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Analysis of Long–term Energy Option in Offshore Wind: An Investigation of Environmental and Techno-economic Feasibility
Rahul Kumar, Manish Kumar and Surinder Deswal
Abstract—Offshore wind energy has significant potential to
contribute to the installed capacity of grid connected power generation. India is earmarked by long cost line extending 7,562 km, over 2 million sq. km of exclusive economic zone and influenced by strong prevailing southwest monsoonal trade winds during summer covering large area of east – west coastal belt. This paper discusses the offshore wind regime along the eastern and western coasts of the country establishing wind power potential for commercial exploitation and offering prospects for offshore wing farming. An assessment has been carried out based on available wind data from coastal locations and data from currently operational and commercial offshore wind farms to establish an environmental, technical and economic feasibility of offshore wind farms at strategic sites along the Indian coastline. Findings indicate that initial cost of installation of offshore wind facility is about 50-60 percent higher than of onshore wind farming, the recoverable energy yield over the entire lifetime is much greater in the case of offshore. This compensates the initial cost when considered over a long-term. Feasibility of using unused and abandoned ships as floating platforms for erection of wind turbines for power generation is investigated. Safety, environmental, technical and economic aspects and constraints were considered while making the assessment. A case study of the power scenario of Andaman and Nicobar islands is also presented to set up a role for offshore wind power.
UK, but at least 600 Mega Watt (MW) of offshore wind is in the permitting processes in the United States. All installations have been in water depths less than 18m and distances from shore ranges from 1km to 14 Kilometers (kms). The largest installation are operating off the coast of Denmark with two 160MW power plants; Horns Rev in the North Sea, and Nysted in the Baltic.
United Kingdom, 38% Sweden, 3% Netherland 2% Ireland, 3%
Fig.1 Offshore wind projects installed through 2005 based on a total of 804 MW
Denmark, 53% Germany, 1%
Keywords—Abandoned ships, floating platforms, offshore wind, technical and economic feasibility, trade winds. I. INTRODUCTION
FFSHORE wind energy began in shallow waters of the North Sea where the abundance of sites and higher wind resources are more favourable by comparison with Europe’s land-based alternatives. The first installation was established in Sweden with single 300 KW turbines in 1990s and the industry has grown slowly over the past 18 years. There are now 18 operating projects with an installed capacity of 804 MW worldwide. Fig. 1 shows a breakdown of installed capacity as a percentage of the total capacity country wise . Denmark and the United Kingdom have large share of installed capacity, which uses Danish turbine technology. Over 11Giga Watt (GW) of new offshore wind projects are planned before the year 2010  mostly in Germany and the
Rahul Kumar is with the Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council, New Delhi, India (91-11-26592740, email: email@example.com) Manish Kumar is with the Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council, New Delhi, India, (email: firstname.lastname@example.org) Surinder Deswal is with the Civil Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India (email@example.com)
A. Challenges Although in long term the prospects of offshore wind power are promising, the technology faces a number of challenges in terms of performance, impacts on local environment, competition for space with other marine users, compatibility with the Indian grid infrastructure and secure integration in the energy system. It may be possible to erect turbines in deep water (>70m) , the technology is still in preliminary stages of development and very expensive. Hence cost of the electricity produced increases making the project uneconomical considered over long term. Wind park is located landward of the established shipping lanes in order to provide a buffer zone between the wind turbines and the shipping lanes. Thus there are limited opportunities to erect support structures into deeper water due to this. The problem can be solved by developing floating beds on which wind turbine can be installed easily. These unused or unfunctioning ships can be used as beds (floating platforms) for wind turbine erection inside the sea or ocean to reduce the cost of infrastructure development. II. WIND POWER POTENTIAL IN INDIA A site with Wind Power Density (WPD) of > 200 Watt/square (W/m2) at 50 meter (mast height) is presently
000 MW . There are regions in India having good wind power potential (Fig. Onshore Increase in the demand for energy indicates that it may not be possible for a country like India to meet the future energy demands with the current rate of growth in power generation capacity . Indian Wind Energy Association has estimated that with the current level of technology. 2008 . 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 considered to be able to support wind farming activities. Today our country is a major player in the global wind energy market. Of the 544 wind resource stations commissioned. The Indian wind energy sector has an installed capacity of 8757. Renewable sources of energy particularly the wind and solar energy have to play an important role in the Indian energy scenario in near future. The demand needs to be met through other sources than coal and natural gas. In terms of wind power for the next few years .2 Wind resources at 10 states in India at 50 m mast height above ground A.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. installed capacity. The unexploited resource availability has the potential to sustain the growth of wind energy sector in India in the years to come. the ‘onshore’ potential for utilization of wind energy for electricity generation is of the order of 65.2) . which is expected to grow at an average rate of 24% annually Fig. India ranked 4th in the World.2 MW as on March 31. The offshore wind potential is enormous considering the wind patterns around the Indian periphery and the advantageous geographic 395 © ENVIROENERGY2009 . 211 are found potential with wind power density above 200 W/m2 .
