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International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011

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Gait as a Biometric for Humman Recognition by Histogram of SILHOUETTE Image

Agnivesh pandey
CSE Department National Institute of Technology, Agartala Agartala, India

Dwijen Rudrapal
CSE Department National Institute of Technology, Agartala Agartala, India

Smita Das
CSE Department National Institute of Technology, Agartala Agartala, India

Kunal Chakma
CSE Department National Institute of Technology, Agartala Agartala, India Another advantage of biometrics lies in the fact that it can be used for negative recognition, i.e. one can confirm whether the person is who she (implicitly or explicitly) denies to be. The way an individual normally walks is one of those distinctive features that may be used for recognition. Gait is the peculiar way a person walks and is a complex Spatiotemporal biometric. The potential of human gait recognition is supported by studies in different areas such as medicine, mathematics, and psychology, which continue to suggest that gait is a unique and idiosyncratic characteristic of an individual. This was first demonstrated in 1970 by Johansson, [2], who noticed that it was possible to identify familiar people by the way they walked, by analyzing video sequences of people walking with light bulbs placed in special body parts such as joints. B. Why gait? The definition of Gait is defined as: A particular way or manner of moving on foot Using gait as a biometric is a relatively new area of study, within the realms of computer vision. It has been receiving growing interest within the computer vision community and a number of gait metrics have been developed. Early psychological studies into gait by Murray [2], suggested that gait was a unique personal characteristic, with cadence and was cyclic in nature. Johansson [3] carried out studies by attaching moving lights onto human subjects on all the major body parts and showed these moving patterns to human observers. The observers could recognize the biological patterns of gait from the moving light displays (MLDs), even when some of the markers were removed, once again indicating gait as a potential candidate as a prominent biometric. Gait as a biometric can be seen as advantageous over other forms of biometric identification techniques for the following reasons: CSE-33

AbstractGait recognition is the process of identifying an individual by the manor in which they walk. This offers the possibility to identify people at a distance, without any interaction or co-operation from the subject; this is the property which makes it as attractive as a method of identification. In modern society, the need for the establishment of defense and prevention mechanisms has encouraged the development of automatic human recognition systems based on biometrics, i.e. the analysis of a person's psychological and behavioral features. Gait, or the peculiar manner of walking, allows the recognition process to be made at a distance since it is possible to extract the gait information from a video sequence of a distant person walking. In this paper gait recognition algorithm based on the histograms of silhouette of a person by using gait has depicted. A binary silhouette of the walking person is obtained by background subtraction; the binary silhouettes are then aligned and generate a histogram of each silhouette image. Then compare their histograms using the Bhattacharyya coefficient method silhouettes. Keywords Biometric recognition, gait background subtraction, silhouettes, Histogram . recognition,



A. Biometrics Humans have distinctive features that distinguish one person from another. Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated methods of recognizing a person based on her psychological or behavioral characteristics The use of biometrics for human identification has a lot of advantages because the features explored are part of the personal information that, in most cases, is impossible to fake, share or forget like, for example, passwords or PINs [1].

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India

International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceedings - CSE

Unobtrusive Distance recognition Reduced detail Difficult to conceal Being a biometric, an individuals biometric signature will be affected by certain factors such as: Stimulants Physical changes. Psychological Clothing. II. MOTIVATIONS

The ability to be able to identify an individual efficiently and accurately is an important task. Controlled environments such as banks, military installations and even airports need to be able to quickly detect threats and provide differing levels of access to different user groups. Recent events such as September 11th have brought biometrics a lot of attention as a method of identification. Gait as a biometric has many advantages as stated above which make it an attractive proposition as a method of identification. Gaits main advantage, unobtrusive identification at a distance, makes it a very attractive biometric. The ability to identify a possible threat from a distance, gives the user a time frame in which to react before the suspect becomes a possible threat. Another motivation is that video footage of suspects are readily available, as surveillance cameras are relatively low cost and installed in most buildings or locations requiring a security presence, the video just needs to be checked against that of the suspect. III. BACKGROUND ANALYSIS AND METHODOLOGY

However, computing joint angles from video sequence is still a difficult problem, though several attempts have been made on it [8, 9]. The particular difficulties of joint angle computation from monocular video sequence are occlusion and joint angle singularities. Self occlusion of a limb from the camera view causes difficulties in tracking the hidden limb(s). Rehg and Morris [8] pointed out the singularity in motion along the optical axis of a camera. There have been a number of appearance based algorithms for gait and activity recognition. Cutler and Davis [9] used self-correlation of moving foreground objects to distinguish walking humans from other moving objects such as cars. Polana and Nelson [10] detected periodicity in optical flow and used these to recognize activities such as frogs jumping and human walking. Little and Boyd [11] used moment features and periodicity of foreground silhouettes. Nixon, et al. [12] used principal component analysis of images of a walking person to identify the walker by gait. Shutler, et al. [13] used higher order moments summed over successive images of a walking sequence as features in the task of identifying persons by their gait. IV. PROPOSED ALGORITHM

