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BY: G.SRITEJA REDDY 2009AAPS071H
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF MRS.MADHURI BAYYA BITS-PILANI HYDERABAD CAMPUS
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I would like to extend my gratitude and sincere thanks to my project guide Mrs.Madhuri Bayya madam, Department of Electrical Engineering for valuable guidance and continuous supervision. I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to Mr.U.Madhava Rao Sir, for teaching me the concepts of power electronics. My special thanks for my parents and my friends for their continuous encouragement and support.
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Power Factor, the ratio between the real or average power and apparent power forms a very essential parameter in power system. It is indicative of how effectively the real power of the system has been utilized. With rapid development in power semiconductor devices, the usage of power electronic systems has expanded to new and wide application range that include residential, commercial, aerospace and many others. Power electronic interfaces e.g. switch mode power supplies (SMPS) have proved to be superior over traditional linear power supplies. However, their non-linear behaviour puts a question mark on their high efficiency. The current drawn by the SMPSs from the line is distorted resulting in a high Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and low Power Factor (PF). Hence, there is a continuous need for power factor improvement and reduction of line harmonics. This project aims at studying different possible power factor correction circuits and comparing their efficiencies. In the second part of the project a DC television circuit has been designed. The simulation part of the circuits is attached.
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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 1.1 Power Factor 1.2 Harmonics 1.3 Effect of harmonics on power quality. 2. Power Factor correction 2.1 Sources of poor power factor 2.2 Energy balance in PFC circuits 2.3 Passive and Active PFC converters 3. Role of DC-DC Converters 3.1 Basic Circuit topologies for Active Power factor correctors 3.2 Boost Converter 3.3 Buck-Boost Converter 3.4 Boost Converter for Power Factor Correction 4. Control Principles of DC-DC Converters 4.1 Peak current control 4.2 Average control 4.3 Hysteresis control 4.4 Borderline control 4.5 Discontinuous current control 5. Modified Circuits 5.1 Three-Level Boost power factor correction converter 5.2 Modified Buck-Boost converter
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6. DC Electrical Systems 6.1 Television 6.2 PSpice Simulation Conclusion List of References
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Power Factor: Power factor is defined as the cosine of the angle between voltage and current in an ac circuit. There is generally a phase difference Ø between voltage and current in an ac circuit. cos Ø is called the power factor of the circuit. If the circuit is inductive, the current lags behind the voltage and power factor is referred to as lagging. However, in a capacitive circuit, current leads the voltage and the power factor is said to be leading. In a circuit, for an input voltage V and a line current I, VIcos Ø –the active or real power in watts or kW. VIsin Ø- the reactive power in VAR or kVAR. VI- the apparent power in VA or kVA. Power Factor gives a measure of how effective the real power utilization of the system is. It is a measure of distortion of the line voltage and the line current and the phase shift between them. Power Factor=Real power (Average)/Apparent power Where, the apparent power is defined as the product of rms value of voltage and current
Linear Systems: In a linear system, the load draws purely sinusoidal current and voltage, the current and voltage; hence the power factor is determined only by the phase difference between voltage and current. i.e. PF=cosθ
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Power Electronic Systems: In power electronic system, due to the non-linear behaviour of the active switching power devices, the phase angle representation alone is not valid. A non-linear load draws typical distorted line current from the line. The PF of distorted waveforms is calculated as below: The Fourier representation for line current is and line voltage vs are given by,
is = IDC + ΣIsnsin(nωt+θ) vs=VDC +ΣVsnsin(nωt+θ)
The line current is non-sinusoidal when the load is nonlinear. For sinusoidal voltage and non- sinusoidal current the PF can be expressed as
VrmsI1rms I1rms ______ Cos Ø = _____ Cos Ø = Kp cos Ø VrmsIrms Irms Kp
Where, cos Φ is the displacement factor of the voltage and current. Kp is the purity factor or the distortion factor.
