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responsibilities is to make decisions related to ordering, promotions, customer discounts as well a s monitoring and managing the daily operations of the store. You have a number of OLTP systems to assist with the day to day transactions. Each month you are provided with a report which displays each sale. The format of the report is il lustrated below. Although this report provides a lot of information, the information is not in a format which can assist in the type of decisions you are required to make. You have decided to investigate PivotTables as means to producing more useful report s LEARNING METHOD The learning method used is “guided learning.” The benefit of this method is that kn owledge is imparted quickly. Students also acquire practical skills and competen cies. As with an exercise, this method explains a process or procedure in detail . Exercises at the end enable students to put their knowledge into practice. Product Microsoft Excel 2007/2010 Level Beginner Focus Multi-dimensional Reporting Author Paul Hawking Version 1 The primary purpose of an information system is to process information to produc e reports to facilitate decision making. Reports may appear in various formats and used to support a diverse range of organisational decisions. Reports provid e a mechanism for organising, analysing, presenting and delivering information t o end users. A common classification of reports is based on the types of system s which they are built from. On-Line Transaction Processing (OLTP) systems as t he name suggests are optimised for transaction processing. They process real ti me information and are accessed by many users. The reports are derived from the various business transactions and predominately support tactical decision makin g. An alternative information system is On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP). This type of processing allows users to analyse information by creating multidimensi onal reports. They deal with large volumes of aggregated historical data. OLAP based reports are more flexible than the more traditional reports produced by a n OLTP system. As mentioned previously OLTP reports provide information about particular transa
OLTP systems often provide the t ransactional data which is used as an input for OLAP system’s multi-dimensional re ports. A dialog box appears to confirm your table range and header options. Click A2 to select a cell within the proposed table. The types of questions an OLAP system can assist with could include: • • • • • What are the total sales for each product? What are the total sales for each department? Which salesperson has sold the most? Which products does each salesperson sell the most of? In which month did most of the sales occur? OLAP systems and their ability for multi-dimensional reporting are considered an important component of Business Intelligence. A PivotTable is a tool which assists users with summarising large amoun ts of data into useful reports. The type of reports an OLTP system produces could include: • • • Who purchased a particular product? How much did an employee get paid? How many of a product was manufactured? The flexibility of OLAP reporting assists end users in understanding why particu lar business events have occurred and or forecast what may occur in the future. Filtering Data You are returned to your worksheet and your Table has been formatted as to your . Select one of the formatting options. Open the PivotTable. In Table format you can perform some simple form atting. Click to complete the process. Think about how you would determine which Material sold the most and which Sales Organisation had the the highest s ales for this Material. 2. 4.xlsx worksheet. Save PivotTable. 5. The PivotTable’s flexibility enables you to re-ar range the table’s structure (columns and rows) until you get the required informat ion. 6.xlsx to your local drive. Pivot Tables An example of a multidimensional reporting tool is Microsoft Excel’s PivotTable fu nction. Microsoft Excel requires you to convert the data to table format before you can apply the PivotTable features. such as Filtering to improve the report. Click to display the table formatting options.000 transactions and in their present format it is difficult to identify trends. The following exercises will highlight the role of PivotTables in multi-di mensional reporting 1. Your workshop leader will provide the files location. 3. To gain a better understanding of multi-dimensional reporting and related concep ts we have created a number of exercises using Microsoft Excel’s PivotTable.ctions. It should appear similar to the one below: You will notice that there are more than 7.
13. If you scroll through your data you will notice that only Internet sales appear. The Sorting dialog box is aware that the column selected is text and only displa ys the options available to be performed on text. 16. 7. You can also remove it by clicking the drop-down arrow on the field that the Filter has been applied. to select this value. You can also Filter the data based on the data’s numerical value. Click to display the dialog box. This can be done alphabetically. Click to resort the data in the Table. But you will notice that your heading row now includes drop-down arr ows. Tip If you place your mouse over the Filter icon the current Filter criteria wi ll be displayed 17. Notice that t he drop-down arrow has changed . If you want to see all the sales for a Material then it needs to be sorted by Material. to complete the process. You could use the Filter function to display all Internet. Click to remove the Filter. 14. Click to un-sort the data in the Table. 8. As mentioned you can remove a Filter by clicking the Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar. . The drop-down arrows allow you to sort and filter the data in your Table.selection. or aggregated. You are returned to your worksheet and your data has been sorted. to indicate that the data has been sorted . . 12. Currently Materials can be s old through two different Distribution Channels. You only want IN (Internet) selected. numerically. Click next to Distribution Channel to display the Sorting dialog box You will notice that currently that all values are selected in the Text Filters area. Click Click Click to de-select all values. While with Sort all data is displayed. Notice that the drop-down arrow has changed to indicated that a Filter is appl ied. Click to sort Material ascending. A Filter is dif ferent to the Sort function as only data that meets the Filter criteria will be displayed. Click next to Material to display the Sorting dialog box. 9. Currently the data is s orted by Sales Organisation then by Material. You can see the impact of the sorting by using the Undo the Quick Access Toolbar. either by the Internet (IN) or by Wholesale (WH). 11. and Redo buttons on 10.
