Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Good strategies for prevention and treatment of sexual abuse and trafficking of children in Surkhet, Midwest Nepal. The community perspective Introduction
A semi-structured interview was designed by the members of the team according to the following guidelines: Very brief (in any case, application should require around 20 minutes) Easy replicability Sensitive to change (baseline measure) Easily understandable.

The final questionnaire included 40 items related to personal experiences and community perceptions of good practices in the fight of sexual abuse and trafficking of children in Nepal. Households were selected from Birendranagar -18, Latikoili -10 and Uttarganga -9. The Aawaaj´s team walked through the village through a methodology of Transitional Walk and produced the map of the villages including all the roads and inhabitants. From this map, a random selection of houses was done. 72 interviews were conducted, 34 interviews corresponding to people between 10 to 18 years (21 girls and 13 boys), and 38 interviews corresponding to people between 20 to 60 years (33 women and 5 men). Out of 38 adults, 19 were not participated in Aawaaj program. Most of the children are Dalit (55%), or Chhetri/Thakuri/Brahmin (32%), majority follow the Hindu (82%) or Christian (17%) religion, are attending school (91%) in 5 th grade (58%), 6 to 8 level (35%), and 9 to 10 level (6%), and only 3 children do labor work.

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Most of the parents are Dalit (63%), Janajati ( 18% ) or Chettri/Thakuri/Brahmin (18%), majority follows the Hindu (79%) or Christian (21%) religion, are married (97%), have school education (44%) and do labor work (71%). Statistical analysis was done separately according to each one of these variables. We offer the overall results except when significant statistical differences were found.
These villages were chosen due to easy access and more vulnerable. Also from these villages children were reported at Aawaaj to get services and these villages are rapid migration from rural area and growing as urban city. Due to these cause children are more vulnerable and it is proximity to mobilize volunteers. Most of children and parents have participated in Aawaaj different programs.

First Part: The Children perspective
Children Resiliency The initial open question regarding resiliency mostly gave answers centered in personal strategies to protect themselves from abuses and activities that can be taken to feel better after adversity. • When you had difficulties, which things made you feel better? 47% 35% 30% 9% 6% 6%

When my friend listen to my problem Aawaaj organization supported my stationary for the school. Also they supported and encourage me. In the CFS program I felt happy and cared Care, love, support gave by my parents and close relatives By watching television When someone encourage or give support When I came first in class

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Wellbeing of children 44% 41% 35% 23.5% 14% 14% 6% 6%

Regular in school and progress in studies Teach good language and things Support in house Had developed good habits and understand the problem in house Participate in extra activities Has developed the qualities in speaking and sharing the problem in organization If someone try to take advantage and exploit .react against it Cleanness habit

• What is the best thing it happened to you? When I received scholarship from Aawaaj. When I came first at program organized by Aawaaj When showing drama When I came first in exam When my father and mother left me and my grandmother look after me and care me When they were alone their grand mother look after with love and care. Those days were happiest days and reminded it when she died. When I rescue my friend from being in child marriage When my brother had a son 40% 15% 6% 3% 3% 3%

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

• What is good about living in this community? In my village everyone is friendly and supportive Most of the relatives are lovable and supportive There is organization which help for education I have close friends My village have good and respectful environment My school is near and teacher do care us The environment of my village is good and healthy 38.2% 35.3% 11.7% 14.7% 6% 11.7% 11.7%

Children Perceptions about sexual abuse and trafficking Majority of children considered that the sexual abuse and trafficking of children is a big problem in their communities (82%), and 23 of the children (67%) knew a child affected by the sexual abuse or trafficking in their village. 73% of children think they have enough information about sexual abuse of children. They got this information from:
From Aawaaj From CFS Activities After being in problem situation— 2 Books,Radio and television— 5 No answer 67% 6% 14% 13%

The children identified some psychosocial factors that can promote sexual abuse and trafficking of children:
Children deprived from education do not know about their rights, so they are more vulnerable Economical situation (family poverty, parent´s unemployment) Increase in number of hooligan ( who are involved thief, bulling, looted, runway from school, smoking, drug addict and drunker) Lack of love and care from family, as well as discrimination among girl child and boy child. Because the children who have been affected by this abuse do not disclaim the issue, it is difficult for the other children to be aware of the problem. Don´t know, don´t give any answer 52% 67% 14% 6% 5% 20%

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Why poverty links to sexual abuse in Nepal? My opinion, based on results is that: Economical constrains negatively affects children healthy development because most of the times their basic needs are not covered (good food, good household, access to education, nutritious parenting). Emotionally, socially, and cognitively their capacities may be somehow compromised, making more difficult for them to face and successfully manage stressful situation (such the sexual abuse). There is Highly chances for drop out from school, do early marriage and vulnerable for sexual abuse, exploitation and involve in prostitution for the education support materials and others need. Due to Poverty children are compel to stay at other relative house even they know there is vulnerable situation such as with uncle, aunty, step father and brother house where they can’t say anything even they don’t like wrong behaviors. Personal and Community Strategies

• Sharing the experience

When asking about what the abused children usually do, most of the interviewed children think that children usually would share the experience to their friends of family (47%), would call the police (32%), or would prefer to be silent (35%).

