(a))) = σ

x

(a). Thus σ

x

and σ

y

do not perform the same action on B. But these were arbitrary

elements of S

A

, thus no two elements of S

A

perform the same action. By deﬁnition, this means that S

A

is faithful on the set of k-element subsets of A.

case 2) Suppose [A[ is ﬁnite and k = [A[. There is only one distinct subset of size k: A itself. And every

permutation of A is still the same set (just rearranged). Thus S

n

is the trivial action on k-element subsets

of [A[.

case 3) Suppose [A[ is inﬁnite. For all ﬁnite k, we can follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action

is faithful. If k is also inﬁnite, then we can still choose an arbitrary a ∈ A and let B = A−¦a¦, and then

follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is still faithful.

Exercise 1.7.10b

Choose two arbitrary permutations σ

x

, σ

y

∈ S

n

. For these to be distinct, there must be some a ∈ A such that

σ

x

(a) ,= σ

y

(a). Having chosen such an a, let B be the k-tuple consisting of the element a repeated k times. It’s

clear that σ

x

(B) ,= σ

y

(B), so the action of S

A

is faithful. But the value of k was never speciﬁed, so this proof

holds for all values of k (ﬁnite and inﬁnite).

Exercise 1.7.12

Note that a regular n-gon is a two-dimensional shape; the three-dimensional version is a regular n-hedron. Let n

be even, and label the vertices of the n-gon clockwise as 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1. Let the n/2 pairs of opposite vertices

be represented by the set of ordered pairs ¦a

i

¦ deﬁned as

¦a

i

¦ =

__

i,

n

2

+ i

_

: 0 ≤ i <

n

2

_

We deﬁne the action of D

2n

on the elements of ¦a

i

¦ so that the elements of D

2n

permute the set as follows:

r

k

a

i

= a

(i−k) mod n

s

k

a

i

= a

(i−kn/2) mod n

To prove this is an action, we note that r

0

a

i

= a

i

for all a

i

, so property (i) of group actions is satisﬁed. To

verify property (ii), let r

a

s

b

and r

x

s

y

be two arbitrary elements of D

2n

:

(r

a

s

b

r

x

s

y

) a

i

= a

j

, with j = ((((i −ny/2) −x) −nb/2) −a) mod n deﬁnition of , associativity of modular arith-

metic

= r

a

s

b

a

k

, with k = ((i −ny/2) −x) mod n deﬁnition of , associativity of modular arith-

metic

= r

a

s

b

(r

x

s

y

a

i

) deﬁnition of

The kernel of this action is ¦r

0

¦ = ¦1¦.

22

Exercise 1.7.13

We prove that the identity element of G is the only element in the kernel K. Property (i) of group actions

guarantees that 1

G

∈ K. But let g ∈ G be an arbitrary non-identity element of G and choose 1

G

∈ A = G.

Then g1

G

,= 1

G

and so g ,∈ K.

Exercise 1.7.14

We prove by contradiction that property (ii) of group actions is not satisﬁed. Assume A = G is non-abelian and

deﬁne the action g a = ag. Let g

1

, g

2

be arbitrary elements of G. Hypothesis to be contradicted: suppose that

property (ii) of group actions were satisﬁed.

(g

1

g

2

) a

= a(g

1

g

2

) deﬁnition of this group action

= (ag

1

)g

2

) associativity of operation on G

= g

2

(ag

1

)) deﬁnition of this group action

= g

2

(g

1

a)) deﬁnition of this group action

= (g

2

g

1

) a)) property (ii) of group actions

This demonstrates that g

1

commutes with g

2

. But these were arbitrary elements of G so all elements of G

commute, which means that G is abelian. This contradicts our initial assumption that property (ii) of group

actions is satisﬁed.

Exercise 1.7.15

Let A = G and deﬁne the action g a = ag

−1

. The identity element 1

G

satisﬁes the condition 1 a = a for all

a ∈ A. To verify property (ii):

(g

1

g

2

) a

= a(g

1

g

2

)

−1

deﬁnition of this group action

= a(g

−1

2

g

−1

1

) property of inverses

= (ag

−1

2

)g

−1

1

associativity of operation on G

= g

1

(ag

−1

2

) deﬁnition of this group action

= g

1

(g

2

a)) deﬁnition of this group action

Exercise 1.7.16

Let A = G and deﬁne the action g a = gag

−1

. The identity element 1

G

satisﬁes the condition 1 a = a for all

a ∈ A. To verify property (ii):

(g

1

g

2

) a

= (g

1

g

2

)a(g

1

g

2

)

−1

deﬁnition of this group action

= (g

1

g

2

)a(g

−1

2

g

−1

1

) property of inverses

= g

1

(g

2

(ag

−1

2

)g

−1

1

associativity of operation on G

= g

1

(g

2

ag

−1

2

) deﬁnition of this group action

= g

1

(g

2

a)) deﬁnition of this group action

Exercise 1.7.17

Let G be a group and ﬁx a value for g ∈ G. Deﬁne a mapping f : G → G as f(x) → gxg

−1

. We want to prove

that the given function is an isomorphism. We do so by showing that it’s a bijective homomorphism.

23

f is a homomorphism

f(xy) = g(xy)g

−1

= g(xg

−1

gy)g

−1

= (gxg

−1

)(gyg

−1

) = f(x)f(y)

f is surjective

Choose h ∈ G. Then g

−1

hg ∈ G and f(g

−1

hg) = h. Thus f is surjective

f is injective:

f(x) = 1 iﬀ gxg

−1

= 1 iﬀ x = g

−1

g = 1. The kernel of f consists only of the identity element; by exercise 1.6.14,

this is suﬃcient to prove that f is injective.

Exercise 1.7.18

reﬂexive:

1 ∈ H and a = 1a so a ∼ a.

transitive:

If a ∼ b then a = hb, which implies b = h

−1

a, which implies b ∼ a.

symmetric:

If a ∼ b and b ∼ c, then a = bh

1

and b = ch

2

, which implies a = ch

2

h

1

, which implies a ∼ c.

Exercise 1.7.19

Let H be a subgroup of ﬁnite group G, and let H act on G by left multiplication. Fix an element x ∈ G and

let O

x

be the orbit of x under the action of H. Deﬁne the map f : H → O

x

as h → hx. We prove that f is a

bijection.

f is surjective:

O

x

is deﬁned as the set ¦hx : h ∈ G¦ which is exactly the image of f(H).

f is injective:

h(a) = h(b) iﬀ ha = hb iﬀ a = b (by left-cancellation).

We’ve shown that [H[ = [O

x

[. But H was an arbitrary subgroup and x was an arbitrary element of G: thus

[O

x

[ = [O

y

[ for all x, y ∈ G. Applying the preceeding exercise, we conclude that G can be partitioned into

disjoint sets of size [O

x

[ = [H[; this can only occur if [G[ is an integer multiple of [H[.

Exercise 1.7.20

Label the 4 vertices of the tetrahedron as 1, 2, 3, 4. Let G be the group of rigid motions of the tetrahedron.

Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 vertices, so deﬁne the function ϕ : G → S

4

so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism:

ϕ(g

1

g

2

) = ϕ(g

1

)ϕ(g

2

), since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g

1

followed by the rigid motion

g

2

. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G, so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.6.14.

Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G), which is a subgroup by exercise 1.6.13.

24

Exercise 1.7.21

Choose one face of the cube to call the ’front’ and label its vertices a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

. On the opposite face, label

the diagonally opposite points to be b

1

, b

2

, b

3

, b

4

. This labels all eight vertices of the cube. No matter how we

rotate this cube, we know several things:

• exactly four of these vertices will be on the front of the cube

• for each i exactly one of a

i

, b

i

will be on the front of the cube (because they are diagonally opposite)

• no rigid motion consists only of swapping one or more points with the points diagonally opposite (i.e.,

swap one or more a

i

with its corresponding b

i

)

This last point is particuarly important: it means that if there were a set of rigid motions that would give us

front vertices of (arbitrary example) (a

1

, b

2

, b

3

, a

4

), then none of the 15 other ordered 4-tuples we could form

from replacing a

i

with b

i

(or vice-versa) would represent a rigid motion. This means that each rigid motion of

the cube can be uniquely expressed as a permutation of (1, 2, 3, 4). We now follow the logic of the preceeding

exercise to prove an isomorphism.