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FIG 1: a) Waveforms of input current and voltage b) harmonics in input current
Another important parameter that measures the percentage of distortion is known as the current total harmonic distortion (THDi) which is defined as follows: Hence the relation between Kp and THDi is
1.2 Harmonics: Switching converters of all types produce harmonics because of the non-linear relationship between the voltage and current across the switching device. Harmonics are also produced by conventional‖ equipment including: 1) Power generation equipment (slot harmonics). 2) Induction motors (saturated magnetics). 3) Transformers (over excitation leading to saturation). 4) Magnetic-ballast fluorescent lamps (arcing). 5) AC electric arc furnaces. All these devices cause harmonic currents to flow and some devices, actually directly produce voltage harmonics.
1.3. Effects of harmonics on power quality: The contaminative harmonics can decline power quality and affect system performance in several ways:
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1) Conductor loss and iron loss in transformers increase due to harmonics decreases the transmission efficiency and causes thermal problems. 2) The odd harmonics in a three phase system overload of the unprotected neutral conductor. 3) High peak harmonic currents may cause automatic relay protection devices to mistrigger. 4) Excessive current in the neutral conductor of three-phase four-wire systems, caused by odd triple-n current harmonics (triple-n: 3rd, 9th, 15th, etc.). This leads to overheating of the neutral conductor and tripping of the protective relay. 5) Telephone interference and errors in metering equipment. 6) The line rms current harmonics do not deliver any real power in watts to the load, resulting in inefficient use of equipment capacity (i.e. low power factor). 7) Harmonics could cause other problems such as electromagnetic interference to interrupt communication, degrading reliability of electrical equipment, increasing product defective ratio, insulation failure, audible noise etc.
CHAPTER 2: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION: 2.1 Sources of poor PF: Poor power factor caused by reactive linear circuit elements results as the current either leads or lags the voltage, depending on whether the load looks capacitive or inductive. In most off-line power supplies, the AC-DC front end consists of a bridge rectifier followed by a large filter capacitor.
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FIG 2(a) Traditional poor power factor—current either leads or lags the voltage
FIG 2(b) : Improvement of power factor
In this circuit, current is drawn from the line only when the peak voltage on the line exceeds the voltage on the filter capacitor. Since the rate of rise and fall of current is greater than that of line voltage, and the current flows discontinuously, a series of predominantly odd harmonics are generated. It is these harmonics that cause problems with the power distribution system. The power factor of the system can be improved slightly by either adding series inductance with the line or decreasing the value of the holdup capacitor, which will lengthen the conduction angle.
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However, both these methods severely limit the amount of power that can be drawn from the line.
2.2 Energy Balance in PFC circuits: Let vl(t) and il(t) be the line voltage and line current respectively. For an ideal PFC unit (PF=1), we assume Vl(t)=Vlm sin ωlt Il(t)= Ilm sin ωlt where Vlm and Ilm are the amplitudes of line voltage and line current respectively. The instantaneous input power contains the real power (average power) component and an alternative component with frequency 2ωl.The working principle of a PFC circuit is to process the input power in such a way that it stores the excessive input energy when instantaneous power Pin is greater than the power demanded Po. The excessive input energy, wex(t) is given by
The excessive input energy is stored in the dynamic components (inductor and capacitor) of the PFC circuit. 2.3 Passive and Active PFC Correctors 2.3.1 Passive PFC Harmonic current can be controlled in the simplest way by using a filter that passes current only at line frequency (50 or 60 Hz).Harmonic currents are suppressed and the non-linear device looks like a linear load. Power factor can
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be improved by using capacitors and inductors i.e. passive devices. Such filters with passive devices are called passive filters. Disadvantages: 1) They require large value high current inductors which are expensive and bulky. A passive PFC circuit requires only a few components to increase efficiency, but they are large due to operating at the line power frequency.
FIG 3: Series tuned LC harmonic filter PF corrector.