Your screen should appear as follows: Notice that the drop-down arrow has ied. Other than typing the value in the text box. You will noti ce that there is a flashing border around your Table. You can also the field that the Filter has been 23. you could have clicked the drop-dow n arrow to display the values from your Table. to display the numerical filters. Click changed to indicated that a Filter is appl Filter by clicking the Undo button on the remove it by clicking the drop-down arrow on applied. 20. Click Click next to Quantity to display the Sorting dialog box. to remove the Filter. To create a PivotTable: 24. All the data appears on screen. Click to complete the process. The sub-menu gives you an indication as to the type of numerical filters that ca n be applied to your data. 19. Click tab to display the Table Design Ribbon. . Which Material sold the most in terms of Quantity? How many 7 Gear bikes were sold in June 2007? Creating a PivotTable Previously you formatted your data as a Table. Try and answer the following questions from the data. Type 90 in the text box. Click to create a Filter on Quantity Greater Than 90. 22. You can also apply Filters to numbers. For exa mple you want to only display sold Quantities greater than 90. A dialog box appears to confirm the selection for the PivotTable. 18. Click in the Tools Group.All the data appears on screen. By applying this format to the d ata you are provided with extra functionality through the Table Design Ribbon. 24. As mentioned you can remove a Quick Access Toolbar. A dialog box appears: 21. Some of the filters require you to enter the values that the data will be filtered on.
To understand PivotTables better you are now going to create a PivotTable that i ndicates the Total sales Quantity for each Sales Organisation 27. 28. You now want to include the total Quantity for each Sales Organisation. Also a PivotTable Ribbon appears across the top of the screen. Important numerical val ues that form the basis of analysis in multi-dimensional reports are often refer red to as key figures. But maybe a more valuable report would be which Materials sold the most Quantity in which Sales Organisations. Click next to Material to select this field. 30. The next exercise will further demonstrate th e flexibility of this type of reporting. 29. The PivotTable Design Area lists all the column headings (fields) of your Table. Notice that Sales Organisation appears in the Row Labels design area. or facts. measures. Notice that the field appears on the worksheet and is automatically placed in th e area. In othe r words we want to change how the data is grouped. This is an example of multi-dimensional reporting using the Sales Organisation.26. Your worksheet now lists all the orders and their total sales revenue. Excel has determined that this field is numerical and is suggesting t hat that it should be aggregated by summing the values. Notice that the Sales Organisations appear on the worksheet. Click to complete the process. next to Material in the Row Labels area to display the context . Click next to Quantity to select this field. A new worksheet appears on screen. Material and Qunatity dimensions. However you would like to see Quantity for each Material. On the right of the screen is a PivotTable D esign Area. Click next to the Sales Organisation field in the PivotTable Filed L ist to select it. Click menu. This has been helpful in terms of the sales Quantity for each Sales Organisation and Materials within this organisation. The bottom area allows you to drag the column headings to design your new PivotT able. The Material field appears in the Row Labels design area and the Materials are l isted with each Sales Organisation.