of Stations 40 50 60 Fig. there are at least 8 locations at the western coast line having wind speeds more than 6 meter per second (m/s) and at least 30 locations have wind speeds more than 5m/s . This is attributed to the fact that as goes farther in sea the factors of aerial and surface roughness and thus the coefficient of surface roughness (surface friction) begins to decrease.B. A onshore wind turbine with a 20 years lifetime gives a thermal efficiency 8000%. Lakshadweep islands have power potential near to 200W/m2 which is mainly attributed to the South – West Monsoons. Muppandal 1 (712W/m2). Kattadimalai (488W/m2). Of these 24 locations some locations have potential much >250W/m2 at 50 m mast height above ground level i. Locations in Andaman and Nicobar Islands and south of 10 degree channel in Andaman and Nicobar Islands have wind power potential >175 W/m2 (Keating Point). Orissa at the eastern coast and parts of West Bengal (Sunderban region) however. Tirumala (374W/m2) in coastal Andhra Pradesh & Achankuttam (437W/m2). foundation. In fact. of Stations 20 25 30 Mean Wind Speed (m/s) D.4. installation and maintenance in less than three months.3 Annual wind speed at mast height of 20/25 m at Eastern Coast in India The Offshore Potential farther into the sea at about 5-10 kms from the shore will be comparatively more because as we go inside the sea the mean wind speed increases by 20% and thus WPD is also bound to multiply . Mean Annual Wind Speed at Coastal Locations 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 15 No. Less turbulence and thus fatigue loads will increase the lifetime of offshore turbines to © ENVIROENERGY2009 396 . Narasimha Konda (403W/m2).000 US Dollar. Kalunir Kalam (390W/m2). It has been estimated that a 5MW lattice tower would weigh just 13. 4 Annual wind speed at mast height of 20/25 m at Western Coast in India E. C.e. Kailasammedu (375W/m2) & Kulathummedu (349W/ m2) in coastal Kerala have potential WPD (at 50 m mast height) for wind power generation. Muppandal 2 (410W/m2) in coastal Tamil Nadu have very good WPD. with moderate wind onshore sites. Some of the areas along the western coast (Saurashtra and Kutch regions in Gujarat) are however susceptible to cyclonic conditions . have good potential attributed to the strong predominance of local factors over the general wind system but these regions fall under cyclonic belt. Infrastructure for Off-shore Wind Energy Utilization Basic Components are wind turbine. This represents considerable improvement over the classical steel structure. 1) Wind Turbine A steel structure for a 5MW wind turbine would weigh over 453 tonnes of load and cost 1 million US Dollar to construct and install. Mean Annual Wind Speed at Coastal Locations Mean Annual Speed (m/s) 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 No. Almost the entire Goa is having WPD in the range 200 -250W/m2 . Kakula Konda (541W/m2). Hills (581W/m2) and Mannikere (315W/m2) in Karnataka. e.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. i. Matrewadi (253W/m2) and Kas (277W/m2) in coastal Maharashtra. Eastern Coast Fig. Kumarapuram (423W/m2). The Rameshwaram region has the highest potential which is mainly due to the locational advantage it enjoys. B. TABLE I TURBINE DETAILS Typically Vestas V90. For offshore turbines. a wind turbine will recover all the energy spent in its manufacture.3 shows that 24 wind monitoring stations in the eastern coast of India have wind power potential that could be harnessed . The results of the analysis shows that there are at least 30-35 locations having good potential more than > 200 watt/meter2 which is considered the minimum power potential required for harnessing wind power with currently available indigenous turbines. the result may be better due to longer expected lifetime of the turbines.3 MW  Turbine Type Rotar Diameter 90 meters Hub Height 80 meters Mass of fully assembled 510 tons turbine and tower Fig. Locations like Surajbari (444 W/m2) in coastal Gujarat. Mangalapuram (408W/m2). the wind turbine recovers the energy about 80 times in its lifetime (comparable to a conventional coal power plant’s 45% . grid connection and installation process.6 ton and would cost 30. B. Western Coast Of the 50 locations in Fig. Offshore For the purpose of the analysis of offshore wind potential around the periphery of the country potential offshore locations (54 locations) situated near the shoreline at the eastern as well as at the Western Ghats of India have been considered. Out of these 24 stations 18 stations have wind speeds more than 5 meter per second (Normally WPD > 200W/m2) which is considered moderate (200 – 250W/m2) and can be harnessed with available turbines. 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 location of India.
