Language Learner Report

Every language learner perceives and acquires a foreign language in a different way. One may prefer to learn individually, whereas the other learns faster and is more efficient whilst performing tasks and learning the target language within a group. Thus, every learner has his own learning methods and preferences suited to their personal needs and requirements. Language teachers must take into consideration different types of learners, their preferences, needs as well as the factors which have an impact on their learning process including their age, gender, cultural backgrounds, personality traits and their learning styles. This study report will demonstrate a relevant literature review, the methodology choices used in the research, its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, it will look at the affective characteristics and the learning styles of the learner using the data collected by the researcher. It will cover the most salient factors and learning styles employed by the examined learner. Finally, the qualitative report will suggest the strategies which could help improve or hinder the learning process of the learner.


Literature Review

Myers-Briggs Character Types

The association between the ‘personality type’ and different areas of life including: ‘one’s success in a job’, ‘in management of time’, ‘in academic pursuits’, ‘in marriage’,‘child rearing’ and so forth have been of a great interest over the past few decades within the Western societies. The Myers-Briggs personality test was designed in 1962, originated with Isabel Myers and was developed with her daughter Kathryn Briggs. It is still recognised worldwide and is commonly used by diverse organizations eg. workplaces, employers. The Myers-Briggs test is based on the work of Carl Jung who claimed that each individual has functioning preferences which can be either ‘typical’ or ‘characteristic’. Although Jung’s work has been forgotten during the period when behaviouralism was a dominant research perspective in psychology, nowadays psychologists are interested again in the personality of an individual, in particular within education sector. In addition, the Myers-Briggs team distinguished and tested four different styles of functioning of an individual including: ‘introversion versus extroversion’, ‘sensing versus intuition’, ‘thinking versus feeling’ and ‘judging versus perceiving’ (Brown, 2000:157).

The extroversion and introversion categories have to do with two personality types, one being open to the world and gaining energy from being around people whereas the latter concerns individuals who lose energy while being around a big number of people.


They prefer being in solitude and peace. The sensing and intuition categories refer to humans’ perception of the world. While sensors prefer to deal with concrete and observable phenomena, the intuitors are more interested in patterns and details. Moreover they are fond of an abstract. The thinking - feeling category presents the traits of the thinkers who are rational, believe in what is fair and think in a cognitive way. Feelers on the other hand, use their heart and make decisions based on other people’s feelings. Myers and Briggs have also distinguished the judging-perceiving category which refers to ‘the outer world’ and the attitude of people (Brown, 2000:157). While judges are keen on being organized, like to plan in advance, the perceivers prefer to delay the decision making and take life as it occurs on a daily basis.

Taking into account the presented personality categories, there are sixteen possible combinations of different personalities. The Myers-Briggs research was focused on the implications of being one type or another. The research established that ‘young people seeking a career can understand better how certain occupations may be more or less suited to them, by knowing their own character type’ (Brown, 2000:157). In addition, there have been several studies done including Ehrman’s and Oxford’s study of seventy-nine foreign language learners which attempted to find the link between MyersBriggs personality types and the foreign language learning strategies. This study proved that depending on the category of the Myers-Briggs personality type people use various learning strategies. For instance while ‘extroverts used social strategies consistently and easily, introverts rejected them. (Brown, 2000: 157). However, the most significant difference was observed between the thinkers who ‘commonly used meta-cognitive


strategies and analysis while feelers rejected such strategies accepting only social strategies’ (Brown, 2000:158).

Therefore, it may be assumed that the knowledge of the learner’s personality type in particular the strengths, the weaknesses and the preferred learning strategies of the learner are significant in second language learning. Lastly, the learners should ‘utilize their strengths to compensate for their weaknesses regardless of their ‘natural preferences’ (Brown, 2000:159).

