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Management of Special Libraries The 2020 Vision

Prof. Rhea Rowena U. Apolinario

UP School of Library and Information Studies

When it comes to the future there are three kinds of people: those who let it happen those who make it happen and those who wondered what happened
- John M. Richardson, Jr.

LIBRARIES: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

All libraries share one important feature:

provide access to information recorded on some type of medium

For librarians, what is more important is the . . .

Ability of patrons to retrieve and access the information in an efficient and effective manner

How do we achieve that?

Successful management processes to create appropriate work environments

90% of all problems in the organization are caused by bad management.

- William Edwards Deming
(noted Quality Consultant)

Effective Organizations . . .
Do not rely on past success Focus on quality and customer satisfaction Respond quickly to changes in the external environment Creative and innovative Committed to continuous learning

In the book of Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman entitled In

Search of Excellence, they identified eight (8) characteristics of excellent enterprises:

Action-oriented Learned about customers needs Promoted managerial autonomy and entrepreneurship Achieved productivity by paying close attention to the needs of their people Driven by the company philosophy based on the values of their leaders Focused on the business they knew best Had a simple organization structure with lean staff Centralized and decentralized, depending on appropriateness

In the library setting . . .

Libraries tend to copy what has worked effectively in the past
But for libraries to survive, they should be:
Open to new methods and techniques Able to compete with the growing and aggressive information industry Flexible and adaptable to change

The Challenges
Today, libraries and librarians are facing far greater challenges

than ever before as a result of:

Increasing competition Growing globalization Ever and fast-changing technology Pace of change

How do we respond to these challenges?

the art of getting things done through people (Mary Follet,

early 20th c.)

the creative problem-solving process of planning,

organizing, leading, and controlling an organizations resources to achieve its mission and objectives (Higgins, 1991)

using organizational resources to achieve objectives through

planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling (Stueart & Moran, 7th ed.)
the process of designing and maintaining an environment in

which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Weihrich & Koontz, 11th ed.)

A set of common processes of functions that, when properly carried

out, lead to organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

EFFECTIVENESS achievement of objectives EFFICIENCY achievement of the objectives with the least

amount of resources

How will MANAGEMENT of Special Libraries be in the Year 2020?

Nothing much will change . . .

Same basic functions (acquisition -> organization ->

dissemination) but with improvements / developments in how we them

Do not rely on past success

The important things are . . .

Focus on quality and customer satisfaction; learned about customers needs Respond quickly to changes in the external environment; action-oriented Creative and innovative; promote managerial autonomy and

entrepreneurship Committed to continuous learning Achieved productivity by paying close attention to the needs of their people Focused on the business they knew best Centralized and decentralized, depending on appropriateness

The role of the library today, tomorrow, and probably even in 2020 is not likely to change, we figure. Libraries and librarians will still be the connector of people to people, people to resources and resources to resources. We will still play the role of guide and coach and help people find information they need for the purpose specific to them. What will change is the number of new channels and new circumstances where libraries can play a useful role in the lives of the people we serve, and the way we present this information to them, especially digitally. - Ngian Lek Choh (IFLA 2011)

Looking back at the history of special libraries . . .

Why was there a growth? Information explosion Advances in computer and other ITs Information society
Flourishing of SLs and ICs - reflection of their success in

responding to the recent trends and the needs of their parent organization for efficient and effective information handling and management.

Are libraries and books going to die?

The fact is, over time, libraries have adapted many formats or

technologies in their role of organizing and preserving information. Ur's clay tablets scrolls Egyptian papyrus scrolls Roman vellum scrolls codex / book chained vellum manuscript books in the middle ages paper printing microforms digital etc... etc It matters little what the format is... What matters in the long run is the ability of the end user to have access to the appropriate resources to read and ponder.

