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Holism • Hierarchy
Varna System Ashrams Purusharthas Guna Time
Holism: Each Hierarchy in one way or other is related to other leading to inter hierarchical connection & dependence of value together. Continuity: heavy of Karma - Transmigration of social, till Mokash, through Right conduct (Dharma) Right Knowledge (Gyan) Right devotion (Bhakti)
Its sociological significance: - Not only a theoretical, philosophical or ideological modal, but has practical behavior, and social ramifications:1. A systematic scheme to perform an Dharma to ____ ultimate goal of life i.e. Mokash
2. Provide for division of labor & functional specialization 3. Reinforced interdependency between individual& individual and between individual & society. 4. escalation of ____ wart duties and obligations _____ from him
5. Means of education & _____ _____ of traditions from one generation to another. 6. Simultaneously development & progress of individual & society
7. Harmonization & doing away of ________& _____ 8. Means of social control & constraint 9. Maintain power balance in society. 10. A _____for establishing relationship bd. This _____& other ______ ________. BASIC TENTS OF HINDUISM: Continuity & Changes:
Value themes - Hierarchy Holism, Continuity, Transcendence Varna system Ashram system Purusharthas Karma & Transmigration of society Dharma Purity & _____ Sanskars Idol worship Theological ideas Not a _______ character Religious tolerance Non violence Selective & segmental _____ Old traditions not completely replaced Synthesis
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
What has accrued?
Reasons for the same _________:
1. Structural conservative initial conditions __ Constitutional an____ between pd____ & varna
system------- (Eisenstadt, Leavy, Myrdol)
2. Inter structural antimony ------- (By Y Singh, M. Sagar)
3. Contentious interaction between G & L Tra_______ ( By R. Redfill) 4. Modern innovations Hinduism facing value system of G Tan_______ ( By M N Singh)
5. Adopting of traditional ______________( By M. Singh, R D Lombart) (I). Orthogenetic Facts: (A).
i) Liberal religious reforms movement ii) Devotional liberal traditions
Called for accretion & reformation in initial cultural phases
(B). Break away traditions of Buddhism & Jainism Change in cultural shapes only not stinctunaly Nature of changes (C). Sankritisation (II) Heterogenetic Facets:1. Impacts of Indian Islamisation & Sankritisation - Cultural _____ & parti_______
Changes in little traditions only Changes without implying modernity Theoretical value system
2. Westernization------ Nature of changes (III). Planed changes & Modernization
Selective & segmental
i. Factors ii. Changes iii.Syncreti
VARNA - ASHRAM - DHARMA • • •
The base of Hindu social organization Repulsions has individual & society was interactional ch____ viz Ashram & Varna system This was possible only be carrying ___ ____ obligations & duties -Dharma It is because of his , it is “ Dharma as a way of life” Essential element of Hindu social organization _ initially meant ___ to distinguish between A system of stratification based on once ‘Gunas’ (Physiological disposition) & ‘Karma’
VARNA SYSTEM:• • ‘Aryas’ & Drwin’
Legs.Things. Vashnav:. Yellow color Shudras:. obligations expected from him.Month. black Internally differentiae functionally interrelated i. 4.Moksha. society & culture. Reinforced inter dependency between individual & individual and individual & society. Hierarchy of a unique kind of coexistence It was based on the principal of karma & transgression of soul i. Maintains power balance in the society. Antimony. Rajya. Simultaneously development & progress of human capabilities as well as that of society. • fact that ever today Jaties & sub Jatis are seen as a part of it at own existential reality. Satva.e. Thus leading it in the K M Panikar Change it existed principal at theoretical p_____ but its significance has in the of parts to form a whole (H______) • • social welfare & progress of the society.____ the ultimate goal of life- Moksha 3. A systemize scheme of performing once ‘Dharma” to ach. Means of education & cultural transfusion of tradition from one generation to another. Socialization of individual with respect to duties. Red Color. ~ 4 ~ . 5. service. 8. 9. 10. white color. Provided for division of labor & functional specialization. It significance 1. power & administration. Brahmin: . Means of social control & social constraint. Kshatriya: . Tamer. 2. Such was required into perform its own Dharma .duties & obligations. ASHRAM SYSTEM • • Fundamental element of Hindu social organization. Harmonization & doing away of conflict & tension. trade & comers. 7.e. Knoladge & teaching.Arms. Explain how being a member of society performs his duties and obligations (Dharma) & family achieve the ultimate aim of life .• • • • • • • It lead to functional division of society into four-fold groups – B K V S It first apprised in Rig Veda X mandalam in ‘Puras s_____ hymen. Residential dominate of Hindu social organization. 6.
physical. Purushart. ‘Jabali’ Upnished for the first time systematically expounded the four Ashram’s of life. Interdependency between individual & society. Significance:1. Reach at a________ stage of life cycle. Thus by performing Dharma at appropriate stages of life and by pursuing the appropnant pursharth at each such stage one true achieve Moksha.Student 2. 2. Brahmacharya . Artha. Map. Kama. society & culture. it contains one duties & obligations which one is required to pursue in different intention & stages of life . Sanyas.• Their ithological foundations though were lead during Vedic period but at a substantive level. moral & ideological.Mental. 2. Kamas. Moksha.Dharma. Sanskar. it provides for four stages of life style 1. That shows the important of each stage of life Hierarchy of a social kind for fully achieving Moksha. Such to be pursued chronologically at appropriate stages.Varna. • The four phases are 1. 3.Complete detachment from world relations. it fully developed during Upnished period. ~ 5 ~ . 4. • The Dharmshstra principal gets full humectation under the ashram system. 4. Social control & constraints and thus awards conflict. Simultaneous development of individual and progress of the society Cultural transmission of traditions from one generation to another DHARMA Control to Hindu social organization. Karma.____ purusharth are pursued at G________ stage . Grhestha . 3.Marriage & family relation Once cannot fully go to the last stage without fully completing the province stage. Dharma. Ashram. It provides for once fulent development . 3. Vanprasth .Free from wordily desire but not relation 4. • For fully developing once life. Arth. • At a wider place & contract.
It provides interdependency between individual & society.V. A way of life. based on once Karma and the dharma. For it regulate our daily life & social relations.Goal of life. • It is based on Karma. we say that Indian social system is based on Dharma. • It provides for once fluent development in terms of duties towards the family. achieve the ultimate goal of life . • One is required to perform _____ Dharma & fulfill once duties & obligations. • Thus. . • Thus. KARMA & REBARTH ~ 6 ~ .Mokha. Dr. • It provides for the basis in which people belonging to four Varnas during their life stage pursue appropriate Purusharth. these reflect ideological& philosophical values.Kane improved upon it behavioral dimensions says that it is control in regulating once behavior as an individual member of society. • It provides the basis for the welfare & progress of the society also.• Generally. Mr. Radhkrishnan calls it a way of life. thinking of right & wrong. nation & world. social interaction system developed ultimately heading to the Moksha. reduces tension & conflict & heads to social control. • It is because of this. but especially it contains. society. it regulates once behavior & development. P.
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~ 9 ~ .
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the ethos of traditional social organization. both normative and social. This has real_____ for understanding the continuity of traditional reforms in a transformable manner (By Y. Note: . thus transforming hierarchy from a functional to religious phenomena. Gusfield has said_ “The modern comes to the traditional society as a particular culture with its own traditions” And especially in the Indian society. Caste as a cultural system based on institutionalized inequalities emerged. gunas. M. and ashrams). This was conceptualized in terms of organization of order. it provided for the functional basis of “Dharma” which was conceptualized in terms of moral obligations to fulfill the assigned duties directed at the community at large. However. we can say that Indian tradition had a unique social heritage and existential situations. continuity. “Tradition” and Modernity” as heuristic concepts are easy to formulate but to separate them at existential levels is rather difficult. This was relevance for analyzing the direction. a functional criterion was accorded a ritual status. which together determined the historicity of circumstances. It takes into account the histoncity of the exceptional Indian traditions. though in a transformed manner. through orthogenetic formulations and modifications in the times of Epics and Dharmashastras. As Joseph R.N. purusharthas. and transcendence were subsumed in the notion of hierarchy. and The traditional features can be found even today. • • Both exist simultaneously. causality and sequence of events through which modernization has made its impact on the traditional Indian society.as highlighted by y. traditions and modernity are interwoven: where. based on the principal of hierarchy (of Varna’s.Srinivas. The other principal of holism.singh is arguably supported by mckim Marriott. Singh & M N ____) The perspective for Analysis: As such.A prospective for analyzing the nature of social changes which occurred in traditional Indian society.“ Traditional Social Organization: Continuity and Change” Traditional Social Organization: By tradition we mean value themes encompassing the entire social of Indian society. during the later-Vedic period. The above view. Initially. • ~ 12 ~ .
and Liberalization of hindu tradition. ~ 13 ~ . especially those of caste and Brahmin orthodoxy. thus leading to continuity of the Hindu great tradition. where the coverts retained their skills and calling. unlike that of the west.there where continual instance of social change without implying modernity. Of Islam. (b) Secondly. This also explains why the heterogenetic Islamic impact. and Growth of devotional liberal traditions. through • Protests against rigid formalism tyrannical ritualism and ossification of the value-system of hierarchy into exploitative institutions. As such. These existential adaptations were contained only at the cultural level and not at the structural level. these changes could not alter the social system as a whole as: (1) They also served as a major communication-channel for interaction between little and great tradition.The Nature Of Social Change in Traditional India and Continuty: in traditional India . These changes called for. However. Moreover. a hierarchical gradation in the ritual and social status thus crept into the social structure of Islam. • • The introduction of more equalitarian and non-hierarchical value system. and social change and continuity: These processes had contextual significance and were particularistic in origin. failed to contribute to modernization. The orthogenetic changes which occurred were basically of two types: (a) Firstly changes through accretion and reformulation of the various ritual and cultural spheres of Hinduism. However. The process of sanskratisation and visualization. • • Through the emergence of liberal-religious reform movements. They both represented a form of cultural response to higher status mobility as a protest against ideal-typical value syndromes of the great tradition. and----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2) They preserved in one form or another hierarchical views of time and the conception of cyclical periodicity in culture. changes through differentiation in terms of break-away traditions of Buddhism and Jainism. in the heterogenetic impact. in both the cases the earlier orthodoxy was retained. it did not actually bring about an acceptance of higher status by the upper caste Hindus (in the case of sanskratisation) and in Islam (through conversion).
and social change and continuity: The process of modernization started especially with the advent of the British rule. Though the basic direction was towards. Along with these modernizing norms. through its innovative changes in the fields of legal. however. and universalism and not those of status and hierarchy. This paved the way for adaptive transformations towards. it encouraged the values of equality.The process of modernization. There occurred a selective and segmental process of. but it has done so through assimilation and not replacement. Viewpoints: • Rudolph and Rudolph call this phenomenon “Modernity of Tradition” and conclude with Edward Shils that “modernity has entered into Indian character and society. I led to acculturative and innovative changes in the social and cultural structures of the Indian society. It led to emergence of new middle-class professional groups and groups of social-reformers. The factor which was chiefly responsible for this was the nature of network of relationship which was characterized by a high degree of relativeautonomy. it led to reformatory theistic movements in Hinduism and propagated the discontinuance of harmful social usage and customs prevalent in the contemporary Indian society. mass-media and communication. What follows is an accretion and transmutation of forms.” ~ 14 ~ . Its basic tenets were based on legal-rationalism. justice. equity. and civil rights. tradition does not necessarily retard the process of modernization. As such. These new innovations posed a serious challenge to the two cardinal attributes of the Indian tradition-hierarchy. etc. structural also took place having uniform character throughout the country. and Similarly. urbanization. This inner-structural autonomy helped in selective syncretism of new cultural modes. a variety of traditional institution also got reinforced. These were not only modern but also pan-Indian in nature. The above feature gets highlighted in comparative studies on which have shown that contrary to stereotyped belief: • • Old traditions are not completely displaced by modernization. educational. and structure. forms of behavior.