When asking about their own experience, most of the children prefer to solve their problems with the support of the adults (92%), 88% of children will share their problems with their parent or close relatives (58%), to their close friend (20%), or to Aawaaj´s member at the community level (8%).

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

The factors that made the children to trust adults to talk about their difficult experiences are:
They took the problem in positive way and try to solve the problem They listen us and give supportive feedback They will keep the problem private and don´t share with other people. They never lie and they are not involve in bad activities Because they take good care and love us—2 Because they give justice 47% 20% 11.7% 5.8% 5.8% 5.8%

• Perception of Security Most of the children (64%) perceived the live in a secure environment.
Relative are with us and helped in solving the problem We are able to study, have developed confidence, have make friends They are good listeners There are good people in the society 32% 11% 5.8% 3%

• Mutual Support Most of the children (56%) perceived people help each other when there is a problem to face
When we are in problem they provide us with suggestion, encouragement and support —8 Aawaaj organization support in education, they respect and try to help in problem-3 Facilitaor of CFS has encourage in development of talent.— 5 Medical support—1

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

• Community Support
Union of community members, including women and children to look for community solutions based on the child right Through awareness programs focused on children (street drama, school programs) 67% 32%

Authorities Support

67% of children perceived that local authorities (police) and community authorities supported them when they need it
when I was in problem police had supported m Aawaaj have supported me VDC secretary have supported me in my problem they have provided us material form association of differently abled Blank-5 26% 39% 3% 3%


More awareness programs to teach children about child sexual abuse Obey our parents and will not roam alone Should have proper laws We should not hide our problem Learn that parents should take proper care of young children Don’t want to work as a domestic helper and hear daily scolding By identifying friends who are in addiction and try to avoid their company

44% 2.9% 2.9% 6% 6% 2.9% 2.9%

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Perception of Aawaaj´s work Most of the children (56%) know Aawaaj for more than 3 or 4 years, and only few (5.8%) meet Aawaaj in punctual moments when they need it. The children got to know Aawaaj through the awareness programs, and Aawaaj facilitator in the village (41%), form they mothers that introduce to them (20%), from the school (14%), or from friends and relatives in the village (11.7%). • Aawaaj Support
73.5% 8.8% 8.8% 6% 3%

Is able to get education, copy, pen and uniform has been distributed We cannot get success alone. With the help of Aawaaj the criminal get punishment Aawaaj provide support and teach many informative knowledge Is able to information about children My parents love me more now than before

Most of the children felt treated with respect and dignity by Aawaaj members.
35.3% 14.7% 8.8% 6% 6% 2.9% 2.9% 2.9%

Sir and madam speak politely and listens to us carefully When I came to Aawaaj; I feel I am in my own home We are able to learn from aawaaj I was deprived from the love of my parents but the Aawaaj; gave it all to me I am happy now When I was in problem if they have supported then I would have been share Aawaaj help protect a women in getting out from polygamy, aawaaj support and help those kind of cases When I came to take scholarship When they give bread and tea

Children felt that their opinion was heard most of the times (60%), and sometimes (8.8%)
I have problem in education so want organization should support for long term When some problem arises I want everyone to support= I want positive support by listening it carefully and talk politely Should involve in many activities Many time applied for scholarship but no one heard Someone try to ignore us Privacy should be maintain of problem 32% 17% 14% 8.8% 5.8% 2.9% 2.9%

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Second Part: Parents perspective
Parents Resiliency • What things make you to feel better when facing adversity?

By sharing my good and bad experience with my neighbor 13% After my children got scholarship By seeing my children happy 31.5% With the support of Aawaaj By providing encouragement to solve problem 2.6% With the help of friends and love from my parents By sharing with grand 18% daughter and son As my family environment is good By praying to god When I provide support to other ,I feel good By sharing my good and bad experience with my neighbor
2.6% 2.6%


Parents perception of children wellbeing 65% 31.5% 34.2% 7.8% 13.1% 5.2% 2.6%

Goes school regularly, progress in education, grade maintain Friendly, trustworthy, speak politely and hardworking Respect parents and support them and obey them Avoid liquor Took part in program Took part in various activities organized by various organization Avoid theft and crime Is able to gather own education fees

What is the best thing it happen to you?