In this section I will investigate the current state of the art in gait recognition, providing an overview of the methods which are currently being investigated and will provide background information on all of the techniques which have been used throughout this project Several researchers have concluded that gait is indicative of a person's gender and identity. Johansson [2] used lights affixed to joints of a human body and showed observers motion sequences of the lights as a person walks. The observers were able to identify gender and, in cases where the observer was familiar with the walking subject, the identity of the walker. Cutting, et al. [4] studied human perception of gait using moving light displays (MLD) similar to that used by Johansson and showed human person identification results [5] and gender classification results [6]. They showed that human observers could identify gender with approximately 70% accuracy using only the visual cues from MLD. Given the ability of humans to identify persons and classify gender by the joint angles of a walking subject, Goddard [7] developed a connectionist algorithm for gait recognition using joint locations obtained from MLD.

Figure 4.1 Overview of algorithm A. Silhouettes Extraction 1) Background Estimation An estimate of the background image can be obtained by computing the median value for each pixel in the whole sequence

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India


International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011 background = medianT(Itxy) where backgroundxy is the background value for a pixel location (x,y), median represents the median value, It is the frame corresponding to time instant t, and T is the total number of frames in the sequence. For a static camera, the median brightness value of the pixel (x,y) should correspond to the background value in that pixel location.

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number of bins, the histogram mi meets the following conditions:

m a x x m in x k h

2) Motion segmentation Performing background subtraction to the images of the video sequence is enough for foreground detection. However, the selection of a single suitable threshold for binary silhouette creation is usually very difficult, often leading to missing out important portions of the silhouette., that adapts the subtraction according to the brightness value of each pixel in the background image:

2) Cumulative histogram A cumulative histogram is a mapping that counts the cumulative number of observations in all of the bins up to the specified bin. That is, the cumulative histogram Mi of a histogram mi is defined as:


f (i, b ) 1

( i 1)(i b ) 2 (256 i )(256 b ) . (i 1) ( b 1) (256 i ) (256 b )


3) Number of bins and width. There is no "best" number of bins, and different bin sizes can reveal different features of the data. Some theoreticians have attempted to determine an optimal number of bins, but these methods generally make strong assumptions about the shape of the distribution. The number of bins k can be calculated directly, or from a suggested bin width h:

where i(x,y) and b(x,y) represent the brightness value of the current image and background image at the pixel location (x,y), respectively. Ranging from 0 to 1, f represents the brightness value of each pixel in the resulting subtraction image. 3) Binary silhouettes extraction. The binary silhouettes are obtained by thresholding the motion segmentation result. However, the brightness values of the moving person in the grayscale subtraction image are not constant for the whole silhouette; in fact, these values can greatly vary due to, for example, the different contrast of the person's clothes to the background or variations in the illumination conditions. To enhance the binary silhouette quality, it was decided to choose different thresholds for different parts of the silhouette. This thresholding is performed by dividing the moving area (confined by a bounding box) into 2 pixels' height blocks, and applying a suitable threshold for each of the aforementioned blocks rather than for the whole silhouette, thus avoiding to miss out important body parts. Finally, the image is spatially median-filtered to smooth the silhouette's edges. Once all binary silhouettes in the sequence are obtained, the direction of walking is normalized (from right to left) so that the implemented method can be independent of the walking direction. B. Histogram computation. 1) Mathematical definition In mathematical sense, a histogram is a mapping mi that counts the number of observations that fall into various disjoint categories (known as bins), whereas the graph of a histogram is merely one way to represent a histogram. Thus, if let n be the total number of observations and k be the total

m a x x m in x k h
The braces indicate the ceiling function. C. Recognition The recognition step mainly consists in computing the similarity between the histogram of silhouettes image extracted from the walking sequence under test (probe) and those previously stored in the database (gallery). To compute the similarity between a probe and a given gallery sequence, the median of the distance between the histogram of silhouettes image of the probe and the gallery is computed: D (HS probe,HSgallery) = medianimgallery (minmgallery|| HS probe(i) - HSgallery (j) ||) where HSprobe and HSgallery are the sets of histogram of silhouettes image of the probe D. Over all architecture The holistic view of the project can be broken down into three main subdivisions, Enorollment, Presentation, Biometricdata. Each one of these subdivisions comprises of a number of modules used CSE-35

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India

International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceedings - CSE

for processing and displaying the information flow within the program

becomes little bit low at different place and environmental condition. After matching a similarity of histogram of silhouettes images which is shown in experimental results. The algorithm able to recognize the person up to 15 meters. This project work on silhouettes images and also work on degrades images. Due to the using of histogram for comparison of pixel is too less then the comparison between two images. It is efficient in term of execution and it save time and space both. This algorithm does not produce good result when there is more than one person in image. If two people in image this algorithm work only when a single image of two different person are separated in two different images A. Experimental Result.