Drill-Down This is the opposite of Drill-Up. The details of the Sales Organisations for the Material (7 Gear) are no longer d isplayed. Notice that has changed to indicating that there is further data which can be displayed. There are a number of common terms used in Business Inte lligence which describe how you navigate in this type of reporting. 36. Click Move Up to select this command.31. Click next to order Jan-06 belonging to 7 Gear. Each Material is listed with it Total sales Quantity. Click next to Month/Year to select this field and add it to your rep How many 7 Gear bikes were sold in June 2007? You now have a report that lists the sales Quantity for each Month/Year for each Material. A user can navigate through the dimensions to display more detailed data. 34. Click next to order Jan-06 belonging to 7 Gear. 37. This can be quickly remedied by adding the Month/Year dimension. Click the PivotTable. Think how difficult it was to determine was to answer the questions previously when not using a PivotTable. Practice Drill-Up on different Materials and Month/Year. The Material field now appears above the Sales Organisation field. However the total sales Quantity is still visible. . The Quantity total for each Sales Organisation is grouped under each Material an d a grand total (190936) of all Materials has been calculated at the bottom of t he pivottable. ort. Maybe to help you better make decisions you would like see the t otal Quantity for each Material that has been sold. 33. next to Sales Organisation to select this field and add it to Drill-Up This is where the user moves through the dimensions from a detailed view to a mo re summarised view (less detail). The report currently provides you with sales Quantity you don’t kn ow over what duration this occurred. Notice how t his impacts on your report. Reports should include a time dimension to indicate the period when the transact ions occurred. Navigating Multidimensional Reports You have had a quick demonstration of the flexibility of multi-dimensional repor ting using PivotTables. For example: 35. Firstly you need to add another dimension.
Firstly you need to remove the current PivotTable. an d Quantity to select these fields . Quarter Mon th. Practice Drill-Down on different Materials and Month/Years. 42. It is possible to navigate through the structure to view a subset of the data. Most multi-dimensional reports have a Time component. Drill-Through This describes the navigation from the aggregated multi-dimensional report data back to the underlying transaction data for the selected item. Note: You can Drill-Up or Down-Down by double-clicking the relevant dimension. to complete the process. 43. A common dimension used for Drilling-Up and Drilling-Down is Time. This would display all records. De-select e PivotTable. Your PivotTable should appear similar to the one below. For example the diagram below illustrates Slice and Dice navigation. Currently all records are displayed. For example if the data included the year’s sales then you could navigate by Year. Sales Organisation. T he level of detail which is displayed is referred to as granularity. Slice and Dice This refers to navigation whereby the user views the data from different busines s points of view (dimensions). Your PivotTable has now been Sliced to only display the results for the Cruze Bi ke Material. 38. Click next to Material. and or Day. Alternatively a user could Slice the data to view all Materials sold via all Dis tribution Channels for a particular Sales Organisation. You can further Slice the data to show only the sales Quantity for . 39.The detail for each Sales Organisation for that Material appears. Click Click Click next to (Select All) to de-select the current selections. Distribution Channel. Through Dicing more granularity can be achieved. A multi-dimensional structure has been designed to enable a user to report on Ma terial sales by Distribution Channel and Sales Organisation. next to Cruze Bike to select this Material. For example a report which displays all sales for a particular Material in all S ales Organisations and Distribution Channels. To limit the view to a particular Material (Cruze Bike): 41. of the selected fields in the design area to remove th 40. For example: You will now create another PivotTable to see Slice and Dice in action. Click next to Row Labels in to display a context menu. 44. Week.
Wh en the data comes from different systems and is in different formats there is a lot of work required before it can be manipulated in a PivotTable. The previous e xercises were designed to introduce you to the concept of multi-dimensional repo rting and its associated terminology. 51. Following are some develop your skills exercises for you to assess your understa nding of multi-dimensional reporting and PivotTables. Click ion Channel. to complete the process next to Material in the Design Area to display the context men next to (Select All) to display all Materials. to complete the process You have now completed the tutorial on PivotTables. 46. 52. u. Click next to Distribution Channel in the PivotTable Field List to d isplay the context menu. You may have noticed with the original data that sales revenue was included.a particular Distribution Channel (Wholesale) in a Sales Organisation (Sydney). You should now be aware of what advantage s it provides compared to the more traditional OLTP reporting. However these figures were in different currencies which made calculations and comparisons dif ficult. 45. Click Click Click Click Click next to (Select All) to display all Distribution Channels. 49. PivotTables can be a very p owerful tool which provides an extensive range of functionality. To remove these Filters: 47. a) b) c) Which material provided the most revenue in Sydney? What is the total sales revenue for Germany? What is the total wholesale quantity? . Create reports to answer the following questions. Right-Click WH to display the context menu. A data warehouse overcomes many of these issues. 48. However there ar e some shortcomings especially handling large data volumes (million records). Filter then Keep Only Selected Items to filter on this Distribut Your PivotTable has been adjusted accordingly. Notice that the design area indi cates that Filters have been applied to Material and Distribution Channel. 50.