CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Application Exercise - II
Developing communication for a new brand in skin cream category
Submitted to - Prof. S Ramesh Kumar

Group 17 Gunjan Kumar Prashant Gutch Kartik Yeleswaram Prashant Singh 1111344 1111345 1111348 1111362

Table of Contents

1. Category and Brand Information ........................................................................................... 2
1.1 Category summary ........................................................................................................................ 2

1.2 Key Brands summary..................................................................................................................... 3

2. Category Analysis & Linkages to concepts ............................................................................. 4 3. Issues Identification ............................................................................................................... 6 4. Selection of Articles ............................................................................................................... 8 5. Addressing the issues using article ...................................................................................... 12 6. Recommendations for new brand communication ............................................................. 16 7. Process Employed ............................................................................................................... 17 8. References ........................................................................................................................... 18 9. Contribution of Group Members ........................................................................................ 20

85% of the total skin care market. Face Masks. Category and Brand Information 1. Facial care has a share of approx.8 billion in 2010 with an expected growth rate of 18-19% for next 4-5 years. Emergence of specialty beauty clinics. within last 5-6 years. Within facial care facial moisturizers and cleansers contributes maximum to the volume of sales. Increasing popularity of multiple-benefit products 5. the use of skin care products has increased significantly in India. Nourishers/Anti-Agers.1. Increasing demand for customized products (to suit each different skin type) 6. wellness chains and lifestyle stores 7. The skin care market in India is estimated at US$ 1. hair care. The personal care industry consists of skin care. 22% of the total skin care market. Lip Care. The skin care market is at a primary stage in India. The premium skin care products have a market share of approx. bath & shower products and fragrances. Its principal constituents are household care. Also the penetration level for rural markets is very low. Proliferation of multiple brands . The sector is expected to grow at 10-11% per annum over the next 4-5 years.1 Category summary The Indian FMCG sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy with an estimated size of US$ 1314 billion in 2010. cosmetics. The personal care market in India is estimated at US$4 billion in 2010 with an expected growth rate of 15-16% for next 4-5 years. Facial Moisturizers. personal care and food & beverages. Trends: 1. Higher (than industry) expected growth of premium products 2. Facial Cleansers. However.Acne Treatments.Firming/Anti-Cellulite and General Purpose Facial Care . Increasing demand for male grooming products 4. The skin care market can be segregated as follows:   Body Care . Toners Hand Care  Each segment is further segregated into premium and mass products. Higher (than industry) expected growth of anti-ageing products 3.

Ponds on the other hand is well known for its cold cream and is also growing in the anti-ageing segment with its ‘Ponds Miracle’ 1. jelly. Fair & Lovely has a considerable market share in the men’s fairness cream especially after it was revitalized.3 Emami Ltd. Fair & Handsome. Cavinkare has grown over time in this segment and is the closest competitor to the market leader HUL.2 Key Brands summary 1. 1.6 Himalaya Himalaya Herbal healthcare is one of the fastest growing companies in the personal care segment. Major products offered by CavinKare include Fairever. 1. 1. It has its presence almost all the sectors and has the famous Olay brand in the skin care category which is the leader in the anti-ageing segment with 37% market share.1 Hindustan Unilever Limited Hindustan Unilever Limited is India’s faster growing FMCG company with wide range of products in the personal care segment. face cream. 1. Emami is amongst the leading players in the segment. A 1000+ crore company. The unique selling point of its products is the ayurvedic formulation used in their preparation. Lakme has focused offerings in the segment viz. It has several products in the skin care category and is well known for the wide range of men’s products that it has. Its unique selling point is the use of natural ingredients and herbal extracts in its products. . Garnier has helped change the outlook of men towards skin care and usage of products. Major skin care products include Fair & Lovely. etc. It has a wide range of products in the skin care segment under the parent Himalaya brand.7 Garnier Garnier is another fast growing brand which focuses on healthy products.2. etc. Major brands in this segment include Boroplus. Lakme.4 Procter & Gamble P&G India is one of the largest & fastest growing consumer goods company in India serving over 650 million consumers. Ponds and Vaseline. Nivea is a revered brand owing to its high quality product offerings. Vaseline is the leader in the segment with products like Vaseline cold cream. moisturizers. Malai Kesar cold cream.2.2 CavinKare Initially named Chik India ltd. etc. etc. It is expected to grow rapidly in the future as people shift to natural products. Vaseline for men. sunscreen.2.2.2.5 Nivea With over 125 years of experience in skin care. fairness cream and other skin creams differentiated based on skin type. 1. Fruit based moisturizers. Nivea is one of the most trusted companies.. Fairever Fruit.2. A brand known for its innovative products.2. The company has widened its portfolio of products through smart marketing and clear product positioning. It has a large variety of products viz.1.