as such it leaves its mark on modernity. and Ramkrishana Mukherjee. however. MN sr. where articulation of interests is done and caste acts as a pressure group. Inter structural autonomy Y. and are differentiated into -independent/categorical. Structural & normative initial condition institutional autonomy between Pd. which otherwise could be used for transmission of modern values tend to reinforce the value-system of the Great Tradition. people tend to retain their categorical values of tradition instead those of modernity. Adaptability of traditional features forces of modernity -M. and instrumental. M. These initial conditions of both tradition and modernization can be conceived of as a set of ‘values and role structures’. As such. Factors responsible for continuity 1. • Richard D. Lambert. 4. Lambert. have increasingly been found to serve tends of political modernization.Singh refers to such a process as the ‘modernization of Indian tradition’. Milton singer. and Myron Weiner. 3. Reason for the resilience and co-existence of tradition and modernity: This can be traced to the historicity or the initial conditions of society. both cultural and structural. Modern innovation themselves reinforced the value system of great tradition M.• Milton singer in his book ‘when a great tradition modernizes’ opines that there occurs traditionalisation of modernity in India. This viewpoint has been supported by K. Therefore. where traditional features influence modernity. at the same time. • Milton singer in ‘traditional India’ emphasizes that modern innovations in the media of communications. Kin-based entrepreneurial function continue to coexist with and support modern values and forms of social action. Studies: • Rajni Kothari-caste association which are otherwise typical symbols of tradition. & value system 2.the functioning of democracy in India has further vindicated the extent to which it is rooted into the particularistic values represented by caste. Y.Traditional institution like joint family. This explains the possibility of the unique combination and coexistence of traditional values with the modern ones. ~ 15 ~ .M. singer. Singer. Kapadia. Singer. kinship and other parochial values. They both are relatively autonomous. which accordingly determines the adaptive patterns. • Rudolph and Rudolph. Singh. though in the instrumental types we find a shift from tradition to modernity.
chiefly under Asoka’s patronage.5. Some of the peculiar aspects of Bhuddism. Continuous interaction bet. Are A) Dharma .* BHUDDISM: Its impact on Indian society Around 600BC it emerged in India however it proliferated only after 40 BC. People retaining the traditional categorical values though in instrumental values these are a shift from tradition to modernity (Y. The ability of traditional values to support the process of modernity G. Talks of value of righteousness of action.community C) Buddha . Great & little tradition took place R. which chief proliferated under protection. This was in sharp contrast to the Hindu religion. ~ 16 ~ . Empower. On control and not repression. It was more egalitarian in nature vis-à-vis.path. Hindu religion. Redfield.phyche & philosophy. As such the difference between the king and the supreme authority of religion got blurred. 6. Singh. It chiefly arose an aftermath of reaction against Brahmin orthodoxy or domination of those times. • • • • Atheistic Spirituality (EMP. Gusfield. On other world ) Salvations to problems Of this world through middle . It was of an organized nature. • Three aspects emp.R.) 7.duties B) Sangam . A monastic religion similar to Christianity of western society.
Thus more prominence to status of women was given.. CIVIL SOCIETY: Women were considered as function arise of religion at par with man. STATE: It influenced the foundational structure of state and it changed the very nature of state. yoga. vaisheshika. they also started influencing the nature and function of state. It traced to mitigate the difference between the religious intelligentsia and the common people. and nyaya. But now since the followers of Buddhism. a ban on ‘bali’ was proclaimed. This not only made the state more open in nature besides the state became more oriented towards welfare of its people.in this attempt to counter the impact of Buddhism epics like dharmashashtras and Arthashstra were written.Sankhya. and Provided an alternative philosophy of egalitarianism. Earlier was a period of domination of puests (Brahmins) over the state (kashalriya). There occurred concretization of name and Dharma which had a functional basic was now accorded a religious sanction and a new class of untouch ables emerged. This influenced Hindu philosophy in a very significant way as Four non -Vedic philosophical trends dev. which introduced rigidity into Hindu religion. With its exclusive emp. Were in the ranks of middle & lower classes. ~ 17 ~ . Thus where status got more integrated with the day to day life of the people.violence it transformed the very nature in which the ritual practices were performed.Basic tenets: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- It had a far reaching impact on the Indian society. PHILOSOPHY: Initially began as an intellectual movement & is of teeny categorized as enlightenment. On non. Earlier only Brahmins were responsible to interpret and expound religious principal. A negative fallout.
where it was of a revivalist in nature. BUDDHISM AND SOCIAL CHANGE Y. Donald engine smith in India as a secular state. On egalitarianism. was also preserved. Ames also demonstration the existence of hierarchy not only in the role insitutionalisation of the members in the Buddhist society.Buddhism made possible the teaching of religious scriptures in people’s language. B. Michael M. Patronage. On non. It also strengthened the other -world aspect of Hinduisum. Chiefly comprising of egalitarian social forces. In modern times. where it talks of hierarchy of consecutions and moral progression to the ideal of salvation. as such B.. At times. ~ 18 ~ . as a movement. Ames The principal of hierarchy was preserved in B. A new cultural outlook ------------------------------------------It was the first protest movement of an organized nature and under pol. Besides its emp. and bodhisattva in Buddhism. This is supposed to be finally redeemet by an ‘Avtaar’ in H. Its continued relevance: can be seen where it has re emerged in the form of new Buddhism movement. Of common mass which tried to establish an appropriate place for lower sections of the society . it opposed ‘hierarchy’ the main bases of traditional Hindu social organization. Thus we can say that democratization took place within the dimensions of state and religion.prakriti. We can categorize B. and was consequently integrated within its many fold .a devotionary view on the direction of cultural movement. it was an intellectual and a religious movement.violence also led to the dev. rather opposition was the moving force. which shows the egalitarian vision and aspirations of the down trodden people of our society. Orthogenetic factor of social change. Why it got absorbed within the four folds of Hinduism? It could not extricate itself from the hierarchical value systems of traditional Hinduism. It also shared with H. Of economy and commerce within and outside India. the rise of Shudras is associated with it. With its emp.Michael M. but also wrt the goal orientation as project by the Buddhist religious world-view. Singh opmes that it was an imp. The conception of ‘transmigration of soul’ in Mahayam Buddhism. did not accept either philosophically or socially the hierarchy principal wrt social organization. In India. continues to be a dynamic mechanism of cultural movement.
the role differentiation also had an elitist character. the stratification system or caste order against which they propagated. Besides. Structural changes were Very few and those which took place were limited in respect to the types of roles. Basic tenets: Its distinctive contribution It introduced some new cultural values againt the ideal typical attributes of the Hindu great tradition hierarchy. Since such a differentiation of roles was segmental. FRAME WORK • • • • • • • • Introduction Basic tenets Nature Impact Significance Reason why? Nature of social change Its re-emergence Break away Against Buddhism Indore of new cultural value Not a v________ Rash_________ Sociological Its impact an Indian society A sociological analysis Introduction: It had an atheistic world view It was purely orthogenetic in nature (form within the Hindu tradition) and Represented the formation of new antonymous tradition though differentiation change though fission -arose as an aflirmath of reaction against Brahmin orthodoxy & domination of those times. As such none of them had a meaningful impact on the political System. as were led by members of upper caste -class. it did not alter the system as a whole. • Provided an alternative religious philosophy of egalitarianism ~ 19 ~ .Nature of social change The changes which occurred were confirmed to differentiation within the framework of traditional social structure & values.
Singh considers B. It had a revolutionary appeal to the masses in general Because of his Y. Thus democratization took place within the sphere of religion & state. • Its Membership open to all casts & both the sense. Made possible the teching of religious scriptures in peoples language . This also led to the dev. How & why it got integrated within the fold of Hindu Hierarchy found in. On non-violence it changed the V. • Its natureIts revolutionary contribution: Represented the first beginning of social . Instead of coercion (as in the case of Christianity & Islam) . natures in which ritual practice were performed. State became more oriented towards the welfare of its people With its emp. but opposition or protest was the moving force .cultural protest against Rigid formalism Tyrannical ritualism.Could not extricate itself from the hierarchical value system of traditional Hinduism. and Ossification of values system of hierarchy into exploitative institution especially those of caste & Brahmin religious orthodoxy. and because of witch it proliferated outside India also.• • • • • • • Membership open to all casts & both the sense An appropriate place for the lower section of the population / socity . Michael M. as an important orthogenetic factor of social change Not revivalist in nature. • • Its nature: Its intellectual strength where knowledge player a for important rde. It undermined the significance of hierarchy the basic of jati or caste sub division . Ames Consciousness & moral progression Devolutionary view on the direction of cultural movement ~ 20 ~ . More prominence to the states of women. Of trade & commerce within & outside India . goal mentations and role institutionalization of the Buddhist socials---------.
Differentiation renamed segmental. Its re-emergence in modern India Donald engene Smith in India as a secular state. As a process enhance status of a group within stratification system board on Hindu caste system. 2. differentiation within the traditional Hindu GT. Buddhist movement Shows the egalitarian vision & aspiration of the down trodden people of our society. Besides having elitist character Therefore . i. Because thus continues to be a dynamic mechanism cultured movement. These --------here them one harden of insulation (dominate cast ) 4. Acculturation way of life high . However . Strengthened other world aspect of Hinduism Buddhism & nature of social change. 3. Singh ) It represented the formation of new antonymous tradition through different ration change through fission. changes chiefly renamed orthogenetic . Arose as an after math of reaction against Brahmin orthodoxy & domination of those times. Ames .e. SANSKRITISATION: 1 INTRODUCTION 2 DEFINATION 3 CHARACTENSTIES OF SANSKRITISATION 1. piquantly upper caste group . Renamed ideational & not existential Rde.Y. Singh.Transiniigation of soul. With its emp. Anticipatory socialization ~ 21 ~ . As a neo. Or egalitarianism for the first time opposed hierarchy the -----of traditional Hindu social organization . Introduction: It is considered as an important orthogenetic factor of social change in India (Y. it could not finally extricate itself from the hierarchical value system of traditional Hinduism & was comeqnently interrogated within its many ford Michael M.
3. 6. --------------. 6. Indicates positional & not structural change. 2 the process of social change. but group. Unit of mobility is not -------or family. Non.change accusing within the caste . (3) Endogenous factor of social change . Commercial middle class. Critical evaluation 1. Analysis1 nature of society. Conclusion -----------------------Broad framework -for westernization . ~ 22 ~ .S.Conh 2 tribes such as Bhils ---------------KS. Singh talks of (1) contextual specific reason for cultural iminiutation were essential. Other ---------of social immunity ignored. -------------------------model. 3 reason for continuity of tradition. 3 Lohan & sonan in Mysore calming for vishavkarma Brahman caste status. Reason ------existential. Y. Contemporary aspects cannot be explained. 5. Singh . 2. Example of sanskritisation : 1 Nonie low caste of Madhopur village in UP. Cultural system. 8. (2) Historical connotation. 4 jatawas of agra -lynch 5 mohers of Maharashtra-A . 7. --------------------& bundle of concept. not structional. these is change in & not of the caste system . -B.5. ------------------------------4. 7.Beteille.sanskritic elements ignored.
education & its impact Impact of industrialization & urbanization on city life erural material culture .a process of cultural imitation -------causal factor were existential & not sacerdotal. discontinuance of harmful social usages & custom . it. On new education Cultural renaissance &birth of an enlightened intelligentsia (movements. (2) historical.& in cultural patterns in different periods of history.where in the process of cultural mobility . Commented the hierarchical foundation& Negated the chases of mobility due to closure of avenues of mobility (other ------accullisation) The resulation process of (cultural) change: Unique historical expression of the general process of acculturation as a means of vertical mobility of groups.religious reframe movement. Besides a politico. Position is status summation. Growth of nationalism Aspects of legal. Thus attack on hierarchy holism transcendence. changes occurred within the status of castes its leadership .C served invariably as reference models.Emp. & pd. what we observe is prismatic .etc. However . Framework for sanskritisation Definition (1) contextual specific . Unification of country . ~ 23 ~ . Emergence of middle class. A cultural response to a set of empirical existential socio cultural situation whore D. nationalism) Socio.adm. Analysis: nature of society Relative closure of Hindu social system Where status in caste being ascribed by birth &where caste with ritual superiority had dominate eco.stage of cultural meternisation. ritual priority & pollution .