possibly saving a transformer.II OFFSHORE WIND FARM DISTANCES FROM SHORE Wind Farm Size (MW) Offshore Distance (Km) . Electric energy generated by offshore wind generating facilities requires one or more submarine cables to transmit power to the onshore utility grid for the end-users. Economically optimized turbines will probably yield around 50% more energy at sea than at nearby inland locations . For systems large enough to warrant a DC transmission system. since it limits the disruption caused by faults on the other end. length etc. the installation costs are not listed separately. ** Miscellaneous items such as engineering cost project management. length of AC submarine cables. Cable laying costs is 1-3 times the cost of the cable. 3) Transmission Grid The current method of interconnecting offshore wind farms with onshore utility transmission system is through alternative (AC) submarine cable systems. Because of the limitations i. permitting. Equally important is the fact that wind speeds are often significantly higher offshore than onshore. Available information shows that maximum distance at which offshore wind farms are installed is 25kms from the coast –. Considering this.62 Million Dollar/ kilometres for lower medium voltages such as 33KV. mono-pile foundation and tripod foundation For making the assessment. and in the range of 200 dollars/meter for 145 Kilo Volt. depth. It is also assumed that unused ships are acquired free of cost. grid connection and installation process.e. which mainly consists of wind turbines. This is a benefit on both ends. the frequency at either end can differ. An increase of about 20% at some distance from the shore is not uncommon. Given the fact that energy content of wind increases with the cube of wind speed.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. foundations. The rough cost estimation of laying HVDC cables in Indian conditions is given in the Fig. • The AC voltage at either end can also differ. • The direction and magnitude of the power flow can be controlled. • Distance of transmission is not limited by losses. the energy yield may be some 73% higher than on land. 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 25-30 years. but are allocated to the other components. laying cost and manufacturability are more likely to be the limiting factors in length for a given application. It also allows a greater choice in wind turbines. TABLE. the foundation cost discussed in this paper is assumed to be negligible as unused ships are used for the foundation to erect the turbine. The thumb rule adopted worldwide is 0. 397 © ENVIROENERGY2009 .5 is rough estimation. Fig. DC will offer a number of advantages : • Asynchronous connection – i. TABLE. 1012% cost reduction is within reach for wind farm development offshore. For the analysis of offshore wind farm investment cost. Economics of Offshore Wind Power The economics of offshore wind farms are presently less favorable than onshore wind facilities. The cables alone cost between 90 dollars/meter and 130 dollars/meter for medium voltage cables. or about twice that for higher medium voltages such as 72KV. internal and external grid connections and installation -.5 at different distances. About 70% of the electricity cost of offshore wind farms is determined by the initial investment costs. since High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) losses over distances are almost negligible.III COMPARISON OF ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE WIND FARM INVESTMENT COSTS BASED ON LITERATURE Offshore Onshore 800-1100 Euro/KW 1200-1850 Total turnkey Euro/KW investment cost 65-70% 30-50% Wind Turbine 5-10% 15-25% Foundation 10-15% 15-30% Internal grid and grid connection to shore 0-5% 0-30% Installation* 5% 8% Others** * In many publications. four main components are which affects cost are Wind turbine. not including transportation cost.  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 50 5 SKY 2000 – D 100 15 Egmond aan Zee NL 100 8-20 Horns rev – DK 150 20 Laeso DK 300 40 Borkum West – DK 60 45 Rodsand – DK 150 25 One of the primary reasons from moving wind farm development offshore is lack of suitable sites on land. use of under water telecommunication infrastructure etc. and the connection on the either end . This includes cable installation. • Avoids the resistance between the cable capacitance and the inductive reactance of the grid. depending on the site. Cable cost. In India the cost may be reduced because of many factors like cheap labour. interest during construction etc. 2) Foundation Types of foundation generally used for supporting erection of turbines are : gravity foundation. This decoupling allows for variable speed wind turbines. Permitting cost will vary . Consequently there is a strong need for significant cost reduction for offshore in order to become competitive.5 Cost of laying HVDC cable in India The cost presented in Fig. F. foundation. the utility industry has turned to direct current (DC) cable system technology which can serve long transmission distances. • HVDC does not transfer short circuit current. and more advance control schemes.e.