Anxiety and language learning: measures of anxiety, effects of anxiety

‘Anxiety is the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness and worry associated with an arousal of an automatic nervous system’ (Horwitz, 1986: 125) It can be encountered by any learner regardless of the field whether you are a language student or a science student. Anxiety can prevent the learner from being successful. Second language researchers, teachers and the students are aware of the anxiety which is associated with language learning and the fear of making a mistake while communicating in a foreign language. Therefore the anxiety is considered as a major obstacle while acquiring a foreign language. The approaches in teaching including ‘suggestopedia’ and ‘community language learning’ are on the list of the approaches which are supposed to help the students decrease their anxiety. Horwitz focuses on foreign language anxiety


and describes its types, symptoms, reasons for its existence as well as effects it has on students in foreign language learning.

The effects of foreign language anxiety has been examined by various scholars including Curran and Stevic (1976) as well as Guiora (1983) who defined language learning as: ‘a profoundly unsettling psychological proposition because it directly threatens an individual’s self-concept and worldview’ (Horwitz, 1986:125) The results of the effects were mixed and not very explicit depending on the students’ self-reports of anxiety ‘with their language proficiency ratings’ which they either scored in a discrete skills task or through their final grade. However, more specific effects of anxiety on language learning have been found. According to Kleinmann (1977) ESL students with high levels of anxiety were more likely to use more difficult grammar and provide more concrete messages than students with lower anxiety levels who were more relaxed with their approach to studying a foreign language. The result of Horwitz’s study shows that students who are more anxious avoid communication more than the learners with lower or no anxiety symptoms. The same result refers to students with other types of anxiety for instance to students with writing anxiety who tend to write shorter compositions.

Moreover, it is important to mention the feelings associated with the language learning anxiety. According to Learning Skills Centre at the university of Texas, the feelings associated with anxiety consist of: lack of concentration, sweating, being forgetful, feeling apprehensive, worried or dread. Students with these anxiety feelings develop ‘avoidance behaviours’ and tend to skip classes. Two major problems caused by


anxiety have been distinguished by LSC: difficulties with speaking and listening. Horwitz states: ‘Students are comfortable with responding to the drills although as far as speaking in front of their colleagues is concerned they ‘tend to freeze in a role-play situation’ (Horwitz, 1986:126). Furthermore, foreign language anxiety may occur during tests. Students often know the answer to the question, however are too stressed and anxious and forget the answer when it is required. In addition, students may make ‘careless errors in spelling or syntax’ due to anxiety. Researchers found that certain behaviours such a desire to be a perfectionist, overstudying may contribute to anxiety and making progress in language learning. As Krashen states: ‘anxiety contributes to an affective filter which makes the individual unreceptive to language input, the the learner fails to ‘take in’ the available target language messages and language acquisition does not progress’. (Horwitz, 1986: 127)

Horwitz identifies three performance anxieties which are associated with performance evaluation. These include the communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation, all of which are relevant to foreign language anxiety. However, all of these performance anxieties are not what the foreign language anxiety denotes. As Horwitz states ‘the foreign language anxiety is ‘a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings and behaviours related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process’ (Horwitz, 1986: 128)

Learning styles: field dependence/independence, auditory, kinesthetic and visual, sequential/random, concrete/abstract, deductive/inductive


Learning Styles

In general every human being has different learning styles, whether in daily life or education sector the problems are tackled in various ways depending on the circumstances. Brown distinguishes a few different learning styles starting with a ‘cognitive style’ which is simply ‘the way we learn things’ (Brown, 2000:113) and deal with the problems. In addition, learning styles denote ‘cognitive, affective and psychological traits that are relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive’ (Keefe,1979:4). There is a distinction made between learning styles and the emotions. For instance, a reflective style is derived from reflective personality, similarly impulsive style comes from an impulsive mood. Therefore the learning styles are connected with the cognitive domains. The researchers identified many learning styles throughout the years starting with Ausubel (1968) and Hill (1972) to recent research by Reid (1995) and Ehrman (1996) as well as Cohen (1998) who distinguished learning styles including ‘sensory, communicative, cultural, affective, cognitive and intellectual factor’ styles. (Brown, 2000:114)