Focus on . . .
Information needs and delivery
Various generations / generational differences Baby boomers (1946-1964) retired / aging Generation X (1965-1978) digital immigrants Generation Y (1979-2000) preference for teamwork, experiential activities, and using technology; strong in multi-tasking, goal orientation, positive attitudes, and collaborative style; digital natives and not digital immigrants Gens X & Y (NextGen Librarians) the managers of the libraries of the 21st century

Information and Communications Technology and let it work for our

advantage Digital information cycle (creation -> distribution -> storage -> access)

(Evans & Ward, 2007)

It is clear that librarians of the future will be working in environments that will continue to be turbulent and fast changing. (Stueart & Moran) To be successful in the 21st century, companies must take advantage of information technology, especially the internet and globalization. (Weihrich & Koontz)

The 2020 Vision

What is a VISION?
Vision is always mentioned with mission (mission

or purposes is a type of plan)

Vision an act of foresight, inspirational, within the

context of the future, timeless; an inspiring statement of the future, which can become the guide for actions and behaviors toward the accomplishment of a mission Answers the question why

Mission statement is short, succinct statement focusing on

the purpose of the organization, its reason for existence, and what it hopes to accomplish
It answers the following questions: Who (customers)? What (services)? How (activities)?

What do some scholars say about Special Libraries in the Year 2020?

What are the plans / vision of some libraries in the Year 2020?

March 7, 2020: An sms request reaches the mobile of a librarian seeking information on demographic profile of a street in Japan.The query, automatically, gets converted into a search (as the subject of the sms was Information Needed) on his (librarians) reference solutions system, a specialized application designed to answer reference queries.The search throws up relevant answers from google, library catalog, federated search across journals subscribed by the library and its institutional repositories.The google listing is ranked based on feedback to earlier sources that this reference solutions application had provided.The user gets the demographic profile of the specific street along with links to books (physical), e-books, journal articles, videos, working papers and dissertations that had specific references to that street in Japan along with demographics.The user, along with the information, gets many value additions.The contact mail ids of librarians in that city, links to other resources that requester of similar information had used and links to blogs on Japanese demographics were also sent to the user.The system also indicates which resources are accessible to the user, which are open source and which of them have to be accessed through inter library loans. In addition to information provision, the user, if interested, is also provided with various options of publishing ranging from commercial publishers, hybrid publishers to open access and self publishing.
- Dr. H. Anil Kumar Future of Special Libraries: Vision 2020

Dr. Anil Kumars Vision of Special Libraries in 2020

We are knowledge partners Digital presence will mainly reflect a one-stop search portal for the users
A portal that federates search across authentic sources and provides validated,

precise, relevant and appropriate information in various formats.

A universal search and mining system that links users to sources that

reside not only within the access domain of the institution but also provides links to open access resources and people and institutions working in that specific area. The system will also indicate, if not within subscribed content, where this needed information will be available and at what cost. Physical relevance of libraries in providing facilities for reading, interaction and learning needs that suit various individual styles of users. Provide a platform (physical and digital) to express, exchange and innovate ideas. Has staff that possesses the attributes, skills and knowledge of an excellent customer driven library professional with strong web 2.0 specialization.

In sum, Dr. Kumars vision of the Special Library in 2020 will

be . . . .
a portal for information mining, discovering, linking and

application total shift in the role of the library from support to partnering in knowledge creation and dissemination

Ngian Lek Chohs Libraries of the Future: The NLB Singapores Perspective
Users wish list
Ease of access (users would like to have as much content as possible online

and remotely accessible from wherever they are, using any device they have at hand) Ease of search across databases and available content assets Richness of content (users would like to have easy access to a very rich repository of content in all formats and languages, 24 by 7) Affordable services Content translated into the mother tongue languages that they understand Easy access to resource persons or librarians who can help them to navigate and provide suitable coaching when they need help

NLB envisages that users can use the library of the future in the

following ways :
The Library as a Service
The Library as a Companion The Library as a Gateway

The Library as a Social Leveller

The Library as Memory The Library as an Experience

The Library as Network

Ngian Lek Choh, 2011

Implications for Libraries and Librarians Today

Mental models of libraries and librarians will change Librarians, apart from being curious and keen on learning, must need to be equipped with many more skills such as problem solving, networking, negotiating, designing services, and engaging users in the digital spaces. In the future, the rate of having to learn new skills will accelerate, as the use of patterns of users change faster than ever before in the digital space.

