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Level of Implementation of BLT Feeding Program and Academic Performance among Pupils of Selected Schools in Talomo District: An Assessment

A Research Paper Presented to the Nursing Faculty of Davao Doctors College

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Nursing Research I

By: Salgo, Analu; Salutan, Arjay; Salva, Romina Zandra; Santos, Kimberly; Sedico, Sonia; Senoc, Red; Sibay, Shiela Mae; Sison, Chiara Mae

CHAPTER I Introduction Background of the Study School feeding programs (SFPs) have received relatively less attention in recent economic literature (Adelman et al., 2007, for a review). Significantly, seldom do the studies of SFPs assess the relative impact of different modalities of interventions; the current study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a rigorous evaluation of alternative school feeding schemes in the same environment. In general, three objectives can be directly associated with school feeding programs (Adelman et al., 2007; Levinger, 1986). First, SFPs can motivate parents to enroll their children and see that they attend school regularly. Second, SFPs can improve the nutritional status of school age children over time, and alleviate short-term hunger in malnourished or otherwise well-nourished schoolchildren. Third, SFPs can improve cognitive functions and academic performance via reduced absenteeism and increased attention and concentration due to improved nutritional status and reduced short-term hunger. Indirectly, by increasing the amount of food available to the household, SFPs could improve the nutritional status of household members who are not in school, especially when SFPs entail take home rations. Overall, SFPs are appealing because if properly designed and implemented they lead to increased number of children being enrolled with better academic performances.

The two forms of SFPs that we consider consist of school meals and takehome rations (THR). Under school meals program breakfast and/or lunch (possibly fortified with micronutrients) is served at the school every school day. Under THR a student receives a certain amount of food staples each period conditional on maintaining a specified attendance rate during that period. For the School Year 2009-2012, DDC continues to be the Local Implementing Partner (LIP) of Jollibee Foundation of the Busog, Lusog, Talino (BLT) daily lunch feeding program for underweight Grades 1 & 2 pupils in public elementary schools for 136 days. Series of BLT orientations were conducted in these schools from June 27-30, July 1-7 & 21, 2011 participated by school admin/teachers, parents, PTA officers/members and LGU representatives. The orientation aimed to acquaint the recipients on the programs objectives, stakeholders roles and responsibilities for effective program implementation. And for now, the BLT 1st batch of five elem. schools (Bago, Baliok, Langub, RC Quimpo and Talomo Central Elem. Schools) are implementing their feeding program in-school, simultaneous with the batch 2 schools catering to underweight Grades 1 & 2 pupils. The BLT Feeding Program in partnership with Jollibee Foundation was implemented for two years (2009-2011), and the researchers observed that there is a decline of participation on the part of the recipients.

The study is relevant to determine the level of implementation of the BLT feeding program that contributed to its success and impact on education of the pupils. Review of Related Literature This section presents the review of related literature that will support our study. It contains articles and statements regarding the effect of school feeding programs to the attendance rate and academic performance of the students. Feeding Programs School feeding programs have been implemented both in developed and the developing world. Throughout the developing world, these programs often occur through large organizations in collaboration with national governments and non-governmental organizations. The largest provider is the UN World Food Programme (WFP), which operated in 78 countries in 2006. Numerous other agencies and NGOs operate school feeding programs at the national, regional and local level. The primary assumption of SFPs is that education and learning depend on good nutrition. Ample evidence exists to support this assumption. However, in designing and implementing a school feeding program, a number of options are available, depending on the primary and secondary objectives of the program. SFPs can range from simple snack provision (usually fortified biscuits) to breakfast or lunch programs, to take-home rations. Often, these programs operate in conjunction with other health and nutrition initiatives to increase their success and impact.

In the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 it was stated that educational progress was an objective of the United States School Feeding programs. In spite of this fact no serious attempt has ever been made to evaluate whether this objective has been met; the few evaluations that have been conducted lack scientific rigor. As a whole the studies fail to provide a strong basis from which to make valid inferences regarding the long-term effects of the feeding program on school achievement and adaptation. Studies that have focused on the short-term effects of hunger or morning feeding suggest that the provision of breakfast may both benefit the student emotionally and enhance his capacity to work on school type tasks. Attendance Rate A study of the state of health of the Nutrition Foundation of India was done regarding nutrition and physical and mental competencies of 1,336 children, aged 6-8 years in the rural schools of Uttar Pradesh, for a period of more than three years, found that the problems of malnutrition and ill health cannot be overcome by the school meal program which provides less than 15% of the recommended daily allowance for calories. However, the program did improve school attendance and academic performance as well as reduce the school dropout rate. Nutrition status appeared to be the most important determinant of

scholastic performance. Another study in Bangladesh was done and it shows that income supplements through food distribution in 4,787 primary schools - 30 kg of wheat per month to 698,000 beneficiaries - has achieved its objective of raising

enrollment and attendance and reducing dropout of low-income families. This report documents a cost-effectiveness evaluation of this government-sponsored program. The survey covered 104 food for education (FFE) schools and 97 nonFFE schools. Enrollment increased by 20% in FFE schools compared with a 2% decline in non-FFE schools. Attendance improved in FFE and drop out was lower than in non-FFE schools. The program effectively targeted the program to low-income households, however the income benefits may not be great enough to entice children from the poorest households to attend schools. The FFE