Field Independent & Field Dependent Styles


Brown mentions in particular two important learning styles: ‘field independent’ and ‘field dependent’ learning styles. (Brown, 2000:114-115). While a person with (FI) ‘field independent’ style is able to concentrate on the important details of the whole picture eg. reading a book in a noisy environment, a person with ‘field dependent’ (FD) style is the opposite of the other one and can only see the whole picture, ‘the general configuration of a problem, idea or event’ (Brown, 2000:116). These styles are developed during the puberty and usually become stable in adulthood. In Western cultures men seem to be more FI and this is also one of the factors which is considered to be responsible for defining intelligence. On the other hand, home and the type of upbringing are the factors which determine if the person is FI/D on a cross-cultural level. While authoritarian societies with strict upbringing develop more of a FD style, the democratic societies who promote more relaxed way of upbringing have higher rate of FI people. The characteristic traits of FI person consist of: independence, high self-confidence and being ‘competitive’ (Brown, 2000:115). whereas the traits of FD person include gaining energy from others, being sociable, empathic and sympathetic to other people (Brown, 2000:115).

Throughout the series of different studies eg. Naiman et al (1978) two hypotheses were found. First one states that FI ‘is closely related to classroom learning that involves analysis, attention to details, and mastering of exercises, drills and other focused activities’ (Brown, 2000:115). This hypothesis consisted of other studies and included various findings including the fact that FI people ‘performed better in deductive lessons


designs’ whereas the FD people preferred the inductive learning which provides opportunities for self-exploration. (Brown, 2000:116). The second hypothesis suggests that FD people should be successful in learning to communicate in a foreign language through their ‘empathy, social outreach and perception of other people’. (Brown, 2000:116). Nevertheless, there is no evidence which supports the second hypothesis.

Moreover, both hypotheses may be considered as contradictory as ‘how could FD be most important on the one hand and FI equally important?’ (Brown, 2000:116) whilst both styles are important and should be applied to learning a foreign language. It suffices to say that, these hypotheses concern different types of learning. The first one employs ‘natural, face-to-face communication’ and ‘requires FD style’ (Brown, 2000: 116) whereas the other type of learning entails ‘the familiar classroom activities: drills, exercises, tests, and so forth and ‘requires a FI style’ (Brown, 2000:116). Finally, FD and FI learning styles can be employed and utilized by the learners depending on the context and the learning environment. Therefore, foreign language learners will never be either FI or FD as it is dependent on their personality traits, learning circumstances and the individual in general, so that the teacher should take it into consideration while planning lessons.


Motivation: theories of motivation, measures of motivation, language learning and motivation.

Motivation according to Brown is responsible for ‘the success or failure of virtually any complex task’ (Brown, 2000:160). As far as language learning is concerned, every learner who is motivated can be successful and achieve their goal. This claim is a reflection of Dorneyi’s words who also suggests that ‘motivation is the key to learning’. However, these claims are not in-depth and do not provide proper understanding of what motivation denotes or how the learner could improve or maintain it.

Brown introduces various definitions of motivation established throughout the years of research and perceived from three different perspectives: behaviouralistic, cognitive and constructivist. According to the first one, motivation is the result of ‘the anticipation of reward’ as well as acting to ‘achieve further reinforcement’ (Brown, 2000:160). It is therefore external however based on the individual’s choices. On the other hand, the cognitive view of motivation is internal and highlights the decision making of the learner as well as accentuates the effort learners make to achieve their goals which is evoked by basic human needs eg. exploration. The constructivist’s view differs from the other two as not only does it take into account social context, cultural values and social status but also it involves the ‘individual’s personal choices’ (William’s and Burden 1997: 120). Moreover, the constructivist’s view mentions Malow’s perception who draws


a distinction between being motivated and satisfying ‘fundamental physical necessities’ such as air, water, food, community, security, identity or self-esteem. (Brown, 2000:162) It is therefore also internal although it requires certain necessities from the outside world to be satisfied, such as the need of community or knowing one’s identity within the society.