Let G be the group of rigid motions of the cube. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the

4 pairs of opposite vertices, so deﬁne the function ϕ : G → S

4

so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to

the rigid motion g. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g

1

g

2

) = ϕ(g

1

)ϕ(g

2

), since each side of the equation

represents the rigid motion g

1

followed by the rigid motion g

2

. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the

identity element of G, so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.6.14. Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G), which is a subgroup

by exercise 1.6.13.

Exercise 1.7.22

We can apply the preceeding exercise with opposite faces taking the place of opposite vertices. This is intuitively

true: we could place a cube inside an octohedron by placing one vertex of the cube in the center of each face

of the octohedron, and the rigid motions of the octohedron would correspond perfectly with the rigid motions

of the cube. So the rigid motions of an octahedron are isomorphic to S

4

itself (the errata for this textbook

eliminates the ’subgroup’ qualiﬁcation, although S

4

is technically a subgroup of S

4

).

Exercise 1.7.23

Label the front, top, and one side face of the cube as (respectively) A, B, C. Label the respective opposite faces

D, E, F. The set of rigid motions of the cube can be made up from various combinations of the three basic

rotations:

r

1

= (A B D E), r

2

= (A C D F), r

3

= (C B F E)

When these rotations act on the set of opposite vertices, the action faithful. But when they act on the set of

opposite faces, they are equivalent to

r

1

= (¦A, D¦ ¦B, E¦), r

2

= (¦A, D¦ ¦C, F¦), r

3

= (¦C, F¦ ¦B, E¦)

so that r

2

1

, r

2

2

, and r

2

3

are all equal to the identity motion. The kernel of the action becomes

K = ¦i, r

2

1

, r

2

2

, r

2

3

¦

(Any product of elements of K can be simpliﬁed to one of these elements). Note that 4[24, in concordance with

exercise 19.

25

element a ∈ G has an inverse (1 − a ∈ G and a (1 − a) = 1 − [1] = 0 = (1 − a) a), and associativity can be shown with a little tedious algebra. That G is abelian follows from the commutativity of addition: x y = (x + y) − [x + y] = (y + x) − [y + x] = y x

Exercise 1.1.8a

G has an identity element (1 ∈ G and z1 = z = 1z) and an inverse (z n = 1 implies (z −1 )n = 1 so z −1 ∈ G) and complex multiplication is associative. To show closure: → x, y ∈ G → (∃m, n ∈ Z )x → (∃mn ∈ Z )x

+ + m

**assumed =1∧y =1 =1 =1∧y
**

n mn n

def. of membership in G =1

m

mn

=1

→ (∃mn ∈ Z+ )xmn y mn = 1 → (∃mn ∈ Z+ )(xy)mn = 1 → xy ∈ G def. of membership in G

Exercise 1.1.8b

The group is not closed under addition. 1 and −1 are both elements of G, but 1 + (−1) = 0 is not.

Exercise 1.1.9a

The identity is (0, 0), the inverse of (a, b) is (−a, −b), associativity and closure are trivial.

Exercise 1.1.9b

The identity is (1, 0), associativity and closure are trivial. The inverse of (a, b) can be found by solving (a + √ b 2)x = 1 and is given by: a b (a, b)−1 = , a2 − 2b2 a2 − 2b2

Exercise 1.1.10

The deﬁnition of a symmetric matrix is that for all i, j we have aij = aji . In the group table, this is the case iﬀ for all i, j we have ai aj = aj ai which is the deﬁnition of abelian.

Exercise 1.1.11

General formula is: |a| = lcm(a, 12)/a. |0| = 1 |1| = 12 |2| = 6 |3| = 4 |4| = 3 |5| = 12 |6| = 2 |7| = 12 |8| = 3 |9| = 4 |10| = 6 |11| = 12

2

.1. then this smallest integer must be less than or equal to 2. ak ak+1 ). . Exercise 1.1. ak )(a−1 .1. ak )ak+1 a−1 (a−1 . By induction. |1| = 38 |2| = 18 |6| = 6 |9| = 4 |10| = 18 |12| = 3 | − 1| = 36 | − 10| = 18 | − 18| = 2 Exercise 1. . a−1 ) 1 k .15 to ﬁnd y such that 36x + ay = 1 and this y would be the order of a. . . we have: (a1 a2 . ak )1(a−1 . . The order of x is the smallest integer n such that xn = 1. it’s clear that a1 = a−1 . . Thus equality holds for the n = k + 1 case. . Supposing the equality holds for the n = k 1 case. if x2 = 1. . and thus x · xn−1 = 1.Exercise 1.12 |1| = 1 | − 1| = 2 |7| = 2 | − 7| = 2 |13| = 2 Exercise 1.1. .3.16 This follows directly from the deﬁnition of |x|.15 Proof by induction. . a−1 ) 1 k+1 k = = (a1 a2 . equality holds for all n ∈ Z+ . .1. The proof for left inverse is similar. ak ak+1 )(a−1 a−1 . Exercise 1. . a−1 ) 1 k (a1 a2 . Exercise 1.13 General formula is: |a| = lcm(a. .1. a−1 ) 1 associativity deﬁnition of inverses deﬁnition of identity equality holds for n = k =e (a−1 a−1 k+1 k and thus is shown to be the right inverse of (a1 a2 . . then xn = 1. . Thus it can be only 1 or 2. For each a we need to use the methods of exercises 0. 36)/a. . For the n = 1 case. a−1 ) 1 k+1 k = (a1 a2 .17 If |x| = n. which makes xn−1 the inverse of x.14 This would be tedious to type out. . . . 3 .

21 → x2k+1 = 1 → x2k+1 x = 1x = x → x2k+2 = x → (x ) 2 k+1 assumed. not order) then clearly xa+b = x0 = xa x−a = xa xb ow assume.19(a) 1. we have xn = 1 ↔ (xn )−1 = 1−1 = 1 ↔ x−n = 1 ↔ (x−1 )n = 1 Thus the least n such that xn = 1 must also be the least n such that (x−1 )n = 1.20 From 1. Parts (a) and (b) can be shown to hold for a. Exercise 1.Exercise 1.19(b). The only thing left to show is that part (a) holds when a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a: Assume that a < 0 < b or b < 0 < a. that |a| < |b| Then b has the same sign as −a and b has the same sign as a + b. If |a| = |b| (absolute value.1.19(a) =x 4 . without loss of generality.19c Parts (a) and (b) trivially hold when a = 0 or b = 0.19a Part (b) is a special case of exercise 1.1.19a Part (a) is a direct consequence of associativity.1.1.1. since −a and b + a have same sign left cancellation Exercise 1. b ≤ 0 by taking the inverses of each side of each equation. Exercise 1.1.1.15.15 xy = 1x = x y xy = 1 ) = xy → x−1 y −1 xy = x−1 x →x −1 −1 → (x −1 −1 −1 y → xy = yx Exercise 1.1.18 → xy = yx →y →y −1 −1 assumed −1 xy = y yx left multiplication deﬁnition of inverse left multiplication deﬁnition of inverse deﬁnition of inverse consequence of exercise 1. since n = 2k + 1 right multiplication 1. Therefore −a has the same sign as a + b and we can deduce: xa xb = xa x−a+b+a = xa x−a xb+a = (xb+a from b = b + a − a from part (a). Exercise 1.1.1.1.

1. if xn ∈ H then x−n ∈ H so H is closed under inverses. just take the inverse of each side of the equation to yield (ab)−n = b−n a−n . Exercise 1. Right-multiplying by b−1 a−1 yields ab = ba. Assume the equality holds for n = k: (ab)k+1 = a(ba)k b (= a(ab)k b (= aa b b k+1 k+1 k k tricky associativity a.1. Exercise 1. b) · (c. we see that (ab)(ab) = b(aa)b = 1. let x = ab and g = b−1 in the preceeding proof and conclude that the least n such that (ab)n = 1 must also be the least n such that (babb−1 )n = (ba)n = 1.1.1.24 Proof by induction. and (xi xj )xk = xi+j+k = xi (xj xk ) so it is associative. b commute equality holds for n = k (= a b Thus equality holds for all n ∈ N. Exercise 1. Exercise 1.26 We’re told that H is nonempty so it contains some element h. it’s closed under inverses and the binary operation. of × def.27 Let H = xn : n ∈ Z. b) ↔ (ac. It inherits associativity from G.Exercise 1. Exercise 1. so |xs | ≤ t. Exercise 1. it’s trivially closed under the binary operation.23 (xs )t = xst = xn = 1. That’s suﬃcient for H to be a group. bd) = (ca.1. The identity x0 = 1 exists in n.28 All parts of this exercise can be proven through simple but tedious algebra. Exercise 1. The n = 0 and n = 1 cases are trivial. To prove that this holds for negative n.25 Given that x2 = 1.1.19(a) n ↔ xg(g −1 xg)n−1 g −1 = 1 ↔ g −1 xg(g −1 xg)n−1 g −1 g = g −1 1g = 1 ↔ g −1 xg(g −1 xg)n−1 = 1 ↔ (g −1 xg) = 1 n This shows that the least n such that x = 1 must also be the least n such that (g −1 xg)n = 1.1.1. To prove that |ab| = |ba|. then apply commutativity to conclude (ba)−n = b−n a−n . it contains the identity element hh−1 = 1. db) ↔ ac = ca and bd = db def.1. then we would have 0 ≤ sk < st = n with xsk = 1 contradicting the assumption that |x| = n. d) · (a. But if there were some k such that 0 ≤ k < t such that (xs )k = 1.22 → xn = 1 ↔ (xgg −1 n assumed ) =1 gg −1 = 1 tricky associativity left and right multiplication right cancellation 1. d) = (c.29 → (a. of equality in A × B 5 .