When aawaaj provided scholarship to my son and daughter 36% When I was supported by organization ,when I was affected by violence When I 13% was in aawaaj emergency shelter When I got opportunity to conduct class of informal education 7.8% When my brother brought gift to my son When my daughter was survived after 23% she was drown in river When my daughter was born

Perceptions about sexual abuse and trafficking of children

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Most of the parents considered that sexual abuse and trafficking of children is a very big problem in their community (89%), and the main reasons given of why this problem happens are due to poverty (52%), lack of education (18.5%), psychological disorder (17.6%), or other addictions (17.6%), or ambitious personality (5.8%). When asking if the participants knew any children or younger affected by sexual abuse or trafficking, majority said no (70.6%), and few (23.6%) said they knew a case in their village. According to participant´s perspective, people affected used to talk with families or friends (47.3%), or report to the police and go to the hospital (47.3%). Only few people (34.2%) think that the affected will hide the problem.

Knowledge of CSA Most of the parents reported (60.5%) not to know enough information about sexual

abuse of children. Please can you confirm that this data is correct? This happen because we selected the 50% of parents for interview who never participated in Aawaaj Program to know their knowledge on CSA and see the differences.

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

The main channels for getting this information are: From the radio, the TV, the newspapers, magazines From the community facilitators, the workshops or other cultural activities organized by Aawaaj, From people and friends in the village By seeing the incident happened in village 19% 15.7% 10.5% 5.3%

Personal and Community Strategies • Sharing the experiences

Majority of parents (76%) will trust others to talk about if their children are affected by an abusive situation. The main trust holders are:
   

Family and close relatives 31.5% Neighbors, and friends at the village 31.5% Members of Aawaaj organization 21% Local and respectful authorities like guardians, the police 10%

The main reasons given to trust others are:
When people provides good advises, support as, and they treat us equally Neighbors listen our voice and solve the problem When people support in good as well as bad days They keep our concerns and worries privately They are from same village and community They give strong and quick action to the criminal, try to get justice and help us in solving the problem-6 21% 15.7% 15.7% 5.2% 2.8% 15.7%

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Mutual support

When people face a problem related to sexual abuse of children, the main perception is that villagers will help them (63%) to face the situation. Only few respondents perceived they had to solve the situation by themselves (39%). • Security

Most of people (65%) feel secure at their village. The main reasons given are:
My family and my neighbors support me when I need it I am aware about women rights, and now I face the situation positively The village environment is safe, and there is an organization that supports me There is police station near by I have been living in this community for a long time. I know the people now 29% 5.2% 7.8% 5.2% 5.2%

What is good about living in this community? 47.3% 10% 18.4% 21% 15.7% 7.8%

We have our relative s and supporters Have got close friends School is nearby. Health post is near so It is easy to get work We can survive by grinding stones Good environment Forest is nearby As living here in this village since long time

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj •

Community Mediation

How the community can work together to face and prevent the problems? Please, could you clarify this point because I did not fully understand the answers?
Community people can support to organization to 57% raise issues and work together Do advocacy for making and implementing law Give advice and suggestion Protest openly for taking action 2.6% 2.6% 2.6%

Authority Support Most of the parents perceived the local authorities as supports (44.7%), although a

significant group did not identify any help from them (36.8%) • Future

Looking at the future, the main recommendations of the parents are that: Everyone should live safely, behave correctly, and disclose the abusive situations when it happens Organization should provide awareness. Children should be aware about their rights and duties Empowerment of good parenting skills (not to fight in front of children, do not leave the child alone at home, encourage the child to study, avoid early child marriage, take responsibility of your children´s needs) 23% 21% 18%

Perception of Aawaaj´s work 24 (63%) of the parents are participating in activities promoted by Aawaaj for more than two years (18%), five years (28%), or more than five years (26%). Few people contact Aawaaj in specific moments when they need help (18%).

Nepal 2009; Learning from Practice – Survey Report Revised by Irada Gautam – Founder President; Aawaaj

Most of the parents know Aawaaj through:
    

The community facilitator , the street drama, or the process of scholarship 26% From their neighbors 23% From their own children 21% Search by own self 13% From INF Doctor 2.6%

Most of the parents think that the Aawaaj´s work is good and very useful because:

Dignity and Respect 57% 7.8% 7.8% 10.5% 2.6% 2.6%

With the help and support of Aawaaj; children are able to go to school Organization provides economic support Got justice With the help of life kill training the problem has been solved It can solve the problem It will help in future Change in the habit of my husband Being given party in Teej festival which make me feel like parents

Parents perceive they are treated with dignity and respect by Aawaaj. Aawaaj member listened to them (57%), and they felt their opinion was taken into account (43%): Aawaaj staff does respect and talk politely Give proper guidance in meeting Aawaaj become my guardian My son says that Aawaaj give respect which encourage Aawaaj listen the problem carefully and give respect Aawaaj treated with party for those who has no brothers 21% 7.8% 5.2% 5.2% 2.6% 2.6%

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