Various other aspects avenues of social mobility & change were also prevalent Silverberg . but also provided for the leveling of culture among the masses in general. it explain the dynamic aspect of traditional India society. as the most pdential endogenous source of social change.sanskritic tradition -Mckim Marriott . Buddhism& Sikhism appeared took place in India . it not only tropically owed for its genesis to the orthogenetic tradition . It also explain why break movement like Jainism .Y.Thus it had a contextual significance . MN Shrinivas (2) Confusion of using the concept of DC. showing challenges & revolts against the socio . Often cancel forces ---------S. as introduces structural elements in a cultural model . The reason for the continuity of tradition: Where though it tried to challenge typical cultural attribuites of Traditional H. Contextually in terms of its limited /partial applicability to explain the nature of social change in traditional & contemporary Indian society 1. ~ 24 ~ . 5.Beteille opines that it fails to take into account the confects& lassion aspect . A. ------fail to account for many accpect of part & contemporary India as it highest non. (3) Does not to a consistent --------of social change. Gonld .as such people valued high status & not hierarchy . As such is a disguised form of modernization. contextually) Logically (1) Complete heterogeneous and a bundle of concepts . and contradictious in various contextual specific connotation of S. Deprivation . Sinha Beteille 3. Limitations critical evaluation: (logically. Sanskritic influence was not conversal to all parts of India Chanana --------as -----------in the version contextual specific cannottaion of S. H. Shrinivas 2. 4. where the causal forces in empirical process of cultural change were essentially existential & not sacerdotal. Explain only cultural and not structural change -MN. 6.eco. were existential and not sacerdotal . Singh . Thus.
as fails to highlight the contribution of histinciaspect in social change & sees W.Y. 2.g. S. KM. accrued to only chits & not people /masses in general. Kuppushamy . substantively . Pannikkar. A selective & segmental process of cultural change .Y. is primarily a represent group behavior sa it only highlights process of social mobility and not social change -RK.AR.B. WESTERNISATION Critical evaluation of the process of westernization: theoretical level . Sanskritisation Proposed by MN. It fails to explain the process of Indianisation -Devraj Chenana 3.7. 5. 2. Explains mainly cultural & not structural process of social change . --------identity tnbal identity and Muslim national identity in Kashmir . as a one-way process . ~ 25 ~ . Only a perspective not a theory MN. A disgainst reference to protest against the basic ideal typical value syndrome of the great ------------------------------------In tenetform a response of India’s little tradition to modernity. Lerner. 1. 6.Singh . An endogenous sources of social change.A. Singh. Srinivas A process of cultural immnitation Has a local iced and specific rather than a pan-Indian char. Unit of mobility is the group not individual. Desai . Not a comprehensive theory . Conclusion 1. Srinivas for it does not lead to a consistent theory of social change.R. 4. Fails to account for aspects of Indianisation the group ability (isolationism and natavistic revivalism ) for e. Desai .D. Mukharjee. Describes cultural mobility in traditional social structure . The contemporary processes of social change could not be explained through it . The benefits of W.
Introduction of new values of rationalism.MN. Impact of educational & cultural renaissance. 5.Singh 2.AR.Gould. H. 6.which ------. Srinivas.hierarchy &--------. Desai .MN. which were • • necessarily modern & pans-India new education & legal system .Y. However in the end its impact was only selective & segmental. Sociological significance: ~ 26 ~ . Changes under the impact of westernization: 1.AR. Which posed serious challenge to the two cardinal attributes of traditional social values . Srinivas. Impart dynamision to the relatively static traditional Indian social structure. Desai. The enlightened intelligentsia called for new religion reform movements & legal ------. 4. Srinivas for changes which occurred as a resent of 150 years of British rule in India. Mukharjee. so and tech urbanization communication . equality. Singh. The traditional social --------of organic Indian economy was -------leading to the emergence of exploitative system DP. Mukharjee. the forernere -of democratic ---------------. Changes in the way of living .& universalism - Y. humanism. 3.Indian ----------------emerged . Growth & proliferation of new classes commercial & middle classes . DP. Creation of such hard works of culture & social structure . Introduction • • Introduced by MN. An important heterogametic factor of social change. And laid the foundation for culture modernization of India.the way for the process of nation state &emergence of nationalism . At best only a perspective & not a theory. Thing took the lead in forging ahead freedom struggle . A well knit hrenohth& pan .7.
6. New basic for stratification . 3. Sanskritisation & westernization: • Concept given by srinivas Both are related to each other However differences are there: • • Sanskritisation i. Social status -----------.1. hot a theory. 3. One-way &-------directional Ethnocentric Cultural & not structural selective & segmental contemporary processes & highlighted At best a perspective. Critical evaluation of westernization: 1A.-family dve to feeling of -------------- 2. 10. 4. Provision for dunce. 5.historical 1. 4. Ancient process iii. Impact an caste system. Indian society & culture ~ 27 ~ . 5. Low caste typically Indian iv. 8. More --------for social mobility. Religious values ii. 2. Processes of indatralisation & urbanization. Marriage low seen -----. Weakening of ideas of pollution & purity. Impact an -------.as an agreement than a sacrament. 7.based on achievement & not ascription. Status of women. 11. 9. 6. Growth & proliferation of low social classes.education.
v. Inter structural autonomy. foreign 5. ii. iv. iii. ~ 28 ~ . social change 9. heterogenic 11. Reasons for such a nature of change: i. Micro-aspect Nature of change: - There occurred sycereticisim accretion & transmutation of forms.Singh. The process of change was selective & segmental. Two way process ix.India 8. Continuous interaction themselves -------------the value system of People reteaming the traditional categorical values. one-way process 10. every class 4. - Structural & normative initial condition institutional antinomy bet. Typically process of cultural mobility viii. Orthogenetic factor x. Multiple reference vi. though in Pd. Tradition was not completely displaced. G.Myrdal. Micro-aspect westernization: 1. instrumental values these is a shift from tradition to indemnity Y. & value system eiseustadt. secular values 2. single 7. great tradition MN. Localized vii. relatively modern 3.Srinivas.Singh . western orientation & out-look 6.Y. pan.
W. RD.R. • • A rational attitude towards issues Commitment to scientific world new 7 not merely the volume of technological advancement. vi. 3. A Universal cultural phenomena. Prismatic society . Lambert. MN.gos---. .M. Modernization of Indian tradition . Adaptability of traditional values to forces to indemnity . Modernization What its means? The bases of such an ---------analytical paradigm is . Singer The ability of traditional values to support the process of indemnity .Riggs. - ~ 29 ~ . Srinivas . On - meriasing emphasis on rationality universalism functional specificity objectivity sewlaraisatin an important process which contributes to the growth of such structures is that of eco.prof.Singh.Y. Of all modern societies relict an emp. which is based on rational & an experimental approach . Growth of which industrialization & urbanization are its conconpmltants . • • MJ lovy :the char. T & M coexists Rudolpho . modernization is a process where scientific knowledge is introduced into the society . F.v. Gusfield Conclusion 1. 2.
market eco. Structural differentiation . 2. ~ 30 ~ .Ruston &ward opine that the basic process in modernization is the application of modern science to human affairs .MJ. 3. Social .Eisenstaedt. Parts & pressure groups. or outlook of progress &dev. High proportion of working force employed in secondary & tertiary instead of primary occupation. Modernization: refers to an analytical paradigm providing an explanation for the process of transition of a relatively traditional society towards modernity industrial with increasing social & structural differentiation.development of institution which support participation decision-making. James o’ connell. A new cultural outlook 7 important on progress & improvement. urbanization. Achievement orientation. Adoption of scientific technology 2. Increasing industrialization & urbanization. 4. 4. 5. institutionalization of values attitude of openers & apathy. Political M. Installation of democratic & populist pd.increasing literacy quality of life slandered of life scientific & technical knowledge a venues for mobility achieved status.secularization. 6. Capacity for internal transformation . 2. use of set opportunities of work &employment generation. Institution. Pre-requisites for modernization: 1. free press & judiciary. bureaucratic adm. industrialization. Cultural . 8.associated with profound eco. Transition from ascribed to achieve status. Marked increased in geographical & social mobility. Spread of scientific secular & technical education. Levy .a temper of science reason & rationalism . Increasing differentiation of structure . Changes. 3. Indicators / measures of modernization: ( rustow & ward ) 1. Economic . 9.structures capable of adopting to continuously changing situation . . Expansion of the media of communication. . 7. It’s various dimension are: 1. 10. & secularism.
Policy of protection discrimination & fundamental rights . 5. Macro & micro structure. Tradition (past & contemporary). 6. However. 4. India’s instruments of development strategy . 3. The pertinent question is will the Indian society be able to avoid structural breakdown & progress towards smooth institutionalization of modernity. 1.3. which however. A comprehensive strategy which seeks to abolish discontinuity bet: 1. Adul suffrage. 7. Opportunity structure . Parliamentary form of gont. WTO. ~ 31 ~ . this has generated inter structural conflicts & tension bet. 4. Democratization of polity & power structure -prls. 2.modernization : planned social change. Motivation structure for which karl deutsch used the term social mobilization. Legal reform -equality before law & equal opportunities of work. land reforms green revolution new agricultural policy .equal opportunities work. Policy . Little & great tradition.Myran Weiner. 8. 2. Points: 1. Assessing the process of modernization in India : The above analysis can be had on the basic of the following changes in cultural spheres. called cultural lag (bottomox) . new eco. Socialistic pattern of economy. Cdp. such a comprehensive process of modernization has necessitated adaptive changes in the tradition culture values & norms. The trends of socio cultural changes. Future course of modernization in India would depend much on the manner in which these tensions are resolved as modernization galhirs momentum. Secularism. has lagged behind leading to what ogburn.
In Indian renaissance (socio religious reform movements) there was a limited effort to synthetics religious with modern western values. The Indian process of modernization after independence was sudden & not gradual. Impediments a modernization 3. As. was occomodated & assimilated within it. such tradition renamained intact as M.• • • Changes in structural spheres Contradiction have emerged Structural in conoestancis 2. where. Changes result in both structure & culture. Chances of institutional breakdown are --------------. Implicit scientific outlook & rationality of goals. Difference -modernization & westernization Modernization • A deliberate strategy of development. A two way process. Macro structure was created & initialed from above without concomitant changes in tradition. • • A constant coordination of mobilization which conciliation Simultaneously reinforcing democratic values and institution. despite contradiction & kin ions 4. An important conditional assumption. Value free. its impact renamed elitist & not mass based. Westernization • • • • • ~ 32 ~ . Takes into account the peculiarities & specificities of each & every society.
73&74 acts. Democratic values have been fairly institutionalized. SHGs. Rise in aspiration without significant increase in institutional framework of opportunities & resources. 6. Elites on one hand & between pd. ST. 8. Association. ~ 33 ~ . Impediments to modernization: 1. 9. Planned economic growth has not trickled down to the masses in general & the drive towards market economy & liberalization has further accentuated inequalities. OBC. NGOs. 4. organization such as SAHMAT.some positive trends 1. mobilization & identity formation continues to take place in traditional norms & values. Verbalization of welfare idedogy without its diffusion in social structure & its implementation as a social policy. 5. 3. Leading to populism & soft state. The growth of institutions supporting democracy has not taken place. Continuous neglect of the social aspect of economic development. Chance of breakdown are minimal . besides NC for women SC. besides industrialization at the cost of rural economy. There have been some positive development . institution. 2. & permanent elites on the other. There is broad consensus on the ideology of modernization. PUCR. 7. 2. 3. Leadership inhibited from going at the root of the prob.British contact It refer to behind imitation Value loaded Changes only at cultural level A unidirectional approach What is unmitated many not necessarily be rational. Over-urbanization without industrialization.• • • • • • A process of acculturation -----. System of imbalanced polity centimes to prevail gap between old & new pd. AIDWA.
Development & modernization. disinterment. •Leaders were not trained in democratic ethos.4. The recent UPA gonts has called for reforms’ with human face. • This has lid it populism & soft state region. & Lokpal. •Tradition renamed intact a modernization was accommodated & assimilated within it. etc. with the implicit ideology of promoting growth with equity social welfare. • As culturally homogeneous back ground of elite has later termed hits political fragmentation . Problems of modernization: structural contradiction & breakdown of modernization •In Indian renaissance (socio-religions reform mov. •Democracy is being used as an active agent of industrialization & development but instead of rational measures. of the approach paper pr. • Institutions for furthering democracy have not worked properly. CVE. Citizen character. consensus has broken down. •Macro structures were created & initiated from above without the concomitant changes in the tradition. • Caste based politics along with politics of opportunism & expediency. where diversities which is primordial & partivenlanstic has weekend the process of nation state building. 7. ~ 34 ~ . •The Indian process of modernization after independence was not gradual. Macro-micro structures could not be forged. 6. 10 FYP. binds parliamentary ethics & commotion were absent. the social obj. Traditional institution has shown tremendous adaptability in promoting eco. New eco policy has been ushered . WTO. • Democracy without secularization has taken place. •Effective interlink ages bet. 5.new agricultural policy. populist measures are being implemented. • Its impact was elitist & not mass-based.) there where limited effort to synthesize religion with modern me stern tradition. There has been gradual have towards strengthening curl society -women empowerment right to imp. new exam policy. Judicial activism & PIL. etc.