Furthermore, Brown describes motivation as ‘global, situational or task-oriented’ and reinforces the fact that language learners require all three types of motivation in order to acquire the language (Brown, 2000:162). He also mentions a few important studies on motivation in second language learning which were carried out by Gardener and Lambert (1972), Gardener and MacIntyre (1991), Spolsky (1969) and Graham (1984). All of the mentioned researchers performed the study on motivation. Gardener and Lambert identified two types of motivation in the context of learning a foreign language: ‘instrumental’ and ‘integrative’ (Brown, 2000: 162). The instrumental motivation concerned the learners who were motivated in order to achieve their instrumental goals, usually to do with their career. On the other hand, the integrative motivation was applied to the learners who were interested in integration and the culture of the learned language. Both types of motivation were considered as types until 1991 when Gardener and MacIntyre proposed the name for those types of motivation and called it ‘orientation’ (Brown, 2000:162). They emphasised the fact that ‘orientation’ varies from motivation as depending on the ‘orientation’ of the learner (instrumental or integrative) there would be different needs in language learning. Moreover, they accentuated that ‘within either orientation, one can have high or low motivation’ (Brown, 2000:162). The results of their


research considered integrativeness as significant in learning a foreign language. However, for some researchers the above claim was ambiguous. The further studies on the subject (including Yasmeen Lukamani (1972) and Au (1988) ) showed that successful language learning is not necessarily determined by ‘instrumental’ or ‘integrative’ models of motivation. The findings influence the fact that language learning involves both orientations and there are no rules to which learners employ integrative or instrumental orientation as it depends on their individual circumstances and goals.

Finally, Brown distinguishes another significant dimension of motivation which is the ‘degree to which learners are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated to succeed in a task’ (Brown, 2000:164). According to Deci, E. (1975: 23) intrinsically motivated students are characterised with behaviours including engagement in the activity ‘for their own sake’ feeling that the activity is their reward and providing them with ‘feelings of competence and self-determination’. On the contrary, the extrinsically motivated students develop different behaviours which consist of ‘the anticipation of a reward from outside’ such as money, prizes, grades or behaviours initiated to avoid punishment (Brown, 2000:164). The researchers including Brown, Dornyei & Csizer, Crookes and Schmidt, Maslow, Bruner concluded that the intrinsic motivation is more effective in a foreign language learning. Maslow (1970) in particular regarded intrinsic motivation as ‘superior to extrinsic motivation’, emphasising that the learners should achieve ‘self-actualization’ through development of their self-esteem and confidence as well as through satisfying their basic human needs (Brown, 2000:165). The researchers found correlation between


intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the Gardener’s model of integrative and instrumental orientation.

To sum up, the first set of models of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) is still considered to be useful and can be applied to foreign language learning. developing a good relationship with the learners, boosting their self-confidence and increasing their goal orientation were regarded the most important in motivating students. Therefore, the teacher’s role is to contribute to the development of intrinsic motivation of the learners who are willing to learn and achieve their goals for their own personal satisfaction rather than other material rewards. Factors such as


Methodology is an important part of a study case. In my research there were various data collection methods used in order to obtain a different perception of the language learner and her learning styles. The first method which has been used is a semistructural interview. This type of the interview is less formal and consists of specific, closed and opened questions which are usually prompted by the interviewer. The main aim of such an interview is to get some detailed, inside information from the interlocutor. The advantages of semi-structured interview include: informal type of interview, the ability to get to know the learner in detail, his or her learning styles and preferences. On the other hand, the drawbacks of the semi-structured interview include being sensitive


and able to know where to draw the line while asking questions so that the bias are not revealed.

The other method which I used is an observation of a class of a language learner. It was an unstructured type of an observation. Similarly, an unstructured observation has its advantages and disadvantaged. One of the advantages of performing and using the observation is being able to notice the details of the language learner which he or she would not reveal during the interview. Furthermore, the interviewer is able to get a fuller picture of the situation. At last, unstructured observation is useful to obtain data. As far as the disadvantages of unstructured observation are concerned, they consist of the ‘observer’s paradox’ which occurs when the learners act differently during the class when they are observed.