2) Only less than 0.9 PF can be achieved. 3) THD is high. 4) The output is unregulated and sensitive to circuit parameters. 5) Optimization of the design is difficult. 2.3.2 Active PFC: An active approach is the most effective way to correct power factor of electronic supplies. Here, we place a DC-DC converter (boost converter)
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between the bridge rectifier and the main input capacitors. The converter tries to maintain a constant DC output bus voltage and draws a current that is in phase with and at the same frequency as the line voltage. Working principle: The incoming line voltage passes through a bridge rectifier that produces a full wave rectified output. No current flows into the holdup capacitor unless the line voltage is boosted above the voltage present in the holdup capacitor. This allows the control circuit to adjust the boost voltage to maintain a sinusoidal input current. The control circuit uses the input voltage waveform as a template, to maintain a sinusoidal input current. Hence, The control circuit: 1) Measures the input current, compares it to the input voltage waveform, and adjusts the boost voltage to produce an input current waveform of the same shape. 2) It monitors the bus voltage and adjusts the boost voltage to maintain a coarsely regulated DC output.
FIG 4: Correcting the poor power factor associated with electronic power supplies requires an active approach in which a control circuit adjusts a boost voltage to maintain a sinusoidal input current.
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Active PFC Functions: 1) Active wave shaping of the input current. 2) Filtering of the high frequency switching. 3) Feedback sensing of the source current for waveform control.
4) Feedback control to regulate output voltage.
CHAPTER 3: ROLE OF DC-DC CONVERTERS Power electronic converters are essentially required when we need to convert electricity from one form to other. They form an interface between the source and load side. In the last several years, the massive use of single phase power converters has increased the problems of power quality in electrical systems. High-frequency active PFC circuit are preferred for power factor correction. Any DC-DC converters can be used for this purpose, if a suitable control method is used to shape its input current or if it has inherent PFC properties. The DC-DC converters can operate in Continuous Inductor Current Mode – CICM, where the inductor current never reaches zero during one switching cycle or Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode - DICM, where the inductor current is zero during intervals of the switching cycle. In CICM, different control techniques are used to control the inductor current. Some of them are (1) peak current control (2) average current control (3) Hysteresis control (4) borderline control.
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3.1 Basic circuit topologies of Active Power Factor Correctors Many circuits and control methods using switched-mode topologies have been developed. The active PFC’s employ six basic converter topologies 1) Buck Corrector 2) Boost Corrector 3) Buck-Boost corrector 4) Cuk, Sepic and Zeta Correctors We go for boost corrector which is one of the most important high power factor rectifiers from a theoretical and conceptual point of view. It is obtained from a classical non-controlled bridge rectifier, with the addition of transistor, diode and inductor. In this report, boost and buck-boost converters are discussed.
3.2 Boost Converter: It is a DC-DC converter whose output voltage is greater than input voltage. The circuit is as shown in the figure.
FIG 5: Basic circuit of a boost converter.
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FIG 5.1: When switch is ON
FIG 5.2: When switch is OFF
Initially when switch is open, the output voltage v0 is equal to VS. When switch is closed, inductor charges from VS through the switch. Diode is reverse biased and so output is isolated from input. In steady state the time integral of the inductor voltage over one time period must be zero,
Vd ton+ (Vd - V0)toff = 0 which gives, Vd = (1-D)V0 where D is the duty cycle and D<1.
Hence the output voltage is greater than the input voltage.
3.3 Buck-Boost Converter: The output voltage of this converter is negative of the input voltage. Depending on the magnitude of the duty cycle, its magnitude can be more than or less than that of the input voltage.
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FIG 6: Buck-Boost converter circuit
Following the similar procedure of analysis as that of Boost converter, and applying steady state analysis i.e. the time integral of inductor voltage over one time period is zero gives,
Where, D is the duty cycle of the switch. The magnitude of output voltage depends on the duty cycle. If D<0.5, gives V0<Vd ,if D>0.5, gives V0>Vd and if D=0.5 gives V0=Vd.
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3.4 Boost Converter for power factor correction: It is connected between the bridge rectifier and output load.