But. • Gap in orientation between political & permanent executives. Dumont. all these lead to unevenness in the process of modernization & the resultant contradiction. industrialization at the cost of rural economy. as . conflates & separation. CULTURAL AND STRUCTURAL VIEW OF CASTE CULTURAL VIEW• A cognitive historical approach. • There has been over urbanization without industrialization leading to urban decay. ~ 35 ~ . A relatively static crew of society. Primary focus is on the changes in the basic themes of the Indian cultural structure. • We have ignored rural industrialization ie. It is based in the ideology of purity & pollution of L. it is not averse to social change. Hierarchy & quality rather than on performance. Logistics view which conceived ‘dharma’ as a moral under. •A general absence of participative culture. •Expansion of growth opportunities have not matched peoples expectation. the nature of change was only cultural & not structural.Nations of hierarchy were predominant even in pre-modern western tradition. which emphasis a set of values beliefs & practice. • Gap between over urbanization of welfare ideology without its implementation leading to over expectation & frustration among people. Thus. 2. . leading to fragmentation. • • • • However.• Process of liberalization & market economy drive has accentuated iniquities.Traditional Indian social system did recognize the legitimacy of cultural & social innovation through institutionalized role of sanyasis. which emphasized upon: 1.
- This can be done through formulation of a series of abstraction on cultural theams for comparative study (ideal types) for studying historical stages. - Through which cultural changes have occurred in India.Betalle. • ~ 36 ~ . A brahamanical model which. Ishawaran . & - This shows its utility for both synchronic & diachronic type of studies. 2. 3. may not be acceptable to all & applicable to all parts of the comlry .G. It is highly abstract & different to operationaitlise. Therefore limited in scope & applicability. 2. Helpful in understanding cultural & not structural aspect of caste. Danel & Lynch. Structural viewFocuses on the nature of social relationship. Accordingly . Hierarchy Hereditary specialization Repulsion & social distance(bougle) Organic reality & Segmental reality (F.K.Islam. Bailey) It chiefly analyses society in terms of prevalence of statues summation-A. 4. Such a nature of change was evident under the impact of sanskritisation. it analyses caste in terms of: 1. 2.A.Y. • • Such a conception of caste inherently posits that caste in future would change & finally whiter away Its criticism 1. 3. interaction & role performance in terms of: 1. Beteille. Singh. westernization.
It example the existential reality aspect of caste. It proposes that these will be change in such structural relationship; however, caste as such is not R.D. Lambert emphasizes its direct relevance for the processes of modernization. Statuses to contract From primary group production processes to more complstursion labour. Ascribed to achieved statuses. Statuses immobility to mobility. Organic to segmental reality.
going to wither away. • 1.
3. 4. 5.
VARNA SYSTEMS: DEFINEING VARNAVarna was the division of Hindu society into four classes 1. Brahmin - priests -white
2. Kshatriyas - warriors- red
3. Vaishyas - traders- yellow 4. Shudras - service - black • •
Varna system also provided a system of social stratification. Each Varna was placed in the system at a particular position in the hierarchical order and was assigned specific tasks & duties. Varna organization refers to the work one would ---------------- in the society according to his nature, tendivices & disposition. The division of society into four Varna’s was based on the division of labour where each group had to different objects according to its occupational role. Later on however, the four Varnas come to be arranged hierarchically, with the Brahmins at the top & the Shudras at the bottom. How Varna come to be associated with caste?
During the times of epics. & dharmashastras functional spescalisation & hierarchical order in terms of the functions performed petrified in the shape of rigid tattoos . nation of pollution & purity emerged. The hierarchical order because more rigid & non- equalitarian sanctions emerged, whereby functional criteria were accorded a ritual sanction or complesion. Thus, hierarchy which was a functional principle became a religious phenomenon. This led to emergence of caste accordingly; hierarchy & mobility in the Varna system came largely to be associated with castes. Differences between Varna and caste: 1. 2.
Varna represuits an all India category whereas caste varies from region to region. Varna can be placed in a strick jank order, which may not be possible with castes. Varna is more like a nation or a model rather thau a social practice whereas caste is more of a Varna exists more in lernis of theoretical ------------------whereas caste has a existential Varna division of society is macro-structural in nature, whereas caste exists as a macroBasic to the Varna concept the idea of gunas, dharma, karma, whereas basic to the caste
social practice & an institutional mechanism in real life situations. 4. 5.
reality. structural rality. concept is the idea of pollution & purity. In sociological analysis why do we prefer caste analysis to Varna analysis? • •
Varna is some sort of a nation, which is empirically non existence but caste besides being a nation is also a reality at different levels, though not of a inform nature. Aspect of mobility can be better analyzed in terms of caste as it is quite difficult to place the mobile community in a Varna hierarchy. Clavus and cometer claimes and ---------------& unflicts regarding status evaluation have been found -----------the caste No village or town can be understood in terms of the Varna frame of reference because a single village has number of castes & sub castes. Caste ranking also various forms region to region, because the same caste is not dominant in different regions
However , during the tunes of pics. & dharmashastras functional specialization & hierarchical order in terms of the functions performed in the shape of rigid taboos. the hierarchical order became more rigid & non-eqnelitarion sanctions emerged whereby functional criteria was a functional principle became a religious phenomenon . This led to the emergence of castes. Thus the hierarchy of the castes and the mobility of a caste come to be stated in Varna system.
The importance of Varna system: faraichesan all India frame into which the jaties occupying the
lower rungs, have throughout tried to raise their status by taking over the costumes & rituals of the top jaties. This has helped the spread of a uniform culture throughout the Hindu society.
Caste is tied to locality but vernal function on an all India basis. Varna is more conceptual scheme for the Hindu society as a whole, while caste is a description of a
real situation in the Hindu society. Caste and tribe -differences:
1. Religion: of tribal people is animism & that of caste people is Hinduism. 2. Geographical isolation: tribes live in geographically isolated region (we hills and mountain)
whereas caste people live in plain region.
3. Language: each tribe has its own language whereas caste people can speak or knows a number of
languages at the same time.
4. Economic back wondness: tribes are relatnchy more economically backhand, as they have how
income use primitive methods of agriculture & income cases still use buster system of exchange.
5. Organization of societal leving: tribes are organized on a segmentary system larger propertun of
pupu have direct access to land. Whereas, caste people are organized around organic system hierarchically organized group through is interdependent relationship. Caste and class - difference They both are status group. A status group is a collection of indiovdnals who share a distractive style of life & a certain consciousness of a kind. 1. 2. 3. Castes are perceived as hereditary groups with a fixed ritual status, while classes are defined Caste is an endogenous group but class is not. Caste is a unique phenomenon but class is univocal. in terms of the relation of production.
Caste works as are active political force but class does not. age. competition. It chiefly posits a society which has a relatively closed system of social stratification. whereas non ------or shudras are impure. CASTE . right and obligation. It is chiefly referred to as class basis of stratification. It is basically a horizontal decision of society into unequal status groups where people have freedom to more from one stratum to another depending upon their possession. possible. Caste is static whereas class is dynamic. caste.e. It accordingly also provides for the occupational division of labour of various groups. power & status. kshastriyas. It decides the ranking of people in different status groups in a hierarchical order. as twice born and -------are pure. political & social condition of existence. astrictive norms. Caste occupations are traditional whereas class occupations are optional. this can be explained through the concepts of social stratification and hierarchy. class. occupation.. 6. but in class system there is In caste system status is determined by rilialistic ligitimatim of -------------traditional belief & 5. 8. whereas status in class system is determined by economic & political privileges i.HIERARCHY OR SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Social inequality is found in each & every society in various forms. In caste there is cooperation and economic interdependence. A caste based stratification system. etc. As such society is durded in terms of unequal distribution of economic. 9.4. 7. but in the class system change of status is 10. Besides. authority. Caste is religious whereas class is secular. where people have less chance of social nobility & status is ascribed ~ 40 ~ . in which hierarchical division based on ritual superiority is suigenaris. knowledge. Caste has an organic character but class has a segmentary character.gender. & a secular feature of modern society which is based on income. education. there is ritual superiority of Brahamins (status) over kshastriyas (power). achievement norms. Hierarchy implies an elaborate and rigid form of vertical division of society based on the religious principle of purity & pollution. Social stratification implies ranking of people (or groups) on the basis of differential distribution of goods & service. vaishyas. etc. It implies Bharamins. 11. Social mobility is not possible in caste system. quality & performance.
Though it tries to highlight the essence & the basis of caste and explains why caste is regarded as unique Indian Hindu phenomena.Romila Thapar. It fails to recognize the existential & operational reality of caste.Shah. 5.sufficient & a static village. 3. will continue to existent future . Srinivas. 2. Madan. caste & politics. However. AN Das. When we consider caste as a hierarchy. Betailly 3. Such an approach ignores the application of socio-economic categories to the study of verna & caste & emphasis only upon religious conceptions-A.Y. backward class movements etc.-Rudolphs. R. 4. The brahaminicaly cultural view point is unduly emphasized . Pannikar. A. The inherent dynamic reality of mobility & conflicts taking place from historical ancient to contemporary times .Davis. it explains only the partial reality of caste. K. It facilitates in understanding.G. KM. it chiefly explains only one of its dimensions of ritual (cultural) aspect.(based on birth).A. The dynamic reality of caste mobility cannot be evaluated from such a framework . 8. ~ 41 ~ .marrwtt. 1.G. Superiority of status to power is not always right. 7. Rudolphs. Such a society is visualized as being based on reciprocity & cooperation. caste & democracy. The obvious limitation of such an approach is as follows: 1. F. 4. 6. Betailly.parrathamna. Such a framework posits a self .Betille. Shrinivas. G.Desai.R. which is divorced from the existential reality of village.TN. It explains why caste in a transformed from. Kothari. Based on limited sources & is a historical . called organic reality of caste by F. caste as a source of gaining power & social mobility emergence of various caste-class conflicts. Baily.MN.MN. It fails to account for the tension & conflicts aspects of caste.A. 2. Baily calls it the segmental reality of caste. chenana. The economic & political aspects of caste can only be understood when we consider caste as a system of social stratification. The caste ranking various from rigion to region because the same caste is not dominates in different region . It facilitates in the understanding of the emerging contemporary reality of caste such as caste association.Singh.
instead of caste.L.Sharma. Alone or class alone approach.’ Hyper gamy is practiced . Central India - ~ 42 ~ . its regional variations can be studied along there dimensions . for its highlight that: • • There is closed link between Caste link & class link feature & not that caste is transforming into class. because of which a person marries within one’s own caste or sub caste. A person awards marriage with kind who are related to him or her five generation from the mothers side & seven generations in the fathers side ideally. 2. a class caste-class nexus framework should be adopted .Riggs calls a prismatic society. However.K. patrilocal & patrilineal The four . 1. called ‘the rule of -----------------. (A) Caste structure and kinship The sole reason for this relationship lies in the endogamous nature of caste system. Y.Singh opines that it is only then we can understand why tradition modernity coexists in India leading to what prof. great diversity exists between region as well as within region. To understand the dynamic Indian social reality.W.Singh. having features of both fused (traditional) & diffracted (modern) society. North India• • • • • A person marries outside the village. • Y. F. The caste structural has several variations functioning in different region in India. However various variations in this pattern are found in India. the in numerable variation of caste is found in India.Kinship.clam rule of marriage is followed. CASTE: Dimension of regional variations As an existential reality. which specially widens the range of ties Patriarchal.The two approaches are essentially supplementary & complementary to each other. & power. In reality. occupation. for analytical purpose.
where the order of dominance among caste parallels the order of caste rank. This was reflected in the study of K. ( Mckin Marriott) this was reflected in the jajmani system of framework. (B) Caste structure & occupation Traditionally. kwmi. lack of clarity in caste ranking result in a diffused power structure. Coromandal region of south caste coastal India. daughter is a taboo. there is a definite concentration of power. However. Middle ranking caste such as jats. where the Brahmins were the land owners & adi shudras worked as landless agricultural labourers.Gough of tanifourdistt. Southern region- • • • • Basically preferential rules of marriage Village intermarriages takes place Chiefly matrilineal matrilocal & matriarchal. This was found by I Karve in her study of Malabar caste. brothers. ahir. cross . but marrying fathers. etc. ~ 43 ~ . numerical & ritual preponderance made a caste dominant. (C) Caste structure and power The control of land & economic resources along with political. Bailey’s study of Bissipara village in Orissa had worrier caste owning most of the land whereas other castes including the Brahmin were in a position of economic dependence & political subordination to them.cousin marriages are being practiced. For eg. Similarly. besides being numerically pond rent in some regions. the congruence between high caste status & land ownership was an important feature (A. waild substantial amount of power & position of dominance. 3.Beteille). political & ritual ----------.Beteille). with no single caste groups wielding economic. parts of UP. This led to status summation (A. Haryana & N. daughter. sisters. there was an association of caste with an occupation which determined its rank in the local caste hierarchy. Nayar matrilineal house is called ‘tharavad’. Thus where caste & power hierarchy overlap. in Punjab.• • • • Caste endogamy Hypergamy Village exogamy Among some caste communities.W. In any such framework. of marrying mothers. However. wealth & land invested with high ranking caste groups.