Librarys role is to focus on unlocking information and resources

that are not available to users, and to find the most convenient ways to deliver this content to them 24/7 Self-service will definitely become a bigger thing in most libraries

Ngian Lek Choh, 2011

Implications for Libraries and Librarians Today (cont.)

User engagement and contributions - todays users demands not

only more quality services, they also want to be part of the librarys development and processes. Library processes - leverage on social networking sites and internet search engines to enable library content and services to be delivered more effectively; work closely with other repositories to enable search across them; resource sharing / collaboration can be created across nations and between nations. Measurement of success - clearer standards and measurements would have evolved and adopted to make benchmarking more meaningful.
Ngian Lek Choh, 2011

Geeta Paliwals Vision of Special Libraries in 2020

Libraries will be service-oriented rather than collection-

oriented; importance of physical space and provision of efficient access to digital content; Information professionals are information managers and disseminators Knowledge is Power
Successful companies are able to capitalize on timely information to

gain a competitive advantage; they rely on a well-funded, wellstaffed special library to give them the information edge

British Library 2020 Vision

Avancing the worlds knowledge.

In 2020 the British Library will be a leading hub in the global information

network, advancing knowledge through our collections, expertise and partnerships, for the benefit of the economy and society and the enrichment of cultural life. Our vision is supported by five key themes which set out the strategic priorities for the Library:
Guarantee access for future generations
Enable access to everyone who wants to do research Support research communities in key areas for social and economic benefit Enrich the cultural life of the nation

Lead and collaborate in growing the worlds knowledge base

LIANZA/ SLANZA Weekend School (Judy OConnell)

People, Information, Technology

LIANZA/ SLANZA Weekend School (Judy OConnell)

Digital tools Web 2.0 : Communication, conversation, connecting,


LIANZA/ SLANZA Weekend School (Judy OConnell)

Library 2.0

LIANZA/ SLANZA Weekend School (Judy OConnell)

We need libraries to matter in a web-savvy world Resource environment MARC compliant library catalogue 24/7

online access for information services Blended content enrichment Federated searching, Open URL Taxonomy supported by global metadata standards - SCOT, SCIS + Dublin Core etc17. Web 2.0 platform, E-Learning Folksonomy LMS, CMS, VLE, etc Tagging for personalisation Social Networks MySpace, Beebo etc Searching Blogs & Wikis Browser/Desktop API Ning networking Visual & personalised Social Bookmarking Image & media sharing Mobile computing Audio & video RSS feeds Instant Messaging Pipes plus! MSN,Yahoo, Meebo Twitter etc Mashups18. Web 2.0 conversation Teachers voice Students voice Librarians voice Library voice Our conversation19.

LIANZA/ SLANZA Weekend School (Judy OConnell)

Librarian 2.0 Embrace Web 2.0 tools Touch the entire Web

and without technolust build better data Content is conversation - Expand library be guided by how users bibliographic services access, consume and create content. Package and push metadata - make resources Build new services with discoverable Web 2.0 technologies Expand delivery - RSS and Physical and virtual beyond services20. Blogs & wiki - everyone can communicate RSS - everyone can read about it Del.ici.ous - sharing favourite web pages Flickr sort, store and share your snaps Ofce Tools - Gliffy, Writely, Slideshare.... Video Sharing - YouTube, Google Video, TeacherTube... Podcasting - mulitiple literacies in action Wiki - Power of the crowd Online Friends - MySpace, Ning, Beebo, FaceBook

LIANZA/ SLANZA Weekend School (Judy OConnell)

Virtual presence! Second Life - Library 2.022. virtual learning EduNation -

SecondLife23. :Birmingham ; RSS F http://heyjude.wordpress.com25. new spaces learning commons Information retrieval and critical analysis support Learning activities Social activities Academic writing guidance Special education learning support Information technology support Multimedia design and production Traditional bibliographic services 24/7 Bookmarking ; Filter and manage Targetted networking information Collaborative pooling Create a knowledge of information network TAG Your own Provide learning virtual ling cabinet support RSS Feeds; RSS browsing; RSS feeds Wikis and podcasts delivering rich educational content communicating collaborating exciting new learning opportunities Evaluate the global library experience Embrace Web 2.0 technologies Preserve knowledge and communities Experiment with creative spaces Make search technology work for you!