FIG 7: Boost converter for power factor correction
The input current is(t) is controlled by changing the conduction state of transistor. By switching the transistor with appropriate firing pulse sequence, the waveform of the input current can be controlled to follow a sinusoidal reference. The figure shows the reference inductor current iLref , the inductor current iL, and the gate drive signal x for transistor. Transistor is ON when x = 1 and it is OFF when x =0. The ON and OFF state of the transistor produces an increase and decrease in the inductor current iL.
Fig 8: Inductor current waveforms
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FIG 8.1: Transistor gate drive signal x.
The PFC properties of a boost converter can be estimated from the given plots:
FIG 9.1: Harmonic content of the current waveform obtained from a rectifier circuit
FIG 9.2: Harmonic content of the current waveform of a boost PFC converter
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As can be clearly seen, the higher order harmonics are considerably reduced in the line current by using a boost converter.
CHAPTER 4: CONTROL PRINCIPLES OF DC-DC CONVERTERS: Control strategy for an electrical system is intended to develop a set of actions that can detect the time evolution of electrical quantities and to impose them to follow a desired time evolution. In general, a control algorithm can be split into three functional sub-blocks: 1) Control Algorithm- Operates to generate reference values to the feeding algorithm on the basis of reference values imposed to the controller. 2) Feeding Algorithm- gives the voltage or current values to impose at the considered system in order to follow the time evolution of the reference values coming from the control algorithm. 3) Converter control Algorithm- provides the right sequence of firing pulses for management of the power modules based on the information derived from control and feeding algorithm. A dc-dc converter provides a regulated dc output voltage under varying load and input voltage conditions. The converter component values are also changing with time, temperature and pressure. Hence, the control of the output voltage should be performed in a closed-loop manner using principles of negative feedback. Control Techniques: 4.1. Peak current control: The basic scheme of the peak current controller is shown in Fig.
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FIG 10: Circuit for peak current control scheme
The switch is turned on at constant frequency by a clock signal, and is turned off when the sum of the positive ramp of the inductor current (i.e. the switch current) and an external ramp (compensating ramp) reaches the sinusoidal current reference. This reference is usually obtained by multiplying a scaled replica of the rectified line voltage vg times the output of the voltage error amplifier, which sets the current reference amplitude. In this way, the reference signal is naturally synchronized and always proportional to the line voltage. Converter operates in Continuous Inductor Current Mode (CICM). This means that devices current stress and input filter requirements are reduced.
FIG 10.2: current waveform for peak current control scheme
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Advantages: 1. Constant switching frequency. 2. Only the switch current must be sensed and this can be accomplished by a current transformer, thus avoiding the losses due to the sensing resistor. 3. No need of current error amplifier and its compensation Network. 4. Possibility of a true switch current limiting.
Disadvantages: 1. Presence of sub harmonic oscillations at duty cycles greater than 50%, so a compensation ramp is needed. 2. Input current distortion which increases at high line voltages and light load and is worsened by the presence of the compensation ramp. 3. Control is highly sensitive to commutation noises.
4.2. Average current control: In this scheme, the inductor current is sensed and filtered by a current error amplifier whose output drives a PWM modulator. In this way the inner current loop tends to minimize the error between the average input current ig and its reference. It also works in CICM. Advantages: 1. Constant switching frequency. 2. No need of compensation ramp. 3. Control is less sensitive to commutation noises, due to current filtering.
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4. Better input current waveforms than for the peak current control since, near the zero crossing of the line voltage, the duty cycle is close to one, so reducing the dead angle in input current. Disadvantages: 1. Inductor current must be sensed. 2. a current error amplifier and its compensation network is needed.
FIG 11.1: Circuit for average current control scheme
FIG 11.2: current waveform for average current control scheme
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4.3. Hysteresis control: In this control scheme, two sinusoidal current references IPref ,IVref are generated, one for the peak and the other for the valley of the inductor current. According to this control technique, the switch is turned on when the inductor current goes below the lower reference and is turned off when the inductor current goes above the upper reference, giving rise to a variable frequency control. It works in CICM mode.
