The Gutenberg Diagram’s Global Trend in Prepared Meals’ Packaging PKGSC 320 Dr.

Andrew Hurley August 6, 2012 Sydney Souviron

1

“The Gutenberg diagram is a diagram that describes the general pattern followed by the eyes when looking at evenly distributed, homogeneous information3. The Gutenberg diagram is also known as the Gutenberg rule and the Z pattern of processing. The diagram divides the layout of a display medium into four quadrants: the primary optical area in the top left, the strong fallow area in the top right, the weak fallow area in the bottom left, and the terminal area in the bottom right3. The theory suggests that a reader’s eyes naturally look to the primary optical area in the top left corner first and then move across and down the display or page in a sweeping motion to the terminal area in the bottom right corner. Each sweep of the eyes proceeds in a left to right diagonal path to the bottom right corner. The strong fallow area on the outside of this path, in the top right, receives little attention from the viewer, but the weak fallow area receives even less. If a design intends to have any attention placed on either of these areas outside the path, they must be visually emphasized. The tendency for a reader’s eyes to follow this path is influenced by the idea of reading gravity. Reading gravity is the left to right, top to bottom way in which people are taught to read3. The concept of the Gutenberg diagram was developed in the 1950s by the typographer, Edmund C. Arnold, and was named after Johannes Gutenberg of Germany. Born in 1400, Gutenberg was a blacksmith, printer, and publisher who introduced the process of printing to Europe. He invented mechanical movable type printing, which caused the start of the Printing Revolution6. The Printing Revolution helped to inspire a religious revolution. The printing method allowed books, the Bible, and other publications to be printed instead of being handwritten, allowing them to be more affordable for regular people. The printing press also factored into the progression of science, education, and has 2

also been said to have help move the world out of the Medieval era and into the Early Modern period8. Edmund Arnold, creator of the Gutenberg diagram, was a journalist famous for altering the layout of American newspapers and for introducing dynamic typography to the newspaper design5. Throughout his career, Arnold designed and redesigned hundreds of newspapers, including many famous newspapers such as The Chicago Tribune, The Boston Globe, and The National Observer5. His changes have become standard for today’s newspaper, including larger type and changing eight narrow columns to six in order to improve legibility. He also spent his career teaching newspaper design and writing books on newspaper typography. By pushing newspaper publishers to give designers and typographers more influence, design was able to move out of the restricted narrow vertical columns of type, which allowed more creativity for designs. Edmund Arnold also developed the idea of horizontal layouts and encouraged designers to use varied graphic elements on pages to help catch the reader’s attention5. When designs follow the Gutenberg diagram, they work in unity with reading gravity and allow readers to return to a logical axis of orientation3. For homogeneous displays, the Gutenberg diagram can make the layout of the page interesting and easy to read. These designs allegedly help to improve reading rhythm and comprehension of the design’s message. There is no true evidence proving that the Gutenberg diagram really helps improve reading or comprehension. The diagram most likely is only able to predict a reader’s eye movement for pages with heavy text information and evenly distributed and consistent information. When the display is varied or if there is an assortment of elements, the Gutenberg diagram does not apply, but could actually constrain the design3. “For other

3

cases, the weight of the design’s elements along with their layout and composition will direct the viewer’s eye movements3.” According to Edmund Arnold, “Devices which lead a reader on a wild goose chase, disturb an efficient pattern, or cause the slightest measure of distress, should be eliminated4.” Edmund Arnold also states, “Any design which forces the reader to work against reading gravity, or fails to return him or her to a logical axis of orientation, tends to destroy reading rhythm and should be forbidden 3.” Designs not only need to work with reading gravity and flow in an efficient pattern, but must also work to keep the reader’s interest. Typography, which is the art and technique of arranging type in order to make language visible, can also influence a design11. Therefore, typography must also keep the reader’s interest and attention or it will cause the design to fail. The arrangement of type involves selecting different typefaces, point sizes, line lengths, line spacing, word spacing and letter spacing. Typography is not only performed by typesetters and typographers, but also graphic designers, who arrange type for a product or it’s packaging11. Designs follow the Gutenberg diagram by placing the most important and eyecatching element in the top left corner, followed by another important element in the middle and in the bottom right corner3. “A good design is a balance between function and form and should not be solely decoration and abstraction, but should be a piece of communication4.” The Gutenberg diagram is displayed in Figure 1 and shows the four different quadrants as well as the path of reading gravity.

4

Figure 1: The Gutenberg Diagram2

Figure 2: Application of The Gutenberg Diagram3

Figure 2 shows an example of pages from a book illustrating the application of the Gutenberg Diagram. The first page on the left is all text so readers will probably begin

5

reading in the top left and stop at the bottom right corner of the page. Reading gravity is increased by the pull quote that is strategically placed between the two columns of text3. The second page has the image placed in the bottom-right corner, which also helps reading gravity. The viewer will first start reading the second page in the top left, then the eyes will slowly move down and to the right corner where the image is placed. The reading gravity of this page would not flow easily if the image were placed in the bottom-left or the top-right of the page3. The theory also suggests that a viewer’s familiarity with the design’s information or elements will also have an effect on eye movements. If a viewer is familiar with an element or an unchanging area, they are more likely to look past them and instead see the unfamiliar elements or areas first3. The Hypothesis of this project is that the Gutenberg diagram is used in the packaging design of products sold around the world, specifically the packaging for prepared meals. Prepared meals were chosen as the product to be evaluated because of their increasing popularity over the past few years. Since this category of foods is growing steadily in the food industry, I thought it would have a variety of examples from each country that I could use for my research. Based on Mintel’s custom consumer survey, net household usage of frozen or refrigerated meals is nearly universal- 94% among U.S. households7. This number is just from the United States alone, so it was assumed that if prepared meals were popular in the U.S., they would also be popular in other countries. The Mintel GNPD database contains 48,078 examples of prepared meals from countries around the world. Since all of these products could not be analyzed, a few were chosen at random from each country. A total of 184 products from 41 countries were

6

collected from the database and evaluated. To pick the products at random, Mintel listed all 48,078 prepared meals by country. Picking at random was conducted by scrolling through hundreds of products for each country, and stopping randomly within the list of the country’s products. A few products were chosen from the list where it was stopped. Out of the 184 samples, there were 138 that showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram in the package designs. Therefore, 75% of the samples evaluated supported the hypothesis that the Gutenberg diagram is used for package designs of prepared meals around the world. During the research, the package types and meals were recorded for the products that showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. This data was recorded in order to show the relationships between package and product types, as well as the countries. For the samples that showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram, the findings did not show any significant relationship between the countries and product types chosen; however, there were three countries that did. Japan, Malaysia, and the Philippines all had products that were randomly chosen relating to Asian style dishes with both chicken and noodles, or only noodles, with the exception of the Tofu product from Japan. The samples from these three countries were also all packaged in bags. This may have occurred by chance since the products were chosen randomly, or there could be a definite reason so research was done to try to explain the relationship. Japan is the world’s tenth most populated country with a very active economy. The Philippines has a population of more than 92 million people and is the twelfth most populated country in the world ("U.S. Department of State"). Malaysia is also extremely populated for its small size. These countries not only have extremely high populations, but