(bq )x/q ) = (1x/p . But 2i < n by the previous exercise.symmetric. b)| divides x = [p.1.1. Let k be an arbitrary power of x. g ∈ G|g = g −1 ) must also have an even number of elements. 1) = (a. then we would have x|m−n| = 1 which would contradict the assumption that x was of inﬁnite order. and easily shown to be transitive. so n|2i implies 2i = 0 or 2i = n. b) divides [p. we can ﬁnd unique values of a.31 To prove that t(G) has an even number of elements.1. Exercise 1. b)n Right-multiplying gives us: (1.33b It’s trivial to show that i = k implies xi xi = x2k 1 and therefore xi = x−1 . 1b) = (a. b−n ) = (an . We’ve now shown that n = |(a. q = |b|.1.1.24: (1. b)x = (ax . q] divides n. and x = [p. Thus the set G − t(G) (that is.30 To prove commutativity: (a. Exercise 1. b)|. 1)(1.35 Let x ∈ G have order n.32 Suppose xi = xj for 0 ≤ i < j ≤ n − 1. Now let n = |(a. b1) = (1. Exercise 1.Exercise 1. Each element in G − t(G) has g 2 = 1. To prove in the other direction: → xi = x−i assumed ↔ xi xi = x−i xi ↔ x2i = 1 This shows that xi = x−i iﬀ n (the order of x) divides 2i. which would contradict the claim that |x| = n. From exercise 1. Thus p and q both divide n.1. Exercise 1.33a Part (a) is the contrapositive of exercise 1. Exercise 1. Then: (a. It contains the identity. b)]n = (a. 1) Now let p = |a|. q]. Thus t(G) has an even number of elements.34 Were it the case that xm = xn for some m = n. 1) = 1 Thus the order of (a. so this nonidentity element must have order 2. 1x/q ) = (1. There are two elements per equivalence class on t(G): one element and its inverse. and therefore must have order 1 or 2 by exercise 1. Then 1 = xj x−i = xj−i .1. b)(a. 1)n which means (1. so it must contain at least one nonidentity element. establish an equivalence relation a b : (ab = 1ora = b) on t(G). so we must have 2i = n = 2k and so i = k. 1)n (1.31. b with 0 ≤ b < n such that k = an + b. b)−n = (a. Exercise 1. b) = (1a.1. By the division algorithm. b)n = [(a. which means that [p. Only the identity has order 1. 1) thus an = b−n = 1.1. This is clearly reﬂexive. b) = (a1. q] and that x divides n: therefore x = n. q] = x. 1)(1. bx ) = ((ap )x/p .1. And we’re asked to assume that i > 0.16. Thus we have xk = xan+b = xa nxb = xb 6 .

since o(z) = 2 it commutes with all other elements of order 2 (cf 1. . . r1 .Exercise 1. . Exercise 1. sr are generators is suﬃces to show that ssr = r. rn−1 s. so o(z) = 2 (k > 1. rn−1 . . that is. b2 = a.25 and we are done. all elements of D2n that are not a power of r (previous exercise). . then ab = ba when: → ab = ba ↔ r sr = sr r −i j i j j i j i assumed deﬁnition of a. b3 = ab. If neither b nor c are their own inverses. Thus: (rk s)2 = (rk s)(rk s) = sr−k rk s = ss = 1 This proves only that the order of (rk s) divides 2. . so all powers of r can be generated. So any element that is not equivalent to rk for some k is equivalent to srk for some k. assume that this element is a.2. The element a obviously commutes for all b of the form b = rj . so z is not the identity element).3 As above. We can now use a proof by induction: the case for x = r0 s and x = r1 s is trivial. 7 .1.1.4 z 2 = r2k = rn = 1. . we must show that it is 2. Let a be an element such that ab = ba for all b ∈ D2n .2 We know that D2n has order 2n with distinct elements r0 . Now assume that the equality holds for x = rk s: r(rk+1 )s = rr(rk )s = r(rk )sr−1 = rk+1 sr−1 and thus equality holds for x = rk+1 s. Exercise 1. then we would have rk s = 1 which would imply s = r−k which would imply that all 2n elements could be written uniquely as a power of r.1. But we’ve assumed that i ∈ 0. Either a = ri or a = sri for some i ∈ 0 . From 1.1. WLOG. r0 s. And this gives us a contradiction.2. . . Thus a = ri commutes with all b iﬀ a = r0 (the identity) or a = rk . then the group is abelian by 1.2. Exercise 1. for this choice of a = ri . r2 k trivially commutes with elements of D2n that are powers of r.1. .36 We know that at least one element must be its own inverse from exercise 1.31. To show that s. 2k − 1. . To show that this is the only element other than the identity that commutes with all elemenets of D2n . ab = ba for all b iﬀ i is a multiple of k.31 we know that b is its own inverse iﬀ c is its own inverse: if both are their own inverses.33). Thus the order of (rk s) cannot be 1. but rn = 1 so there could be at most n such elements. since it would imply that o(b2 ) = o(c) = o(b). case i) Suppose a = ri and let b be an arbitrary element of D2n . then they must have order 3 (b3 = c3 = 1). r1 s. We cannot have b2 = b (for we would have o(b) = 1) or b2 = 1 (for we would have o(b) = 2) or b2 = a (for we would have b = b. we use a very unsatisfying proof by exhaustion of cases. b4 = a2 = 1 so that o(b) = 4) so we must have b2 = c. every element of D2n which is not a power of r has the form rk s = sr−k . 2k − 1 so either i = 0 or i = k. Proof by contradiction: If the order were 1. If b = srj . b from relation rs = sr−1 left cancellation right multiplication by r−(j+i) o(r) = n n = 2k ↔ sr r = sr r ↔ r−i+j = rj+i ↔r −i+j −j−i r =1 ↔ r−2i = 1 ↔ n|2i ↔ k|i This shows that. .

Each side (pair of vertices) can be ﬂipped. For multiplication.2. the only element that commutes with element of D2n for n > 2 is ri where n|2i.14 For addition. n) = 1. so r2 = 1 implies n = 2. . . and b2 = (sr)2 = ssr−1 r = 1.13 A tetrahedron has four three-sided faces. by deﬁnition. Exercise 1. . The relations follow from each other: a2 = s2 = 1. (ab)n = rn = 1. Exercise 1. For multiplication.7 Let a = s and b = sr so that ab = r. so the total number of positions for a side is : The number of rigid motions for a given solid is given by: 2 ∗ (number of sides) = (number of faces) ∗ (number of sides per face) number of faces connected to each side Each solid has two faces connected to each side.6 Since o(x) = o(y) = 2. Exercise 1.8 n is. an icosahedron has twenty three-sided faces. contradicting the requirement that n ≥ 4. Then this a does not commute with all b: let b = r. Exercise 1.2.case ii) Suppose a = sri . . a dodecahedron has twelve ﬁve-sided faces.2. 1.2.9 through 1. 8 .2.2. a cube has six four-sided faces. Exercise 1. we have x = x−1 . If n is odd then the requirements that i ∈ 0. y = y −1 . Thus we have tx = xyx tx = xy −1 −1 right-multiply t = xy by x x y = y −1 .2. Thus we have shown that the only nonidentity element that commutes with all elements of D2n (n = 2k. b from relation rs = sr−1 left cancellation right multiplication by r−(−j+i) = sr ↔ ri+1 = ri−1 ↔ ri+1 r1−i = 1 ↔ r2 = 1 But n is deﬁned by the order of r.5 As shown in the previous exercise.15 For addition. p : (p. an octahedron has eight three-sided faces. Then we have → ab = ba ↔ sr r = rsr ↔ sr i+1 i i −1+i assumed deﬁnition of a. x = x−1 tx = x(xy)−1 tx = xt−1 Exercise 1. n and i = kn together imply i = 0 and thus the only commuting element is r0 = 1. Exercise 1. p < n : p is prime.2. so this reduces to (number of faces) * (number of sides per face). p : p is prime (by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic). n ≥ 4) is rk . the smallest r such that rn = 1 so o(r) = n.