current growth in renewables including wind etc. Fig. where winds are stronger and more predictable. access to clean technologies will be difficult. Baseline Scenario: With continued current rate of economic growth and primary energy consumption pattern.300 in 2007. will therefore contribute to an increase in the average. Access to clean and high priced renewable and other clean energy sources would therefore likely to increase in this scenario. As the average capacity of turbines increases. Scenario 1 is optimistic growth scenario and scenario 2 is conservative scenario . • Capacity Factor: ‘Capacity factor’ refers to the percentage of its nameplate capacity that a turbine installed in a particular location will deliver over the course of a year. rising to €1. current rate of growth in population.49 MW. currently available technologies. From an average capacity factor today of 25%. Such circumstances will be indicated by rise in economic growth above the current level. the scenario assumes that improvements in both wind turbine technology and the siting of wind farms will result in a steady increase. TABLE IV INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL INVESTMENT Wind turbine 47% Founda tion 12% Internal grid 4% Grid connect ion 19% Install ation 12% Other 6% III. 1) Scenario 1 This implies enhanced growth in the wind energy market. At the same time the largest turbines being prepared for the market are now reaching more than 6 MW in capacity. . Capacity factors are also much higher out to sea. Under this scenario the annual growth would be higher than the current level of in onshore wind market and is expected to be around 24% by 2010 -2012 and will decrease further at a rate of 0. infrastructure will felt a setback. turbine design has been largely concentrated on the three-bladed downwind model with variable speed and pitch blade regulation. An overall competition between the companies supplying wind technologies would spur reduction in cost of the installations. 2) Scenario 2 A conservative case with low growth in economy than the base case. especially in Europe. It is possible. a 1 MW turbine operating at a 25% capacity factor will deliver 2. fewer will be needed in total to satisfy a given penetration of global electricity demand.450 in 2009. It is foreseen an average global capacity factor increasing to 28% by 2012 . The rise in economic growth with rise in energy demand would direct the market dynamics in the positive direction as far as renewable energy is concerned. From 2020 the scenario assumes a levelling out of costs . so will the investment in the energy technologies.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. SCENARIO DESCRIPTION AND RESULTS A. • Capital Cost: The capital cost of producing wind turbines has fallen steadily over the past 20 years as manufacturing techniques have been optimised. Technological efficiencies would increase as a result of development of cleaner and more technologically sophisticated options.000. Capital costs per kilowatt of installed capacity are taken as an average of €1. As investing capacity would fall in this scenario. 6 shows world cost reduction projections in capital investment in wind. a) Major Contributors under Scenario 1 Fig. They are then assumed to fall steadily from 2010 onwards to about €1. This is primarily an assessment of the wind resource at a given site. The average nameplate capacity of wind turbines installed globally in 2007 was 1. however. It is also assumed that each turbine will have an operational lifetime of 20-25 years . The decrease in growth after 2010-2012 if at all happens is considered expecting competition of wind with other renewable and more potential options to come in the renewable (clean energy) sector in near future.190 MWh of electricity in a year. Scenarios Two main (actually three also considering the current baseline trend) scenarios may be taken to see the cost reduction possibilities. • Turbine Capacity: Individual wind turbines have been steadily growing in terms of their nameplate capacity – the maximum electricity output they can achieve when operating at full power. 398 © ENVIROENERGY2009 . and mass production and automation have resulted in economies of scale. Under international pressures and favourable policies and reforms opportunities will be provided for carbon trading bringing down further the cost of wind energy. 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 Based on literature surveyed the initial distribution of total investment costs is given in Table IV -.6 Cost reduction prospect for offshore wind farm This scenario makes the conservative assumption that the average size will gradually increase from today’s figure to 2 MW in 2013 and then level out. but capacity factors are also affected by the efficiency of the turbine and its suitability for the particular location. The growing size of the offshore wind market. This would spur investment into the renewable energy sector mainly in clean options of energy as investment in clean energy would provide direct generation linked rebates and subsidies.5 % annually till 2020 before stabilizing at around 10% by 2030 -35. Under this conditions would be favourable for growth of renewable and thus the wind energy would progress. As an example. that this figure will turn out to be greater in practice.
