This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Protecting Development Gains— the Role of Integrated Disaster Risk Management
Asia-Pacific countries experience roughly 30-35% of the world’s disaster events in any given year. Yet, they typically account for up to half of the world’s total deaths, damage, and loss from disasters and up to 90% of the total number of people affected.
The Asia–Pacific region leads the world in a wide range of categories, including projected economic growth,1 mobile cellular subscriptions,2 steel production,3 and beer consumption.4 Unfortunately, the region also leads in disaster losses. Risk Profile: Asia and the Pacific Region Asia-Pacific countries experience roughly 30-35% of the world’s disaster events in any given year. Yet, they typically account for up to half of the world’s total deaths, damage, and loss from disasters and up to 90% of the total number of people affected. According to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, these risks come from droughts, floods, earthquakes, wildfires, and more. In the last five years, the Asia and the Pacific region faced 884 disasters, which affected 1.03 billion people—over two hundred thousand of them fatally—and incurred damage estimated at roughly $229 billion. During this time, ADB has provided $7.43 billion in support of projects that focused on health/epidemic, drought/food security, floods, earthquakes, and conflict/complex disasters.
Strengthening Country Capabilities for Managing Disaster Risk Traditionally, governments in the region have reacted to disaster risks after the fact rather than focusing on preventive measures to reduce vulnerability and impacts. This reliance on post-disaster response carries substantial opportunity costs and exposes hard-won development gains to unnecessary and short-sighted risks. Recently, the region has begun making progress in strengthening its disaster capacities. Some 168 countries around the world have made commitments to disaster risk reduction under the 2005-2015 Hyogo Framework for Action5. The framework’s five priorities for action are: Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience. Reduce the underlying risk factors. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response.
1 ADB. 2011. Asia 2050: Realizing the Asian Century 2 ITU. 2010. Key Global Telecom Telecommunication Service Sector Indicators for the World 5 The Hyogo Framework for Action is a 10-year plan to make the world safer from natural hazards. It was adopted by 168 Member States of the United Nations in 2005 at the World Disaster Reduction Conference.
3 World Steel Association. 2009. Steel Statistical Yearbook 2009 4 The Economist. 2010. All Pints East: Asia Overtakes Europe in Beer Terms. Aug 17, 2010.
Rising from the Rubble: Reconstruction and Rehabilitation after the 2001 Gujarat Earthquake It took 3 years but Gujarat, India has successfully recovered from its worst earthquake in the last half century. Available: www.adb.org/ publications/reconstruction-andrehabilitation-after-2001-gujaratearthquake.
Rebuilding Traditional Houses After Disasters Community contracting lets residents rebuild earthquake resistant homes that preserve architectural customs. Available: www.adb.org/ publications/rebuilding-traditionalhouses-after-disasters.
Responding to Disasters: Emergency Flood Damage Rehabilitation in Bangladesh The floods of mid-2004 were among the worst in Bangladesh. What helped fast-track the country’s recovery? Available: www.adb.org/ publications/emergency-flooddamage-rehabilitation-bangladesh.
Together with the progress are gaps in meeting the Framework’s priorities. For ADB, these gaps fall into three main categories—policy, financing, and capacity. An Integrated Approach for ADB Since 1987, ADB has implemented more than $11 billion in projects related to disasters, mostly on post–disaster recovery activities. In 2004, ADB approved its Disaster and Emergency Assistance Policy, which promotes an integrated disaster risk management model that addresses policy, financing, and capacity. The model guides developing member countries to fulfill their commitments under the Hyogo Framework and strengthen their capacities for effective disaster risk management. The model has three pillars—disaster risk reduction; climate change adaptation; and disaster risk financing.The first two pillars intertwine to maximize the co–benefits for investments in resilience measures that could potentially protect against multiple hazards. The third pillar ensures that member-countries can reduce their financial exposure to disaster events and undertake disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation measures. To implement the integrated disaster risk model, ADB developed a range of solutions: Strengthen regional networks on disaster risk management to share information on progress in implementing disaster risk reduction projects, identify gaps and areas of cooperation, and inventory regional disaster risk management investments;
Improve access to flexible financing to increase support of regional initiatives, catalyze national and local investments within developing member countries, fund innovative ideas, and provide small-scale ADB assistance on risk assessment, capacity development, and scoping studies; Establish disaster risk financing tools to provide developing member countries with stronger post-disaster borrowing options and enable them to more effectively reduce their financial exposure to disaster events through the transfer of risks to international insurance and capital markets; Develop urban risk reduction tools, guidebooks, and toolkits on risksensitive land-use planning for local authorities, and models for urban disaster risk financing; and Explore environmental governance guidance and tools to promote and better manage the interaction of political, social, and economic systems with the natural environment, within the context of disaster and climate risks.
Read the original thinkpiece at www.adb.org/features/aheadcurve-protecting-development-gains-role-integrated-disaster-riskmanagement.
contact Knowledge Sharing and Services Center Asian Development Bank 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550 Metro Manila, Philippines Tel +63 2 632 6710 Fax +63 2 632 5236 firstname.lastname@example.org www.adb.org/site/knowledge-management/features
Disclaimer The views expressed in the article are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank, or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this article and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in the article do not imply any view on ADB’s part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB’s terminology.