The relations follow: x2 = r2 = 1. a) If v 3 = vv 2 = 1. Exercise 1.11. e) 1 = (uv)4 = u4 v 3 v = v. Thus.3. c) From part (b).Exercise 1. Using part (a) this becomes u−1 v −1 = v −1 u−1 . Similarly. d) We’re told uv = v 2 u2 . 9 .9 See exercise 1. by commutativity of u. if n = 3k then x3 = 1 but x0 .2. In either case.2. so in either case we have x = 1 and X2n is generated uniquely by s. So let x = r.3 is u. then v 2 = v −1 . x1 .3. The text demonstrated that xy = yx2 implies x3 = 1.2. n) = 1 then either n = 3k + 1 or n = 3k + 2 = 3(k + 1) − 1 for some k. Taking inverses of each side yields vu = uv. and xy = y −1 x : xy = (xy)−1 =y −1 −1 from o(xy) = 2 from o(y) = 2 x = yx−1 Exercise 1. uv = v 2 u2 . we have 1 = xn = x3k±1 = x3k x±1 = x±1 But x−1 = 1 iﬀ x = 1. y 2 = s2 = 1.17b We know that x3 = 1 so x3k = 1. y = s. right-multiplying by v −1 gives us u3 v −1 = v −1 u3 . The function is clearly injective (albeit not surjective) so |Sω | ≥ |N|. Letting x = r.8 Deﬁne the function f : N → Sω to be f (n) = (1n). which has order 2. by left. xy = yx2 . xn =1. y = s gives us x3 = r3 = 1.2 is x. v this becomes uv = (uv)2 . and uv = 1 implies u = v −1 = 1.18 The presentation in 1. x2 are distinct elements. Exercise 1.2. and rs = sr−1 : rs = xy = yx 2 from o(xy) = 2 xx2 = 1 → x2 = x−1 = yx−1 = sr−1 Exercise 1.3. u2 = u−2 and u3 = u−1 .y 2 = s2 = 1. By deﬁnition.16 Letting n = 2. we have r2 = s2 = 1. y|xn = y 2 = 1. Exercise 1. b) u3 = u(v 3 )u2 = (uv)(v u ) = (v u )(uv) = v 2 u3 v =v −1 3 2 2 2 2 from v 3 = 1 associative property from uv = v 2 u2 associative property from part (a) u v Left-multiplying both sides by v gives us vu3 = u3 v. we have u3 v −1 = v −1 u3 . v|u4 = v 3 = 1.or right-cancellation this becomes uv = 1. If (3.17a The presentation in 1.

. . . . . . Exercise 1. since m is the least integer such that σ m = I. . (1)2 = (1) so that o(σ) = 2. Exercise 1. . Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting p-cycles. we have o(σ) = m.Exercise 1. .3. . This establishes a contradiction so there can be no k such that σ k = τ .3. It must be the case that m|ik or. Having proven that ik must be a multiple of m. m and a < σ(a)} We can deﬁne σ as the product of every element of this set: σ = (a1 σ(a1 ))(a2 σ(a2 )) . . b) and the element (1 2 . (ak σ(ak )) Each a ∈ 1. . we see that the least such multiple of ik is ik = lcm(m. 10 . b) → lcm(a. . (ak bk )]p = (a1 b1 )p . we have σ p = [(a1 b1 ) . Then σ 2k = (3 5 4). Thus σ 2k (1) = 1 (implying that m|2k from exercise 10) but σ 2k (3) = 5 (implying m 2k by exercise 10). . (1)p = (1) And we can write σ as the product of elements of the disjoint collection of p-cycles: {(a σ 1 (a) σ 2 (a) . it must be the identity function. i) = 1: ab = lcm(a. [(ak bk )p = (1)p . Exercise 1. . we have σ 2 = [(a1 b1 ) . b) · gcd(a. b) Exercise 1. a + b) has order p despite not being a product of disjoint p-cycles. σ(a). b) = ab gcd(a. . im) = lcm(m. b > 1 such that p = ab = lcm(a. and appears iﬀ a = σ(a). . .14 Follow the preceeding proof. . . If we assume that o(σ) = 2 then σ maps a → σ(a) and maps σ(a) → σ(σ(a)) = a (with the possiblity that σ(a) = a). If we want the o(σ i ) = m. A more explicit example: In S6 we have (1 2 3)(4 5) which has order 6. . we must have im = lcm(m.3. . σ p−1 (a)) : a ∈ 1. we could ﬁnd ik such that ik = xm + b with 0 < b < m which would give us (σ i )k = σ ik = σ xm+b = (σ m )x σ b = σ b which would contradict the previous exercise’s conclusion that o(σ) = m. (ak bk )]2 = (a1 b1 )2 . Exercise 1. .12b no.13 Assuming that σ can be written has a product of commuting 2-cycles. ik). . .12a yes: let σ = (1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10) and k = 5. . . . . i) which occurs only when gcd(m. a)(a + 1 a + 2 .3. σ m−1 (a))} If p is not prime then we can ﬁnd a. m and a = min(a. . . . [(ak bk )2 = (1)2 . Let k be the smallest k such that σ k = (1 2)(3 4 5). .3.3. . m appears in at most one of these disjoint 2-cycles. by the division algorithm. Consider the set of 2-cycles: {(a σ(a)) : a ∈ 1. . Since σ m maps ak → ak . .11 Let k be the order of σ i .10 Trivial proof by induction on i.

. ba. All other elements of S3 can be written with these two elements: (1) = a2 = b2 (1 3) = aba = bab (1 2 3) = ab (1 3 2) = ba The fact that a2 = b2 = 1 means that every element of S3 can be reduced to an alternating string of a. Exercise 1.18 For each Sn we can choose i. 2. lcm(2. From exercise 1.3. .15 Choose σ ∈ Sn and let k be the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles in its cycle decomposition. Exercise 1. b. ab.19 With the explanation from the previous exercise we see that S7 has elements of order 1.20 Let a = (1 2).3. . Consider all 16 possible 2 × 2 matrices with entries in {0.Exercise 1. 1} and show that exactly 6 of them have nonzero determinants. . abab = ba . b|a2 = b2 = 1.3. .3.3. b = (2 3) and deﬁne the generator to be a.1. and 3 unique ways to construct the two 4 2-cycles with them. and lcm(3. this element has order of lcm(i.16 n From n elements. Exercise 1.17 There are n ways of selecting the elements of two disjoint 2-cycles. 3. Thus the number of distinct products of two disjoitn 2-cycles is: n 4 n! 1 n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − 3) 1 = = 3 (n − 4)!4! 3 8 Exercise 1. i)(n n − 1 .3. The order 6 element is given by (1 2 3)(4 5) Exercise 1. Thus S3 can be represented as string of 3 or fewer alternating elements a. thus the order of σ must be the least such k.1 Proof by enumeration. 6.24 we know that σ k = (1) means that (a1 . 11 .3. 4. so k must be a common multiple of the order (length) of each cycle in the decomposition of σ. 5) = 10. ai )k = (1) for each cycle in the decomposition of σ. b. Thus the number of distinct m-cycles in Sn is given by n!m! n(n − 1)(n − 2) .2. b.4. . 5.4. . there are m ways of selecting m elements and m! ways of writing an m−cycle with them. a. . n − (k − 1)) By exercise 15. Each distinct m-cycle can be written in m diﬀerent ways.5 (trivially) and 6. (n − m + 1) n m! = = m!(n − m)!m m m m Exercise 1. 4) = 12. Thus for S5 we can construct elements of orders 1. k). and aba = bab. k > 0 such that i + k ≤ n and construct following disjoint product Sn : (1 2 . There are only 6 such strings: 1. which is the least common multiple of the lengths of the cycles of σ. 7 (trivially). ab = baba and aba = bab) means that any such alternating string of length n ≥ 4 can be reduced to a string of length n − 2. The choice of the relation abab = ba (and its equivalents.