• Damage due to unexpected cyclones and heavy winds. • Availability of ample area for construction of foundation and support structure. population growth. Regular repair and Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of turbine etc can be performed on board without any exclusive arrangement. Such an arrangement would pose minimal problems to the marine life. which is huge in number and can be utilized as a floating platform for offshore wind farm . and primary energy consumption.Renewable energy development . Most of the ships that come to Alang are from United States. Efficiency – rises.e.rises. low cost materials or decrease in steel prices Standardization Use of Floating Platforms i.rises decrease in cost of technology. policies and promotions of renewable would keep the market at current levels and wind developments as far India is concerned is expected to not to fall below the present levels.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. B. Yugoslavia. . 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 energy demand would decline however population growth continues at the current level spurring domestic energy demand. tsunami’s. . TABLE V DRIVERS AND PARAMETERSRS OF EFFEECT Scenarios Scenario 0 Implications on specific parameters - No implication on technology cost.Tech.Technology cost . If at all it will suffer a drastic setback than also there will be a marginal difference from the present conditions and this marginal difference would be because private competitors would stop further investment into R&D in wind. Use of Abandoned Ships as Floating Platforms for Installation of Turbine The ship breaking industry is one of the main sources of indigenous scrap generation.rises . evacuated by offshore oil & gas companies. cost. At times of heavy winds and cyclones such ships can be either suitably manoeuvred or shifted to safe locations. foundation etc. strong.stagnant Investment capacity – decreases Renewable energy – decrease in investment and rise in tech. access to clean technologies. ships On Site Maintenance Installation Standardization of turbines & equipments Oil and gas companies using existing infrastructure & experience (oil prices going down so expanding field) Competition from Market Scenario 1 3) Constraints of Offshore Shallow Fixed Foundations and Support Structure: Offshore shallow fixed foundations and support structure encounter a variety of constraints: • Large cost involved in construction the fixed foundation and support structure.Renewable energy . .  . technology development are the drivers. • Calculation of hydrodynamic loads of underwater structures. efficiency remain at current level Carbon emissions – remain at current level or marginal increase Design Improvements i. China and Japan. The ship-breaking yard at Alang on the Gujarat cost is the biggest such yard in the world. efficiency . • Natural disturbances like cyclones and calamities like earthquakes. TABLE VI FACTORS OF COST REDUCTION FOR OFFSHORE WIND FARMS: SCENARIO 1 Wind Turbines Up-scaling Design Improvements Standardization Enhanced R&D Lighter Low Cost Materials Economics of Scale Grid Connection Cost Reduction of HVDC Cables Standardization of HVDC for Offshore Standard Installations Applicability of XLPE Insulation to HVDC Cables Advances in Power Electronics and Valve Technology Use of Existing Under Sea Telecommunication Infrastructure for Grid Supply Foundation Economics of Scale 399 © ENVIROENERGY2009 . Russia. investment capacity. emission of carbon . Even if the over water wind direction pattern changes drastically such ships can be moved to suitable wind sites and would continue to produce power. Poland. Nearly 300 ships are broken at Alang every year. • Problems to marine life especially to large fishes. Under such circumstances however the wind energy developments in India would not grow as much as Scenario 1 but Govt. Scenario 2 - 2) Relevant Factors of Cost Reduction for Offshore Wind Farms Under Scenario 1 The relevant factors of cost reduction for offshore wind farms under scenario 1 are summarised in Table VI. Drivers and Parameters of Effect 1) Drivers Economic Growth (GDP to be used as a measure). Problems cited above can be avoided by using large abandoned ships (cargo ships) as an option for fixed structures. India’s ship breaking industry is one of the biggest in the world.decreases. Ships as floating platforms can be at times used as light-houses for guiding other ships.e dynamic loads. The cargo ship decks can work as floating platforms.Carbon emissions – rises due to increase in demand rise but carbon trading opportunities will also increase Technology cost – rises Tech. C. efficiency. lighter. • Problem of regular maintenance of turbines. tech. . The ship breaking industry since 1982-82 to 1989-99 a total 2453 different ships were broken at Alang.Investment capacity – rises. In such a case cost incurred at fixed foundations can be totally eliminated. Efficiency .Tech. . renewable energy cost & efficiency. • Problems to cruising ships.