The first ad1 focuses more on cognitive component of attitude by clearly spelling out the brand benefits (Sunscreen. 2.3 Olay Olay always uses celebrity in their ad communication as a spokesperson/endorser.com/watch?v=1qRilj1vqzU – Nivea – Celebrity ad . to make the colour of skin and face same). Since ant-aging category is at a nascent stage. 2. The ad also talks about getting rid of the ageing effects in seven days. Category Analysis & Linkages to concepts 2. There is a clear indication of ego-defensive motivation factor and ideal-self-image.2 Nivea The TVC3 that we analysed for Nivea. Vitamin B3 etc. one is “Natural white” and the other one “Total effects”. We see a clear balance of Hyde effect which makes the ad more convincing. Total effect ad uses a middle aged celebrity for brand’s anti-aging product to increase the credibility of the claim made by the brand. "cute" appeal.youtube. started with the peripheral route (show of affection) and later switched to the central route by talking about the product benefits (technology that repairs the dry skin). We analysed two of Olay’s product. the brand is trying to create the ritual of using anti-aging products right from the first sign of aging through the use of celebrity as spokesperson. First ad displays affection by different age groups. targets affective component (soft googly woogly woosh skin).4 Ponds We analysed TVCs of three products from Ponds.2. It targets the middle aged women who wish to rekindle the romance in their marriage.com/watch?v=7X_UfwKLf3s – Vaseline – Healthy White TVC http://www. It has utilitarian (functional benefits) and ego-defensive (confidence to wear tennis dress) motivation factor. Natural white ad takes just central route as the spokesperson clearly talks about the product benefit (removal of dark spots and improved fairness). The second ad2 conveys the same benefits as the first one but it uses a celebrity spokesperson to increase the credibility.1 Vaseline We analysed two TVCs of Vaseline. “White Beauty” ad is a storyline involving three celebrities.youtube.youtube. one used a model in role play whereas the other used celebrity as a spokesperson.com/watch?v=AP6NGB0bx6s – Vaseline – Celebrity ad 3 http://www. It uses celebrity in the role of an actor to increase the attention to the brand and possibly enhance the brand recall (sensual appeal). 2. This ad was widely criticized by the social groups in India because of colour bias (man leaving dusky women for a fairer women and returns to her after she becomes fair). 1 2 http://www. “Age Miracle” ad uses a romantic setting involving a middle aged couple showing the husband in awe of his wife beauty even at her age.

Price vs. Lynx effect is seen in the ad where after using the product all women are seen to be attracted toward the male lead.6 Ayur Ayur is an herbal brand of skin creams.5 Lakme Lakme doesn’t use celebrity in any of their ads but uses variety of young attractive models. 2. 2. customized skin cream for different skin type and benefits of fruit oils. 2. It creates the awareness and triggers the need of young girl for modern skin cream but the concept of beauty as natural without any side effects. No. of Benefits Price vs.7 Himani Boroplus Himani Boroplus is an economy brand which shows a popular celebrity in its ad which talks about the functional benefit of the product (keeping skin moist in summer).8 Emami Fair & Handsome Emami Fair&Handsome is targeted toward the men segment which portrays the social stigma of men using women fairness skin cream. Based on the above analysis and the price-quantity availability we made two positioning maps. A popular celebrity acting as a spokesperson tries to break this stigma by endorsing the product which conveys the product benefit suitable for rough and tuff men’s skin. It achieves parity with other brands by conveying the benefits (POP) that other skin cream brands offer but also achieves differentiation through offering unique benefits (POD) in each of their products such as non-stickiness. Quantity . It uses the cultural cues of using herbal products for skin care in its ads.2.