7

also are also very small bodies of land located off the coast of Asia. Since there are so many people living in such a small area, waste disposal is most likely a very big issue because land is limited and there is not much available space for landfills. Products sold in these countries need to produce the least amount of packaging waste as possible. This is probably why the products from these countries were all packaged in bags, in order to help reduce the amount of waste going into these countries’ landfills. Table 1 shows the relationship between the package types of the products collected from the forty-one different countries. Table 1: Package Types of Products from Argentina-Ireland

Package Types of Different Countries
3.5 Number of Packages 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Bag Box Bowl Tray

Country

8

Table 2: Package Types of Products from Israel-Vietnam

Package Types of Different Countries
4.5 4 Number of Packages 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Norway Italy Japan Portugal Malaysia Russia Spain Switzerland Thailand Israel Philippines Mexico New Zealand Netherlands Poland USA Bag Box Bowl Tray

UK

South Africa

Country

From Tables 1 and 2 the relationship between Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and the use of bags for packaging their products can be seen. For both of the tables, a steady trend of box packages can be seen from almost every country, but there is not much of a trend for any of the other package types. An overall use of package types for the 138 samples can be seen in Table 3. Table 3: Overall Package Diversity of Sampled Products Showing Evidence of the Gutenberg Diagram Overall Package Diversity of Sampled Products Tray
9% Bowl 9% Box 51% Bag 31%

South Korea

Singapore

Vietnam

9

Table 3 shows how prominent the use of boxes for packaging is in the world. Bags are also very popular but they are not rigid so they are not good to use for products that need a protective package or products that will be cooked in the tray or bowl that is included with the product. The package results from Table 3 depended on the type of product and what material was or was not necessary to package the product effectively. There was no significant trend found relating certain countries to a particular type or types of packages. From the samples there were not many products packaged in bowls or trays. The actual number of bowls to trays was 12 to 13. There were so few bowls and trays used for the packages from the samples because these types of packages are typically not as common as bags and boxes. Trays and bowls are more expensive packages so they are not commonly used. The majority of the products evaluated that used bowls were types of pastas, macaroni and cheese, and chicken with rice. Those that used trays were also pastas, Italian meals, casseroles, baked mixtures of food, and some chicken with rice or noodles. The results also showed that bags were prominently used to package noodles, and boxes used for pizzas as well as chicken and rice meals. To help organize the collected data and offer a visual presentation, the types of meals evaluated and their packages were recorded in Tables 4-6.

10

Table 4: Italian Products

Italian Products Packaging
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Number of Packages

Bag Box Bowl Tray

Product

Table 5: Chicken, Noodles, Rice and Ethnic Products

Chicken, Noodles, Rice and Ethnic Products Packaging
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Number of Packages

Bag Box Bowl Tray

Product

11

Table 6: Various Products

Various Products Packaging
Number of Packages 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Bag Box

Mexican mix

Burgers

Mash

Chicken Breasts

Burritos, Fajitas, Kebabs

Breakfast meals

Sushi

Casserols, baked mixtures

Other

Bowl Tray

Product

Since the products were chosen randomly, there were no specific types of meals that played any influencing role in the data collected. This research only evaluated 0.0038% of the products from the Mintel database. This research was successful, but in order to obtain more accurate results relating the use of the Gutenberg diagram to countries, products, or types of packages, a much larger study would need to be conducted to achieve a better understanding of this topic. The examples included in this report were also analyzed on the layout of the Gutenberg diagram in relation to the placement of the brand logo and the image of the product on the package. It was found that 57% of the packages had the brand logos placed in the primary optical area of the package and had the image of the product at or near the terminal area. The placement of the image was judged based on how close to the bottom right corner it was or if the image was protruding out from the right side near the bottom. The examples that had the product image in the terminal area but also had another piece of information on top of it in the corner, were still considered to fall in the category. Also, if

12

the Image was protruding from the right side near the bottom of the package with no other elements in the terminal area, it was also included in the category. In my opinion, this layout read and flowed the easiest from all of the different layouts. This is also why it is most commonly used. From the products in this report, 32% also had the brand logos in the primary optical area, but the product image was placed in the center of the package, while another element of design filled in the terminal area. Some of the packages had the product image in the middle of the package between the primary optical and terminal areas, but the image was positioned more towards the left side of the package. These packages were also included in the category because the image of the product still filled in the space between the top left and bottom right corners. Products that also had images protruding from the left side or left corner were also included. Other packages did not place the brand logos in the primary optical area, but this was not very common. Only 7% of the packages had the product name in the primary optical area with the image of the product in the terminal area. These packages typically placed the brand logo in the top center or in the strong fallow area. The least common design layout using the Gutenberg diagram was 3.6% and had the product name in the primary optical area with the image of the product in the center or off to the left side of the package. These packages typically placed the brand logos in the terminal area of the package. If the brand logo was not placed in the terminal area then it was always positioned in the strong fallow area, never the weak. That evidence shows the particular importance of using the strong and weak fallow areas. It also proves that the Gutenberg diagram is applied or considered when determining where to place the brand logo if it is not placed in the primary optical area.

13

When evaluating all 184 products, a brief record was also kept of the packages that did not show evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. Most of the packages that didn’t follow the Gutenberg diagram were typically taller rectangles, or were shorter and wider packages. The tall packages typically had the brand logo and different elements in a vertical column down the center of the package. Also, those packages tended to have the image of the product in the bottom center without any elements in the terminal area. Some of the packages were also bowls, which had text across the top and down the left side with the image in the middle or bottom left. For some of the products it was difficult to determine if it followed the Gutenberg diagram because they were in a different language, such as the products from Hong Kong and Japan. For these, it was hard to tell what type was being emphasized on the package and what it meant. A complete understanding of the relationships between product and the types of packages could not be determined from only evaluating 0.0038% of the products on the Mintel database. However, there was a trend found in packaging noodles in bags, as well as pizzas in boxes. There was also a trend found of how packages place their elements according to the Gutenberg diagram. The most common trend was to have the brand logo placed in the primary optical area and the image in the terminal area with the product name in between. The research also showed that the brand logo is never placed in the bottom left area of the package if the Gutenberg diagram is being applied. Although evidence of the Gutenberg diagram was only found in 75% of the products surveyed, the results still support the hypothesis that it is a global trend in packaging design used in countries around the world. Based off my overall observation of prepared meals on the Mintel database, as well as the products I evaluated for the research, I would

14

not consider there to be any correlation between specific types of packages or products that use the Gutenberg diagram. Also, no evidence was found of certain countries using or not using the Gutenberg diagram for their package designs. This is because the decision to use the Gutenberg diagram is most likely based off of a combination of the product, graphics that want to be used, message to the consumer, and most importantly the designer. While there is no direct evidence proving that designs using the Gutenberg diagram improve reading rates or comprehension, it remains to be a global and widespread packaging design method because of how it helps information flow easily on packages. The research of this report successfully proves that the Gutenberg diagram is used for all different types of packing for prepared meals around the world.