• ~ 44 ~ . He emphasized the importance of the search for latent & underlining structure ‘hierarchy’.L. rather it is dialectical. • Y. Dialectics• • The most important distention with in overall principle of hierarchy is that between “purity & pollution”. where. He provided a new prospective for the study of caste system & its implication for the understanding of the Indian. found upon the necessary consistence of the two. •Elements are ranked in relation to whole •Nature of relationship is which encompasses & that which is incompossed •A holistic view 2. The opposition between pure & impure gets reflected in Varna & jati. values or is ideational. Singh highlights four parts of his theory: 1.t. Dumont’s views: Y. The relationship between these binary opposites is not that of fundamental opposition. Singh perspective for the analysis of L. 3. Hindu society. who terms Dumont’s views on caste as cultural -partienlaristic. we can song that this dialectics is of a complementary nature.hierarchy’. Dumont’s a French scholar & an expert in sociology. The opposition is w. Ideology.r.Hindu social organization & caste is based in the overriding principle of ‘hierarchy’. where. anthropology & ideology. which are immutrally interdependent. We can understand his theory on the basic of the perspective provided for by Y.Singh. An organic model where the whole is founded upon the necessary & hierarchical coexistence of two opposites. the opposite of equality.DUMONT’S analysis of caste in India Introduction: L. • • • Thus. Trance formational relationship• The principle of hierarchy as manifested in purity & pollution proviedsfor the diversion of labor in society. wrote magmim-opus ‘hono.
Dumont is that the changes are ‘in’ & not ‘of’ the caste system. More specifically. Dumont’s further proposed that the Varna system based on the distinction between purity & pollution later led to the proliferation of various castes. He however argned that the opposites of equality is not inequality. to L. the traditional interdependence of caste is being replaced by competition among the caste.L. Dumont’s accordingly presented a model to make his agreements more explicit. • It also provides for the distinction between status & power. based on hierarchy as found in India. based on equality as found in the west. called substantialisation of caste by Dumont. & (b) Oriental tradition . Comparisons .• This distinction leads to the division in terms of during & a_ ______jaties. • The nature of changes taking place in the caste system acc. he proposed • distinction between: (a) Oxidental tradition . ~ 45 ~ .homo-hierarchical. where status(of Brahmins as related to intellectual field) is more pure than power (of king & kshatriyas) • L. etc. gotra.homo equal is. Accordingly. Within the Durg jaties. who pursue economic activities are more impure in comparison to those who perform religious activities. • L. Dumont proposed his theory to compare the nature of equality found in the west to that of inequality as was found in India. Brahmins kshatriyas vaishyas shudras N. subcastes.A. The inequality as found in India is of a special kind which precisely gets manifested in the principal of hierarchy. kinship groups. 4.
• In Indian society collectivity aspect of social lik is more important than the individual phenomena of the west. similarly. (1) The correspondent between purity (ritual) & high status (of Brahmins) was not always true as power (of kings) also determined high status. 4. 2. As such. (2) Moreover if we look at castes dozily we find that each maintains its own tradition & costumes zealously clearly distinguishes itself from others accompanying by a unique hierarchical or doing of castes. Where his A. This leads to caste conflict.parvathamma. 6. M.N.power dichotomization based on the principle of hierarchy is incomplete until we consider it along with dominance an empirical reality of Indian caste system. leading to multiple hierarchies. Srinivas opines that he fails to distinguish between Varna & jati. Betailly argues that his organic model failed to account for the tensions and conception that jaties emerged from Varna is not true. together with the neglect of political . because of which the Hindu caste system is presented as one without internal dynamisan & tent ion 5.economic dimension of Indian reality. Conclusion: ~ 46 ~ . the status. • • critical evaluation: 1.N. conflicts aspect of caste. Singh considers his analysis as highly abstract to operationalise & is not T. it is a historical. Madan & Barreman argue for limited nature of ethnographic evidence empirically applicable. Y. G. However he equated individualism of west to renunciation as found in the Indian society. Dipankar gupta opines that Dumont fails to pay attention to the principle of differences in the caste system. Omvedt provides for an ideological antique by arguing that Dumont has tried to Barreman opines for the following: accord an ideological superiority to the Brahamanical model. As such. 3. opposite of true hierarchy of Dumont. This is in consonance with the reality that there are also varying models of emulation which castes employ for purpose of upward mobility.
Shrinivas. & Tribal Europe. Hurye analyzed the elements of caste outside India by reviewing Egypt. caste is not a unique Indian phenomena. 3. M.L. R. Bailey. Rome. Accordingly. Dumont’s emalyas of caste. CASTE: UNIQUE INDIAN PHENOMENA The different dimensions of caste as unique Indian phenomena1. there are groups in Muslim (Shias & Sunnis) & Christian (catholic & protestant).because of its religious significance. Japan. Lewis. Hulton & Bougle. Dumont. Hurye & Fredrick Barth as such. This shows the utility of L. O. loestern Asia. Gould. 5. 4. . China. but it also a unique Hindu phenomena.because it is based on the most crucial theological idea of purity & pollution. Dumont provides an alternative view of caste to understand the Indian social reality. Mukherjee contradicts this by arguing that caste system is a typical Indian institution rather than being a peculiarity of any religious group. he proposed that caste in not only unique Indian phenomena. both cultural & structural. castes denote a particular species with panIndian cirtisation.India moreover castes attempts to integral Indian society & a unique phenomena. ~ 47 ~ . Srinivas. H. These scholars are chiefly G. G. as such. L. The above views are proposed by the scholars who chiefly view caste as an ethnographic category & in this from it refers exclusively to a system of social organization peculiar to Hindu India Leach & Dumont argue that both as cultural & structural phenomena.castes system in its fullest sense is an exclusively Indian phenomenon. Bougle. Hutton.N. it is also a unique Hindu phenomena. this view has been supported by leach.because castes system permeates Hindu society to a level unknown elsewhere. But these groups are not based upon any theological ideas as in the case of Hindu religion.because of its complex origin.S.K. However there are scholars who regard caste as a sociological category denotes almost any kind of class structure of exceptional rigidity. it must be confused to a single are . 2.
the closure of openness of the stratification system. & not as cultural reality. as related to. Barth in his study of social stratification system of Muslims in swat. only as a structural phenomena. “Nature of mobility in traditional India” ~ 48 ~ . The above is determined by the structural constraints w. & change. “Social stratification. at least. it is doubtful to maintain that tension & conflicts did not exist in traditional India. • • • Frustration either objectively or subjectively existing. Leach & Dumont opines that caste exists in Indian both as a cultural & structural social reality. Kroeber opines that castes are special forms of social classes which in tendency. • • • • • Historically. The nature of the communication system. The closure of caste-stratification is associated with the principal of status summation. the same condition were found by F.t. to some extent. North Pakistan even Risley’s Racial theory posits that caste system should not be confined to India but it should be found in all those societies which have faced the conquests by other racial groups. indissolubly linked with pen. we can say that social mobility reflects the direction in which structural changes in the society are taking place. Such statusgroups and condition were prevalent in other civilization also.India civilization. The above instances are however cases where caste exists. we may call it caste.He founds elements of caste in well marked status group of this society. Mobility in stratification is also related to the possibility of structural changes. Here we many refer to the analyses of Cooley who opined that when status in a class is somewhat strictly hereditary.r. such a conflict did exist & often on a large scale ( in the form of social movement) As such. The opportunity structure. are present in every society. mobility.” • • Social mobility is directly linked with the system of social stratification. The structural differentiation & mobility results from urges for social mobility.
Occupational sub-specialization & accumulation of wealth. • An ideological bias of a moral sense of superiority felt by most western scholars over the Indian society & culture.N. but in social relevance were quite significant.modern dichotomy in the studies of status mobility in India. wide divergences in the status ranking of families within the same caste on the basis of sub-caste division. Besides. The caste system did offer. Indeed they were exceptional.It was contended that in the social system of traditional India • mobility was absent. • M. ~ 49 ~ . in the single-village studies of the social anthropologists in the framework of functional theory. • having a closed system of stratification This was chiefly because of. it did not preclude upward or downward mobility of individual castes in the local hierarchy. • The tradition.. the avenues for mobility in traditional India were: (a) Though conquests & accumulation of power & wealth (orans. Where the closure of caste stratification is associated with the principal of “status summation”. • integration and no conflict was the focus of study. and • Besides. • The misplaced conception & ideology of the classical literature which over-emphasized the element of continuity. was ever fully closed.sinha) (b) Vast tracts of land available for settlement & enterprising families could move from one region to another & settle down as rajas or feudal lords & establish peasant settlements. and • The jajmani system within the caste framework led them to over emphasis the element of reciprocity & underplays the inherent tension in the system. Srinivas correct this perspective by arguing that while traditional India was somewhat stationary in character. • the position of caste in the system of ranking was itself subject to changes due to external or internal forces operating in the social system(Silverberg : barber) • Besides. though in limited & exceptional cases only chance for status mobility. it may be difficult to establish historically that the caste system of ranking. (c) Mobility through promotion to higher positions of office or patronage during the Mughal & British period. • There is substantial evidence to suggest that even in the past the caste system was not absolutely closed.
& (d) besides. ~ 50 ~ . “Mobility and conflict in traditional India” • structurally. Harper.G. such as. Stein). (a) The tradition-modern dichotomy in the studies of status mobility in India. an institutionalized scheme meant only for the twice born castes. famines or good harvests. Bailey) • the thesis that the caste system being closed or harmonic is probably overdrawn chiefly because of the following factors. Accumulation of property & technological changes leading to emergence of new occupational groups (Barber). Silverberg opines that it is doubtful to maintain that such forces & processes accounted for a significant degree of social mobility. However. the caste system simultaneously manifests two tendencies or realities: (A) Segmental.where each caste or: sub-caste tends to articulate mutual repulsion.(d) Mobility through accidental factors. Here the social segments interact through competition. in the single-village studies of the social anthropologists in the framework of functional theory: • integration and not conflict was the focus of study. through in practice member of the lower caste also become sadhus or sanyasis. (F. (b) The misplaced conception & ideology of the classical literature which over-emphasized the elements of continuity. & (B) Organic. both in the village & towns (Dumont. social distance & social inequality. (f) Among the internal structural forces was fluctuation in population. (e) ) Mobility through renunciation or by becoming sanyasis. (c) An ideological bias of a moral sense of superiority felt by most western scholars over the Indian society & culture.& • The jajmani system within the caste framework led them to over-emphasize the element of reciprocity & underplay the inherent tensions in the system. Bailey refers to this as the class principle of ‘segmentary stratification’. through the jajmani system Bailey named this caste principle of stratification as ‘closed organic system’.where the caste segments are mutually interlinked by principle of reciprocity.