wide smile etc. There is a need to understand the basic motivational function behind the purchase and what values are affected. The issue highlights this basic mismatch.2 Issue – 2 Considering the fact that most brands in the skin care category use attractive models/celebrities in their marketing communication. anti-ageing creams. he feels ashamed and other groups make fun of him. In addition. Marketers need to understand the attitude towards the product and focus on strengthening the motivational function. which leads to certain segment of consumers (especially male consumers) rejecting the product or using it secretively since it is considered socially unacceptable.) across brands.youtube.1 Issue . is simple attractiveness sufficient to convey a marketer’s intended brand message? Explanation While analysing different skin care brands’ advertisements as part of category analysis. The prior analysis revealed that increase in self-esteem is the basic motivational factor behind the purchase of the cream.3.youtube.com/watch?v=k-CB56MB8kA . A decrease in it leads to the consumer rejecting the product. fairness creams. we observed that the ads for most prominent brands involve a model/celebrity who is depicted as possessing similar attributes of attractiveness (fair skin. this is observed in the Olay ad5 which portrays actress Kajol as having fair-skinned beauty. This is also due to the attitude of skin cream being for women and applying it being considered as womanly. The issue also talks about the reference group effect which is prominent in the category but is utilized in none of the advertisements 3. Another problem that can result is the confusion created in the audience’s mind due to incongruence of celebrity/model attributes with brand attributes. thus making it difficult for any particular brand’s ad to make an impression in the audience’s mind. 4 5 http://www. irrespective of the brand attributes/benefits that are to be conveyed in the communication. This is evident across the category of skin creams since using the cream means accepting that either you are old or not fair or your skin is not good which leads to decrease in self-esteem owing to this ‘negative symbolism’ associated with the product.com/watch?v=eqtWUezP8VA http://www.1 An ‘negative symbolism’ is attached with the category of skin creams especially with products viz. while audiences always see her as possessing dusky complexion in her movies and other appearances. it also talks about symbolism is when the consumer focuses on meanings beyond the functional aspects. etc. This constant and monotonous stimulation can result in sensory adaption in the target audience which increases their absolute threshold of sensation. Can this be overcome? Explanation When looking at the Emami ‘Fair & Handsome’ ad4 it can be observed that on being revealed that the guy uses a fairness cream. The need to embrace the negative symbolism associated with accepting that one is aged or one lacks in beauty is what leads to this discrepancy. Issues Identification 3.

tough.This issue tries to explore other means of communication which strike a balance between the sentiments of the Indian consumers and fulfilling the cultural need of becoming fair at the same time.4 Issue – 4 Stereotyping has been successfully exploited by marketers in the advertisements for female grooming products. and graceful have been the target for marketers & advertisers while designing communications and advertisements for female grooming products.3 Issue – 3 With recent criticism from social groups about the racist nature of advertisement communication adopted by companies. reduced dark spots & softer skin which are generally perceived not-so-manly & against the long-standing cultural stereotypes? . The traditional gender stereotypes like women supposed to be beautiful. Will such stereotyping help in male grooming products? Explanation The interpretation of perceptions is a personal phenomenon just like selection & organization of perceptions. Most often the stimuli are ambiguous. Similarly one ad showed an old parent wishing that he had a son rather than a dark complexion girl. When faced with such ambiguous stimuli individuals will try to fill the gap using information from their memory which they have acquired over time which on most occasions is not rational. Hence brands need to make use this cultural need and promote the products by focusing more on the fairness benefits. This issue talks about the consumer’s motivation based on their cultural need state. Moreover fairness is considered to be more attractive leading to increased self-confidence and improving one’s status. women’s fairness association with finding a good groom has become a cultural aspect. and their motives &interests at the time of perception. Interpretation is based on what individuals expect to see in light of their previous experiences. the number of plausible explanations they can envision. 3. This ad when aired on the TVC drew lot of criticism about the racist nature of the ad. So how will the male consumers react when the advertisements showcase the potential benefits as improved complexion. The advertisements play with the negative selfconcept of female consumers & later suggest solutions which show transition from this negative selfconcept to a more positive self-concept. rugged & self-confident. Is there another way to promote and advertise the skin cream product and their functional benefit without losing the existing customer base? Explanation When looking at different ad communication of skin cream. fair. People add these biases to what they see or hear and form distorted impressions. Despite the ‘here and there’ abuses of this approach on the lines of ethics and racism the approach has been very successful. Stereotypes refer to the bias in people’s mind. In India. That’s why skin lightening creams capture the majority of market share in Skin care category. we came across one ad where the brand showed celebrities in story telling form where the guy leaves a dusky complexion girl for a fair girl. The grooming products for men challenge this traditional image. The traditional image of a man is strong.3.