15

Works Cited 1. "Background Note: Japan." U.S. Department of State. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Aug 2012. <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/4142.htm>. 2. Bradley, Steven. The Gutenberg Diagram. 2011. Photograph. Vanseo DesignWeb. 2 Aug 2012. <http://www.vanseodesign.com/web-design/3-design-layouts/>. 3. Butler, Jill, Kritina Holden, and William Lidwell. Universal Principles of Design. Gloucester: Rockport Publishers Inc., 2003. 100-101. Web. <http://courses.washington.edu/art479/media/universal_principles2.pdf>. 4. D'Romero, Dino. "Gutenberg Diagram." Marketing and Design Solutions. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Aug 2012. <http://www.studiodino.com/info/news47.htm>. 5. Heller, Steven. "Edmund C. Arnold, Bold Newspaper Designer, Dies at 93." New York Times 12 February 2007, n. pag. Web. 2 Aug. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/12/arts/12arnold.html?_r=1>. 6. "Johannes Gutenberg." The Great Idea Finder. N.p., 26, Jan 2006. Web. 1 Aug 2012. <http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/gutenberg.htm>. 7. Mintel. Mintel Group Ltd., n.d. Web. 6 Aug 2012. <http://www.gnpd.com.libproxy.clemson.edu/sinatra/gnpd/search_results&search_id=W KsDNlYMms/&s_sort=3>.

16

8.

"Movable Type." Lemelson-Mit. N.p., Aug 2004. Web. 2 Aug 2012. <http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/gutenberg.html>.

9.

"Philippines." U.S. Department of State. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Aug 2012. <http://www.state.gov/p/eap/ci/rp/>.

10.

"Typography." Dictionary.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Aug 2012. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/typography>.

11.

"Typography." N.p., 15, Jul 2012. Web. 2 Aug 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typography>.

17

Chicken & Vegetables Wok
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1076675 Molinos Río de la Plata Granja del Sol Sabores al Wok Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Argentina Apr 2009 New Product

This product from Argentina shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram by having the brand in the top left corner of the package with the product name listed underneath. There is also a short description of what the product is in the bottom left corner, known as the weak fallow area. This was intentionally placed there because the designer did not want any emphasis placed on it. Instead, the designer chose to place the photo of the meal in the bottom right corner for the consumer to see last.

18

Bow Pasta in Bolognese Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1003110 Pampa Bistro Pampa Bistro Disney Princess Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Argentina Nov 2008 New Product

Although this meal from Argentina features a side bar on their design, the package layout still follows the Gutenberg diagram. The brand and name of the product are featured the top left, which is the most important area. The consumer’s eyes then move to see the picture of the food in the bottom right. Also in the top right corner the consumer will see Bell’s face as an extra, less important part of the design. A description of the meal is listed in the bottom left because it is the least important part of the design.

19

Western Style Burger
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1811240 Abbelen Fleischwaren Abbelen Meals & Meal Centers Sandwiches/Wraps Austria Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

The Western Burger from Austria uses the diagram for their package by placing the product name in the top left section of the package in large bold type to help catch the consumer’s eye first. As the consumer’s eyes follow reading gravity down to the right they will see that the burger also comes with barbecue sauce and bacon, and the picture is placed below towards the right. The microwave and time icon was placed in the bottom right corner because it is also another important piece of information that the designer wanted the consumer to see.

20

Mexican Chicken Rice Dish
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1787971 Frosta Frosta Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Austria May 2012

Another product from Austria follows the diagram by catching the consumer’s eye with a green bar showing an important fact about the product. The brand name is placed next to it, as this is also an important element that the consumer needs to see. Following reading gravity down, the product name is listed along with the picture of the product. Last, in the bottom right corner is another green bar listing more important information about the product. The cooking time is placed in the bottom left because it is not an important piece of information for this product.

21

Indian Butter Chicken
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Launch Type: 1841166 Gourmet Fresh Gourmet Fresh Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Australia New Variety/Range Extension

The layout of this example from Australia follows the Gutenberg diagram perfectly. The first thing the designer wanted the consumer to see was what the product is called, which is why it is placed in the top left corner. The picture of the food was intentionally placed in the middle of the package, as this is what the eyes will move towards next. Lastly, in the bottom right corner, the consumer will notice that the product contains no MSG, artificial flavors, etc.

22

Hokkien Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1826554 Ricegrowers Sun Rice Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Australia Jul 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This dish from Australia perfectly demonstrates reading gravity as it is related to the Gutenberg diagram. The brand logo is placed in the top left, which the consumer sees first, followed by the product name underneath more towards the right. As the list of information continues, it is placed more towards the right side of the package. Typically the picture of the dish would be placed in the bottom right corner for the consumer to see last, but this product’s design places it on the right. This is done so the design of the information can flow perfectly with reading gravity 23

Gratin Dauphinois with Ham
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1823609 Fleury Michon Fleury Michon Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Belgium Jun 2012 New Formulation

This product from Belgium uses the reading gravity of the Gutenberg diagram by placing the brand name and icon in the top of the package. The product name is featured underneath and is tilted at an angle to the right. Below is the image of the dish, which is placed at an angle to the right side of the package down at the bottom. The image takes up a very large amount of space from the middle to the bottom right side in order to place a lot of emphasis on how the cooked product looks. 24

Potato Gratin
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1748489 Delhaize Group Delhaize Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Belgium Mar 2012

This product, also from Belgium has a simple design layout and follows the Gutenberg diagram perfectly. In the top left, the primary optical area features the product name. Reading gravity then pulls the eyes down towards the middle where the spoon is perfectly positioned in the dish of food. Lastly, the terminal area in the bottom right corner features some nutritional facts, along with cooking times. These two things are emphasized as important pieces of information to the consumer by being placed in the bottom right. The brand icon is placed in the top right corner, the strong fallow area, because it is not as important but can still be noticed more than if it was placed in the bottom left.

25

Tuna Pizza with Mozzarella, Tomato & Green Olives
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1787744 GDC Alimentos Gomes da Costa Meals & Meal Centers Pizzas Brazil May 2012 Shopper New Product

Another pizza product from Brazil was also randomly chosen and follows the diagram. This package design has the brand logo in the top left primary optical area with the product name underneath, which flows towards the center. Just as the previous product, the image of the pizza is placed in the bottom right corner, the terminal area. The slice of pizza is positioned pointing toward the consumer. This package does not place any elements in the top right, but instead places some information about the product in green boxes, which are placed in the weak fallow area.