4 Suppose n is not prime. d such that ad = bc = 0 in (p + (p − 1))2 distinct ways • We can choose a. Exercise 1.2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 = 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 = = 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 2 =I =I Exercise 1.6 see previous exercise Exercise 1. c. b.4. n) = 1 which contradicts our assumption that a(1 < a < n) is a divisor of n.3 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 = 1 1 1 0 = 0 1 1 1 = 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 Exercise 1. d such that ad = bc = 1 in (p − 1)2 distinct ways • We can choose a. • We can choose a.5 If |F | = q is ﬁnite.7 The determinant of a 2 × 2 matrix is given by the formula det a c b d = ad − bc So we see that the deterimant is zero if ad = bc.4. c. it’s easy to show that: • We can choose a. b.4.4. d such that ad = 2 in p − 1 distinct ways • . Then we would have ak + mn = 1 (by deﬁnition of equivalence mod n) which means that gcd(a. c. Which means • We can choose a. then f I ∈ GLn (F ) for each f ∈ F (where I is the identity matrix) and thus |GLn (F )| ≥ |F | which means |GLn (F )| is inﬁnite. GLn (F ) is a subset of these matrices 2 and at least one such matrix has a zero determinant. d such that ad = 0 in p + (p − 1) distinct ways • We can choose a. so |GLn (F )| ≤ q n and thus GLn (F ) is ﬁnite. d such that ad = bc = 2 in (p − 1)2 distinct ways • . b. 2 Exercise 1. Using basic combinatorics.4. Then a has no multiplicative inverse.4.Exercise 1. Proof by contradiction: assume that ak = 1.. c. then there are at most q n possible n × n matrices.. If |F | is inﬁnite. and let a(1 < a < n) be a divisor of n. d such that ad = bc = p − 1 in (p − 1)2 distinct ways 12 . • We can choose a. b... d such that ad = 1 in p − 1 distinct ways • We can choose a. d such that ad = p − 1 in p − 1 distinct ways The same holds true for the number of ways we can choose b. c.

and c2 such that the product in part (a) is the identity matrix.8 Let A be the matrix with a1. 13 .9 We want to show that a1 c1 b1 d1 a2 c2 b2 d2 a3 c3 b3 d3 = a1 c1 b1 d1 a2 c2 b2 d2 a3 c3 b3 d3 This can be done tediously through algebra.4. 1 1 a−1 (1 − b1 c−1 ) 1 1 c−1 1 Exercise 1. and let B be the matrix with a2. associativity in exercise 9.10c G is a group: we’ve shown closure under the operation in part (a). Exercise 1.4.2 = 1 as the only nonzero entry.2 as the only nonzero entry.1 as the only nonzero entry. so all elements of G have a nonzero determinant ac − 0b = ac. and it’s clear that the identity matrix is an element of G. we have 1 1 a1 b2 + b1 c2 = a1 b2 + b1 c−1 1 which equals 1 exactly when b2 = a−1 (1 − b1 c−1 ).1 = 1 as the only nonzero entry while BA has a2.4.10a a1 0 b1 c1 a2 0 b2 c2 = a1 a2 0 a 1 b2 + b1 c 2 c1 c2 Exercise 1. With these substitutions. closure of inverses in part (b).4. Thus the total number of ways we can construct a 2 × 2 matrix with ad = bc is (2p − 1)2 + (p − 1)(p − 1)2 = p3 + p2 − p And since there are p4 possible 2 × 2 matrices over Fp . We’re told that a = 0 and c = 0. c−1 = 0. b2 . The proof changes very little.4.10b We want to ﬁnd values of a2 .Thus there are (2p − 1)2 ways to have ad and bc equal to 0.4. Exercise 1. So the inverse is 1 1 a−1 1 0 This is an element of G since a−1 = 0. the total number of such matrices with nonzero determinants is p4 − p3 − p2 + p Exercise 1. Exercise 1.10d Parts (a) through (c) are still valid after adding the further restriction that a1 = c1 . It’s immediately clear that we need to have a2 = a−1 and c2 = c−1 . and (p − 1)2 ways to have them equal each of the (p − 1) other values. Then AB has a1.

This occurs only when a = b = c = 0: that is. An explicit example can be given by letting a = b = f = 0. e = ac − b. So the inverse matrix is 1 −a ac − b −c X −1 = 0 1 0 0 1 Exercise 1. From this.11a 1 a b 1 XY = 0 1 c 0 0 0 1 0 To prove non-abelianism.11e Let X be an arbitrary element of H(R).11b We want to ﬁnd values of d. we see calculate Y X: 1 d e 1 Y X = 0 1 f 0 0 0 1 0 d 1 0 a 1 0 e 1 f = 0 1 0 b 1 c = 0 1 0 d+a 1 0 a+d 1 0 e + af + b f +c 1 b + dc + e c+f 1 So we have XY = Y X whenever af = cd. Exercise 1. Thus every nonidentity element has inﬁnite order. For X k+1 : ka kb + k(k−1) ac 1 2 = 0 1 kc 0 1 0 (k + 1)a 1 0 (k + 1)b + (k + 1)c 1 ac So that the proof by induction is complete. and nb + n(n + 1)ac = 0.4. We prove by induction that for all n ∈ N. The fact that each of the 3 entries can take |F | possible values implies that o(H(F )) = |F |3 . 14 . f = −c.11c Associativity can be proven with tedious algebra. the matrix X n has the form 1 na nb + n(n−1) ac 2 Xn = 0 1 nc 0 0 1 The case for k = 1 is trivial. For k = 2 we have 2 1 a b 1 X2 = 0 1 c = 0 0 0 1 0 Now assume that we have established the 1 a b 1 X k+1 = XX k = 0 1 c = 0 0 0 1 0 2a 1 0 2b + ac 2c 1 k(k+1) 2 form of X k .11d Too tedious to typeset. Exercise 1.4. when X is the identity matrix.4. e. This immediately yields a system of equations: d+a b + dc + e c+f = = = 0 0 0 0 e + af + b = Whose solution is d = −a.4. we see that X n = I only if na = 0.4. Exercise 1.Exercise 1. c = d = e = 1. The previous parts of this exercise show that H(F ) is a group. nc = 0. and f such that both of the products in part (a) are the identity matrix.

of abelianism ↔ H is abelian isomorphisms are surjective Each step in this proof is bidirectional.6. Now assume that o(ϕ(x)) = m is ﬁnite: → ϕ(x)m = 1H → ϕ(xm ) = ϕ(1G ) → xm = 1G → o(x)|m → o(x)|o(ϕ(x)) deﬁnition of m This last step implies that o(x) is ﬁnite. then G is abelian iﬀ H is 15 . Exercise 1.6. and true by deﬁnition of homomorphism for n = 2. of homomorphisms def.Exercise 1. Now. i. f (3)f (2) = 1 · 1 = 1 = f (6). −i = kj Exercise 1. k|i2 = j 2 = k 2 = −1.5. b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) ↔ (∀a.3 All the given relations of Q8 can be derived from 1. we have 1 = ϕ(x0 ) = ϕ(x−n xn ) = ϕ(x−n )ϕ(xn ) = phi(x−n )ϕ(x)n so that. It’s trivial for n = 1. so we’ve proven that when ϕ is isomorphic. j. → xn = 1G → ϕ(x ) = ϕ(1G ) → ϕ(x) = 1H → o(ϕ(x))|n → o(ϕ(x))|o(x) deﬁnition of n Note that this last step also implies that o(ϕ(x)) is ﬁnite. ij = k : ij = k → iij = ik → −j = ik. and if either is ﬁnite then o(x) = o(ϕ(x)).6. The result is not true if ϕ is only assumed to be a homormorphism (the step requiring isomorphism is clearly labeled). assumed ϕ is well-deﬁned ϕ is an isomorphism. b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) ↔ ϕ(G) is abelian assumed def. but clearly o(3) = ∞ while o(f (3)) = 1.5. i = −kj ij = k → −kij = 1 → −ij = −k → j = ki. choose an arbitrary x ∈ G and suppose o(x) = n is ﬁnite. Assuming it holds for n = k. by the deﬁnition of inverses. Thus we have shown that o(x) is ﬁnite iﬀ oϕ(x) is ﬁnite.1 o(1) = 1. As a counter example. of abelianism isomorphisms are well-deﬁned and bijective def.3 → G is abelian ↔ (∀a. b ∈ G)ab = ba ↔ (∀a. ϕ(x−n ) = (ϕ(x)n ) −1 = ϕ(x)−n Exercise 1. consider the following homormorphism : f : Z → Z deﬁned as f (n) = 1. o(−1) = 2.1 Trivial proof by induction on n. o(±i) = o(±j) = o(±k) = 4. thus 1-to-1 n n assumed ϕ is well-deﬁned from previous exercise Exercise 1. we have ϕ(xk+1 ) = ϕ(xk x) = ϕ(xk )ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)k ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)k+1 From this.2 lemma From the previous exercise. we know that ϕ(x0 ) = ϕ(x)0 so that ϕ(1G ) = 1H .

