You are on page 1of 8

Question 1: (a) What are the three phases of building an IIN?

(3 marks) Integrated Transport Integrated services Integrated applications (b) State two benefits of a multilayer switch over a router.(2 marks) Multilayer switch combines both layer 2 switching and layer 3 routing functionality. Multilayer switches move campus traffic at wire speed while satisfying layer 3 connectivity requirements. (c) What are the three main functional areas of the Enterprise Composite Network model?(3 marks) Enterprise campus Enterprise Edge Service Provider Edge (d) What are four possible downsides of the following network: (4 marks)

Question 2: (a) What is a failure domain? (1 mark) Failure domain is a Token Ring network area in which a failure has occurred in a Token Ring, defined by the information contained in a beacon. (b) What is meant by the 20/80 rule in relation to Local VLANs? (1 mark) Rule estimates that 80 percent of user traffic stays within the local workgroup, whereas 20 percent is destined for a remote resource in the campus network. (c) What issue can arise when too much unknown MAC unicast traffic arrives on a switch? (1 mark) pg348 If the network exhibits asymmetrical routing, excessive unicast flooding can occur and might cause all the devices in that VLAN to suffer as they receive the unneeded traffic. (d) When adding a switch to an existing VTP domain, what problem could arise, and how can this potential problem be fixed? (2marks)

(e) Why is it advantageous to allocate IP address spaces in contiguous blocks? ( 1mark) (f) List two features about ISL that are different than 802.1q. (2marks)

802.1q has smaller frame overhead than ISL. As a result, 802.1q is more efficient than ISL, especially in the case of small frames. 802.1q overhead is 4 bytes, whereas ISL is 30 bytes.
(g) What is the full name of Ciscos protocol that tries to negotiate the trunking method between switches? (1 mark) DTP: Dynamic Trunking Protocol (h) Besides the data traffic type, what are three other types of traffic we should consider on our network? (3 marks) pg 2 (route) Voice and video Voice applications traffic Mission-critical traffic Transactional traffic Routing protocol traffic Network management traffic (i) What is VTP pruning and where is it configured? (2 marks) VTP pruning uses VLAN advertisements to determine when a trunk connection is flooding traffic needlessly. VTP pruning increases available bandwidth by restricting flooded traffic to those trunk links that the traffic must use to access the appropriate network devices. VTP is configured on interface using switchport trunk pruning vlan command.

Question 3: (a) List one benefit and one drawback CST provides over PVST. (2 marks) (b) What is the order of precedence for determining an STP port state? (4 marks)

(c) Briefly explain how the Bridge ID has a big impact on a switched network. (1 mark) (d) Draw the following diagram in your answer book and put the CST port roles ( root, designated, non-designated) for all interfaces: (7 marks)

(e) RSTP is based on what IEEE standard? ( 1 mark) IEEE 802.1w (f) What is the main benefit of running MSTP compared with PVST when there are a large number of VLANs?(2 marks)

(g) What is an Edge Port, and how does it react when it receives a BPDU? ( 2 marks)pg131 The edge port concept is well known to Cisco spanning-tree users because it corresponds to the PortFast feature. Unlike PortFast, an edge port that receives a BPDU immediately loses it edge port status and becomes a normal spanning-tree port.

(h) What are the revised IEEE switch port costs for the following four speeds: 10Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps? (2marks) 10 Mbps: Cost 100 100 Mbps: Cost 19 1 Gbps: Cost 4 10 Gbps: Cost 1 (i) List two protocols that can automatically create bundled Ethernet links. (2 marks) LACP & PAGP Question 4: (a) List two disadvantages of inter-VLAN routing using an external router.(2 marks) Disadvantages: The router is a single point of failure. A single traffic path may become congested. With a router-on-stick model, the trunk link is limited by the speed of the router interface shared across all trunked VLANs. Depending on the size of the network, the amount of inter-VLAN traffic, and the speed of the router interface, congestion could result with this design. Latency might be higher as frames leave and re-enter the switch chassis multiple times and the router makes software-based routing decisions. Latency increases any time traffic must flow between devices. Additionally, routers make routing decisions in software, which always incurs a greater latency penalty than switching with hardware. (b) What is one disadvantage of making a switch port work at layer 3 using no Switchport, compared to using a routers Layer 3 port? (1 mark)