26

Grilled X- Bacon Burger Sandwich
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1780637 Comércio e Industria de Massas Alimentícias Massa Leve Massa Leve Lanche Fácil Meals & Meal Centers Sandwiches/Wraps Brazil Apr 2012 Shopper New Variety/Range Extension

Even though this burger product from Brazil has a busy package design, it still follows the Gutenberg diagram. Starting with the brand logo in the primary optical area, the eyes then flow with reading gravity down to the product name, then over to the image of the burger in the terminal area. The package also places some other information in the strong fallow area, which looks to be important because of the typeface size chosen. Also in the weak fallow area is some basic information about the microwave cooking time. This element blends in well with the yellow background, which shows how the designer did not want to emphasize this piece of information as well as by placing it in the bottom left corner. 27

Chicken Fried Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1816743 Innovasian Cuisine Enterprises InnovAsian Cuisine Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Canada Jun 2012 New Product

The chicken fried rice product from Canada uses reading gravity to help with the flow of using the Gutenberg diagram for the layout. The reading gravity starts in the top left where the brand logo is placed. Underneath is the product name, then the eyes will flow down to the description of the product and lastly to the image of the product. The less important information is placed in the strong and weak fallow areas. The information in the weak fallow area is emphasized more than the strong fallow area to help it stand out so it does not get overlooked.

28

Sesame Glazed Chicken
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Launch Type: 1822199 Bellisio Foods Michelina's Real Gourmet Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Canada New Variety/Range Extension

This product from Canada uses the Gutenberg diagram by placing the brand logo in the top left corner of the package with “real gourmet” underneath, which will be seen first because of the large type, which is used. The image of the meal is placed in the center and the steam pouch icon is placed in the bottom terminal area. This package uses the image of the product to show the consumer what it is instead of relying on the product name. There is little emphasis on the product name, which is why it is placed in the strong fallow area in a simple and small type. 29

Fresh Beans with Ground Corn
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1514187 Agricola Frutos Del Maipo Frutos Del Maipo Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Chile Apr 2011 New Product

This product from Chile has the large brand logo in the primary optical area so it will stand out and be seen by the consumer first. The consumer’s eyes move down to the image of the soup in the bottom right corner, the terminal area. The extra information is placed in the top right corner and the bottom left corner because it is not necessary that the consumer see these elements of information right away. The designer wants the consumer to see the brand logo and the image of the product first.

30

Penne with White Chicken in a Creamy Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1553917 Bellisio Foods Michelina´s Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Chile Jun 2011

This Michelina’s meal, also sold in Chile, uses the diagram by placing the brand logo in the primary optical area to be seen first because it is a well known brand. The logo will help attract consumers and will be seen first. Again, the image of the product is placed in the bottom right terminal area. The extra two pieces of information, which are not as important, are placed in the strong and weak fallow areas because they do not need to be immediately seen by the consumer.

31

Self-Heating Rice Meal with Konjac and Duck
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1850541 Otsuka Foods Fan Tian Tian Discovery Mate Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals China Jul 2012

Even products from China use the Gutenberg diagram. This package places the product information starting in the primary optical area and flows with reading gravity down to the image of the product, along with the fork full of rice. In the terminal area is another element of information for the consumer to see last. There are no elements in the strong fallow area because they would cover the graphic background, so the extra information is placed in the weak fallow area. 32

Baked Rice with Beef and Cheese in Curry Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1805012 Chao Xiang Cun Foods Chao Xiang Cun / CXC Food Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals China May 2012 Shopper New Variety/Range Extension

Another product from china places the elements on the package according to the diagonal flow of reading gravity. At the very top left corner is a brand logo, followed by the product name underneath positioned more towards the center. As the eyes move down towards the bottom right, they will see the product photo. In the terminal area is one last design element.

33

Rice with Chicken
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1279971 Avesco Kokorico Sabor de Verdad Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Colombia Mar 2010

This product from Colombia uses an image of a family in the primary optical area so the consumer will see it first and relate the product to a family dinner. Below the image is the brand name and diagonally to the bottom right is the image of the product, which will be seen after the brand. In the strong fallow are is the portion size for the consumer to see, but it is not very important, which is why it is placed outside of the flow of reading gravity. In the weak fallow area is the product name in a green banner to help emphasize it.

34

Mexican Nachos
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1045267 Indústria de Alimentos Zenú Zenú Sofia Express Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Colombia Mar 2009

The Mexican nachos product from Colombia has the product logo emphasized in the primary optical area so it will be seen first. Reading gravity pulls the consumer’s eyes down to read about the product in the package. In the center is the image of the product, which the consumer will see next. Lastly, a couple extra elements of information are placed in the terminal area to be seen last.

35

Beef Goulash
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1426062 Sveda-Quality Sveda Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Czech Republic Oct 2010 New Product

The brand logo is feature at the top of this product’s package in the primary optical area to be seen first. The eyes will then move down to see the image of the product placed in the center of the package. In the terminal area in the bottom right corner is a green type with a message to the consumer as well as some other information underneath. The extra pieces of information are placed in the strong and weak fallow areas so they will not be as emphasized.

36

Lasagne in Tomato Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1369200 Hamé Hamé Hamánek Junior Menu Baby Food Baby Savoury Meals & Dishes Czech Republic Jul 2010

This product’s package uses the Gutenberg diagram on the right diagonal half of the package. Starting in the top center, the brand logo is placed, followed by the product and other information diagonally to the right. As the eyes continue to move towards the right bottom corner, they will see the image of the product on a spoon. In the weak fallow area, the designer placed images of all the ingredients of the product.

37

Tikka Masala Chicken
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1589382 Dansk Supermarked Levevis Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Denmark Jul 2011

This product’s package from Denmark uses the Gutenberg diagram by relying on reading gravity to pull the consumer’s eyes across the package. At the top in the primary optical area is the brand logo. Reading gravity pulls the consumers eyes down and across the package to see the product name. Next the consumer will see the image of the product in the bowl, which is placed in the terminal area. The extra description about the product is written in small plain type in the weak fallow area.

38

Chicken Fillets in Curry Sauce with Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 882853 Findus Group Findus Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Denmark Mar 2008 New Variety/Range Extension

Another product from Denmark uses the Gutenberg diagram by having the brand logo in the top left corner of the package. As the eyes move diagonally down to the right bottom corner they will see the product name and a description. Lastly, in the terminal area is the image of the product, which also helps pull the eyes down to the bottom right corner.

39

Prosciutto & Cheese Pasta
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 808001 Coop Coop Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Denmark Nov 2007 New Variety/Range Extension

The Gutenberg diagram is used on the package, again by placing the brand logo in the primary optical area. However, this brand logo is not emphasized much because it is in a gray color and is not very large, so it is probably necessary that it be placed in the primary optical area or it might not get noticed by the consumer at all. The product name is underneath and moves across the package to the right. The image of the product is placed underneath with the utensil pointing out towards the bottom right corner in the terminal area. 40

Lasagna Bolognese
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1774000 Foodies Foodies Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Egypt Apr 2012 New Product

This product from Egypt has the brand logo in the primary optical area and flows across to the strong fallow area where the product name is. Below the brand logo is a description of the product. The last thing that will catch the consumer’s eye after the first couple elements is the image of the product in the terminal area. In the weak fallow area is some information about the cooking time of the product.

41

Broccoli Gratin
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1719258 Findus Findus Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Finland Feb 2012

This product from Finland has the brand logo placed in the primary optical area, which the consumer will see first. After seeing the logo, the image of the product pulls the consumer’s eyes diagonally down to the center of the package. In the terminal area is some extra information about he product that the consumer may need to see before deciding on their purchase. In the strong fallow area is the name of the product, which the consumer will look at after viewing the information on the rest of the package.