FIG 12.1: Circuit for hysteresis control scheme
FIG 12.2: current waveform for hysteresis control scheme
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Advantages: 1. No need of compensation ramp. 2. Low distorted input current waveforms. Disadvantages: 1. Variable switching frequency. 2. Inductor current must be sensed. 3. Control sensitive to commutation noises.
4.4. Borderline control: In this control approach the switch on-time is held constant during the line cycle and the switch is turned on when the inductor current falls to zero, so that the converter operates at the boundary between Continuous and Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (CICM-DICM). The freewheeling diode is turned off softly and the switch is turned on at zero current, so the commutation losses are reduced. The higher current peaks increase device stresses and conduction losses and may require heavier input filters. The instantaneous input current is constituted by a sequence of triangles whose peaks are proportional to the line voltage. Thus, the average input current becomes proportional to the line voltage.
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FIG 13.1: Circuit for borderline control scheme
FIG 13.2: current waveform for borderline control scheme
Advantages: 1. No need of a compensation ramp. 2. No need of a current error amplifier. Disadvantages: 1. Variable switching frequency. 2. Inductor voltage must be sensed in order to detect the zeroing of the inductor current. 3. For controllers in which the switch current is sensed, control is sensitive to commutation noises.
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4.5. Discontinuous current PWM control: The internal current loop is completely eliminated, so that the switch is operated at constant on-time and frequency. Converter works in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) and this control technique allows unity power factor when used with converter topologies like flyback, Cuk and Sepic. With the boost PFC, this technique causes some harmonic distortion in the line current.
FIG 14: current waveform for discontinuous current control scheme
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Advantages: 1. Constant switching frequency. 2. No need of current sensing. 3. Simple PWM control. Disadvantages: 1. Higher devices current stress than for borderline control. 2. Input current distortion with boost topology.
CHAPTER 5. MODIFIED CIRCUITS: 5.1. Three-Level Boost power factor correction converter: For high power or high voltage applications, the major concerns of the conventional boost PFC converter are the inductor volume and weight, and losses on the power devices, which affect cost, efficiency, and power-density. A three-level boost converter uses a much smaller inductor and lower voltage devices than the conventional boost converter yielding high efficiency and low cost.
FIG 15: Three level Boost PFC converter.
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The voltage at the centre of the output is V0/2 which is obtained by choosing C1=C2. Operation Principle: There are two regions of operation depending on whether the input voltage is lower or higher than half of the output voltage. Region 1 (Vin < V0/2): In this region, boost converter charging voltage is Vin and the discharging voltage which used to be V0-Vin in a conventional boost converter, can be chosen as V0/2-Vin. At time t0, which is the beginning of a switching cycle, the switch S 1 is turned on and both switches are conducting. The inductor is charged with the input voltage. At time t1, S2 is turned off, forcing the inductor current to flow through the bottom output capacitor C2 and the bottom diode D2. Hence, the discharging voltage applied is V0/2-Vin. At time t2, which is fixed at t0+Ts/2, S2 is turned on, charging the inductor with input voltage again. At time t3, S1 is turned off and the inductor current will go through D1, C1, and S2, discharged by V0/2-Vin again. Since the upper and lower capacitors are alternatively used for discharging the inductor, their voltages are theoretically balanced.
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Region 2 (Vin > V0/2): In this region, the inductor charging voltage is Vin-V0/2, and the discharging voltage will be V0-Vin. At time t0, which is the beginning of a switching cycle, S1 is turned on with S2 left open, the inductor current flows through S1, C2 and D2. At time t1, S1 is turned off, forcing the inductor current to go through D1, C1, C2 and D2. In the next half cycle, S2 repeats the above action.