and selfdiscrepancy. The negative inferences associated with certain brands of products and its association with product-user imagery is looked at to identify the consumer purchase behaviour. Symbolic consumption is derived primarily from an individual’s focus on meanings beyond the tangible and physical characteristics. we have considered the basic framework and how can the negative symbolism be overcome in order to help communicate the offering in a better way. In conclusion. self-concept. image congruency.1 Article 1 Title Negative symbolic consumption and consumers’ drive for self-esteem – Emma N.regulatory system and a model that shows how consumers reduce the discrepancy between the actual and desired states and how is that incorporated in the purchase behaviour. It also examines the importance of understanding the negative symbolic consumption when marketing high involvement products. The consumer also wants to enhance or protect the self-esteem and have self-consistency. self-esteem. The article also shows the self.4. This particular paper talks about the concepts of symbolic consumption. This leads consumer to frequently accept or reject a product based on the symbolic (as against the functional) attributes. The issues highlighted include consumers’ perception and use of products with negative symbolic meaning and the effect on consumer’s decision making process by the need to enhance their selfesteem and avoid self-abasement. The need to enhance one’s self esteem is regarded as a primary motivational factor of consumer purchase behaviour and decision making. Another framework shows the negative inferences associated with products via stereotypes and how this imagery combined with self-concept affects the purchase behaviour. Selection of Articles 4. it implies that there is a need to understand the negative symbols associated with a product. Especially for products with high reference group effects. the consumer’s usage patterns regarding such products and the association of the negative symbols with their own self in order to better communicate the offering. consumers will always want products that make them part of the reference group by helping them overcome the negative symbolism associated. The image congruency theory says that the consumer will select products that are consistent with their image. banister & Margaret K Hogg Summary The paper talks about the concept of consumer’s use of various strategies in an effort to enhance the value of self-esteem. Although the article talks about rejecting the products. .

The paper first introduces the concept of “Cultural Gatekeepers”. Firstly. which has two main components: 1) That perceivers distinguish multiple types of physical attractiveness. Longo .4. the research methodology involved showing a set of photographs of models employed by major agencies to a group of prominent editors. The next step involved differential association of these dimensions with a set of perfumes and women’s magazines representing diverse imagery. better match-ups) for certain products when paired in advertising. with respondents being able to distinguish between beauty types with a high degree of consensus. Secondly. The sorting task data was analysed by means of multi-dimensional scaling into six dimensions of beauty. physical attractiveness appears not to be a single dimension but a multi-dimensional concept. they have a great indirect influence on the concept of beauty in the minds of the general public as they are responsible for selecting the models (from thousands of aspirants) that appear in fashion magazines and advertisements. Ashmore and Laura C. On this basis. Richard D. Solomon. from a marketing perspective there is more to beauty than a simple good-bad judgement of attractiveness. The first step involved the editors sorting the models’ photos based on similarity of looks. The results of the analysis support both facets of the Beauty Match-Up hypothesis.2 Article 2 Title The Beauty Match-Up Hypothesis: Congruence between types of beauty and product images in advertising Summary This paper argues that while there is enough research evidence to support effectiveness of employing attractive rather than unattractive spokespersons and models in advertising and promotion. While the perceptions of gatekeepers may not be perfectly aligned with those of end-consumers. In support of this.e. individuals such as fashion and beauty editors who play a critical role in defining standards and attributes associated with beauty. the paper offers the “Beauty Match-Up” hypothesis. matching beauty-type of models with intended product imagery/attributes can better convey the brand message. and 2) That these certain types are seen as more or less suitable (i. Michael R.