42

Chicken Fillet & Mushroom Sauce with Basmati Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1821169 Zaphir Isla Délice Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals France Jun 2012 New Product

This French product has a lot of information on the package. It uses the Gutenberg diagram to effectively make the elements on the package flow with reading gravity. In the top left is the brand logo with the product name positioned underneath towards the right side of the package. The diagonal line from the brand logo to the fork of food, then to the image of the product and the green banner in the terminal area demonstrates reading gravity perfectly. 43

Kebab Kit
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1805441 Haudecoeur Samia Meals & Meal Centers Meal Kits France Jun 2012 New Product

This kebab kit from France also uses the diagram even though it has a side bar along the left side of the package. The name brand is positioned in the primary optical area of the package with the name of the product underneath. The image of the product is offset towards the lower right side of the package, which helps to create the diagonal line. As a last piece of important information, there is a list of ingredients that comes with the kit in the terminal area.

44

Pasta in Provencal-Style Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1829588 CMI Carrefour Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals France Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This pasta meal from France has a package design layout, which also follows the Gutenberg diagram. With the name brand in the primary optical area and the name of the product directly underneath, starts to create the diagonal line towards the bottom right corner. The image of the product is placed directly in the center of the package and the blue sign indicating the cooking time pulls the eyes down to the terminal area. In the strong fallow area is the element indicating that the product is new. 45

Curry Sausage with French Fries
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1810253 Vion Convenience Quisit Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Germany Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This product from Germany has many elements on the package but they are positioned in such a way that the design still looks clean and simple. Starting the top left the consumer will see the brand logo in the primary optical area and their eyes will then move down with reading gravity to see the product’s name. The consumer will overlook the small microwave icon in the weak fallow area, but instead their eyes will be pulled down to the image of the product in the terminal area along with the yellow banner.

46

Tortellini with Parmesan Cheese
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1076535 Bofrost Bofrost Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Greece Apr 2009 New Variety/Range Extension

Even products from Greece were found to use the Gutenberg diagram. The to left corner, in the primary optical area are several pieces of information, but only two of which will catch the consumer’s attention. The brand logo and the product name will be seen first followed by the image of the product which pulls the eyes down to the terminal area. The strong fallow area is left empty, but there is an extra element about the ingredients in the weak fallow area. 47

Rice with Chicken in Teriyaki Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1749465 DFI Brands Yu Pin King Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Hong Kong Mar 2012

The diagonal line of reading gravity can clearly be seen on the package of this product from Hong Kong. Starting from the top left corner in the primary optical where the brand logo is placed, the eyes move down to another piece of information about the product. This information flows onto the image of the product, which will be noticed next. Lastly, the circular element in the terminal area will be seen.

48

Assorted Spaghetti
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1601783 Winner Food Products Ho E Sik Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Hong Kong Aug 2011 New Variety/Range Extension

Again, this product from Hong Kong also displays the Gutenberg diagram by placing the information about the product in the top left corner. The image of the product helps to pull the consumer’s eyes in a diagonal line down towards the terminal area of the package. The extra information about the microwaving time is placed in the weak fallow area because it is not important enough to be placed within the flow of reading gravity.

49

Chicken Darbari
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1342058 ITC Kitchens of India Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals India Jun 2010 New Packaging

Products from India also show evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. Although the information about this product is centered at the top, it still flows with reading gravity and the diagonal line towards the bottom right corner is still achieved. By placing the image of the product in the terminal area, it helps the reader’s eyes flow with gravity. This package would not follow the diagram if the image of the product were centered at the bottom of the package, instead of being placed in the right corner. 50

Chicken Fajita Wraps
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 252833 Specialty Brands Jos Olé Meals & Meal Centers Sandwiches/Wraps Indonesia Feb 2004 New Product

This product from Indonesia also displays evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. In the primary optical area, the design catches the consumer’s eye with the new display banner. Centered below it is the brand name and logo. As the eyes move down, the product name will be seen along with the image of the product positioned in the bottom right corner. In the terminal area, the number of products contained in the package is indicated. The extra description of the product falls in the weak fallow area. The golden medal element is considered to be in the strong fallow area and is emphasized by the color and graphics.

51

108 Rasa Soto Spesial Special Soto Recipe Noodle
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 250334 Olagafood Santremie Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Indonesia Jan 2004 New Variety/Range Extension

Even though this product from Indonesia has a large number placed in the center of the package and is given the most attention, there is still evidence of the Gutenberg diagram being used. In the primary optical area is the brand logo and the diagonal flow of reading gravity pulls the eye down to the large number centered on the package. Behind this number, the image of the product can be seen. Continuing down, the green banner with information is placed in the terminal area of the package to be read last. 52

Chicken Plum Flavour Instant Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 166372 Indofood IndoMie Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Indonesia Sep 2002 New Variety/Range Extension

This product is also a good example of how the Gutenberg diagram is used. Starting in the top right corner is the colorful brand logo. Following the brand is the product name, which carries the eyes towards the center of the package. The red banner will also be read, followed by the image of the product in the terminal area. The extra image of the fork with the food on it is placed in the strong fallow area and helps show the detail of the product.

53

Keralan Chicken Curry with Spiced Samosa Crust
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1726037 Marks & Spencer Marks & Spencers Simply Fuller Longer Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Ireland Feb 2012

This product from Ireland has a rounded package but still shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. The majority of the textual information is positioned at the top towards the left side of the package. The image of the product is placed below the information and is slightly positioned towards the right side of the package, which helps make the diagonal line. The nutritional information is considered to be in the terminal area of the package. The extra elements on the package are placed in the weak and strong fallow areas, outside of the flow of reading gravity. 54

Sweet and Sour Chicken Style Pieces
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1563824 Marlow Foods Quorn Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Ireland Jun 2011 New Variety/Range Extension

This product, also from Ireland, shows evidence of the diagram by placing the logo in the top left corner with the information about the product underneath. This blue box of information is placed off of the left side of the package so it helps create the diagonal flow of reading gravity to the image of the product. The image of the product lies in the terminal area of the package and is the last important thing that the designer wants the consumer to notice. In the strong fallow area are a few elements with facts about the product as well as in the weak fallow area.

55

Schnitzel Pieces with Mashed Potatoes
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 589925 Nir Etzion Nir Etzion Kids Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Israel Sep 2006 New Product

Evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on this product from Israel can be seen by the layout of the elements placed on top of the two different images. The package starts with the brand logo in the primary optical area, followed by the kids meal name and description. Reading gravity then pulls the consumer’s eyes diagonally down to the other yellow element in the terminal area. The two different images are placed in the strong and weak fallow areas. Even though the image of the product is in the weak fallow area, it still stands out more than the other because it is emphasized by the detail of the image.