FIG 16: Operation waveforms for a three level boost converter.
a) Vin < V0/2
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b) Vin > V0/2
Less Current Ripple: In a conventional boost converter, the maximum inductor ripple which occurs at Vin=0.5V0 is given by,
For a three level boost converter, the maximum current ripple in region 1 occurs when Vin=0.25V0 and is given by,
Clearly, inductor current ripple in three-level boost converter is one fourth of that of conventional one. This implies for the same current ripple, three level boost converter requires four times less inductance than the conventional one. Higher efficiency and lower cost: The capacitive turn-on loss is reduced eight times, assuming same output capacitance for devices with different voltage ratings. The diode reverse recovery losses are also reduced, since the reverse voltage is only half of the output voltage. Therefore total switching loses are reduced.
5.2. Modified Single-Phase PFC AC-DC Buck-Boost Converter: It operates in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). This converter has low voltage stresses on the power devices than the conventional PFC AC-DC buck-
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boost converter. The complexity of control circuit is reduced in DCM mode converters and the cost is reduced.
FIG 17: Modified buck-boost power factor correction converter
Mode 1: Switches S1 and S2 are turned on. The energy of the line source is transferred to inductor L and the energy stored in the output capacitor C is discharged to the load.
FIG 17.1: Mode 1 of Modified buck-boost power factor correction converter
Mode 2: Switches S1 and S2 are turned off. The energy stored in inductor L is released to the output capacitor C and the load.
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FIG 17.2: Mode 2 of Modified buck-boost power factor correction converter
Mode 3: Switches S1 and S2 are still turned off. The energy stored in inductor L is empty at t = tk2. The energy stored in the output capacitor C is discharged to the load.
FIG 17.3: Mode 3 of Modified buck-boost power factor correction converter
Voltage gain of the modified buck boost converter is same as that of conventional buck-boost converter and is given by,
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Voltage Stresses on Power Devices: According to the operating principle, the voltage stresses on power devices S1, S2, D1, and D2 are given as Vs1 = Vm, Vs2 = V0, VD1 = Vm and VD2 = V0. The conventional buck-boost converter on power devices S1 and D1 are given as VS1 = VD1 = ( Vm + V0). Hence, the voltage stresses on the power devices of the modified buck-boost converter are less than the conventional buck-boost converter.
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6. DC Electrical Systems The application of DC distribution of electrical power has been suggested as an efficient method of power delivery. This concept is inspired by the absence of reactive power, the possibility of efficient integration of small distributed generation units and the fact that, internally, many appliances operate using a DC voltage. A suitable choice of rectifier facilitates the improvement of the power quality as well as the power factor at the utility grid interface. Stand-by losses can be largely reduced. However, because of the inherent danger associated with DC voltages and currents, it is imperative that a considerable amount of design effort is allocated for risk analysis and the conception of protective devices In this report, the architecture of a DC television is discussed. The simulations for the circuits are done in PSpice. 6.1 Television: The basic block diagram of a television is shown in the figure.
Fig 18: Block diagram of a television
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6.1.1 RF Section
This section consists of RF amplifier, mixer and local oscillator. RF amplifier is used as a pre-amplifier for improving SNR. It amplifies the input composite signal consisting of audio and video signals in separate frequency bands. Local oscillator and mixer functions are usually combined in one stage called the frequency converter. The purpose of the tuner unit is to amplify both sound and picture signals picked up by the antenna and to convert the carrier frequencies and their associated bands into the intermediate frequencies and their sidebands. The signal voltage or information from various stations modulated over different carrier frequencies is heterodyned in the mixer with the output from a local oscillator to transfer original information on a common fixed carrier frequency called the intermediate frequency (IF). The standard intermediate frequencies for the 25-B system are-Picture IF = 38.9 MHz, Sound IF = 33.4 MHz.
6.1.2 IF Amplifier Section
A short length of coaxial cable feeds tuner output to the first IF amplifier. This section is also called video IF amplifier since composite video signal is the envelope of the modulated picture IF signal. The main function of this sections is to amplify modulated IF signal over its entire bandwidth with an input of about 0.5 mV signal from the mixer to deliver about 4 V into the video detector, requiring an overall gain of about 8000.