In India recently some advertisements were banned and taken off the air owning to the protest from several groups because of the racial content in them. Deirdre Bird. Also in India. One hand doctors point out the danger of skin cancer caused by removal of melanin due to use of skin creams. The belief that fairer skin will enhance one’s status. The authors looks at the advertising of the skin whitening products in Asian countries like India. China. shows an unhappy dark skinned woman becoming a light skinned woman. she can be independent and in charge. Indian women and now to a certain extent Indian men too want fairer skin. Helen Caldwell and Mark DeFanti . both in terms of the marketing of skincare products. Now that it’s well known and accepted that. a woman is told she can have “power” over her life. but then the marketers chose to focus on the packaging of the product where the package of Fair & Lovely. the article talks about the sociology of pale skin. The article looks at the communication method adopted by the companies in a way not to get into racist criticism and at the same time promote their skin whitening cream. The article talks about how Fair & Lovely ad was named racist and removed from air. In India. a woman with a fair complexion will be more likely to marry well. where estimated percentage of women using skin lightening cream are around 60-65%. with the concomitant message that she will get a good job and a husband.4. the real challenge for marketers is to promote and advertise their products without being named racial. Singapore and Thailand and investigates the phenomenon and consider marketing strategies that participating competitors have adopted. on the other hand sociologists refer to the marketing of skin lighteners as “racism”.3 Article 3 Title The quest for beauty: Asia’s fascination with pale skin Summary This article talks about the marketing phenomenon of skin lightening products in the Asian skincare market. Hence the demand of skin whitening creams in these countries are very high. Thus authors suggest that it’s important to design a commercial which doesn’t hit the sentiments of the Indian users and suggest them to avoid the overt display of social stigma attached with fairness. increase one’s success at work and lead to a “good marriage” is very strong among Asian women. At the same time they suggest that a different approach should be taken to promote the benefits of the product such as at the point of purchase or by packaging in such a way that the product conveys the intended message of fairness and its benefits in Indian context. In India. and both physically and psychologically. This desire for white or pale skin has had interesting repercussions. and also in the potential for damage.

paying particular attention to the presentation of the male body and its surrounding environment. This paper tries to examine the representations of men. but rather. Also we are told that anti-femininity lies at the heart of contemporary and historical conceptions of manhood. it is important that the representation of men and masculinities be open to the sorts of questioning that has for so long applied to women and their femininities. television advertising and the Lynx Effect Summary Deirdre Bird. available physiques and attainable hairstyles that are the order of the day in these short media texts. The article suggests that television ‘commercials are designed to take maximum advantages of gender specific fantasies. Finally the paper examines the representation of masculinities that are depicted in contemporary male grooming advertisements. This article talks about plural ‘masculinities’ rather than the singular masculinity’ because this term allows for an examination of the myriad and multiple ways in which maleness can manifest itself both on and off-screen. and as such. Even though the advertisements refuse to uphold the hegemonic ideal of the strong. ethnicity. what they do show are dominant gender codes and exploited a number of sex-role stereotypes in order to communicate meaning at a glance. The young men in advertisements are not being presented as unattainable gym-honed figures to admire or as hyper-masculine characters to marvel at.4. class. masculinity and the male role that such advertisements depict. Also these advertisements present ‘ideology rather than social history’ to the viewing public. Specifically.4 Article 4 Title The Spray more. like femininities. In other words being a man means ‘not being like a woman’. myths. for and about the post-pubescent male viewer. get more: masculinity. circulated and interrogated in a range of popular and commercially successful shower gel. In short. Masculinities. tested and qualified. Therefore it becomes critical how the advertising targets this new breed of consumers. are created by the cultural environment rather than by biology or nature. irrespective of the age. it is ordinary looks. and fears’. capable and powerful working male. race or sexual orientation of the male in question. as the everyday everyman who can speak to. Hegemonic masculinity is said to be the ideal image of the male against which all men are judged. this article explores the representations of masculinity that are being constructed. . Helen Caldwell and Mark DeFanti There has been a tremendous rise in the sale of male grooming products. so that masculinity is defined more by what one is not rather than who one is. Contemporary advertising foregrounds the male protagonist as a man unencumbered by domestic and family responsibilities. deodorant and antiperspirant commercials.