56

Fresh & Ethnic Meal
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 197217 Gidron Mazon Reena's Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Israel Mar 2003 New Variety/Range Extension

Another product from Israel displays use of the diagram through the placement of elements on the package. A diagonal line can be drawn from the yellow star element down to the image of the product in the terminal area, which is clear evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. The extra information about the product is placed within the blue banner in the weak fallow area as well as across the bottom of the package in a discrete way. 57

Saffron Risotto with Porcini Mushrooms
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1817942 Coop Coop Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Italy Jun 2012 Relaunch maccroni

This product from Italy has a clean and simple package because of how it used the Gutenberg diagram to position the elements on the package. In the primary optical area, it looks like the name of the product, which is placed within the blue element. The brand logo is positioned in the center of the package in red. Following reading gravity, the image of the product is placed below. It occupies the lower half of the package, but it is positioned at a diagonal and towards the right corner, so it is still considered to be in the terminal area. 58

Ricotta and Spinach Cannelloni
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1806855 Buitoni Buitoni Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Italy May 2012 Relaunch

Ricotta and spinach cannelloni from Italy also have a package with evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. In the primary optical area is a red element, which will be seen first followed by the brand logo. The product name will be seen as the eyes move down to the next line of information. Placed in bottom right corner of the package is the image of the product. There are no elements placed in the strong fallow area, but the package does have some information and an image of the ingredients in the weak fallow area. The red line about this image helps draw the eyes to the left corner after seeing the image of the product in the terminal area. 59

Deep Fried Tofu with Black Vinegar
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1853827 Aeon Topvalu Healthy Eye Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Japan Jul 2012 Shopper New Variety/Range Extension

This brand of products showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on every package I observed from the Mintel database. The brand logo is placed in the very top left corner with another piece of information next to it, which will also be read immediately. Following reading gravity, the eyes move down to the next line of information, but will only read the large type, then move down to the image of the product in the bottom. This package positions the image of the product in the center of the bottom half, but it is still used to pull the consumer’s eyes down to the bottom right. The extra information is placed in the weak and strong fallow areas.

60

Okinawa Style Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1813014 Nissin Food Products Nissin Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Japan Jun 2012 Shopper New Variety/Range Extension

This is a very different package design from Japan. At first it does not seem to have any evidence of the Gutenberg diagram, but there is when looking within the tan center. The red circular element is placed in the primary optical area of the package. The large Japanese type in the center carries the consumer’s eye across the package. In the terminal area is the image of the product. They extra text in the bottom left and top right corners are within the weak and strong fallow areas of the package. 61

Curry Flavour Instant Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1826065 DFI Brands No Frills Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Malaysia Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This product from Malaysia shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram by the way the brand logo is placed in the primary optical area and how the text underneath helps the flow of reading gravity. The image of the product is placed in the bottom right, the terminal area, which helps draw the consumer’s eyes down with reading gravity. There is little extra information on this package which is why the fallow areas area empty.

62

Spicy Chicken Curry with Potato
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1494450 Tesco Tesco Choice Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Malaysia Feb 2011

This product from Malaysia places the brand logo in the primary optical area of the package. It is not very bold or large because most of the emphasis is placed on the name of the product below. The name of the product and description flow with reading gravity because the image of the product in the bottom right helps pull the consumers eye down. In the primary optical area are some nutrition facts about the product to help the consumer make a purchase decision.

63

Bacon Breakfast Bread Bowl
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1851612 Tyson Foods Tyson Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Mexico Jul 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This Tyson product sold in Mexico has a very simple package layout with evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. In the primary optical area is the Tyson brand logo, which flows down to the image of the product. The number of products in the package is listed in the terminal area of the package. The product name and description are placed in the strong fallow area outside the flow of reading gravity. This package design allows the image of the product to show the consumers what it is and places less emphasis on using words to tell them.

64

Pasta with Broccoli & Alfredo Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1758268 General Mills Green Giant Valley Fresh Steamers Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Mexico Mar 2012 New Product

This Green Giant product from Mexico also uses the diagram in its design layout. The Green Giant brand logo is placed in the primary optical area because it is a well-known brand that will attract the consumer’s attention. Reading gravity will then move the consumer’s eye over to the next line of text and then down to see that it is a value size product. Continuing down the package is the image of the product, which is positioned off center to the right side. Lastly, the red box in the terminal area with the product name in Spanish will be read. This design does not have any extra elements in either of the fallow areas.

65

Japanese Style Teriyaki Meal Kit
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1634281 Jumbo Supermarkten Jumbo Meals & Meal Centers Meal Kits Netherlands Sep 2011

This product from the Netherlands shows some evidence of the Gutenberg diagram being used for its design layout. The element in the top left corner is placed in the primary optical area, which the consumer will look at first. Reading down the package the consumer will then see the name of the product followed by the image of the product as the eyes continue diagonally down to the right. In the terminal area are some nutritious facts. The brand name of this product is placed in the strong fallow area so it does not distract from the information in the flow of reading gravity, but also so it is not overlooked.

66

Meatballs in Tomato Sauce with Mashed Potato
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1596839 Iglo Iglo Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Netherlands Aug 2011

This product also from the Netherlands, places only the brand logo, some healthy facts, and the image of the product inside the flow of gravity. The brand logo is placed in the primary optical area of the package with the healthy facts underneath and positioned farther from the left side of the package. In the terminal area, the designer has placed a fork with the food to complete the consumer’s perception of the product. In the strong fallow area is the product name, and in the weak fallow area is some cooking information. This package also relies more on the product’s image to show what the product is than using the text in the strong fallow area.

67

Béchamel Lasagnette
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1533173 McCain Foods McCain Attack a Snack Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals New Zealand Apr 2011 New Packaging

This pasta dish from New Zealand shows a perfect flow of reading gravity from the top left corner to the bottom right corner of the package. The brand logo is placed in the primary optical area and the product category is placed in the center underneath in a large bold type. The product name is in a smaller type and will be seen next. Moving farther down and more to the right of the package is the image of the product. In the terminal area is a nutrition fact, which is small so there will not be a lot of attention placed on it. In the weak fallow area is the emphasized element stating the cooking time.

68

Macaroni Cheese Pasta & Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1429759 Woolworths Woolworths Select Meals & Meal Centers Meal Kits New Zealand Nov 2010

Another dish from New Zealand showed evidence of the diagram. This package has a lot of written information within the flow of reading gravity but not all of it is intended to be seen by the consumer when first reading the package. The brand in the top left corner will be seen by the consumer first, followed by the product name. The description of the product under the name will most likely be skipped because the type is not emphasized indicating that it is not important information, even though it is within the flow of reading gravity. Next, the image of the product will pull the consumers eyes down to the terminal area of the package.

69

Lasagna
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1827419 McCain Foods McCain Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals New Zealand Jun 2012 New Formulation

This New Zealand Lasagna product has clear evidence of the Gutenberg diagram in the design layout of the package. This design is simple and starts with the brand logo in the primary optical area, followed by the product name underneath and centered on the package. Continuing down the diagonal flow, the image of the product has been placed in the terminal area along with one piece of nutritional information. In the strong fallow is a description of the product in a small type. The yellow element indicating that the product is new will probably be noticed at the same time the consumer sees the image of the product.

70

Pasta Carbonara
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1741197 Unilever Knorr Spaghetteria Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Norway Feb 2012 New Product

This pasta dish from Norway has the brand logo in the primary optical area. The leaves and the image of the dish in the bottom right of the package immediately pull the consumer’s eye down to the terminal area where there is also another element of the design. The product name is placed in the strong fallow area and is still noticed by the consumer because the large and vibrant type helps to emphasize it.