Oregon Library Association: Vision 2020

The vision is shaped and formed by a set of assumptions we share Collaboration
In 2020, Oregon librarians will rely on dynamic professional networks for

resources, support, and expertise

In 2020, library staff and library advocates will actively participate in

nimble, supportive and creative organizations

In 2020, public, academic, school, and special libraries will be an

important presence in Oregons communities

In 2020, the library will be the place its users need it to be

New York State Public Library Services 2020 Vision

General Recommendations
Collaborate to integrate services and collections of all types of libraries Improve the marketing of library services to all clientele and communities

by rebranding libraries Develop better tools for advocacy, and identify library champions at all levels of governance Recruit technologically savvy staff and train current staff in virtual librarianship while influencing higher education to appropriately educate tomorrows service providers. Actively address issues concerning the privatization of information and its impact on traditional models of library services such as free access, free lending and the inter- sharing of materials among libraries, etc. Function at the front lines of e-resources purchasing, licensing, digital rights management, digital curation, resource- sharing, and preservation. Create collaborative partnerships with all cultural and educational organizations in the state to offer our citizens the most comprehensive educational opportunities available anywhere in the world.

MANAGEMENT of Special Libraries in the Year 2020 will rely mostly on the Librarians as Managers

Managing in Todays Organizations

The nature of the work being done, the types of technologies

employed, the speed with which activities are accomplished, and the way workers think, talk, and react all have been drastically altered Management and the techniques used to practice it have changed, but the need for managers remains constant The future of libraries and information services rests squarely on the hands of this new breed of managers

The Managers (Librarians)

Individuals in the organization who are in a position to make the

decisions that allow an organization to reach its objectives Managerial Functions






The Managers Roles & Resources

Managers Roles
(according to Henry Mintzberg)

Managers Resources
Human Financial

Interpersonal Roles
Figurehead Leader Liaison

Informational Roles
Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson


Decisional Roles
Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Entrepreneur

Managerial Skills
Managers need different skills at different levels of

management Robert Katz identified three (3) managerial skills essential to successful management:
Technical specific functions and tasks, important at first-line

level manger/supervisor Human important at all levels Conceptual looking at the big picture


Managerial Knowledge for Librarians

G. Edward Evans proposed a universal core of knowledge for librarians, archivists, and information professionals; it includes:
Staffing Fiscal management Leadership Quantitative Methods Ethics

Motivation Communication

Delegation Marketing

Imagine this . . .
Ana has been a reference librarian since she graduated from library school almost 40 years ago. She is planning to retire next month. One of her friends asked her, Ana, did you ever think doing anything besides being a reference librarian? Ana replied that she had always enjoyed her position but that she had once considered becoming a manager. This was when the head of the reference department position was available and the director asked her to consider applying for it. What happened? asked her friend. Well, I decided not to apply after all, said Ana. I thought about it but decided it was more than I wanted to take on. You know that the head of the department has to do the performance appraisals of everyone who works in the department. The head also has to handle any disciplinary situations. The more I thought about it, the more I knew that I just didnt want the responsibility. What if someone was not doing a good job? I would be the one who would have to write the bad appraisal. What if an employee was consistently late and I had to reissue the reprimand? I decided it wasnt worth the hassle.

Yes or No?
Librarianship attracts individuals who often do not have a

strong desire to manage


Many enter the profession with a strong aversion to being a


People drawn to the library profession like to work with

information and people


It is common for many librarians to begin to manage on their

first job

The Life of a Manager

The work of a manager is never dull and is usually rewarding Henry Mintzberg found out that managers work at

demanding activities that are characterized by their variety, fragmentation, and brevity Managers are responsible for other people, their actions, and the success or failure of the company Most managers enjoy their jobs . . . they like the sense of autonomy and the ability to set their own agendas and are proud of being able to make a difference and of performing well The decision to be a manager requires careful thought

The New Generation of Managers

Baby boomers (1946-1964)
Generation X (1965-1978) digital immigrants Generation Y (1979-2000) preference for teamwork,

experiential activities, and using technology; strong in multitasking, goal orientation, positive attitudes, and collaborative style; digital natives and not digital immigrants Gens X & Y (NextGen Librarians) the managers of the libraries of the 21st century