There is a need to communicate how the consumer can avoid associating himself with such group. the marketers can better cater to the motivational factor behind the purchase of such products. The framework given in the article . The focus must be on showing how the skin issues are common and can be solved by using the product. The reference group effect being strong in the category (aspirational groups.5. Addressing the issues using article 5. comparative groups).1 Addressing the Issue 1 – Negative Symbolism The article quoted states that companies should focus on communicating their offering in such a way which leads to increase in self-esteem or avoiding self-abasement. The approach must match the ‘actual state’ with the ‘desired end state’. people will pursue self-esteem by avoiding self-abasement. Forming associations that enhance the self-esteem and also having a congruity in the product-user imagery can help reduce the negative symbolism associated that leads to rejection. But the attitude towards using such creams is that the creams are not for men and men don’t need fair screen. If the usage of such products leads to the consumer setting an example that is followed by others. the focus of the communication must be towards implying through the ad as to how can consumer build his selfesteem. The basic motivational factor behind the usage of the creams is to increase beauty and thereby increase self-esteem. The model described says that in case of products with negative symbolism. This will then lead to consumer focusing on the positive imagery of the product which will lead him to associating the product with ‘approach reference groups’ and thereby leading to the purchase. The communication of such products must incorporate a way to cater to the motivational aspect behind the use of such creams thereby changing the attitude towards the creams. By showing that using such products leads to avoidance of problems that can decrease self-esteem. social acceptance is a must. then not only does it lead to increase in self-esteem but it also shows social acceptance thus strengthening the reference group effect. This mismatch leads is pronounced due to the reference group effects which renders the users of such creams socially unacceptable. Image-congruency theory suggests that individuals will select those products that are in sync with particular elements of their won self-concept. So. The model given in the paper shows how there the consumer wishes to avoid associating himself with the ‘avoidance reference group’ which leads to rejecting of products associated with such groups.

for example. Longo. The article differentiates beauty along six dimensions (expressed as Classical. Thus. While it is an established fact that use of attractive models in advertisements is more effective than their less attractive counterparts. which in turn will have negative consequences on the brand. an ad for a skin-care brand which focuses on brand benefits of softness and gentleness would be able to convey its message better through portrayal of the model in the ad as “Cute” or “Girl Next Door” rather than “Exotic”. Cute. This brings us to the question of how one can define attractiveness/beauty and are there different forms of beauty which can brought out in marketing communication. Girl Next Door. irrespective of brand attributes/benefits or attributes of the model/celebrity used. the article provides a means of dealing with the sensory adaption problem expressed in issue 1 by creating a stronger impression in consumers’ minds through beauty dimension-brand benefit coherence. Sex-Kitten and Trendy beauty standards). Richard D. These ideas are addressed by the paper on “Beauty Match-Up” hypothesis by Michael R. Thus. Sensual/Exotic.2 Addressing issue 2 – Is attractiveness enough for communication? The first issue relates to the use of attractive models/celebrities by most prominent skin care brands in their marketing communication. the problem in the skin care category is that all ads portray the same standard of beauty. It also proves that consumers can distinguish between these beauty types through experiment. Ashmore and Laura C. causing sensory adaptation and dilution of the effect of the ads on the minds of the consumer. Solomon. It also supports the fact that incongruence between model/celebrity image and brand imagery can cause dissonance in the consumer. The article also establishes that matching the right beauty-type with brand attributes can result in a more effective brand message. .5.