The conflicts in the system of stratification emerge from the frames of reference in the ranking of castes from one level of category to another. & (c) A series of successively wider zones of reference for the unites in any local system. • besides.the extent of relative deprivation influencing people’s motivation for social mobility. linguistic region & the whole civilization. where sanskritisation can be seen at least in principle violating the basic tenet of accepting the • principle of hierarchy. it is doubtful to maintain that tensions & conflicts did not exist between castes in traditional • India. many sociologist have seen in the process of sanskritisation a latent form of class conflict. ~ 51 ~ . The social development in India corresponds more or less to this situation.the eligibility or ineligibility of the members to move in the desired direction & finally (c) The communication structure. As. the several units being characterized by distinctive values.e.village. But this process has also contributed to the dynamics of the stratification system. therefore. by focusing upon (a) The motivational structure.• Historically. (b) The opportunity structure. • sanskritisation & westernization can be viewed from a reference group theoretical perspective to explain & analyses the structural aspect of mobility in the stratification system. the three levels in the ranking system related to the Indian mobility pattern are based on the distinction between: (a) Rural from metropolitan types of ranking system. such the system of stratification is expected to generate tensions & conflicts if its reference group context is such that the aspiration levels ( i. which results because of the peculiar structural constraints of the Indian society (Gould: Leach). the motivation) & communication structures are highly active but the opportunity structure remains closed & shows dire inequalities. (b) Individual or groups from corporate units of ranking..the aspirations the members to move wards. The zones are. such conflicts did occur and often on a large scale in the form of: Large scale social movements.
• M. education. Social mobility as a process has become more active in recent time. as a consequence of increased social mobility. Harris. Leach).social legislation. (a) Vertical or structural .Gould). Kothary. and power status as in traditional caste stratification is withering status principle which the traditional caste stratification represented. economic. • However. • Mobility thus causes ‘status-in congruency’ or inconsistency (Barber.“Social stratification and mobility in modern times” • • • • The term ‘castes & classes’ are used as conceptual dichotomies for the analysis of change. Srinivas highlights the new role of castes in India by concluding that the contemporary • of caste hierarchy: processes in the structure of caste is that of fusion in contrast to the past trends which were in the direction of continued fission. Singh. Beteille. fission & fusion are also taking place in the caste organization in different parts of the country (R. Desai). Bailey.Bhadra. as a result of this growth of autonomy and divergence among the determinants of traditional system • Caste is getting more rationally organized into caste association and federations & assuming to itself the function of rational corporate groups. (b) Horizontal or positional . H. democratization. Breman. • major sources of SM are: -policy of protective & is crimination -land rectomes & GR ~ 52 ~ .N.Marriott. srinivas. away under the impact of . It has resulted from sets of endogenous and exogenous factors that have loosened the summation The congruence of ritual. it can be either. Omvedt. Rudolph. • Some have even speculated about the transformation of caste system into the class system of social stratification (Davis. Silverberg. Social mobility in Indian society It refers to the change in the status of indi’s or groups in relation to a given system of social stratification.
& SM. -the growth of literary & emergence of small structure of educated elite is a testining of SM among SC. Srinivas). -S. Ramas wanny). ST. jajmani obligation reacceptance of modern seen occupations. Sharma talks of the process of down ward social mobility. cultural & social transformation have occurred among ST’S -out grown of various organization & groups leading to various social movements ( Sharma. -education -urbainsation & industrialization • major trends of change: -displacement of old political-leadership by a new set of leaders drowns from the advanced rural segments’.R.Since the late 1970s. Narayan. ~ 53 ~ . Sengupta. new patterns of social stratification have emerged (Bose. education. is evident in the ever increasing violation of traditional criteria of status namely hereditary occupation.eco. Sharma)KG. it non symbolizes aspiration for higher status as well as desire to over throw the existing system ( Omvedt. Ras. Caste based mobilization by the middle caste in favor of policy of reservation of jobs has sharpened & intensified class contradiction.Several studies indicate limited & uneven impact of the various state radiated schemes of social transformation (Mahar. and N.s (Sachchidananda. among tribes in middle India. Spheres of social life. (Singh. . .The movements for political antinomy agrasion & forest based movement & cultural movement based on script and language has immushy contributed to SG. OBC to the dominance of upper caste & classes particularly after independence. . Weiner. ( A. Shah). Kamet.-adult franchise . s have become a political force which in political party could afford to undermine.panchayati raj & ULB. Offat. -the most important testimony of SM can be found in the challenge thrown by SC. -A.s ST. position of power is formal political bodies. Sachchidananda) initially lower castes uninitiated higher caste in non. following considerable degree of socio-political awareness. M. Beteille talks of emergence of new status groups taking precedence over traditional upper &middle caste. Singh) structural . Ram). Chiefly possible due to political consciousness & democratization of politics.Shah.M. OBC.
etc. Bendix. & The researcher should try to observe the dialectical relationship between the system interaction & social change (Eisenstaedt. • This resulted in the acceptance of much social & cultural innovation at one level of the sub-system without affecting the other. what matter most in formulating conceptual categories for the study of changes is that: • • each society due to its pre-existing systems of social institution & ideologies. “The historicity of social change” • • Social change processes even though structurally similar assume historically different shapes & positions in as such. Singh).Y. ~ 54 ~ . haziness.Structural Autonomy of the Traditional Indian Social Structure” • An important historical element in traditional Indian social structure was that of inter sub-structural autonomy. • The nature of this process was segmental. Singh.Through class has lost its. Thus. “The Contemporary Processes of Social Change” • The Contemporary Processes of Social Change have now ceased to be segmentary they have become The structural autonomy of the social sub-system is gradually breaking down with the erosion of traditional organic. This is because: • structural insularity. the autonomy between polity & stratification. “The Inter-Sub. Ishwaran).New forms of inequality have emerged along with new bases of stratification. it learn on caste to further its interests for mobilization. (Eisenstaedt. caste is becoming work & strong simultaneously. Y. Beteille. Bremen opines that a new form of casteism has emerged due to such a process of change. such as.. native ‘initial condition’ or ‘historicity’ of social processes must not be overlooked. Stratification & culture and polity. .
However. Force of change• federal parliamentary democracy based on universal adult franchise • socialistic planning • policy of protective discrimination • social legislation • urbanization & industrialization • education • Land reforms & green revolution. GS. Weakening of the norms of pollution and purity . class and communal identities are inadvertently reinforced. caste has evolved adaptive mechanisms for assimilation of and coexistence with many structural changes. Ghurye.MN. faction. growth is symbolized by the emergence of Indian nationhood.• • • • This takes place following various institutional changes in the society which affect all other systems and The mechanisms for such mobilization are economic or existential. consciousness in these identities is not the same as existed in traditional society with its autonomy of sub-system. economic security. fission & fusion & structural entities manifest the diverse ramifications of this process. ~ 55 ~ . Fusion and instances of change: 1. The caste association. • Various rural development & poverty reduction programmers. mobility& No wonder of the caste. the changes are occurring through role differentiation and functional diversification. The urge for equality. This activate most of its segment for participation in a wider national scene. Srinivas. Change and persistence in caste It is a perspective for the analysis of the nature of change taking place in the contemporary Indian society. But the quality the Now all social segments tend to be activated because of the constraint towards organic social growth. & panchayati raj institutions. Such changes have been so fundamental that is of only debated if the new emergent phenomena are indeed manifestation of caste or class properties.
Raghav Raj & Laidi. Das DN. 8.Caste endogamy • caste associations. Patwardhan) 2. Caste . Lynch. 9. providing: (a) Opportunities for power & (b) Social mobility feasible (Rudolph’s. A shift from organic to segmental reality. jajmani system. 7. called substantialisation of caste by L. Bailey. S. Conflict in Bihar . Emergence of Dalit consciousness. economic & political features have became more important . show fusion of caste. Changes have occurred in the traditional mode of interrelationship. Marline. esp. Bailey.FG. 5.AN. Contradiction and conflicts on a scale which never existed before.K. 3. Dhanger. a significant break in the traditional hierarchical structure of caste .AN. Fusion and persistence of caste-caste association -caste clustering’s -political mobilization of caste -politicization of caste -sharpening of caste identities -backward class movements -communal tensions . Changes have occurred in status summation.2. • • • • caste no longer determine occupation occupational mobility cut across class lines occupational diversification has taken place Greater avenues for social mobility. through fundamental democratization of caste. Das.clustering is still a predominant feature: ~ 56 ~ . Beteille. Traditional interdependence replaced by competition. Changes in traditional power structure & leadership patterns. emphasizing horizontal solidarity. thus assuming class like forms. ie. 6. Instead of ritual aspects. Dumont for eg. A. 4.
It constrained the free flow of resource & into as such. Thorat.K. which sharpened caste identities at the national level. Social consequences- ~ 57 ~ . Slow pace of industrialization & economic stagnation.Unequal socio-economic development -politicization of caste . Srinivas. Omvedt P.John Harris. Srinivas. the above to factors together led to highly differentiated & unequal socio-economic development thus.Brass.Formation of sizeable middle class .(a) Lower caste classes are still wesking as agricultural menial labouress.Myrdal. providing the basis for politicization of caste. 3.Breman. Y. particularistic linkages of kinship affinity and caste proved vital in gaining business contract. and Das.R.G. because of this. 2.N. K. JP.Rudolph.Panini. chiefly through caste & kinship ties. Holmstrom. people sought to cling to whatever economic opportunity they initially had. Lerches. T. Gadgil. A.M. Reasons for the same-slow pace of industrialization & economic stagnation -socialistic planning strategy . access to officials in various governmental agencies and in labour recruitment . Omvedt.Singer. Singh. MN. Baviskar. Singh. where caste is used as a means of political mobilization at all levels . Row . Omvedt. (d) Unorganized sector chiefly comprises of under privileged low castes . G. Lerches. (3) Politicization of caste.Gough. Panimi. MSA. The socialist planning strategy with the government regime of economic regulation & control. (4) Anti Brahmin movements in the south . (c) Social background of industrial entrepreneur’s reveals that most of them hail from trading & business castes & communities . Kothari. (b) Upper & middle caste dominate elite position in country’s administrative as well as modern profession Navlakha.Backward class movements 1. Kohli. G.
& . • But. T.T. 1.Y. Ommen. P. asmarket forces are friendly to those who are endowed with skill & resources. Panini. there is every possibility of intensification of conflicts in the near future. • this will have dual impact. • Thus. Paradoxically bourgeoisiefication has dual aspect: (A) Religious & political support to various party & organization which fan communal emboss. Oonimen. Emergence of backward class movements. Gadgil. rural peasant castes & lower classes in the society. which set in process of political polarization at the national level..Rise of backward class movements. Brass. & (B) Also support economics liberalization by extending & deepening the market for consumer goods.Thrawt the process of rapid economic development. ~ 58 ~ . As such.S.conimmual tensions .Growth of middle class of bourgeoisiefication .Intensification of conflicts .Politicization of castes . Brass. 2.adversely affect the poor & underprivileged. there will be considerable resistance & backward class movements.K.F. Formation of a sizeable middle class where its consumerist 7 instrumentalist has become a model of emulation by the upwardly mobile sections of industrial workers. Das.L Rao. • consideration of equality gam precedence over efficiency. reinventing caste movement.K. for the upper caste & professional liberalization has become more attractive proposition. with sharpening caste identities• implicit refection of achievement orientation on one hand • Equality & social justice are translated in terms of getting secular status. The future course• With govt’s decision for job reservation. Deitsch. K. .sharpening of caste identities . Engineer. P. Singh.
(F.ConclusionEconomic liberalization in the long run is likely to weaken the hold of caste over economy. (G. Bailay. (M. Das) ~ 59 ~ . Srinivas. Bailay) Taking benefits from land reforms. They have emerged as potential political force. (Y. This ideology of caste has become less pervasive (M.N. Omvedt) A. Beteille considers changes in the traditional power as the most radical change in the traditional social structure. (FG. jajmani system.G. Boss. AR. Beteille) Mobility has occurred among SCs & Dalits. The traditional dominance of Brahamin’s in Tanjore village broke down. & doing away with what Deepak Lal calls ‘Hindu Equilibrium’ or Raj Krishana’s ‘Hindu Rate Of Growth’. The traditional caste ordering of occupation broke down ie. Makes social mobility feasible 3. The reasons for continued existence of caste in the future1. (H. Provides opportunities for power 2. The ritual aspect of caste is confused to personal affairs only.N. (A. & present the only alternative & possibility of annihilating caste. Traditional interdependence of caste organic being replaced by competition segmental leading to intensification of conflicts. middle caste peasants emerged as dominant & heralded green revolution. Evolved adaptive mechanisms’ with the forces of modernity. Singh) Instead of earlier vertical mobilization. Rodolphs) The traditional status summation of caste has broken down. leading to new avenues for social mobility & new source of social honors & prestige. Gould). leading to the emergence of Dalit consciousness & ‘Dalit literature’. AN. Desai. (K. PK. Gough) The traditional caste panchayats & caste councils have lost their significance. Srinivas). Aspects of change/fission in caste The nation of hierarchical gradation of caste groups drawing legitimacy from the concept of purity & pollution has changed.