If ϕ is only a homomorphism. as proven by Cantor’s Theorem.6.6. Exercise 1.6.6.6. but G can be any group whatsoever.2. Sm contains m! elements while Sn contains n!. and this clearly acts as an inverse to ϕ. then we have the unidirectional proof: → G is abelian → (∀a. b ∈ G)ϕ(ab) = ϕ(ba) → (∀a.6.2. of homomorphisms def.6.8 Assuming m. Exercise 1.15) Exercise 1. then G is abelian implies ϕ(G) is abelian. so there can be no bijection between them unless n = m.10b The same logic used in part (a) can show that θ ◦ σ −1 ◦ θ−1 is well-deﬁned. of abelianism isomorphisms are well-deﬁned def. 16 .7 D8 has only one element of order 4 (o(r) = 4) while Q8 has three such elements (i. we have √ ϕ(a2 ) = ϕ(a)2 = ( k)2 = k = ϕ(2) √ Which.abelian.3. j. of abelianism This shows that when ϕ is a homormorphism. b ∈ G)ϕ(a)ϕ(b) = ϕ(b)ϕ(a) → ϕ(G) is abelian assumed def. Note that nothing can be assumed from the abelianism of H or ϕ(G).2. since ϕ is a bijection. Exercise 1. This contradicts exercise 1. Proof 2: suppose ϕ : Q → R were an isomorphism. n > 0. means that a2 = 2 and thus a = 2.10a →a=b → θ−1 (a) = θ−1 (b) → σ◦θ −1 θ is bijective −1 (a) = σ ◦ θ −1 (b) −1 permutations are well-deﬁned (b) permutations are well-deﬁned → θ◦σ◦θ (a) = θ ◦ σ ◦ θ Exercise 1. Let x ∈ R be the element such that ϕ(2) = x. let a ∈ Q be √ the element such that ϕ(a) = k. This contradicts exercise 1.5 Proof 1: There can be no bijective function between the two sets. This contradicts exercise 1. 3 Exercise 1. Consider ϕ : G → 1H deﬁned as ϕ(g) = 1H .6. ϕ(G) = H is trivially abelian. but there is no such element in Z.9 D24 has an element of order 12 (r) while S4 can have no such element (exercise 1. but no such element exists in R. From this. But this can’t be true of any a ∈ Q.6.4 C − {0} has an element of order 4 (i).6 Let Q has an element of order 3 ( 1 ). k). b ∈ G)ab = ba → (∀a.6. Exercise 1. Exercise 1.6.

Exercise 1.10c ϕ(σ ◦ τ ) = θ ◦ (σ ◦ τ ) ◦ θ−1 = θ ◦ (σ ◦ θ−1 ◦ θ ◦ τ ) ◦ θ−1 = ϕ(σ) ◦ ϕ(τ ) Exercise 1. Exercise 1. This function is clearly onto.12 The function f : (A × B) × C → A × (B × C) deﬁned as f ( ((a.17 Let ϕ : G → G be deﬁned by ϕ(g) = g −1 . → ϕ(a) = ϕ(b) → ϕ(a)ϕ(b)−1 = 1H → ϕ(a)ϕ(b −1 ϕ(G) is a group by previous exercise ) = 1H K = {1G } → ϕ(ab−1 ) = 1H → ab−1 = 1G →a=b Exercise 1. y) is in the kernel of π if π(x.6. we see that the kernel of π1 is K = {(a.14 Verifying the group properties of K is tedious but easy. Now assume that G is abelian: 17 . since ϕ is clearly surjective onto ϕ(G). b) ∈ A × B | a = 1A } = {1A } × B and the kernel of π2 is K = {(a. b) = (b. c) ) = (a. so ϕ(G) = G.6.6. (b. So we are asked to prove that ϕ is a homomorphism iﬀ G is abelian. c)) is easily shown to be an isomorphism. b) ∈ A × B | b = 1B } = A × {1B } Exercise 1.6. It’s clear that ϕ can’t be injective if more than one element maps to 1 ∈ H.6.15 (x.6. b). Proof by contrapositive that ϕ is injective if K = {1G }: Assume that K = {1G }.6. and bijective homomorphisms are isomorphisms. so the kernel is K = {(x.6.16 Following the logic above. We just need to show that 1H ∈ ϕ(G) and that ϕ(G) is closed under its operation and inverses. a) is easily shown to be an isomorphism. If ϕ is injective then the homomorphism is bijective.11 The function f : A × B → B × A deﬁned as f (a. Exercise 1. y) = x = 1. so ϕ is injective only if K = {1G }. Exercise 1. y) ∈ R2 |x = 1} = {1} × R Exercise 1.13 Verifying the group properties is tedious but easy. First assume that ϕ is a homomorphism: → ϕ(a−1 b−1 ) = ϕ(a−1 )ϕ(b−1 ) → ϕ((ba) −1 assumed properties of inverses deﬁnition of ϕ ) = ϕ(a −1 )ϕ(b −1 ) → ba = ab Thus ϕ(G) = G is abelian.

To prove surjectivity: q q q ∈ Q → ∈ Q → fk =q k k Exercise 1.18 Let ϕ : G → G be deﬁned by ϕ(g) = g 2 . then the function is injective (a = b → a−1 = b−1 → f (a) = f (b)) and surjective (a ∈ A → f (a−1 ) = a). we have fk (ab) = (ab)k = ak bk = fk (a)fk (b) If k = −1.22 Deﬁne fk : A → A to be fk (a) = ak .cancellation of previous step and since a. From this we have → σ(xy)2 = xy = σ(x)2 σ(y)2 → σ(x)σ(y)σ(x)σ(y) = σ(x)σ(x)σ(y)σ(y) → abab = aabb σ 2 is the identity map σ is a homomorphism deﬁnition of a. and is surjective since z ∈ G → z 1/k ∈ G → fk (z 1/k ) = z But by exercise 14.19 As deﬁnied here. Since A is abelian.21 Deﬁne fk : Q → Q to be fk (q) = kq.20 The identity element is the identity mapping. Exercise 1. Exercise 1. so there are x. fk cannot be injective: the k roots of unity of order k mean that the kernel of fk is of size k. Let k be ﬁxed and deﬁne fk as fk (z) = z k . This is clearly a homomorphism. Choose arbitrary elements a.6.6. From complex analysis. σ is bijective. σ(y) = b. Associativity and closure is inherited from the properties of function composition.23 Let σ be an automorphism such that σ 2 is the identity map and σ(g) = g iﬀ g = 1. isomorphisms are invertible and therefore have inverses in Aut(G). b → ba = ab left. b were arbitrary this suﬃces to prove that G is abelian.6. G is the set of ﬁnite roots of unity in C.6. Exercise 1. 18 . b ∈ G.6.6.and right-multiplication associativity deﬁnition of ϕ Exercise 1.→ b−1 a−1 = a−1 b−1 → (ab) −1 assumed property of inverses =a −1 −1 b → ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) deﬁnition of ϕ Thus ϕ is a homomorphism. we know that for each k ∈ N there are k distinct elements of order k. This function is clearly injective and a homomorphism.and right. Exercise 1. → ba = ab ↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b ↔ a(ba)b = a(ab)b ↔ (ab)(ab) = (aa)(bb) ↔ ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) left. y ∈ G such that σ(x) = a.