(c) Explain what CEF stands for and how it works, including the use of its two tables. (4 marks) It Stands for Cisco Express Forwarding. A router with CEF enabled uses information from tables built by the CPU, such as the routing table and ARP table, to build hardware-based tables known as the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and adjacency tables. (d) List the following switching methods in order of speed from fastest to slowest: (2marks) a. Distributed CEF 1. Distributed CEF b. Process Switching 2. CEF c. CEF 3. Fast Switching d. Fast Switching 4. Process Switching Question 5: (a) An HSRP router that is forwarding packets sent to the virtual MAC address, is said to be in which HSRP state? ( 1mark) Active

(b) Briefly describe interface tracking with HSRP and why you should want to use it.(2 marks)

Interface tracking enables the priority of a standby group router to be automatically adjusted, based on the availability of the router interfaces. The HSRP tracking feature ensures that a router with an unavailable key interface will relinquish the active router role.
(c) If you wanted a default gateway solution that automatically load balanced, what protocol would you use? (1 mark) HSRP Hot Standby Routing Protocol

Question 6: (a) An access point functions like which type of wired network device? (1 mark) Router (b) Contrast Layer 2 LWAPP architecture with Layer 3 LWAPP architecture in regards to WLAN controllers.(2 marks) layer 2 LWAPP can function without IP connectivity where as layer 3 LWAPP needs to establish connectivity. (c) What type of antenna would you connect to an access point if you wanted to increase coverage in all directions roughly equally?(1 mark) Yagi (d) What is an independent Basic Service Set wireless network?( 1 mark) An independent BSS (IBSS) is an ad-hoc network that contains no access points, which means they cannot connect to any other basic service set. (e) Assuming a wireless system with 11 channels, what channel numbers would you assign to multiple access points so as to not cause interfaces?(2 marks) 1,6 (f) Checking what wireless networks are available, channels used, speeds, signal strengths and signal quality is known as doing a what? (1 mark) Site survey (g) Briefly describe the relationship between frequencies and transmission range.(1 marks) (h) What does polarization mean in relation to antennas? ( 1 mark)

(i) List the two types of WLAN solutions, and the type of access point found in each. (4 marks) (j) Briefly explain PoE, and give one example of a device that would connect to a device using it.(2 marks) It gives the power over Ethernet and eg. is IP Phone Question 7: (a) List 3 benefits of a converged network, rather than separate network for each of voice, video and data.( 3marks) Ease of management & Implementation Cost effective Everything is Centralized in a single location

(b) Briefly describe Call Admission Control.(1 mark) Call admission control (CAC) is the practice or process of regulating traffic volume in voice communications, particularly in wireless mobile networks and in VoIP (voice over Internet protocol, also known as internet telephony). (c) Across what type of links are Data-link Layer QoS tags placed? ( 1 mark) Trunks (d) Given a WAN link speed of 100 Mbps, how much bandwidth can applications use by default? (1 mark) 19 (e) Which layer 3 marking method uses 6 bits?(1 mark) QoS (f) Explain what is meant by QoS trust boundary.(1 mark) It specifies how a frame is handled as it arrives in on a switch. (g) What is another name for an auxiliary VLAN? (1 mark) Voice VLAN Question 8: (a) List the three port types found in Private VLANs, and their communication capabilities with the other Private VLAN port types. (6 marks) Isolated: Traffic received from an isolated port is forwarded to only promiscuous port. Promiscuous: it communicates with all ports within the private VLAN including community & isolated ports. Community: these communicate among themselves & with promiscuous ports. (b) What should be configured to prevent rogue hosts assuming the identify of other legitimate hosts? (1 mark) DHCP Snooping would be used to prevent this type of an attack. (c) What should be configured to prevent DHCP spoof attacks? ( 1 mark) DHCP snooping (d) Briefly explain how root guard can help protect a switched network.(1 mark) Root guard: Prevents switches connected on ports configured as access ports from becoming the root switch. (e) Briefly describe the 3 types of ACLs found on a multilayer switch.( 3 marks) 1. Router access control lists (RACLs) Supported in the TCAM hardware on Cisco multilayer switches. In catalyst switches, RACL can be applied to any routed interface, such as a switch virtual interface (SVI) or layer 3 routed ports. 2. Port access control list (PACL) Filters traffic at the port level. PACLs can be applied on a layer 2 switchport, trunk port, or EtherChannel port. PACLs act at the layer 2 port level but can filter based on layer 3/ layer 4 information.

3. VACLs Also known as VLAN access-maps, apply to all traffic in a VLAN. VACLs support filtering based on Ether type and MAC address. (f) Which method detects software faults at Layer 2, which causes traffic to travel in only one direction across a link to a neighbour? ( 1 mark) UDLD unidirectional link detection