Last method which I have used in my research was a questionnaire. I have provided the learner with the questionnaire which had 3 parts, two on learning styles/ strategies and one on motivation. This allowed me to further analyse the learning process of student X. The main advantage is therefore, the ability to use the answers for the analysis of the study. The disadvantage may be a complex scale which is at times not straightforward to analyse the final result.

Analysis - The Data Collection & The Results


The data collection has been performed at Frances King’s school of English in London. It involved one of its learners - Student X to take part in the interview with the researcher. This consisted of general questions regarding the learner’s identity, her goals and was a brief introduction for the learner to get familiar with the researcher and find out the purpose of the research. Student X is nineteen years old and comes from Korea. She came to London for three months in order to learn English. She took up a general course of English. Thus, the interview helped the researcher gain information about the learner such as: the basic details including student’s origin, age, spoken languages, the duration of English language learning and the purpose of learning it in London. Moreover, it supplied the details on Student X’s interests, career prospects and her future goals.

The next stage of the research involved the observation of the student X’s class as well as completing the questionnaire on learning styles by the learner and lastly, another brief interview to summarise the findings. The research showed that student X has various affective factors and employs diverse learning styles while learning English.

The affective factors employed by Student X consisted of extraversion and the intrinsic motivation. One of the most salient affective factors of the learner is extraversion. This was proven in the initial interview with the learner, the observation, and the questionnaire completed by student X (Appendix 1. quest. 13, Appendix 2, Appendix 3 Part IIA). During the initial interview the learner admitted that she prefers to work in a


group rather than on her own which is an evident characteristic of extraversion. (Appendix 1, question 13). Another supporting evidence has been shown in the questionnaire completed by the learner where student X indicated that ‘Group study with classmates is part of the lesson’ and ‘ I study with others outside class’ (Appendix 3, Part IIA, 31 & 37). Moreover, the observation also implies that the learner is extravert. The learner participated in a game and cooperated well with other players. She was active and contributed to the victory of her team. (Appendix 2, page 7 comments 2).

Intrinsic motivation is another most salient affective factor of the learner. This has been established during the interview (appendix 1, quest. 14) with the learner as well as is seen in the learner’s answers to questions in the questionnaire (Appendix 3, Part 1, Appendix C). Student X confessed during the interview that she was learning English mostly for pleasure and development of her linguistic competence. ( appendix 1, question 14). Besides, the questionnaire contains further evidence including statements regarding motivation which the learner chose such as: ‘language learning is fun’ or ‘love to learn something new’ also, ‘like country where the TL is used’ ( appendix 3, part 1, Appendix C, question 6). Those statements support the fact that intrinsic motivation is a dominant affective factor of student X.

The learning styles employed by the learner in her language learning process include: sequential, concrete/random, visual, auditory, kinesthetic, abstract, both deductive and inductive as well as field-dependent. Nonetheless, the most salient styles include : sequential and concrete / random.


The sequential learning style is one of the most salient styles applied by the learner to her English learning. This has been shown in both interview and the completed

questionnaire by the learner. (Appendix 1 quest. 15, Appendix 3 Part IIA). Student X admitted during the interview that she favours learning a foreign language which follows a syllabus and is taught gradually with the teacher’s guidance. (Appendix 1 question 15 ) Moreover, student X uses the logic and follows the steps while finding the right solutions during the learning process. For instance she likes to have a full understanding of the instructions and the grammar before completing a task given by the teacher. This has been proven in her answers to the questions in the questionnaire eg. ‘ We master one thing before going on to more material or a new grammar point’ (appendix 3, part IIA. 30) and ‘ The instructor systematically follows a textbook or syllabus where she stated that both of these statements were helpful (Appendix 3, partIIA. 1). Furthermore, student X is fond of exercises which require her to search for the meaning of the vocabulary required to complete the task. This further confirms that she is a sequential learner. (Appendix 3, PartIIA. 9) Finally, student X believes that ‘we master one thing before going on to more material or a new grammar point’ (appendix 3, partIIA, 30).