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6.1.3 Video Detector
Modulated IF signals after due amplification in the IF section are fed to the video detector. The detector is designed to recover composite video signal and to transform the sound signal to another lower carrier frequency. This is done by rectifying the input signal and filtering out unwanted frequency components. A diode is used, which is suitably polarized to rectify either positive or negative peaks of the input signal. An L-C filter is used instead of the usual RC configuration employed in ratio receiver detectors to avoid undue attenuation of the video signal while filtering out carrier components.
6.1.4 Video Amplifier
The picture tube needs video signal with peak-to-peak amplitude of 80 to 100 volts for producing picture with good contrast. With an input of about 2 volts from the detector, the video amplifier is designed to have a gain that varies from 40 to 60. A contrast control is essentially the gain control of the video amplifier. A large contrast makes the picture hard, whereas a low value leaves it weak or soft.
6.1.5 Picture Tube
The picture tube or kinescope serves as the screen for a television receiver and is a specialized from of cathode-ray tube. A luminescent phosphor coating provided on the inner surface of its face plate produces light when hit by the electrons of the fast moving beam. For colour picture tubes the screen is formed of three different phosphors and there are three electron beams, one for each colour phosphor. The three
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colours red, green and blue produced by three phosphors combine to produce different colours. The cathode is indirectly heated and consists of a cylinder of nickel that is coated at its end with thoriated tungsten or barium and strontium oxides. These emitting materials have low work-function and when heated permit release of sufficient electrons to form the necessary stream of electrons within the tube. The grids that follow the control grid are the accelerating or screen grid and the focusing grid. These are maintained at different positive potentials with respect to the cathode that vary between 200 V to 600 V. The composite video signal that is injected either at the grid or cathode of the tube, modulates the electron beam to produce brightness variations of the tube, modulates the electron beam to produce brightness variations on the screen. The current in the deflection coils is modulated such that the electron beam scans the entire screen.
Fig 18.1: Various parts of a picture tube
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6.1.6 Sound Section
Sound signal after separation from the composite signal in the video detector is fed to intermediate frequency amplifiers for amplification. After amplification it is given to FM demodulator for recovering the audio signal. The output signal is proportional to the deviations from carrier frequency. Then the signal is amplified using audio amplifiers and sent to the loud speaker.
Typical Circuits used in the television 1. RF amplifier
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2. Audio amplifier
3. Video amplifier
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DC voltages required
The RF amplifier needs 12V supply whereas audio amplifier needs about 9V supply. The video amplifier needs 15V supply. FM demodulator needs about 2.3V. The picture tube requires about 200V. So a 48V DC line is suitable for a television and this voltage can be converted to other voltages required by the circuits.
Fig 19: Block diagram showing DC voltages required for various circuits
6.2 PSpice Simulation 1. Buck converter
Various DC voltages have been generated from 48V supply. To get 15V, the duty cycle of the pulse is given as 0.3125. The corresponding inductor, capacitor, and resistor values are shown in the picture.
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Fig 20: PSpice circuit diagram and waveforms of a buck converter
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2. Boost converter Higher voltage is generated using a boost converter. Here duty cycle used is 0.72. This voltage is used in picture tube.
Fig 21: PSpice circuit diagram and waveforms of a boost converter
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CONCLUSION: The main objective throughout the project has been to improve the power factor with simultaneous reduction in input current harmonics. Power factor correction has become essential for effective use of input power and the circuits with Choppers provide a solution for this purpose. In this report, traditional power factor circuits and their operational principles are discussed. Different control schemes for the control circuit along with their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, some modifications are done in the traditional circuit to improve certain parameters like efficiency, reduction of voltage and current stresses etc.
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LIST OF REFERENCES: 1. Rashid M., Power Electronics Handbook. 2. Parillo.F: High performances Power Factor Correction Systems(PFC). 3. Power Electronics and applications by Ned Mohan. 4. Report on “Three level boost power factor correction converter” by Michael T.Zhang, Lee. 5. Modified Buck-Boost converter by Lung-Sheng Yang. 6. Wikipedia. 7. Monochrome colour television by R.R.Gulati.
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