Quality Control - Summary

Waqas Ali Tunio

Summary of Chapter 11 - The Management and Control of Quality Waqas Ali Tunio
Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) – Pakistan (waqasalitunio@gmail.com) (www.waqasalitunio.tk)

Quality Control

“Control – the activity of ensuring conformance to requirements and taking corrective action when necessary to correct problems” Introduction - Quality Control (QC) Quality control, in the strict business sense, is the monitoring of the means of production to ensure that the finished product or service meets a certain standard. A number of different elements are important for this kind of control, including skilled management, intimate knowledge of the production process, and the motivation and enthusiasm of workers at all levels. This last is a sort of intangible, but is still integral to success. An effective quality assurance system includes well-designed and documented procedures for product and process control, inspection and testing, control of measuring and test equipment, and corrective and preventive action. In general, making sure that the quality of goods remains standard across the board involves handson testing of the goods as they move down the assembly line (or through the production process). While the manufacturing sector sees an obvious need to inspect items for irregularities, this is not the only field where such things occur. In any industry where projects or production is/are being passed off to different individuals, there is a need to make sure things are being done right. A quality policy identifies key objectives of products and services such as fitness for use, performance, safety and dependability. Designing the QC System The QC system design ranges from contract management in which levels and forms of quality tests are decided and subsequent procedures and validation methods are discussed. Design control integrated DFX (Design for Quality) into the process and hence adequate monitoring is possible, as system is already built to ensure quality. Procurement is key for me. After buying low-grade material, high end quality expectation is mere aim to say the least. Author has discussed the fact that various low quality materials are used in high value products, which lead to re-working and defected parts. You get for what you pay. Usually there is no difference. But both terms have slightly different meaning in different circles. Quality control usually means only checking the conformity of products already made. It comprises inspection and other tests such as lab tests. Some people use quality control to designate some more upstream activities that aim at preventing quality issues (usually these activities are called "quality assurance").  Contract management, design control and purchasing  Process control, inspection and testing

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Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Quality Control - Summary

Waqas Ali Tunio

 Corrective action and continual improvement  Controlling inspection, measuring and test equipment (metrology, measurement system analysis and calibration)  Records, documentation and audits Human Factors in Inspection Human factors range from Complexity, defect rate, repeated inspections and inspection rate. Inspection should never be a means of assuring quality. The purpose of inspection should be to gather information to understand and improve the processes that produce products and services. Gauges and Measuring Instruments Various types of gauges, measuring instruments, and automated technology are used in manufacturing to measure quality characteristics. In services, measurement typically is conducted by surveys and other forms of observation. Control of measuring instruments is accomplished through metrology, calibration, and traceability.  Variable gauges, Fixed gauges , Coordinate measuring machine & Vision systems

A repeatability and reproducibility study is designed to measure the variation due to measuring equipment and the operators who use the equipment. This variation is commonly expressed as a percentage of tolerance for evaluating the acceptability of measurement error.   Repeatability (equipment variation): variation in multiple measurements by an individual using the same instrument. Reproducibility (operator variation): variation in the same measuring instrument used by different individuals

Repeatability and Reproducibility Studies  Quantify and evaluate the capability of a measurement system o Select m operators and n parts o Calibrate the measuring instrument o Randomly measure each part by each operator for r trials o Compute key statistics to quantify repeatability and reproducibility R&R Evaluation  Under 10% error – OK, 10-30% error - may be OK & over 30% error - unacceptable

Calibration is defined as measurement device or system to one having a known relationship with standards of Quality, like NIST. Example of QC: HACCP (has-sip) System: a NASA developed process control system to analyze food safety. It is designed to be used in all segments of food industry. 1. Hazard analysis 2. Critical control points 3. Preventive measures with critical limits for each control point

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Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

Quality Control - Summary 4. 5. 6. 7. Procedures to monitor the critical control points Corrective actions when critical limits are not met Verification procedures Effective record keeping and documentation

Waqas Ali Tunio

Inspection means checking the characteristics of a product to ensure that conformity to a set of specifications is met. Sometimes it means checking 100% of a batch of product; sometimes it means checking only some samples (in that latter case, it is exactly the same as "statistical quality control". Traditional inspection practices involve heavy inspection of incoming materials and final product, with a focus on separating and good from the bad. These practices are inefficient and ineffective. Inspection should be used as an auditing tool to control processes and identify opportunities for improvement. Three types of inspection are spot-checked procedures, 100 percent inspection and acceptance sampling. In-process inspecting must consider what to inspect, where to inspect and how much to inspect. Inspection of critical characteristics should be related to cost or quality and provide useful information for improvement. Where to perform inspection is an economic decision. Generally, it is economical to inspect either all or nothing using a simple breakeven rule. Human factors can dramatically affect inspection performance. Quality Control in Services
Service is defined as “any primary or complementary activity that does not directly produce a physical product – that is, the non-goods part of the transaction between buyer (customer) and seller (provider).”

The banking and insurance industries, and even retail companies, need to streamline work correctly so that they might maintain their good reputations. It is improvement that is being looked for, as improvement leads to quality and ultimately to better business sales. Thus, virtually every employer places emphasis on these issues. Many service quality characteristics are measurable; others are observable. In either case, they may be controlled in a manner similar to the control of manufacturing characteristics. Components of Service System Quality      Employees Information technology Identify important quality characteristics o Time, errors, behavior Measure and collect data using check sheets, check lists, or other means Take corrective action

Quality Control – Bottom Line Quality control is ultimately a general process that seeks to bring together a wide variety of factors in order to meet some sort of standard. When employees are both knowledgeable and experienced, and are motivated to work together as a team for the greater benefit of all, there is a very good chance of success.

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Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) (www.pnec.nust.edu.pk)

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