Fig 4.2 Overall Programs Architecture 1) Enrollment and Histogram creation. A user initially enrolls in biometric systems by providing biometric data, which is converted into a Histogram (Template). Histograms (Template) are stored in biometric systems for the purpose of subsequent comparison. In order to be verified or identified after enrollment, the user provides biometric data, which is converted into a Histogram (Template). The verification template is compared with one or more enrollment Histogram (Template). The result of a comparison between biometric Histogram (Template) is rendered as a score or confidential level, which is compared to a threshold used for a specific technology, system, user, or transaction. If the score exceeds the threshold, the comparison is a match, and that result is transmitted. It the score does not meet the threshold, the comparison is not a match, and that result is transmitted. V. RESULT ANALYSIS AND CONCLUSION. Develop a algorithms to recognize a person by their gait. This algorithm is simple and easy to implement. The algorithms are based on silhouette sequences histogram extracted from video clips of people walking. The algorithms match stored templates against an unknown sequence of silhouettes histogram extracted from a video clip. Test the algorithms using images of people walking in different scenarios and environmental conditions. Under similar constraints and conditions produce best results. And the similarity becomes too high. Similarity

Fig 5.1 Histogram of nitu

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India


International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceedings - CSE

Fig 5.2 histogram of baba Histogram similarity of nitu and baba = 0.285222

Fig 5.3 histogram of baba

Fig 5.4 histogram of baba1 Histogram similarity of baba1 and baba = 0.970222

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India


International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceedings - CSE

Fig 5.6 histogram of baba2 Histogram similarity of baba and baba2 = 0.681196

Fig 5.5 histogram of baba

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India


International Conference on Sunrise Technologies 13th-15th Jan 2011

Conference Proceedings - CSE



Gallery image (input image) baba


Probe image (compare with input image) nitu

Similarity score (0 to 1)



No match Match Match

02 03

baba baba

baba1 baba2

0.970222 0.681196





No match

[1] Chris Kirtley Psychological influences on gait In IEEE Nonrigid and Articulated Motion Workshop, CVPR 97, pages 18-25, 1997 [2] M.P. Murray Gait as a total pattern of movement American journal of Physical medicine 46(1):290-333, 1967 [3] G. Johansson Visual perception of biological motion and a model for its analysis Perception & Psychophysics, 1973 [4] A.G. Bharatkumar Lower limb kinematics of human walking with medial axis transformations 1994 [5] Christopher Wren, Ali Azarbayejani, trvor Darrell & Alex Pentland PFinder: Real-time tracking of the human body IEEE transactions on pattern Analysis and machine intelligence, 97, vol 19, no 7 [6] D. Cunado, M.S. Nixon & J.N. Carter Using gait as a biometric, via phase-weighted magnitude spectra 1st Int. Conf. audio and video based biometric person authentification, pp95 102 Springer-Verlag, 1997 [7] J.P. Foster, M.S. Nixon & A. Prugel-BennettNew area based gait recognition Audio and Video based biometric person authentication Springer Verlag, pg 312-7, June 2001 [8] R. T. Collins, R. Gross, and J. Shi. "Silhouette-based human identification from body shape and gait", International Conference on Face and Gesture, 20-21 May 2002, pp. 351-356. [9] C. BenAbdelkader, R. Cutler, and L. Davis, "Motion-based Recognition of People in Eigen Gait Space", Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 20-21 May 2002, pp. 254-259 [10] A.Kale, A. Sundaresan, A. N. Rajagopalan, N. P. Cuntoor, V. Kruger, and R. Chellappa, "Identification of humans using gait", IEEE Transactions on Image Processing , Volume: 13, Issue: 9, Sept. 2004, pp. 1163-1173. [11] L. Lee, W. E. L. Grimson, "Gait analysis for recognition and classification," Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 20-21 May 2002, pp. 148-155. [12] Z. Liu, and S. Sarkar, "Simplest representation yet for gait recognition: averaged silhouette", Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR'04) IEEE, Volume 4, 23-26 August 2004, pp. 211-214 vol.4. [13] P. J. Phillips, S. Sarkar, I. Robledo, P. Grother, and K. Bowyer, "Baseline Results for the Challenge Problem of Human ID UsingGait Analysis", Proceedings of the Fifth IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, 2002, pp.137-142.

Fig 5.7 Histogram of nitu

Fig 5.8 Histogram of baba1

Histogram similarity = 0.22044

SSVPSs B.S.Deore College of Engineering & Polytechnic, Dhule (MS) India