Another style which occurs to be dominant in learning of the examined student is a concrete/random type of a learner. Student X is a creative type of a learner who favours studying for reason and does not like the details. She prefers to have a choice rather than adhere to the rules. What matters to student X are the concrete facts supported with relevant data. She does not like planning or rules instead student X


prefers teacher’s direct guidelines. Working in groups is favoured by this type of a learner ‘The class breaks up into smaller groups to talk’ (appendix 3, partIIA, 3) as well as an opportunity to explore the language through random tasks, such as ‘students interview language X speakers and report on the interview’ (appendix 3, partIIA, 5). This is also supported by the observation of the learner in the classroom during one of her classes while she was engaged in a conversation with her partner using idioms and phrasal verbs. This proves that she works well in a team/ with a partner and explores the target language through random tasks. (Appendix 2, page 5)


The factors which can help and hinder student’s learning process consist of the characteristic traits, learning styles as well as the expectations of the learner. In order to distinguish the learner’s characteristics which help and hinder learning of a foreign language it is significant to take into account the priorities for learning of the learner. Student X’s priorities for learning consider studying English for the cultural reasons, such as being able to develop communicative competence and talk to people in English speaking countries. Moreover, student X took up English as she regards it to be a basic factor to get a job and she is planning to use it while paving the way to her future career and finding her first job. Lastly, the learner finds it interesting and is fond of learning ‘something new’ (appendix 3, part 1, appendix C, 4 & 6). The main aim of student X is therefore to acquire English during her course at Frances King school of English in three


months time. Thus, those are the major priorities, needs and goals of the examined learner. The learner’s characteristics that can help her improve her learning and as a result of that achieve all of the above priorities and goals may consist of, such factors as extraversion or motivation for instance, an instrumental or integrative motivation. Furthermore, diverse learning strategies can contribute to the accomplishment of the above priorities, needs and goals. These may contain direct or indirect learning strategies.

As far as the aims and priorities of student X are concerned, in order to achieve her aims such as developing communicative competence in English, she could employ learning strategies including direct strategies eg. ‘memory’, ‘cognitive’ or ‘compensation strategies’ (Oxford, R. 1990:17). These would help her expand her memory, language practice and analyzing skills eg. working out the meaning of the word by breaking it down into chunks. Student X could make use of circumlocution in case if she lacks certain word while speaking.

Moreover, other strategies could be applied in order to improve the learning process of student X as well as the social aspect of the learning. These could contain ‘social strategies’ (Oxford, R. 1990:17) eg. through cooperation and getting familiar with other culture since she is a concrete/random type of learner and also favours inductive, selfdiscovery techniques who enjoys a group work. (Appendix 3, part IIA 3,5,13) At last, ‘metacognitive strategies’ (Oxford, R. 1990:17) could be used to help her with her


achievements such as getting a job by altering the ways she plans her learning and more importantly taking a step back and looking at the bigger picture of a learning process as a whole. This could be directed by the teacher to help her fully understand how to make adjustments and improvements. Furthermore, the teacher could help the learner by taking a role of an explainer and guide her throughout the learning process to support the learner. The strategies which could be applied by the teacher to help student X develop better communicative competence consist of ‘cognitive strategies’ which belong to direct strategies. (Oxford, R.1990:17). This could be performed by providing student with comprehensible ‘input and output’ while presenting the target language. (Oxford, R. 1990:17). What is more, the teacher could help the learner to improve her speaking and writing by demonstration of various techniques such as word coining which belongs to ‘compensation strategies’ (Oxford, R. 1990:17). As student X is an extrovert there is no need to regard the affective strategies which help to deal with the anxiety. Least but not last, the teacher should yield the student and provide the opportunities for social aspect of learning a foreign language. This could be done by putting students into cross-cultural groups while organizing diverse classroom activities. Thus, the teacher would employ ‘social strategies’ here. (Oxford, R. 1990:17). Finally, the teacher could use visual aids or music in order to help student X improve her learning since she is both visual and auditory type of a learner. ( Appendix 3, partIIA, 3940).

