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The University of Lahore

Not listening
A bad behaviour
Submitted to: Madam Shazia Gulzar Submitted by: Muhammad Waqas BBA02093117 Sec B

Introduction to Behavior Science 2 Not listening A bad behaviour

Table of content:
1. Introduction I. Behaviour II. Behaviour modification 2. My bad behaviour 3. Characteristics of behaviour modification I. Defining Problem a. Busy thinking b. Busy waiting II. Alter the environment III. Define method IV. Techniques use in everyday life V. Condition VI. Scientific techniques VII. Accountability of everyone 4. Behaviour modification techniques I. Positive reinforcement II. Using extinction to stop behaviour III. Negative consequences of behaviour a. Punishment b. Penalty IV. Effective communication model 5. Case study of my behaviour 6. Appendix I. ABC detail II. References 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 11

Introduction to Behavior Science 3 Not listening A bad behaviour

Introduction
Behaviour
Behaviour refers to the actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs,whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary Human behaviour refers to the range of behaviours exhibited by humans and which influence culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport,hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. The behaviour of people (and other organisms or even mechanisms) falls within a range with some behaviour being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. In sociology, behaviour in general is consider as having no meaning, being not direct at other people, and thus is the most basic human action. Behaviour in this general sense should not be mistake with social behaviour, which is a more advanced action, as social behaviour is behaviour specifically directed at other people. The acceptability of behaviour is evaluate relative to social norms and regulated by various means of social control. The behaviour of people is studied by the academic disciplines of psychiatry, psychology, social work, sociology, economics, and anthropology.

Behaviour Modification
Behaviour modification is a therapeutic technique based on the work of B.F. Skinner, a famous psychologist who known as the "Father of Behaviourism." Skinner developed a theory of operant conditioning, which states that all behaviour is govern by reinforcing and punishing stimuli. Behaviour modification uses a scheduled approach that rewards desired behaviour and "punishes" undesirable behaviour. This technique continues to be use in therapy and is use in many psychological settings. Behaviour modification is an effective technique used to treat many disorders such as attention deficit disorder, autism or oppositional defiant disorder. Furthermore, the fundamentals of behaviour modification can be use to increase desired behaviours in any individual, regardless of functional level. Behaviour modification can also be implementing on a systematic scale to increase productivity within organizations and businesses.

Introduction to Behavior Science 4 Not listening A bad behaviour

My Bad behaviour
One of the reasons people are not good at listening is because they do not listen. Talking seems to better address and more needs than listening. When I talk, I am in control, and can steer the conversation any way that I choose. When I talk, I am also the centre of attention, which boosts my sense of identity. When I am talking, then I have a better opportunity to achieve my goals, for example by telling other people to do things that I need them to do. I can keep the conversation on my own agenda and prevent others from talking about things that are of no interest to me. Listening skills start with paying attention. Therefore, I choose Not Listening to others. I think this is my bad behaviour and I face lot of problem so in this study I work on this bad behaviour to come up with difficulties that I have to face and after that, I use different techniques to solve the problems and this study help lot in understanding how I can change my behaviour.

Characteristic to Behaviour Modification


There are 7 characteristics of behaviour modification that more explain about my behaviour these are explaining below:

1. Defining problem
The first characteristic was to find the problem that where I feel that I am in trouble due to my bad behaviour so this would help me to find out when I notice the ABC analysis I work on consequences that help lot in understand that why this problem happen with me. I define two problems that further explain why I do not listen o Busy thinking We humans talk at 200-250 wpm (words per minute) but can listen at 300-500 wpm. Thus, when the other person is talking, I may be sidetracking in my own thoughts. When I come back into the room, I find that I have lost track of the conversation. Rather than lose face and become embarrassed by this, I nod, smile and hope nobody will notice. o Busy waiting When I have decided that I want to respond to the speaker, then I stop listening for two reasons. To avoid forgetting what I am going to say, I need to keep rehearsing my thoughts and words and so get lost inside my own heads. I also stay inside as I think about better ways to put my case. When I am paying attention to the speaker, I am not listening to what they say but listening for a space in which I can interject with my reply.

2. Alter the environment


In this step I change my environment to notice that either my behaviour is different or remain same. For example on day three my friend call me to bring medicine but on that time I am watching TV and do not listen him properly so next time when he call me I Mute/off the TV so I can properly listen to him.

Introduction to Behavior Science 5 Not listening A bad behaviour

3. Define method
In this step after getting to know the problem and changing environment, I use several methods to come over this problem so for this purpose if someone talking with me I listen to him seriously and with some interest to understand him properly. I pay proper attention to speaker so he also talks with me politely so this would help me to remember & understand everything.

4. Techniques used in everyday life


To overcome a problem I use the different methods/techniques (further describe in behaviour modification techniques) to minimize my bad behaviour. After I chose bad behaviour, notice it for ten days, and put all observation in ABC model than for next 15 days, I used some different methods and techniques to finish this bad behaviour and build plan to use these techniques in everyday life. Following are list of techniques that I used: Positive reinforcement Using extension to stop a behaviour Negative consequence for behaviour Punishment Penalty Effective communication model Active listening Interpersonal skills Importance of communication

5. Condition
Different condition was also applied to minimize this behaviour. Some of these conditions impose by elders that they ask me to take things seriously and listen to other to safe from the problems that affect me in future. If I do not take these condition seriously than they change my behaviour through punishment.