hub height and weight 90m.841 sq.75 MW.28 3.90 Another advantage of Andaman and Nicobar is that it may not face a severe cyclone but are located where maximum number of cyclones originates from Bay of Bengal. hub height and weight 90m. usage of offshore wind energy could be an alternative to conventional existing power sources.70 13. kms. 1.69KW/day. At other locations power is available for 5 to 16 hours per day through small Diesel Generator power houses and solar power plants. 4.46 4. Andaman and Nicobar has an area of 8. Due to physical separation of the island from the Indian mainland across the Indian Ocean.06 14. 5. Some of these islands surrounded by sea on all sides have good potential for wind energy and installation of offshore wind systems will improve the power supply scenario.69 = 245744. solar. Out of 547 villages. Feasibility of Abandoned Large ships for Power Generation A cargo ship normally is large enough dimensionally to load a turbine or two or may be more.03 MAWS* (m/s) 3. In this context.62 4. 6.53 3. and Campbell way. 80m and 510 ton could be erected on a single 400 © ENVIROENERGY2009 .408 sq. Possibilities for hydropower are limited due to non-perennial nature of rivers. COST OF GENERATION WITH CASE STUDY OF ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR The Andaman and Nicobar group of islands are situated in the Bay of Bengal.80 13. ocean. Karmorta. The floating platform will provide an added advantage that the orientation of ship can be adjusted according to wind direction to get the full potential of wind and hence increased power generation by about. 6. Because of the high cost involved in transporting oil for the operation of the power stations. kms by the Nicobar groups of Islands. 80m and 510 ton respectively (Table I) can be easily erected. With a maximum efficiency factor of turbine taken as 0. Round the clock power supply through diesel generating sets provides 92. Assuming a turbine of capacity 3MW and with rotor diameter. Per capita energy consumption of the island is 0. Middle Andaman. Havelock. This implies that it may be economic to use lower (and thus cheaper) towers for wind turbines located offshore. It reveals that the general wind direction is towards South – South West (SSW). Calculation The offshore wind energy potential is more prominent near to A & N.41 14. Neil island.5. Also the cost can be aggravated at times of oil crisis and with increasing cost of diesel oil and coal. wind speeds do not increase as much with the height above sea level as do they do on land.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. the energy yield may be some 73% higher than on land. Per capita energy consumption of the island is 250 KW per annum compared to 350 KW on the mainland. wind and other renewable energy systems play a role in providing decentralized power to remote areas.5% of the population in the islands at South Andaman. There is also a 20 MW privately operated diesel power plant operating at Bambooflat. there are incentivized programmes to avoid the use of air conditioners. This means that advantage of high wind speeds will be enjoyed by these islands but these wind speeds will not be too high to damage the structure. 2. Because of the rural nature of the islands. Economically optimised turbines. With these dimensions turbines of capacity 3MW with rotor diameter. There are 34 diesel generating power houses scattered across the islands providing a total capacity of about 40MW. Data from the Alang (Gujarat) ship-breaking yard provides that dimensions vary from 100m-200m in length and 25m-70m width . 3. Long island. Total electricity requirement of island per day = 356152*0. a 26 MW offshore wind power plan (farm) could cater to 10% of the total electricity consumption. Erection of such a turbine could reduce 10% to 12% of the foundation costs involved in offshore wind farm development.5 MW of power.88KW = 254. The generating stations produce from 6 KW to 12. 