71

Beef Stroganoff
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1652417 Fjordland Fjordland Straks Klar! Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Norway Oct 2011

The beef stroganoff product from Norway also showed signs of the Gutenberg diagram. In the top left, just out from the corner is the brand logo. The large type is placed underneath and helps begin the flow of reading gravity down to the round image of the product. The product image is considered to be in the terminal area of the package, while the information in the green bar is in the weak fallow area because it is of lesser importance.

72

=

Instant Sotanghon Lite Chicken Flavoured Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1381636 Monde Nissin Lucky Me! Special Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Philippines Aug 2010 New Product

This product from the Philippines has a busy package design but still flows with reading gravity even though it has the yellow side bar, which splits the package. The Gutenberg diagram starts with the brand logo in the primary optical area, then down to the product name. The consumer’s eyes then move over to the image of the product in the lower right side of the package. To complete the diagonal line is the low fat message in yellow, which is considered to

73

be in the terminal area. The other information in the side bar is within the weak fallow area.

Spicy Beef Mongolian Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1254012 Nissin-Universal Robina Nissin Pancit Rikkado Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Philippines Jan 2010

These noodles from the Philippines show evidence of the Gutenberg diagram from the layout of the text on the package. Starting in the primary optical area is the brand logo. In the center is the product name and exactly diagonally from the primary optical area is the image of the product held by chopsticks. In the terminal area, for the consumer to read last, is the flavor of the product. The blue banner on the left side of the package would fall into the weak fallow area. 74

Noodles with Kebab Flavour
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1350851 Unilever Knorr Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Poland Jul 2010

This product from Poland uses its text exactly along the diagonal line of the Gutenberg diagram with the image of the product outside of the flow of reading gravity. The brand logo is placed in the primary optical area and the rest of the information about the product flows down from underneath the logo to the terminal area of the package. In the weak fallow area is the image of the product. This package does not emphasize how the product looks, but is more directed to the textual information. 75

Pork Goulash
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 731438 Profi Profi Gotowe Danie Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Poland Jun 2007 New Product

This Polish product follows the Gutenberg diagram, again by placing the brand logo in the primary optical area of the package. The name of the product is positioned underneath, but it is centered towards the right instead of directly underneath. The image of the product helps pull the eyes down to the bottom right corner where another element is placed in the terminal area, completing the diagonal flow of reading gravity. In the weak fallow area is a red banner with more text but it is small and not emphasized very much.

76

Spinach and Ricotta Cannelloni
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 604368 Freiberger Lebensmittel Alberto Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Poland Oct 2006 New Product

Another cannelloni product showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on the package. This package is simple with just the brand logo in the primary optical area, followed by the product name underneath. The image of the product pulls the consumer’s eyes across the diagonal to the terminal area where the microwave time icon is placed. There is no extra information placed on the front of this package, but it is still tastefully designed and serves its purpose well.

77

Vegetable Flavored Instant Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1828950 Pastificio Selmi Selmi Renata Express Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Portugal Jun 2012 New Product

These vegetable instant noodles from Portugal have a package that also shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. In the top left corner is the brand logo and product name in red. The diagonal flow the carries the eye over to the noodles on the fork and then down to the peppers in the terminal area of the package. In the weak fallow area is some information about the product written in green, also in the strong fallow area is the cooking time that is also in green so it blends in with the background and does not distract from the other information.

78

Octopus with Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1503881 Lidl Monissa Gourmet Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Portugal Mar 2011 Shopper New Product

This was the most unique meal of all the examples studied. This octopus meal from Portugal follows the Gutenberg diagram by having the brand logo in the primary optical area, followed by the name of the product in a separate white box. After reading the name of the product, the image of the dish will pull the consumers attention down to the terminal area of the package. There are no elements placed in the strong fallow area, but there is the description of the product as well as the cooking time within the weak fallow area.

79

Lagman Central Asian Dish
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1223494 Khladokombinat Zapadnyy 4 Sezona Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Russia Dec 2009 New Variety/Range Extension

Even products in Russia showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. This package places the information about the product in the top left and bottom right corners. In the primary optical area is the brand logo and name of the product. The green leaf starts the diagonal line across the image of the product and down to the green circle in the terminal area indicating the cooking time. There is not any information in the strong fallow area, but there is some in the weak fallow area in a very small type.

80

Salami Pizza
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1289256 Dr. Oetker Dr. Oetker Ristorante Piccola Meals & Meal Centers Pizzas Russia Apr 2010 New Product

This pizza product also shows evidence of the diagram. Starting in the primary optical area with the brand logo, the consumer’s eyes then will move down to read the type of pizza product. The image of the pizza will be seen next. The cut slice of pizza and the fork help draw the attention down to the terminal area where some nutritional information is placed. In between the weak fallow area and the terminal are is a detail about the pizza, but this is okay because it will be noticed after the terminal area. 81

Chicken Fettuccini
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1593186 Nestlé Lean Cuisine Simple Favorites Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Singapore Jul 2011 New Variety/Range Extension

This Lean Cuisine sold in Singapore shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on its package design. The brand name is not confined by the primary optical area, but instead flows across the top. The product name is written underneath the brand on the left side of the package. The image of the product helps pull the consumer’s eye down and across the package to the bottom right. Later, the consumer will notice the orange icons in the weak fallow are and maybe read the description of the product. This package also is interactive with the consumer though the vacation giveaway sticker.

82

Satay Pizza
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: 1414292 Auric Pacific Marketing Sunshine Meals & Meal Centers Pizzas Singapore Oct 2010

Another pizza product showed evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on its package. This product from Singapore starts the flow of reading gravity with the brand logo in the primary optical area. The type of pizza is centered near the top of the package and the image of the pizza is placed in the bottom right corner. In the terminal area is a small icon and in the weak fallow area is the number of servings in the package. In the strong fallow area is a red heart icon and is emphasized more than the element in the weak fallow area.

83

Chicken Bolognese with Robot Pasta Twirls
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1579203 Pick 'n Pay PnP Let's Eat Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals South Africa Jul 2011 New Packaging

This pasta meal from South Africa has a clean and simple package design. It flows with reading gravity across the top of the package where the brand logo and product name is listed. The small child pulls the eye across the diagonal to the image of the pasta. In the weak fallow area are a few small elements for the consumer to see, but they are not very important. Also in the strong fallow area is a check mark, which indicates that the product is approved by something or is healthy.

84

Sour Cream & Chives Flavour Pasta & Sauce
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1521742 Pick 'n Pay PnP Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice South Africa Apr 2011 New Variety/Range Extension

This pasta product shows evidence of the Gutenberg design because of how the written elements are placed on the package as well as the image of the product. In the primary optical area is the brand logo, followed by the product name and flavor. This information is kept separate from the rest of the package by being confined within the green box. In the bottom right corner of the package is the image of the food. Since the image is not centered, but rather protruding from the right side of the package, the diagonal line of the diagram can be d

85

Chicken Tikka Masala
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1811210 DK Foods India Gate Curry & Rice Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals South Korea Jun 2012 New Product

This product from South Korea even shows the use of the Gutenberg diagram. In the primary optical area is most likely the product name. The image of the product is placed to the bottom right of the package but reaches the edge of the element from the primary optical area. Since these two elements touch, it helps to immediately pull the consumers eye diagonally down to the image of the product. In the terminal area is the amount of food in the package. In the strong fallow area is the brand logo, and in the weak fallow are is more information about the product in a very small type.