via the angle addition formulas from the trigonmetric identities. but it is still a semigroup (it’s associative and closed under its operation). ϕ(k) = 0√ − −1 √ − −1 0 We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation.14. ϕ(i)2 = −ϕ(1). so clearly o(ϕ(r)) = n. ϕ(i)ϕ(j) = k) but they are trivial (albeit tedious). is equivalent to |v| cos(φ + θ) |v| sin(φ + θ) which is.6. We’re told that x2 = r2 = 1 and y 2 = s2 = 1.26 Further deﬁne ϕ as follows: ϕ(1) = I. The text (bottom of p38) assures us that this is suﬃcient to guarantee an isomorphism between G and D2n .6.g. There are a lot of relations that need to be algebraically veriﬁed (e. we note that (F.7. Exercise 1. And ϕ(s)2 = I. this is suﬃcient to prove that ϕ is injective. We can show that the relationship rs = sr−1 has an associated relationship ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(s)ϕ(r)−1 by some tedious algebraic veriﬁcation. The identity is the only element of Q8 that maps to I ∈ GL2 (C). Property (ii) is then justiﬁed as follows: (g1 g2 ) · a = g1 g2 a = g1 (g2 a) = g1 (g2 · a) = g1 · (g2 · a) deﬁnition of the group action. To prove property (ii).. of course.6. Exercise 1. so o(ϕ(s)) = 2. so by exercise 1. ·) is not a group (0 has no inverse). ϕ represents a rotation of 2π/n radians. the fact that x2 = y 2 = 1 is suﬃcient to conclude that xy = yx−1 . Exercise 1.1 Let F be a ﬁeld and deﬁne a group action of G = F × on A = F by g · a = ga.Exercise 1. From the exercise 1. the original vector with its endpoint rotated by an additional φ radians counterclockwise about the origin.24 We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation. so every vector endpoint (and thus every point in R2 ) is also rotated in the same way.6. The element 1 ∈ F × satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (1 · a = a for all a ∈ F ).6.25a Let v = |v| cos(φ) + |v| sin(φ) be an arbitrary vector. F is closed under multiplication multiplication in F is associative deﬁnition of group action deﬁnition of group action 19 . Exercise 1. The given matrix transforms v as follows: cos(θ) sin(θ) − sin(θ) cos(θ) |v| sin(φ) |v| cos(φ) = |v|[cos(φ) cos(θ) − sin(φ) sin(θ)] |v|[sin(φ) cos(θ) + cos(φ) sin(θ)] which. Our vector v was arbitrary.6.2.25b We need to show that mapping preserves the properties of each generator and relation.

distributive property of ﬁeld R × R deﬁnition of group action deﬁnition of group action addition in Z is associative deﬁnition of group action deﬁnition of group action Exercise 1. Z is closed under addition addition in Z is associative deﬁnition of group action deﬁnition of group action Exercise 1.7. y) = (x + (r1 + r2 )y.7. let g1 .2 The element 0 ∈ Z satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (0 · a = a for all a ∈ Z). we need show that a left identity exists and that a. b ∈ K → ab−1 ∈ K. y)) = g1 + (g2 + a) = g1 + (g2 · a) = g1 · (g2 · a) operation on R is addition deﬁnition of group action operation on R is addition associativity. g2 ∈ K: → 1. r2 be arbitrary elements of R and let (x. b ∈ S → ab−1 ∈ S. let r1 . we need show that a left identity exists and that a. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2).7. y) = (r1 + r2 ) · (x. y) be an arbitrary point in R × R: (r1 r2 ) · (x. By the subgroup criterion (proven in chapter 2). so an identity exists. Now assume that g1 . so an identity exists. y) = (x + (r1 + r2 )y. g2 ∈ S: 20 .7. y) = r2 · (r1 · (x.3 The element 0 ∈ R satisﬁes property (i) of group actions. It’s clear that 1 ∈ S.Exercise 1. g1 . It’s clear that 1 ∈ K. To justify property (ii). y) = ((x + r1 y) + r2 y. g2 .4b Fix some a ∈ A and let S represent the stabilizer of a in G. Now assume that g1 . g2 ∈ K → (∀a ∈ A)g1 · a = a ∧ g2 · a = a ∧ 1 · a = a → (∀a ∈ A)g1 · (g2 · a) = a → (∀a ∈ A)(g1 g2 ) · a = a → g1 g2 ∈ K assumed deﬁnition of K algebraic substitution property (ii) of group actions deﬁnition of K Exercise 1. To justify property (ii). a be arbitrary elements of Z: (g1 + g2 ) · a = (g1 + g2 ) + a = g1 + (g2 + a) = g1 + (g2 · a) = g1 · (g2 · a) deﬁnition of the group action.4a Let K represent the kernel of the action (g ∈ G : g · a = a for all a ∈ A). y = r2 · (x + r1 y.

4} = {2. g2 such that g1 · a = g2 · a for all a ∈ A.7.8(a) and the description in 1. The element (1 2 3) replaces each 1 with 2. For example. From this.7.5 Each step in the following proof is bidrectional (iﬀ): →g∈K ↔ (∀a ∈ A)ga = a ↔ (∀a ∈ A)σg (a) = a ↔ σg is the identity permutation on G ↔ σg is the identity element of SA ↔ g is in the kernel of ϕ : G → SA assumed deﬁnition of K deﬁnition of σg deﬁnition of the identity function deﬁnition of the group SA deﬁnition of kernel. To show that property (ii) is satisﬁed. 4} = {3. 4}.8b The element (1 2) acts on each subset by replacing 1 (if it exists) with 2 and vice-versa.6 Proof by contradiction. and each 3 with 1.7. (1 2){1.7 The kernel of the given action is {1}. For example. Exercise 1. Exercise 1. 4}.7.7. we obtain −1 −1 −1 −1 (g1 g2 ) · a = g1 · (g2 · a) = g1 · (g1 · a) = (g1 g1 ) · a = 1 · a = a −1 and thus g1 g2 ∈ K. if K = {1} then G is faithful. g2 ∈ S → g1 · a = a ∧ g2 · a = a ∧ 1 · a = a → g1 · (g2 · a) = a → (g1 g2 ) · a = a → g1 g2 ∈ S assumed deﬁnition of S algebraic substitution property (ii) of group actions deﬁnition of S Exercise 1. 21 .8a Let G = SA and let B = P(A). g1 . let σg . The identity permutation σ1 satisﬁes property (i) of group actions (σ1 (b) = b for all b ∈ B). σh be arbitrary elements of G and let b be an arbitrary element of B: (σg ◦ σh ) · b = (σg ◦ σh )(b) = σg (σh (b)) = σg · (σh · b) deﬁnition of · deﬁnition of ◦ deﬁnition of · Exercise 1. Exercise 1.7. 3. ϕ Exercise 1. this suﬃces to prove that the action is faithful.→ 1. And this element cannot be the identity since g1 = g2 .7. 1. By contrapositive.8(b) still apply when subsets are replaced with ordered k-tuples.9 The proof in 1. by the previous exercise.7. Thus the kernel contains a nonidentity element. each 2 with 3. Assume that G is not faithful: then there are distinct nonidentity elements g1 . (1 2 3){2.

n − 1. It’s clear that σx (B) = σy (B). case 1) Suppose |A| is ﬁnite and k < |A|.10b Choose two arbitrary permutations σx . If k is also inﬁnite. To verify property (ii). We show that the action of Sn on k-element subsets of A is faithful. 2. there is some a ∈ A such that σx (a) = σy (a). since σx (B) contains σx (a). and then follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is still faithful. σy ∈ Sn be any two distinct permutations of A. case 3) Suppose |A| is inﬁnite. σy ∈ Sn . let ra sb and rx sy be two arbitrary elements of D2n : (ra sb rx sy ) · ai = aj . 22 0 deﬁnition of ·. we note that r0 ai = ai for all ai . but σy (B) does not contain −1 σy (σy (σx (a))) = σx (a). We can now demonstrate that the action is faithful.7. Having chosen such an a. with k = ((i − ny/2) − x) mod n = ra sb · (rx sy · ai ) The kernel of this action is {r } = {1}. the three-dimensional version is a regular n-hedron. Thus σx and σy do not perform the same action on B. we can choose a k-element subset B ⊂ A such that a ∈ B but σy (σx (a)) ∈ B. then we can still choose an arbitrary a ∈ A and let B = A − {a}. From the invertibility of permutations this gives us the inequality −1 −1 σx (a) = σy (a) → σy σx (a) = σy (σy (a)) = a −1 Since 1 ≥ k < n. and label the vertices of the n-gon clockwise as 0. Since these permutations are distinct. . so this proof holds for all values of k (ﬁnite and inﬁnite). Let σx . By deﬁnition.7. Exercise 1. Exercise 1.Exercise 1. Let n be even. thus no two elements of SA perform the same action. associativity of modular arithmetic deﬁnition of · . But the value of k was never speciﬁed. so the action of SA is faithful. Thus Sn is the trivial action on k-element subsets of |A|. . this means that SA is faithful on the set of k-element subsets of A. For all ﬁnite k. . But these were arbitrary elements of SA . n n +i :0≤i< 2 2 We deﬁne the action of D2n on the elements of {ai } so that the elements of D2n permute the set as follows: rk ai s ai k = a(i−k) mod n = a(i−kn/2) mod n To prove this is an action.10a We prove that the action is faithful for k < |A| or k ≥ |Z|. let B be the k-tuple consisting of the element a repeated k times. so property (i) of group actions is satisﬁed.12 Note that a regular n-gon is a two-dimensional shape. And every permutation of A is still the same set (just rearranged).7. we can follow the logic of case (1) and conclude that the action is faithful. associativity of modular arithmetic deﬁnition of ·. Let the n/2 pairs of opposite vertices be represented by the set of ordered pairs {ai } deﬁned as {ai } = i. There is only one distinct subset of size k: A itself. 1. . with j = ((((i − ny/2) − x) − nb/2) − a) mod n = ra sb · ak . there must be some a ∈ A such that σx (a) = σy (a). For these to be distinct. case 2) Suppose |A| is ﬁnite and k = |A|.