479 have been connected to power supply . No. The Andaman group consists of 324 islands of which 24 are inhabited while the Nicobar group includes 28 islands of which 12 are inhabited . This is because of high cost involved in generation and transmission of power through thermal stations using coal and diesel oil. The cost of foundation can be further reduced to about 1%-2% considering the factors of cheap labour availability in India and by using existing telecommunication infrastructure.00 3. most of the power generating facilities operates independently over diesel systems.295km spread over 500 islands with coastline of 1962 kms. Low WPD is observed at the mainland whereas at the shore the wind density is high by about 20% increase in speed at about 5kms offshore due to smooth surface farther into sea. spanning latitude 6°45/N to 13°41/N and longitudes 92°12/E to 93°57/E. incandescent bulbs etc. So. Table VII provides details of wind monitoring stations in Andaman & Nicobar Islands .5 MW power.249 sq.04 16. South Andaman. IV. biomass. will probably yield some 50% more energy at sea than at nearby land locations . Station Barkath Line Phoenix Bay Pokkadero South Bay Keating Point Chuckmachi Minyuk MAWS* (Kmph) 12.64 3. Given the fact that the energy content of wind increases with the cube of wind speed. TABLE VII * MAWS – MEAN ANNUAL WIND SPEED Sl. Power is likely to become a serious constraint in future unless alternative resources are discovered on the island.10 11. The pollution arising out of the diesel fuel mainly could spoil the natural resources of the island. subsequently. A. km of area is occupied by the Andaman groups and 1. Out of an area of 8. Total population of island is 356152  Per capita energy consumption of the island is 250KW/annum. 7. the turbine would produce about 1. 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 D. Also.
7 square kilometers around the island -. Faaij. M. 2006. Danish Wind Industry Association October. H. so total ships required will be 18 catering to 10% of the total power demand of the island which will require a wind farm with three rows of ships with 6 ship in each row with rows separated from each other by 0. Copenhagen K. 4. no. “Renewable electricity in the Netherlands”. “Experience curves in the wind energy sector. 2003. International Conference on Coastal and Ocean Technology.J. Barthelmie and B. Shukla. Noord. E. vol. C. 1997.J. Kapshe. CONCLUSION Wind potential offshore at about 5-10 kilometers farther into the sea is enormous and need to be tapped effectively to cater to the increasing energy needs of coastal niche.0 MW technical brochures. Turkenburg.A. 28. Wind Power.com http://www.33. M. “Offshore wind energy report”. vol. Butterfield B. P. 2003. and N. pp. pp. 2004. Junginger. no.5 kms and 5. New Delhi.htm 401 © ENVIROENERGY2009 . Ramesh. Planning Commission of India R. 16-19 June 2003. Noord. Volkers. “A review of offshore wind farms”. and W. 8. pp. 2000. 2. Md. Sally D. Utrecht University. 411421. Use.com http://www. M.R. J. (Calculation based on general assumptions i. Rogers. A. and W. 19-29. 1.T. Eecen. pp. 19-29. Sea belt both at eastern and western side and small habited islands like Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep faces acute power shortage which is mainly attributed to the lack of power generation infrastructure and grid based transmission inaccessibility.windpowerindia. Wind Engineering. “Cost reduction prospects for the offshore wind energy sector: In 2003”. “Offshore Wind Energy: Full Speed Ahead”. 2002. vol. 2009 ISSN: 2070-3740 ship. Soren Krohn. Analysis and Recommendations”. Chennai. “Going to sea. S. 1053-1073.0 MW and V90 3. 2006. 32. 1999. Renewable Energy. Background Information Note. Denmark. “Background paper for offshore wind energy assessment in India”. Jenkins.J. 2001. Multiple applicability of this mobile utility is beyond question. NREL/CP-500-39450 February. Turkenburg. European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition. Permanent fixed foundation and support structure for installation of offshore wind farms at these locations is environmentally and technically not feasible as of now due to various reasons discussed in the paper.suzlonenergyindia. Sørensen. 2004. Feasibility and economics of installing wind turbine generators for power generation at ship decks for both centralized grid and decentralized supply is far more realistic and advantageous than fixed installations. Constraints like land unavailability and inaccessibility in supplying thermal and diesel generator based power can be effectively resolved through offshore ship based wind turbine generators. Turkenburg. International. AWAE. Soren Krohn. 