at the point of purchase. The article suggested the marketers to avoid ad communication with overt display of social stigma attached with fairness which are culturally sensitive at times and suggested them to focus more on the decision made at the point of purchase. Then article tells how. Article three talks about how the fairness of women has been given high importance in Indian culture. even after the ads were removed.5. For example using packaging as a convincing and assuring tool for conveying the fairness benefits due to using the product. some brands have gone a step ahead in their ad communication (culture insensitivity) which has backfired and has been widely criticized by the social groups in India. However lately. non-stickiness or water resistant skin cream. the brand used its packaging to depict an unhappy dark complexion girl transforming into happy fair girl within few weeks of using the product. Brands have been tapping this cultural need of becoming fair in their promotions and ad communications. The issue also talks about cultural aspect of being fair. Other techniques could be a demo of the skin cream. Thus we find the solution of question raised by issue three from article three.3 Addressing issue 3 – Alternative ways to promote fairness creams The third issue raises the concern and negativity associated with some of the ad communications used for the skin lightening creams. The article also takes example of some of the ads which were named racist and removed off the air. . This brings us to the question of how a balance should be met between cultural sensitivity and cultural needs in order to be accepted by the consumers without hurting their cultural sentiments. demonstrating the unique attributes of the product like quick absorbent. in order to break the product clutter.

Even though the paper talks about diverse range of male personalities and performances. preferred and marginalised models of contemporary manhood. fashioned. but not at the expense of other forms of masculinity traits. capable and powerful working male.4 Addressing issue 4 – Stereotyping in male grooming products The article says that there are multiple forms of masculinity. The issue that we posed was ‘will stereotype work wonders in men’s category just like it did in women’s category?’ The article suggests that stereotyping men to the ideal of hegemonic male is not very important as men have started associating masculinity with lot of other things. clean-shaven. So. The fact that the man in question tends to be overwhelmingly youthful. changed and put in perspective’. machismo and the male sex-role has recently been ‘discovered. theorized. unmasked. understood. white. . embodied. Very large numbers of men are complicit in sustaining this hierarchic model because they are said to unite in their dominance over women. Masculinities. it has been suggested that such men are merely playing with ‘commonsense’ conceptions of masculinity as a way of maintaining their dominance over women. lightly muscled and heterosexual does little to present the myriad versions of masculine identity on offer in contemporary society. Our understanding of manhood. moulded. dislocated. like femininities. unwrapped. prove their masculinity and thus position themselves within the hegemonic hierarchy. Moreover. rediscovered. what they do show is the success and the mating prowess (girls getting attracted towards a fairer man) of the young male protagonist. these seemingly everyman men are becoming ‘less hegemonic precisely in order to stay hegemonic’. unacceptable. existing literature on the sociology of the male tends to suggest that different models of masculinity form a hierarchy of acceptable. in short. Plural ‘masculinities’ undermines the idea of singular masculinity’ or hegemonic masculinity. which allow men to compete with other men. even though the advertisements refuse to uphold the hegemonic ideal of the strong. It advocates plural ‘masculinities’ and says that there are myriad and multiple ways in which maleness can manifest itself both on and off-screen and the criteria of masculinity should always be open to questioning and exploration.5. In this way these men may very well mock cultural conventions of dominant masculinity. are created by the cultural environment rather than by biology or nature.

enhancing self-esteem. On our analysis. it should focus on creating a ritual such as applying the cream since a given age so that the ageing can be avoided. By including them. a brand can overcome some of the stigma associated with product usage in this category. If the brand is launched in anti-ageing category. we found out that although the reference group has a significant effect on the purchase behaviour of the consumers. Brands in the skin care category should use celebrity/ model that have an appropriate match up in the beauty. the communication should focus on enhancing the basic motivation behind the purchase of the product i. But marketers should be open to various new and contemporary interpretations of consumer stereotypes. To overcome this.e.      .6. image portrayed in the communication as well as the brand benefits so as to have the desired consumer purchase behaviour. If a brand is launched in fairness category then to convey the fairness benefits it should rely more on point of purchase promotions rather than over-display of the fairness theme in TV or print ads so that a balance is created between social sensitivity & social need. Targeting traditional stereotypes has been a successful approach in skin care category. Recommendations for new brand communication  Products launched in this category have a direct negative symbolic effect on the self-esteem of the consumer which can lead to rejection of the product. This ritual combined with the reference group effect can help shape up the consumer decision making process. none of the advertisements have taken advantage of this.

concepts learned during the course together with the factors that affect the consumers in the category to come up with specific recommendations. cultural associations. The focus was on finding issues that are relevant as well as practical in current and future times. Post this we tried finding out the underlying concepts that shape the issues and used these as a basis for finding the articles relevant to the issues and the category as a whole. We combined our learning from the articles.7. stereotypes & reference group effects. We then focused on the specific concepts from the articles that address the root cause of the issues. This helped us observe the attitude components. Process Employed  We first analysed the marketing communication of prominent brands in the skin cream category. motivation function. Using these observations we identified the anomalies in the communication of various brands which led us to the identification of major issues. personality traits.     .