16 Let A = G and deﬁne the action g · a = gag −1 . To verify property (ii): (g1 g2 ) · a = a(g1 g2 )−1 = = = −1 −1 a(g2 g1 ) −1 −1 (ag2 )g1 −1 g1 · (ag2 ) deﬁnition of this group action property of inverses associativity of operation on G deﬁnition of this group action deﬁnition of this group action = g1 · (g2 · a)) Exercise 1. But these were arbitrary elements of G so all elements of G commute. To verify property (ii): (g1 g2 ) · a = (g1 g2 )a(g1 g2 )−1 = = = −1 −1 (g1 g2 )a(g2 g1 ) −1 −1 g1 (g2 (ag2 )g1 −1 g1 · (g2 ag2 ) deﬁnition of this group action property of inverses associativity of operation on G deﬁnition of this group action deﬁnition of this group action = g1 · (g2 · a)) Exercise 1. Hypothesis to be contradicted: suppose that property (ii) of group actions were satisﬁed.14 We prove by contradiction that property (ii) of group actions is not satisﬁed. Assume A = G is non-abelian and deﬁne the action g · a = ag. The identity element 1G satisﬁes the condition 1 · a = a for all a ∈ A. Let g1 .7. We want to prove that the given function is an isomorphism. We do so by showing that it’s a bijective homomorphism.7.7.Exercise 1. Exercise 1. Deﬁne a mapping f : G → G as f (x) → gxg −1 . This contradicts our initial assumption that property (ii) of group actions is satisﬁed.13 We prove that the identity element of G is the only element in the kernel K.17 Let G be a group and ﬁx a value for g ∈ G. g2 be arbitrary elements of G. Then g1G = 1G and so g ∈ K. The identity element 1G satisﬁes the condition 1 · a = a for all a ∈ A. Property (i) of group actions guarantees that 1G ∈ K. 23 .7. Exercise 1.15 Let A = G and deﬁne the action g · a = ag −1 . But let g ∈ G be an arbitrary non-identity element of G and choose 1G ∈ A = G. (g1 g2 ) · a = a(g1 g2 ) = (ag1 )g2 ) = g2 · (ag1 )) = g2 · (g1 · a)) deﬁnition of this group action associativity of operation on G deﬁnition of this group action deﬁnition of this group action = (g2 g1 ) · a)) property (ii) of group actions This demonstrates that g1 commutes with g2 . which means that G is abelian.7.

Exercise 1.6. which implies b ∼ a. Exercise 1. and let H act on G by left multiplication.20 Label the 4 vertices of the tetrahedron as 1.7.14. Thus f is surjective f is injective: f (x) = 1 iﬀ gxg −1 = 1 iﬀ x = g −1 g = 1. by exercise 1. It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g1 g2 ) = ϕ(g1 )ϕ(g2 ). since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g1 followed by the rigid motion g2 . Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G). But H was an arbitrary subgroup and x was an arbitrary element of G: thus |Ox | = |Oy | for all x. Exercise 1. Fix an element x ∈ G and let Ox be the orbit of x under the action of H. which implies a ∼ c. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 vertices. which implies a = ch2 h1 . then a = bh1 and b = ch2 . which is a subgroup by exercise 1.7. Deﬁne the map f : H → Ox as h → hx.7. we conclude that G can be partitioned into disjoint sets of size |Ox | = |H|. f is surjective: Ox is deﬁned as the set {hx : h ∈ G} which is exactly the image of f (H). 4. so deﬁne the function ϕ : G → S4 so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g. so ϕ is injective by exercise 1.14. which implies b = h−1 a.f is a homomorphism f (xy) = g(xy)g −1 = g(xg −1 gy)g −1 = (gxg −1 )(gyg −1 ) = f (x)f (y) f is surjective Choose h ∈ G. We prove that f is a bijection. 24 .18 reﬂexive: 1 ∈ H and a = 1a so a ∼ a. Applying the preceeding exercise. this is suﬃcient to prove that f is injective. f is injective: h(a) = h(b) iﬀ ha = hb iﬀ a = b (by left-cancellation). 2.6. transitive: If a ∼ b then a = hb.19 Let H be a subgroup of ﬁnite group G. Then g −1 hg ∈ G and f (g −1 hg) = h. Let G be the group of rigid motions of the tetrahedron. 3. this can only occur if |G| is an integer multiple of |H|. y ∈ G.13. We’ve shown that |H| = |Ox |. symmetric: If a ∼ b and b ∼ c.6. The kernel of f consists only of the identity element. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G.

in concordance with exercise 19. they are equivalent to r1 = ({A.7. Note that 4|24. then none of the 15 other ordered 4-tuples we could form from replacing ai with bi (or vice-versa) would represent a rigid motion.7. E. and one side face of the cube as (respectively) A. b3 . 4). and r3 are all equal to the identity motion. swap one or more ai with its corresponding bi ) This last point is particuarly important: it means that if there were a set of rigid motions that would give us front vertices of (arbitrary example) (a1 .6.6. So the rigid motions of an octahedron are isomorphic to S4 itself (the errata for this textbook eliminates the ’subgroup’ qualiﬁcation. D} {C. We now follow the logic of the preceeding exercise to prove an isomorphism. which is a subgroup by exercise 1. 25 . top. b2 . But when they act on the set of opposite faces. No matter how we rotate this cube. so ϕ is injective by exercise 1. The kernel of the action becomes 2 2 2 K = {i. Thus G is isomorphic to ϕ(G). Label the respective opposite faces D. E}) 2 2 2 so that r1 . r3 = (C B F E) When these rotations act on the set of opposite vertices. 3. r2 . The set of rigid motions of the cube can be made up from various combinations of the three basic rotations: r1 = (A B D E). b3 . the action faithful. ϕ is injective: the kernel of ϕ consists only of the identity element of G.. r1 . r3 = ({C. r2 . C.22 We can apply the preceeding exercise with opposite faces taking the place of opposite vertices. On the opposite face. This is intuitively true: we could place a cube inside an octohedron by placing one vertex of the cube in the center of each face of the octohedron. D} {B. so deﬁne the function ϕ : G → S4 so that ϕ(g) is the permutation corresponding to the rigid motion g.14. Each rigid motion corresponds to some permutation of the 4 pairs of opposite vertices. a4 . It’s clear that ϕ is a homomorphism: ϕ(g1 g2 ) = ϕ(g1 )ϕ(g2 ). bi will be on the front of the cube (because they are diagonally opposite) • no rigid motion consists only of swapping one or more points with the points diagonally opposite (i. b2 . b4 . B. F . a4 ). F } {B. 2.13. This means that each rigid motion of the cube can be uniquely expressed as a permutation of (1. r3 } (Any product of elements of K can be simpliﬁed to one of these elements).21 Choose one face of the cube to call the ’front’ and label its vertices a1 . This labels all eight vertices of the cube.e.Exercise 1. although S4 is technically a subgroup of S4 ). we know several things: • exactly four of these vertices will be on the front of the cube • for each i exactly one of ai . Let G be the group of rigid motions of the cube. Exercise 1. a2 . F }). label the diagonally opposite points to be b1 . r2 = (A C D F ). and the rigid motions of the octohedron would correspond perfectly with the rigid motions of the cube. r2 = ({A.23 Label the front. E}). Exercise 1. a3 .7. since each side of the equation represents the rigid motion g1 followed by the rigid motion g2 .