33. Junginger. pp. 2000. 1-12. Availability of fresh drinking water is a major problem near costal areas. 2002. Spain. Smith. Md. Andrea Thompson. “Offshore wind energy in Europe . 2000. pp. Report on the visit of the HPC to ship breaking yard at Alang 20th September 2000.0 kms.A review of the State-of-the-Art”. The Netherlands. J.J. Faaij. http://www. Sweden.com http://www. The Netherlands. M. 2000. “Offshore wind farm electrical connections. minimum distance between 2 ships – 0. “Cost reduction opportunities for offshore wind farms”.T. 203-213. Boesman. Technology and Society. 2000. minimum distance between 2 rows – 0. Junginger. Now. Dhimole and M. 12. Renewable Energy World. Wind energy. member. “Analysis of long-term energy and carbon emission scenarios for India”. no. “Going to sea: Wind goes offshore”. Energy Policy.” Thesis for the degree of licentiate of engineering at Chalmers University of Technology. “Integrated Energy Policy”.A. Petten. pp. Madrid. ECN. W.C. S.A. Henderson. Source: Census 2001.e.hornsrev. pp. Nair.P.org TIFAC. Risoe National Laboratory. Junginger. Global Wind Energy Outlook. C. Pierik and S. 2007 http://www. pp.0 kms respectively covering a total area of 3. Wright.inwea. no. “Offshore wind farm could blow away energy needs”. “Large-scale offshore wind energy: Cost analysis and integration in the Dutch electricity market”. Vestas V80 2. F. Morgan. and Faaij. Wind engineering.G. HPC). Weatherill. vol.R.windpowerindia. M. 3. REFERENCES    W. pp. B. Sreevalsan.com /windresourceassessment. 14th February. P. K. For the generation of 26 MW (10% of demand) initial investment of INR 206 crores is required.dk http://www. “Energy from Offshore Wind” Conference Paper. Beurskens.PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT MARCH 19-21. Musial. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global change. Hagg. 2003. Ram. Manwell and Anthony Ellis. Prepared by Shri Prem Chand. . R. 2001. European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition. Live Science. 2003. A. “Concerted Action on Offshore Wind Energy in Europe”. pp.C.livescience. September 1998. Netherlands. 2007. http://www. Denmark. Hence. pp. 25. Junginger.H. “Cost and Potential of Offshore Wind Energy on the Dutch part of the North Sea in 2001”. Energy Policy. L.dongenergy. First International Workshop. J. M. Goteborg. Delft University of Technology. Jones. “Feasibility of HVDC Transmission Network for offshore Wind Farms”. 2007. Planning Commission of India. 56-58. 6. Further possibilities may be explored to establish the feasibility of using a part of power produced on board by wind turbines for continuous desalination of sea water and its supply on land.5 kms and ship length of 100m – 200m approximately. and W. Grainger. New Delhi. Owee and Garrad Hassan. Olof Martander. H. 2004.C. A. Garg and A. considering that at least 15% of the initial investment is could be saved by using abandoned ships intital investment required reduces to only INR 175 crores saving at least INR 31 crores which could be used to for O&M of the systems. “Transmission options for offshore wind farms in the United States”. pp. Machielse. Pryor. “The energy balance of modern wind turbines”.” “Proceedings of 20th BWEA conference. Faaij. “Global experience curves for wind farms”. Stockholm.H. Barthelmie and S. 2006. A.5 kms. The model suggested offers multiple advantages environmentally and technically compared to fixed structures. Department of Science. vol. Vestas Wind Systems A/S. 35. 2003. R. 97-118. Sasikumar. J.com                                  CWET. 35-52.5 kms specifically at 4. A. Andaman and Nicobar islands have good prospects in terms of economic feasibility in developing offshore floating wind farms. Tractebel Energy Engineering. Copenhagen..) B. “DC Grids for Wind farms. EWEA.com/Nysted/EN/index. Cardiff. Ringkøbing. vol. Capital investment required and cost of power Assuming standard initial investment cost in developing offshore wind systems with fixed structures to be INR 79200 per kilowatt (Table III). C. Herman. Renewable Energy World. 9. 133-150. Kooijman. Agterbosch.C. pp. Anthony L. supplement 1:Offshore plans –an overview”. Review. 2002. Rana. 72. A. V. R. 2001. James F.
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