S. despite the indication to the country. because of its characteristic of adaptability to force of change. Srinivas). Conclusion: it is clear that caste as a dynamic reality of Indian society has accompanied changes in the past. ASPECTS OF CONTINUTY/FUSION IN CAST Caste & kinship and marriage links yet survives. Caste has come to term with the democratic political process. However. jobs. This shows the political mobilization of caste groups. SCs. (R. Kothari) The great business houses belong to the traditional commercial upper castes. Gould’s study of rishawallas of Lucknow shows that in workplace the caste norms are set aside. (P. Kolenda) The forces of modernity have benefitted the wealthy upper castes. & promotions. It is obvious that eradication of caste is a distant reality. norms & structures it once had & acquiring new ones to suit the new demands & conditions of the people. material welfare & social status (B. Srinivas). Dalits) have increasingly made their presence in new self-governing institutions of PRLS. Cohn). education. STs. but in personal life the caste norms exerts itself. Candidates are being selected for political parties in the basis of caste. it centimes to exists as a dynamic reality even today. In the final analysis. Even Supreme Court recognizes caste & communities as the basis of reservations . caste is losing the functions.politics. The wcakers sections (Woman. Kothari) Rudolph’s arrange that caste in its transformed form has helped the Indian masses (of which 70% live in the village) make a success of representative democracy. MN. ~ 60 ~ . H. The coming of modern means of communication has increased the ‘horizontal stretch’ of caste. Caste alliances are being formed for political games. Increased competition among communities to get themselves listed as “backward”. (R. (MN. The beginning of political consciousness on caste lines gets reflected in caste association (Rudolph’s.
class & power (Stein. Material & cultural traditions existed with a sort of congruity. CASTE AND CLASS NEXUS In India. However. 3. Aspects of mobility & migration were quite normal. “Caste incorporates class & class incorporates caste in the Indian contest”. 6. this can be seen in the following points: 1. the understanding of existential operational & substantial dynamic Indian social reality calls for a close nexus between caste & class. Pannikar.Present times: -caste association -Caste-class clustering -caste & politics -backward class movement -intensification of conflict. Even in ancient Indian these were classes. Neither does caste refer to the totality of social formation nor is class the polar opposite of caste. and banking & guild operations. Neither the caste alone view nor the class-alone perspective can help in a proper and fuller understanding of Indian society. exp. caste based division of labor explains the economic dimension of the caste. caste and class are organically related. Had caste been merely a ritualistic phenomenon it would have crimpled language because of its amber some nature. These was never a perfect congruence between caste. cities. of Bihar -emergence of Dalit consciousness -reservations for equality -equality of middle caste peasants as upper classes -shift towards horizontal mobilization -Indi & family mobility -no inform pattern of caste crke class. Though at an ideal typical level & for analytical purposes we can differentiate between caste & class based stratification system. settled agriculture. throughout India -economic & political aspect becoming more prominent in comparison to ritual dimension. ~ 61 ~ . This can see wrt new kingdoms. Such confusion stems from the fact that western scholars looked at the caste system in India from the viewpoint of the class in the western societies. 4. 5. & Others) 2.
STs etc. 3. There were instances of conflicts & tensions in the institution of caste system even in traditional India. Role of caste & class in present day elections. The increasing nature of conflict of Behar. (KL. 10. SCs. 11. (PC. Hyper gamy explains the role of status & wealth within the caste system. marriage & family with farces of production & production relations. The process of sanskritisation also includes the phenomena of power & domination. (Roudlph) 2. Religions also includes power 9. 13. Oommen. ~ 62 ~ . Dalits. Lower-middle caste peasants taking benefits from LREGR have become upper class groups. DN.K. ( T. The increasing shift from vertical to horizontal mobilization of various groups in modern day polity. The activisation of caste association for non-caste like functions. Sharma) 10. Kothari) 7. The concept of jajmani & dominant caste are explaining the same. 11. a better comprehension of the term & simultaneous aspects of mobility upward & downward. 13. Gough’s analysis of mode of production as a social formation having interconnections of caste. Some of the relatively recent phenomena: 1. westernization did not retard the process of sanskritisation rather it accelerated the same. Sharma) 8. The seemingly caste conflicts in Bihar are essentially class conflicts.) & increasing conflicts within the lower caste groups speaks of the rising aspirations of equality. The Mandal commission of backward class considered caste as the basics for determining backwardness of members of group in a society. ( R. The nature of economic deprivation & exploitation of the various weaker sections. The process of westernization & sanskritisation want on simultaneously moreover. like class. K. There is no uniform pattern of caste structure throughout India. PK. Nexus can be seen when economic and political dimension are taken into consideration. Family position is marked as a class within a particular caste. 12. 12. The increasing conflicts between the high caste & lower caste groups ( Harigens. Joshi) 9.7. kinship. Dhangre) 4. 14. Greater attention to mobility at the level of family & individual. 8. Bose) 5. Das. ( Roudlph) 6. (KL. ( AN.
Nexus should mean close link between the two and not that caste is changing to class. • As such. where both are organically However. organic: caste principle of stratification. 2. structure & process have a combination of: 1. history and culture. Sharma opines that for understanding of caste & class as dimensions of Indian social formation demands & approach whereby the theory. • Dialectics: the contradictory relations between unequal segments. CASTE AND DEMOCRACY related in the system of Indian social stratification. 3. Y. • Moreover.G. Caste as a basis of social stratification. • Dipankar Gupta argues that the essence of dynamic Indian social reality can be had by considering. K. based on cooperation & inter-dependence. caste & class represent to a large extant the same structural reality. (A. 4. Singh rightly comments that the situation corresponds to a “prismatic” model of change. • A perspective for the analysis of nature of changes taking place in the contemporary Indian society. • What is required is that dominant & not so dominant elements of a given situation should be discerned.R. system in • The structural aspects of caste (economic & political dimensions) remained underestimated whereas the cultural aspects (purity & pollution) have been over emphasized. the changes have been occurring through role differentiation & functional ~ 63 ~ .L. we should also remember that caste simultaneously manifests tendencies . based on competition. 1. Bailey). Davis) • K.THE FRAMEWORK: • The caste & class are two principles of social starts faction which have persisted in the Indian social a dialectical relationship. culture: defines the nature of relations & Structure: is seen as a formation of the product of dialectics. More specifically in the sphere of caste. Desai. History: provides the substantial account of the conditions of human existence.& 2. a whole some treatment of both these aspects of social stratification could provide a deeper understanding of India’s social formation. Class provides the basis of mode of production. where ‘traditional’ sentiments of caste & kinship under adaptive transformations without completely being diffracted into classes or corporate groups. 1. whereas 2.(F. Segmental: class principle of stratification.
Srinivas. weakening of the norms of pollution & purity. undertook various measures to usher democratic modernization of the country.M. rule of low. Changes in the status-summation. A. inequality based on purity & pollution. caste has evolved adaptive mechanisms for assimilation of and coexistence with the many structural changes & the force of modernity-democracy. Bailay 4. it is argued that through caste and democracy are fundamentally opposed to each other. based on universalism. The changes have been so fundamental that it has often been debated if the in argent phenomena are indeed manifestations of caste or class like features. Therefore. Beteille. • socialist planning • policy of protective discrimination & reservations • industrialization & urbanization • Thus. India. status-summation. India presents a unique case of largest caste-based democracy in the world.Occupational mobility cuts across class lines . 3.Greater avenues for social mobility. if we place democracy & caste along two opposite indo of a continuation. achievement. etc. which is chiefly regarded as a traditional caste based society. the changes of social mobility are either absent or relatively less in a traditional-caste based society as a purely democratic modern society. -caste in longer determines occupation . hieratical organization & hereditary occupation. • social legislations • Land reforms. However. Therefore. civil society. however. Mannheim. caste based society essentially entails features of particularize.N. fundamental rights.diversification under the impact of democratization. we can assume that democracy essentially entails fen times of a modern society. These measures were: • Federal parliamentary democracy based on universal adult franchise. efforts were mode to bring about changes at the national regional & local level. ascriptive norms. ~ 64 ~ . G.S. on achieving independence. green revolution & prls. Ghurye a significant break in the traditional hierarchical aspect of caste. equality.Occupational diversification has taken place . on an ideal typical level. some of the “positive impacts” of democratization in especially caste were as follows: 1. called ‘fundamental democratization’ of caste by K. 2. Changes in the traditional mode of inter relationship (jajmani)-F. orientation. repulsion. whereas.G.
Oommen 8. matching caste by caste has been a common policy of political parties in general election of India. 6. leading to what he calls a “shadow society” which has modernizing impact without overly replacing traditional institutional of caste. intensification of conflicts among caste .AN. On the basis of the impact of the various efforts at democratization of the country. & GR. Roudlph characterize ‘caste association’ as having the hired attributes of both ascriptive & voluntary groups. MN. chiefly because of the emergence of backward class movements. Bodies. Joshi. O. However. 7. Cohn. Growth & proliferation of various political parties. the following trends of the dynamic interplay between caste & democracy can be seen: 1. AC. Sharpening of caste identities. MN. Srinivas. Y. 9. 4. UP. some of the “negative impacts” of the process of democratization on caste have also been observed: 1. OBCs & women. who now make their presence felt in PRLs. Considerable social mobility has occurred among SCs. STs. 5. Oommen. 3. 4. 2. Nayor. PI.5. Orissa. the attempts are now for horizontal mobilization . Politicization of caste & use of primordial loyalties for political mobilization. Led to political empowerment of the Dalits in terms of crystallization of Dalits consciousness. Class clustering is still a predominant feature. and Behar & Andhra Pradesh opines that the forces of caste instead of weakening are further strengthened.G. various middle caste peasants have become dominant in various parts of the country.Roudlphs. Singh.S. B. The power & activities of caste has increased in proposition of the political power passed on the people. under the impact of LR.Roudlph. Mannheim. . Omvedt. which shows that castes not only unite on political front. Instead of earlier attempts of vertical mobilization. 3. ~ 65 ~ .. Levis. Brass. TK. Increasing importance of caste association in the political process especially in elections it legislative assembles & diott. but also have a tendency to sub-divide & from faction TK. Dhanagare 2. Srinivas in a review of emerging caste consciousness & its new organization & functions in Gujarat. K.PC. Increasing claims for being labeled as “backward class”. thus altering the traditional power structure. which set in process of political polarization at the national level. Das.
Though in political & economic realms hierarchy has been replaced by competitive ideology. Increasing tendency of the groups to claim ‘backward statuses’. The existential situation homogeneity & uniformity of groups determines the extend & level of mobilization. 6. Provision for reservation in local bodies (73rd & 74th CAA) (9) talks of reservation in private sector In such in emergent dynamic interplay between caste & democracy. Caste association & political mobilization is essentially a micro-reality. which challenged the position of upper caste as reference groups. 9. Sharpening of caste identities & intensification of caste conflicts. New modern means of communication are being used to propagate ascriptive norms. 4. STs. Now we have reservation in promotions too (77th constitutional amendment act). but in ritual spheres hierarchy still purists. 6. 3. 7. caste has shown continued resistance by evolving adaptive mechanisms for assimilation of & coexistent with many structural ~ 66 ~ . 7. 10. Caste alone in India provided an unmediated & pre-existing structural framework for diffusing & mobilizing of new role structure. 5. Srinivas. Government has given preference in services & educational institutional to the OBCs. MN. we now have reservations in promotions too. we can say that the structural chancing occurring in the caste system under the impact of democracy. Further. This is reflected in the unity Brahmin movement in the south & SCs & STs in the eastern region. thus. which is as follows: 1. Absence of other fully differentiated voluntary structures & organization. which imply role differentiation & functional diversification. 2.5. However. New feeling of self identity of increased horizontal caste solidarity. in pursuance of the decision of the Supreme Court. 8. 8. may not be essential to caste per send to some extant are assuming class-like forms. “caste is not going to wither away”. STs. This is because of the limitation of impact of democracy of caste. The spill over effect of caste and the political economy on the future process of economic liberalization. The caste association & political mobilization are still based a primordial loyalties.