6. Scientific techniques
To use scientific techniques there must be involvement of physician. So physician use following techniques to change the behaviour Pre-contemplation stage Contemplation stage Preparation stage Action stage Maintenance & Relapse Prevention

In Pre-contemplation stage, I cannot even feel that my behaviour is changing. During the contemplation stage, I am unsure about changing. During this stage, I assess barriers (as

Introduction to Behavior Science 6 Not listening A bad behaviour

well as the benefits of change. During the preparation stage, I am preparing to make a specific change. I may experiment with small changes as my determination to change increases. The action stage is the one that physicians are ready to see that I change or not. Any action taken by me should be praise because it demonstrates the desire of my lifestyle change. Maintenance and relapse prevention involve incorporating the new behaviour over the long haul. Discouragement over occasional slips may halt the change process and result in me to giving up. However, I have to find myself by recycling through the stages of change several times before to see the change becomes truly established.

7. Accountability of everyone
Accountability for everyone has mean that the other know that this (me) have a such kind of bad behaviour, so change my behaviour Speakers are responsible for their listeners. The speaker can thus do their bit to stop other people listening to them, including:

Using boring and uninteresting language Using complex and difficult language Using a flat speaking tone Not using supporting body language Not paying attention to the listeners Insulting the listeners (perhaps accidentally) Talking about things that are not of interest to the listener Talking for too long Not giving the listener the opportunity to reply

This does not excuse the listener, although it may make their job harder. If you are a speaker, one of your first jobs is to try to help the other person keep listening.

Introduction to Behavior Science 7 Not listening A bad behaviour

Behaviour Modification Techniques


Following are some modification techniques that I use to modifies my behaviour

i.

Positive reinforcement
If I listen to other properly and do their work as they wish, they praise me and this would create a positive impact on me so in future I again listen to them properly to get some positive reward.

ii.

Using extension to stop a behaviour


After observing and notice, the consequences of my bad behaviour I use several techniques to keep away from this bad behaviour. In this technique, I observe that what result I get it & how I can stop myself to perform this behaviour again.

iii.

Negative consequence for behaviour Punishment


Punishment is something that we get after doing some bad behaviour but we do not want this in our life it happen naturally and then we come to know that we do something bad. Punishment is either physically or mentally. When I do not listen I suffer from some serious consequences that I thing this is my punishment and I have to work on to so I cannot do it next time. For example; when I am sitting in library and continuously talking with my friend the librarian ask me to stop but I did not pay attention so the librarian ask me to go outside the library. Therefore, the order of librarian that I go outside is a punishment for me, which result me to do not speak and listen the librarian order. Penalty Penalty means that I lose something this would be in form of a person or object. For example when I do not listen to my friend they angry with me and do not talk with me so I lose their friendship as penalty so this also enforce me to do not do this behaviour next time if I do not want to lose my friends.

iv.

Effective communication model


The thing is that not listening gets you away from others ideas, impressions, feelings, and in the end from their hearts. I think this is the most extended bad habit that exists. It is because listening requires attention, requires commitment, and respect. Another reason is that in different situations, is hard to listen at all. Instead of that, when the other person is talking, we are planning our response, so we are not listening. My remedy for Not Listening is to Practice Active listening. There are many references on how to do this but essentially, I struggle for the next two: 1. I try to make sure that the other person feels ok, comfortable. Nodding while their talking to let them know I am receiving their message. 2. I try to focus on what the other person is saying. I keep every other thought out of my mind.

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When I listen to others I really connect with them, at least I make them know in those unique moments, they are telling me something, I cared. That is a lasting impression and helps to create bonds. Now If I am in a conversation, I listen to what the other person is saying to me. Focus on the message and give them non-verbal clues that I am hearing. Before replying, I take a pause and Keep eye-to-eye contact.

Case Study of my Behaviour


Summary The case study approach of this part has been designed to create an awareness of the general behavioural problems that may be encountered on a day to day basis. What are the basic reasons that I want to influence or change my bad behaviour? The most fundamental reason is that it would help me to become socialize so I get community benefits. Achieving behavioural change in me is often difficult and complex but to some extent I am able to achieve by applying behavioural modification techniques. The bad behaviour of me that I not listen other makes lot of problems for me and I have to face some serious consequences. So to bring change in my behaviour is challenge for me Description of the problem

Sometime friend are talking with me, teacher is delivering a lecture, and someone call me on phone and in many other situations when people are talking with me. I do not listen carefully for several reason or either it would be in my behaviour that I do not listen other that behaviour become problematic for me. Cause Often, I believed that I am not accountable for listening and remembering information that's presented to me orally. In most cases, I ask to repeat the instructions. I may have forgotten the directions, or simply not have listened to the directions. And, although the speaker may express frustration, he or she will frequently give me the information that's necessary to listen carefully when the first time information is presented. Research say, this behaviour becomes firmly established after years of not listening to parents and teachers so they teach in teach or order me in that manner that listener who has problem understand it but they do not ask to change your behaviour. Goal The main goal of me is to listen carefully to instructions and will improve hearing ability to listen and to remember information that is presented orally. So I avoid from consequences that I have to face. So if I listen other people praise me, so in future I concentrate more on listening so there will be built strong relationship.

Introduction to Behavior Science 9 Not listening A bad behaviour

Appendices
ABC details: 27-03-2012 Tuesday

28-03-2012 Wednesday

29-03-2012 Thursday

30-03-2012 Friday

Introduction to Behavior Science 10 Not listening A bad behaviour 31-03-2012 Saturday

01-04-2012 Sunday

02-04-2012 Monday

03-04-2012 Tuesday

04-04-2012 Wednesday

Introduction to Behavior Science 11 Not listening A bad behaviour 05-04-2012 Thursday

References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behavior http://www.livestrong.com/article/105661-behavior-modification/ http://bmo.sagepub.com/ http://www.bealeader.net/544/bad-habits-and-leadership-not-listening http://mothermayi.hubpages.com/hub/Why-Dont-Kids-Listen--What-To-Do-About-it http://changingminds.org/techniques/listening/why_not_listening.htm