Once it has been established what factors could improve the learner’s language and make her progress, it is also significant to look at the factors and strategies which could


cause the contrary and hinder student learning. The lack of motivation is one of the factors which could hinder the learner’s progress. If there is no motivation whether integrative or instrumental then the student has no aim and will not put much effort towards achieving her goals. Another aspect which can impede student learning may be lack of teaching materials and sources needed in order to succeed. If the learner has no adequate resources she will not be able to work according to her preference. Since she is a sequential type of learner she favours following a coursebook and a syllabus (Appendix 1.15, Appendix 3, part IIA, 1). At last, noisy environment and background noise can slow down the progress of the student’s learning. Student X mentioned during the interview and indicated in the questionnaire that she prefers to work in a quiet ‘I work better when it is quiet’ (Appendix 1.16, Appendix 3, Part IIB, 16).


The findings indicate that every language learner has a unique patterns of learning. This is influenced by many factors such as the cultural background, age, origin and most importantly affective factors as well as the learning styles of the learner. The qualitative research investigated both the affective factors and the learning styles of the learner student X. It depicted that the learner’s most salient characteristics are an extraversion and an intrinsic motivation. As far as the learning styles are concerned, the results showed that the sequential and the concrete/random styles are the dominant ones in the case of student X. This has been supported with a relevant sources of evidence (appendices).


Moreover, the results have been discussed further and the researcher has enclosed suggestions for the learner on how to improve the progress of her learning according to her learning styles, preferences, needs, goals and how to prevent her learning to be hindered. The report implies what can be done by the learner to ameliorate student’s X learning as well as what can be done by the teacher to make the learning process more suited to the needs and requirements of the student. Finally, the report draws the reader’s attention to the factors which may hinder student’s progress.

It can be concluded that student X has many options to improve her learning and could take advantage of various learning strategies such as suggested above: ‘cognitive’ or ‘metacognitive strategy’ are just some of the strategies which may contribute to the progress and success of the learner ( Oxford, R. 1990:17).

Bibliography Brown, D. (2000).Principles of the Language Learning and Teaching. White Plains, N.Y: Longman Keefe, J.W. (1979). Student Learning Styles: Diagnosing and Prescribing Programs. Reston.VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals. Larsen-Freeman, D & Long. M .(1991).An introduction to Second Language Acquisition Research.New York:Longman Horwitz (1986). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, 128-32 Dörnyei.Z.(1998). Motivation in second and foreign language learning. Language Teaching 31:117-35.


Oxford, R. 1990. Language Learning Strategies. What Every Teacher Should Know. New York: Newbury House

Appendix 1 - Interview with the learner Questions: 1. Interviewer: How old are you? Student X: 19 years old 2. I: What is your country of origin? Student X: Korea, Ulsan 3. I: How many languages do you speak? Student X: Korean, English 4. I: How long have you been studying English? Student X: 9 years, from elementary school, 1 month in Frances King’s school 5. I: How long have you been in the UK? Student X: 1 month 6. I: Have you been here before or in any other English speaking country or is it your first time here? Student X: It’s my first time in the UK 7. I: Do you have any family here? Student X: No 8. I: Do you speak English outside school? Student X: Yes 9. I:Do you have any hobbies/ interests here? Student X: music 10. I: Do you have a p/t job or have you ever worked in your country? If so, what kind of job was it? Student X: No, I haven’t worked before. 11. I: Are you learning any foreign languages? Student X: Chinese, Japanese 12. I: What are you studying? And what are your future goals? Student X: Literature. I’m on my gap year now. My goals are to learn English in London.


13. I: Do you prefer to work on your own or in a group? Student X: In a group with my peers. 14. I: Why do you want to learn English? Student X: Mostly for pleasure and to be able to speak with English and foreign people. 15. I: Do you prefer when the teacher follows syllabus a course book or if the classes are spontaneous? Student X: I like things to be in order so I prefer if the teacher follows a syllabus. 16. I: Do you like to study in peace or do you not mind noise in the background? Student X: I prefer to study in peace with no noise. Comments: Appendix 2 and 3 have been scanned and attached to the hard copy.



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