The special claims of the backward classes arise out of the conditions under which they have been constrained to live from ancient times. it in this context that K.r. especially w. As such. the vast majority of people living in the rural areas and those belonging to the lower castes. which fusion and fission takes place simultaneously. We have to critically assess the extent of realization of equality and social justice. Nobody denies the value-consensus of today’s society that: • each citizen enjoys equal protection of low. But due to the past historical social condition of existence there exists a considerable difference regarding the capability of competing with success between the groups. Rudolphs opines that such emergent relationship between caste & democracy implies that modernity has interned into Indian character & society through assimilation & not replacement. Pannikar in ‘caste and democracy’ argues that to regards democracy as ushering equality and uniformity is the grossest of fallacies. they require special facilities to be brought in.M. mainly on account of the segregation imposed on them by the rules of pollution and purity. For the same. The defining feature of their condition was that they were in many important regards placed outside the bounds of the larger society.t. They have to be given special support to enable them to take rightful place as citizens of the country. and social restriction imposed by the caste system. The controversy arises regarding achieving the two value consensus as fast as possible. Such changes can only be brought about over a period of time. The sociological analysis of the issue of equality and social justice requires an analysis of the difference in life changes caused by traditional values. social practices. However the achievement of the same can never be achieved overnight. For a long times to come. This involves the principle of social justice. the directed social changes as envisaged by the government clearly aim at the quicker realization of these two ~ 67 ~ . rather it would lead to a number of structural & institutional changes. “ISSUES OF EQUALITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE” The principle of equality implies that all citizens should be treated as equals without any discrimination. for it negates peculiarities & historicity of a given society-CASTE. caste will continue to provide an institutional foundation for the operation of modernizing social structure in the realms of politics. economy & culture.changes. and • The acceptances of the principle that no individual should be permitted to live below human level. special care has to be taken to ensure that they are able to exercise their rights as full citizens in the new legal-social order. as we are experiencing today.
The economic forces that push people below the line of poverty do not pay much regard to the finer points of traditional distinction of status. there is a basic difficulty in this approach. dismemberment of society. we should first bring about equality between groups.values. & Efficiency is really on decline in services and professions only because of these reservations. without the mediation of his caste. We can highlight the following points in our analysis of the issue of equality and social justice: • Is that the reason why caste is taken as a criterion for equalization in order to bring about equality between individuals. Such jobs are too few in numbers to materially alter the condition of any caste as a whole. for his caste tells us less & less about the total range of his deprivation. The new legal order must provision for the individual to bring his needs to the attention of the state in his own right. the rigidities of caste are no longer as severe as they were even a decade ago. Now. Each of them is a very complex phenomenon and has to be examined in depth. Various forces are at work today which increases the dissociation between caste and income. • Moreover. • Moreover. perpetuation of the caste system itself. Are we in that case not doing injustice to the individual by seeking to do justice to caste & communities? The ends of justice are hardly met if our vain endeavor to bring about equality between castes leads only to the increase of inequality among the individual members of every caste. The assumption of a perfect congruence between the collective ritual status of a caste and the actual material condition of its individual members does not hold good today. the area that needs to be debated is the correctness or otherwise of the means adopted for realizing these values one of them happens to be reservation. the above situation is not applicable in the case of poverty. The only thing that needs to be debated is whether the policy of reservation is: • • • • leading to creation of new vested interests. occupation. As such. it is fallacious to argue that the equalization of caste can only be achieved by means of job reservations in the government jobs. • They compel us to take more & more account of the needs of the individual irrespective of his caste. and education. • However. All the members of a caste are not equal-they are not homogeneous groups. The direction of the policy of reservation cannot be questioned in fairness. ~ 68 ~ . and probably never held good in the majority of the cases even in the past.
The Various Stages of Dalit Movement: 1. which is not only pluralistic in nature. The advent of colonial rule and the process of westernization played on important role. However. the interjection of modern democratic values and ideas and variety of innovative changes as a result of the heterogeneous contact with the modern west provided for fresh opportunities for status ascendancy in the body polity of the closed inscriptive traditional Indian society. and not just in special castes. but also where caste and jatis are divided into a number of endogamous groups at the regional or local level because of their rank differentiation. of reflecting on their conditions at other higher castes. an attribute of group rather than of individuals. The heterogametic contact with the west and various socio-religious reform movements. and structural aspect of social reality. • The society made a terrible mistake in the past in believing that merit was an attribute of individual but of groups. Emergence and Growth of Dalit Consciousness The term DC is chiefly a socio-psychological phenomenon of the consciousness of collectivity among the depressed and weaker sections of the society. political. We shall be making the same kind of mistake if we act on the belief that needs to be always. This kind of competition creates a vested interest as it stifles the possibility of creating equality between individuals and it obstructs the natural process through which barriers between castes and communities can be affected. As such. Sufism and Sikhism. The attempts to remove social inequlities on caste. Especially. it made the SCs conscious of their long standing exploitation and the urge for separate identity. The Satya Shodhak Samaj of joytiba phule played a pioneering role. that being born a Brahmin was in itself a merit. This gets reflected in their social. The do sure of the caste stratification and the entrenched position of the caste Hindus had been challenged. class or community basis creates frustration among some caste and communities resulting into various agitation and violent actions. which started articulating consciousness of exportation and urge for separate identity among the Dalits. Through the traces of the emergence of DC can be found in Buddhism. economic.• Besides. This has an important ramification for the Indian society. Initially it was only a socio- ~ 69 ~ . it led to the beginning of various socio-religious reform movements. the situation gets compounded due to the fact that the provision for social justice on the basis of caste and community inevitably strengthens the divisive forces and weakness the sense of belongingness to the nation. the prospects of material advancement through job reservation have led to a kind of competition for backwardness among castes.
6. Its greatest impact has been on confronting.religious reform movement and was not economic & political in nature. It called for reforms within the Dalit community for doing away with their various orthodox traditions. This was essentially a cumulative outcome of the various forces and dimension of Dalit movement before independence. was passed only in the act of 1935. It was chiefly responsible for the emergence of Dalits as a distinct political entity for the future times. After independence. It was only later in 1917 under the leadership of Shahuji Maharaj of Kolhapur that it called for their political rights and demanded for reservation in jobs. 2. It not only called for socio-religious unpliftmeof the Dalits but it also increasingly protested against the Brahminical value system of hierarchy and pollution & purity. Its political importance ides in its articulation as a symbol of identity formation. political power and education along with conversion of the Mahars of Maharashtra. This aspect of DM had to origin in SNDP movement of Kerala. ~ 70 ~ . It took multifarious expression where of economic. Constitutional safeguards after independence and the policy of protective discrimination. Following these untouchables in other parts of India (jatavs of Agra) also converted to Buddhism. it led to the crystallization of DC in an express way. 3. Challenging and some extent raising their own self-image. Ambedkar important upon the importance of constitutional guarantees. Such instances were reposted from various parts of the country where delegations were sent to British officials and census officers. Thus. but also got proliferated before and after independence. He also demanded for a separate constituency under the act of 1919 which however. They tried to get the under listed as upper castes by changing their names and claiming upper caste status. called for political rights of reservation in government jobs and was founded upon the AryanDravidian ideological conflict. It led to a great psychological release raising their self image. the Dalit movement had also become anti-Brahministic in nature. In this contest. the challenge to caste and rise of low caste was sought to be put firmly on India’s political agenda. By this time. Dalit partners & new Dalit movement was a defining moment & a new symbol of revolt taking the ideology for beyond. 5. It was chiefly anti Brahmanical. 4. It not only radicalized the Dalit movement. aspect of Dalit movement was radicalized by the justice party movement and later the DMK movement. Republican Party of India and conversion to Buddhism was the first manifestation of the emergence of Dalit as a distinct political entity. Movement against untouched ability especially by Gandhi ji & Ambedkar. The census operations.provided fresh opportunities to the Dalits for articulation of urge for separate identity. Especially. anti-caste & gender was interwoven.
Omvedt It has challenged the closure of the caste stratification and the entrenched position of the caste Hindu. Positive outcomes of dalit movement: 1. Patwardhan and Zilliot opine that the aspect of identity was reflected in the literature of Buddhists. 9.RK. Emergency of dalits as Ethnic groups.G. MN. Which actually led to the beginning of powerful poetry of protests in the form of dalit voice as dalit literature? Nandu Ram in beyond Ambedkar opines for dalit literature by dalit people. Singh) emergency of dalits as a distinct political identity after independence TK. dalits and ethnic identity . S. Srinivas). dalit panthers. Desai). However. M.A.generally it was an outcome of the effort of republic party of India and conversion to Buddhism. RK. 2. their literatures and songs. Gail Omvedt in dalit vision opines that it was the creative and transformatory potential of dalit panthers and new dalit movement. It encouraged the process of horizontal caste mobilization and consolidation. Kolenda Beteille. replaced the urge for sanskritisation (Rudolph’s.more recently.shows that they have tried to become ruling community by breaking its tag of being only dalit movement. Omvedt. They have in a position of bargaining with larger political parties 9. 5. the conscious attempts of dalits for status mobility. Their achievement in parliamentary election let to the first dalit CM (UP) in India. Jain 11. where the urge for solidarity putting pressuse on the national leadership before independence for taking measures to do away wih the constitutional safeguards and policy of protective discrincivation ( Y. ~ 71 ~ .7. a great psychological release saising their self image -S.republican party of India. BSP& BRP. 3.P. 8. 7. Jain on the basis of his study in UP has raised the issue that on the basis of the developments and emergent dimensions of dalit identity formation can use argue that “are dalits an ethnic identity”. 4. The rise of BSP and BRP: the jati identity politics . Maher 10. social disabilities of the dalits ( AR. Oommen. They apparently tried to give dalit leadership to all oppressed. Shah.G. dalit literature. PF. G. Omvedt growth & proliferation of dalit political parties. Nandu Ram Emergency of dalits as aggressive interest groups. Patwardhan emergency of dalits literature G. 8. 6. Brass.
led by elite organization of rajas zamindars etc. Separate representation and exclusive reservation. 2. KAMMARS and reddis nairs. it was initially led by members of upper castes . 2. who though the movement drifted away from what ambedker emphasized upon importance of secular forces are education and in the end proving to be a movement of dalits though changing some of the deepest aspects of oppression & sections of the society fragile remained active from the very begning polity for improving their status and position exploitation but failing to show the way to transformation Backward class movements Backward classes refer to shudras in traditional caste parlance and other backward classes (OBCs) in today’s language. 3. employment . 8. RAO defines BCM as organized efforts for social mobility by communities which are over whelmingly backward in the access to sources of power goods and services. 4.MSA. protecting the interest of non Brahmins in the spheres of education . services etc. 6. Its chief features1. VELAMAS . Benefits covered by few forwards communities. a narrow social base .Limitation of dalits movement: 1. 7.founded upon the conjecture about the non Brahmin Hindus as Dravidians and the Brahmins as the avyans and the loss of the glory of the former due to the invasion by the latter ~ 72 ~ . MottoEqual opportunities to all and injustices to none Ideology. 3. Demand 1.VELLALAS. 5. it has come under eclipse bud is flowering without a total Irion gains have accursed only to few leading to emergence of alights within them limited to only specific jails among dalits and could not effectively articulate the demands of other oppressed it has failed to elaborate a constrictive socio economic program of social transformation it has in able to became a decisive political force & there political assertions have been highly to ambivalent & it has filled to give legitimate voice to its most pressing contemporary uses specially the women.
whose caste no longer determines occupation. An important components of social mobility in contemporary India and a pointer of changing sources of social honour. 4. 1935. madras provincial backward classes league. along with changes in traditional inter caste relationships (jajmani). Considerably weakened the past status summation.Organization of parties. ~ 73 ~ . emerged as potential threat to hierarchical aspect of society. Significance of BCM 1. 5. 2. It led to the much needed adoption of reservation policy and appointment of backward classes commission by the government after independence. 1888. 3. power of prestige. madras.justice party. vanniyakula kshatriya mahasangam.
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