86

Tuna Cannelloni
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1829674 Dia Dia Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Spain Jul 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This product from Spain shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on the package. The product name is listed in the primary optical area of the package instead of the brand logo. Following the diagram, the image of the product is placed coming out from the bottom right corner and is set at a diagonal down to the terminal are. The designer decided to place the brand name and logo in the terminal area as well as the logo in the strong fallow area, which has not been seen on any of the other packages evaluated. In the weak fallow area are some microwaving instructions and nutritional information.

87

Chicken in Sauce with Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1828732 Dia Dia Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Spain Jun 2012 New Formulation

This product happens to be the same brand as the previous product, also from Spain. This package also has the product name placed in the primary optical area. As the eyes move diagonally down to the right corner they will see the image of the meal in the center of the package but protruding from the right side of the package. Again, the brand logo is placed in the terminal area as well as the strong fallow area. In the weak fallow areas are also the microwave information and some nutritional information.

88

Spinach Pizza
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1834062 Spar Spar Paolo's Meals & Meal Centers Pizzas Switzerland Jul 2012 New Product

Paolo’s Pizza from Switzerland places their logo in the top left corner to catch the consumer’s eye first. Towards the right of the logo is the kind of pizza, which the consumer will see next. Lastly, the layout features the image of the product in the center, and down in the bottom right corner is a red ribbon banner with type for the consumer to read last. In the strong fallow area is the element indicating that the product is new and in the weak fallow area are some nutritional facts.

89

Thai Green Curry with Chicken & Jasmine Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1855482 Octa Foods Kitchen 88 Heat & Eat Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals Thailand Aug 2012 New Packaging

This meal from Thailand uses the Gutenberg diagram, but has a different layout of the design elements than most packages. In the primary optical area is the brand logo, followed by the image of the product centered underneath. Below the product image is the product name. The green banner running along the bottom of the package helps to pull the eye down to the three elements in the terminal area. In the strong fallow area is an icon indicating the product is heated before it is eaten. Also, the number of servings is listed in the weak fallow area.

90

Chicken Hotpot
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1838805 Asda Asda Good For You Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals UK Jul 2012 New Formulation

The Gutenberg diagram was clearly used in the design layout for this example from the UK. The first thing the consumer sees is that the product is “good for you,” which is why it was intentionally placed in the primary optical area. Next, the eyes will look to the top center of the package, which tells the consumer what the product is. Reading gravity then pulls the eyes down to the right where the image of the meal is placed. Lastly, the basic nutritional facts are placed in the terminal area to help the consumer make a purchase decision.

91

Chicken Curry & Rice
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1817557 Asda Asda Smart Price Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals UK Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This simple package for the product from the UK also follows the diagram. A diagonal line can be clearly drawn connecting the important elements from the top left to the bottom right corner. In the primary optical area is the brand name. Reading gravity allows the eyes to move across to see the name of the product. The image of the product is placed in the center of the package and helps pull the consumer’s eye down to the terminal area where some nutritional facts are placed. In the strong fallow area, the consumer will see that there are no artificial colors or flavors in the product.

92

Mushroom Risotto
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1815409 Amy's Kitchen Amy's Kitchen Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals UK Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This mushroom risotto from the UK has a unique package design, but it still shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram. In the primary optical area is the brand name and logo. Moving to the right because of reading gravity, the consumer will see what the product is. Below, the image of the product is centered on the package but still close to the right side. The photo of the family in the terminal area pulls the eye down to the bottom right corner. On the left side of the package is some extra information about the product, which is located in the weak fallow area.

93

Meat Lovers Breakfast Bowl
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1808340 Jimmy Dean Foods Jimmy Dean Breakfast Bowls Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals USA Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

This product from the United States is a well-known brand and places the logo in the primary optical area on the package. The diagonal line continues down to where the product name is placed followed by the image of the product. In the terminal area the flavor of the product and extra information is listed. There are not any other elements within the strong or weak fallow areas of the package.

94

Chicken Romano Fresca
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1814409 Aldi Fit & Active Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals USA Jun 2012 New Variety/Range Extension

Another product from the United States shows evidence of the Gutenberg diagram on the package design. A diagonal line from the top left to the bottom right corner could be drawn to connect the elements, showing that reading gravity is used for this design. The brand name is placed in the primary optical area, followed by the product name and description underneath. The image of the product is placed in the center of the package but is protruding from the right side. In the terminal area are some basic nutritional facts. 95

Cheddar, Egg & Bacon Bake
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Product source: Launch Type: 1801601 ConAgra Frozen Foods Marie Callender's Breakfast Anytime! Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals USA Jun 2012 Shopper New Variety/Range Extension

Another breakfast meal was randomly chosen from the United States, which demonstrated the use of reading gravity. The brand logo is positioned in the primary optical area because it is a popular brand and may help attract consumers. Diagonally down to the bottom right are the image of the product and a description of the cooking method in the terminal area. The strong fallow area has the product name and the blue circle indicating the product is new.

96

Chicken in Red Mole with White Rice
Record ID: 1826493 Company: Trader Joe's Brand: Trader José's Category: Meals & Meal Centers Sub-Category: Prepared Meals Country: USA Date Published: Jun 2012 Launch Type: New Variety/Range Extension

This chicken and rice meal also from the USA has the Trader Joe’s brand logo in the top left corner but it does not attract much attention. Instead, the product name with the vibrant and fun type catches the consumer’s eye in the primary optical area. The image of the product pulls the eye down to the terminal area where the instructions to keep the product frozen are located. This is a clean and simple package without any extra elements in the fallow areas.

97

Corn Dog Meal
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1814657 Aldi Bremer Kids Meals & Meal Centers Prepared Meals USA Jun 2012 New Product

This USA kids meal uses the rainbow type in the primary optical area to catch the consumer’s eye. It uses the Gutenberg diagram by placing the image of the food at a diagonal line to the bottom right corner. The skateboarder is placed in the strong fallow are to make the meal look fun and attractive to children. Also in the weak fallow area is a description of the meal’s contents.

98

Sour Shrimp Flavour Instant Noodles
Record ID: Company: Brand: Category: Sub-Category: Country: Date Published: Launch Type: 1853125 Acecook Vietnam Joint Stock Company Vina Acecook Hao 100 Meals & Meal Centers Instant Noodle, Pasta & Rice Vietnam Aug 2012 New Packaging

Lastly, this product from Vietnam was chosen to be included in the report. It clearly shows the flow of the Gutenberg diagram on the layout of the package. The brand or product name is positioned in the primary optical area, followed by the image of the product. The image 99

helps make the diagonal line to the terminal area where another important element is placed. In the strong fallow area is a logo and another piece of information about the product.

100

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.