The New Generation of Managers

Librarianship is now best characterized by change,

discontinuity and opportunity Modern managers motto: If you sense calm, it is only because youre in the eye of the storm The challenge is to achieve a balance between preserving the good aspects of the past while moving toward a new vision of the future

The USPS of Information Professionals

USPS (Unique Selling PointS)
Ability to understand subject analysis; to recall with relevance and

precision; to know where to find information, how reliable it is, how it can be retrieved and packaged to satisfy user needs, and communicated effectively and efficiently Need to possess a sound subject knowledge of our services; continuing professional development Need to draw on the subject expertise of everyone working in our organization using the skills of knowledge management Networking will become even more important

(Edward & Ward, 2007)

So if you want to become a manager

In every position you hold, begin to think about the skills and the

experiences you will need to qualify you for the type of position you desire next Remember that all managers learn from doing New managers learn from other managers in the organization and from professional colleagues outside the organization, through mentoring and networking. Observation and on-the-job-training are important aspects of development as managers Continuing education 21st century library managers need to develop their own portfolios of management skills that will permit them the flexibility to respond to a rapidly changing environment Consider yourself as a brand!

The 12 Greatest Entrepreneurs of Our Time (by John A. Byrne for Fortune Magazine)
From dreamers to doers.
The list is based largely on social and economic impact; the

world-changing vision of a founder who has inspired employees and other entrepreneurs alike; a record of innovation; and the actual performance of their companies over time. These founders created and then nurtured healthy, sustainable organizations that now have a combined market value of more than $1.7 trillion. They directly employ more than 3 million people, ranging from a high of 2.1 million to just over 3,000 at Facebook.

The 12 Greatest Entrepreneurs of Our Time (by John A. Byrne for Fortune Magazine)

Steve Jobs (Apple) Bill Gates (Microsoft) Fred Smith (FedEx) Jeff Bezos (Amazon) Larry Page and Sergey Brin (Google) Howard Schultz (Starbucks) Mark Zuckerberg (Facebook) John Mackey (Whole Foods) Herb Kelleher (Southwest Airlines) Narayana Murthy (InfoSys) Sam Walton (Walmart) Muhammad Yunus (Grameen Bank)

MANAGEMENT of Special Libraries in the Year 2020 will rely mostly on the Librarians as Managers The challenge is to achieve a balance between preserving the good aspects of the past while moving toward a new vision of the future

Managers should . . .
Not rely on past success
Focus on quality and customer satisfaction; learned

about customers needs Respond quickly to changes in the external environment; action-oriented Be creative and innovative; promote managerial autonomy and entrepreneurship Be committed to continuous learning Achieve productivity by paying close attention to the needs of their people Focus on the business they knew best

Thank you!
Prof. Rhea Rowena U. Apolinario Email: UP School of Library and Information Studies

British Library Vision 2020. Available online: Byrne, John (2012). The 12 Greatest Entrepreneurs of Our Time. Available online: Cabbab, JF. (2011). Acquisition Presentation for LIS 55 Students. Creating the Future: A 2020 Vision and Plan for Library Service in New York State. Available online: Evans, G. E. & Saponaro, M.Z. Developing Library and Information Center Collections. Evans, G. E. & Ward, P. L. (2007). Management Basics for Information Professionals, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Neal Schuman Pub. Kuman, H Anil. Future of Special Libraries:Vison 2020. Available online: Lapuz, E. (2011). Collection Development and Management. SLIS Review. Ngian Lek Choh. (2011). Libraries of the future: what our users want: the NLB Singapore perspective. Paper presented during the IFLA 2011 Congress in Puerto Rico. OConnel, J. Capture the 2020 vision for libraries. Available online: Oregon Library Association: Vision 2020. Available online: Paliwal, Geeta. My vision of special libraries 2020, in terms of services they will provide and the role of information professionals. Available online: Robbins, S.P. (1994). Management, 4th ed. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall. Stueart, R. D. & Moran, B. B. (2007). Library and Information Center Management, 7th ed. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited. Weihrich, H. & Koontz, H. (2005). Management: A Global Perspective, 11th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.