European Journal of Marketing 5. References 1. The Beauty Matchup hypothesis: congruence between types of beauties and product images in advertising. Richard D. 2004. Spray more.stockmarketsreview. television advertising & the Lynx effect.com/skin-care-in-india/report 9. Negative Symbolic consumption and consumer’s drive for self-esteem: The case of fashion industry. Journal of Gender Studies 4. The quest for beauty: Asia’s fascination with pale skin 3. http://www. Hogg. Emma N. http://www. Michael R Solomon.net/shekharpiscesian/skincare-industry-in-india 6. http://italiaindia.slideshare.com/images/uploads/pdf/cosmetics-personal-care%20-2008.com/news/indian_fmcg_4q_fy2010_outlook_20100410_4115/ 12. http://www. http://www. 2010. Banister & Margaret K.slideshare.com/2010/08/a-look-at-indian-fmcg-sector/ 11. Deirdre Bird.euromonitor.iseindia.net/soorajdms/consumer-behaviour-on-fairness-creams . get more: Masculinity. http://www. 2009. Journal of Advertising 2.pdf 7. Helen Caldwell & Mark DeFanti.india-fmcg.8. Rebecca Feasey. http://www.slideshare.com/ResearchPDF/FMCG_Update1.net/shekharpiscesian/skincare-industry-in-india 8. Ashmore & Laura C. Longo.pdf 10. http://www. 1992.

http://www. http://www.youtube.youtube. http://www.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=ijVBc0XevLI 15.youtube.com/watch?v=81y7rJf7Ol0 17.youtube. http://www. http://www.com/watch?v=F4_f1mYQ19Q&feature=endscreen&NR=1 16. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www. http://www.com/watch?v=oMEtVFmcQz8&feature=endscreen&NR=1 12.com/watch?v=7X_UfwKLf3s 2. http://www.com/watch?v=k-CB56MB8kA 8.com/watch?v=hd-wh_Een-U 11.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=3HuMFXpGo0M .com/watch?v=Ii8dR35JkaM 10. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ksM0Ds1wUZA 5.youtube. http://www. http://www.youtube. http://www.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube.youtube. http://www.com/watch?v=hKzp41EOQPs 6.com/watch?v=pgXGPNPLopo 4.com/watch?v=t8NFH7bHUYM 18. http://www.com/watch?v=U2VHfMrmOSc 13.Youtube links for Advertisements: 1.com/watch?v=BWdfmxa23YE 7.com/watch?v=AP6NGB0bx6s 3.youtube.youtube.com/watch?v=qxkK-Rj8S2k 14. http://www.com/watch?v=pWggXCdtGhY 9.

Finally. Kartik Yeleswaram (1111348) My contribution included analysing the marketing communication for various brands and linking them with relevant consumer behaviour concepts. Gunjan Kumar (1111344) My contribution was to analyse different brands and look for issues. I summarized the category information. Prashant Singh (1111362) I contributed by brainstorming on the category analysis by looking into advertisements. Also. I also helped in finding out the relevant articles and was responsible for the summary & write up of issue 1 and the relevant article. I started searching for articles and discussed the relevancy of the articles with the group. After finalizing the issues. Contribution of Group Members Prashant Gutch (1111345) My contribution included working on the category analysis and finding issues along with the group members. Summarized category analysis then wrote on one issue and the relevant article. After the group had together finalized the issues and relevant articles. I summarized one article and linked it with the corresponding issue. gave insight on the issues and articles brought up by other members. I was also involved providing inputs in discussions held during the project duration. .9. Then bring the issues to the group and discuss on them. Then came up with some issues and articles and discussed them within the group. in consultation with the group. one issue and relevant article.

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