program transfers income to target households at least cost compared to other food-based programs -- 1.59 taka per 1 taka benefit versus 6.55 to 1 in the rural rationing program. The cash-based rural maintenance program cash-for-work costs 1.32 taka per 1 taka benefit, the lowest of all targeted programs in Bangladesh. According to a meeting for school feeding for education, school feeding programs can increase attendance rates, especially for girls. School feeding or take-home rations serve as incentives for enrolling children in school and encouraging daily attendance. This is likely a short-term solution, however, because if there is no change in the quality of schooling, attendance will likely drop once the food incentive is removed. The Department of Educations Food for School Program (FSP) started in 2005 resulted to a significant drop in the incidence of malnutrition among public elementary school children from 21 percent to 17 percent. School attendance thus improved from 90 percent in 2006 to 95 percent in 2007. The FSP targets

six schools in each division with the highest incidence of malnutrition and the most number of pupils coming from low-income families as feeding program beneficiaries. DepEd said there was an increase in the number of FSP beneficiaries from 676,740 preschool and grade 1 pupils in 2006 to 2.7 million preschoolers and grade 1 pupils when the program was expanded in 2007. Priority provinces and NCR had all its public elementary school children as recipients. A strong, positive evaluation of the US school breakfast program in Lawrence, Massachusetts, USA, an ethnically diverse city with a high proportion of low-income families, is presented. Six schools participated in the evaluation. All children in grades 3 to 6 were considered eligible to enroll in the study if they had qualified to receive free or reduced price school meals and had been registered in the public school system for the second semester of the school years 1985-1986 and 1986-1987. The school breakfast program began in late January before the start of the second semester of the 1986-87 school years. Participation in the program was related to improvement in standardized tests and rates of absenteeism and tardiness compared to children who qualified for the program but did not participate. The authors conclude that participation in the breakfast program is associated with significant improvements in academic functioning among low-income school children. Analyses of the CRS/Burkina Faso SFP were based on: national data on enrollment, drop-out, and exam scores with participation in school feeding; individual 5-year time series data from 18 schools that had had their school

canteen program suspended or was newly integrated into the program; and 18 matched pairs of schools to control for socio-economic status, quality of school, language, PTA operation, etc. The author concludes that the greatest impact of the SFP was on school attendance, and, in fact, the data may underestimate the impact since teachers are sanctioned based on low attendance rates. relationship with enrollment was not consistent. The

There was an association

between the school canteen and lower dropout rates in the most disadvantaged provinces. A relationship between higher success rates on the end of 6th year exams and participation in the program was also apparent, particularly among girls. The impact of the noon mid-day meal program in India was assessed by analyzing existing data in pre- and post-program periods to identify trends in enrollment, attendance and dropout in participating primary schools. The results suggest that the program has not had a positive impact on aggregate enrollment, but did have a positive impact on attendance and drop-out. United Nations is trying to address child hunger in the Philippines. Since 2006, the WFP has provided support to some 200,000 children in Mindanao through meals in schools and take-home family rations. The program that is implemented with the Department of Social Welfare and Development was having a tremendous impact. There is an increase of 40 percent in terms of attendance in school and dropouts have been practically eliminated. A pilot for a school feeding program conducted in 8 schools (4 receiving the program and 4 control schools) on the outskirts of Lilongwe in Malawi

showed that the SFP clearly had an impact on enrollment and attendance. Schools participating in the program provided children with a cooked porridge (soya and maize flour, iodized salt) providing one-third of the daily recommended caloric intake during the morning of each school day. In addition, deworming tablets were provided to children twice at six month intervals and latrines were under construction at the pilot schools. In program schools there was an

increase of about 5% in enrollment over three months; there was no increase in control schools. There was an even greater impact on absenteeism: 1-2% in program schools compared to 27-36% in control schools over the same period.

Academic Performance Two empirical studies find that school meal programs cause a significant increase in learning achievement, as measured by improvements in test scores. However, in each study, scores were significantly higher for school meal recipients on only one of three tests taken. The impact of in-school meals on learning appears to operate both through improvements in school attendance and through better learning efficiency while in school, though no study has separately identified the relative contribution of these effects. FFE programs may also have an impact on cognitive development, though the size and nature of the effect vary greatly by program, micronutrient content of the food, and the measure of cognitive development used. Empirical evidence on the effects of school meals on cognitive function is mixed and depends on the tests used, the content of the meals, and the initial nutritional status of the children.

The relationship between nutrition and academic performance has been well documented around the world. In particular, the negative effect of under nutrition. Among others, Averett and Stifel (2007) who study the effects of childhood over and underweight on cognitive functioning find that malnourished child tend to have lower cognitive abilities when compared to well nourished. Children who do not get enough to eat are likely to suffer from stunted growth and hindered mental development. In addition, Alaimo et al. (2001) report that children aged between 6 and 11 in food insecure households scored lower on arithmetic tests, were more likely to have repeated a grade, and had difficulty getting along with other children. Kaestner and Grossman (2009) find that children in the top and bottom of the weight distribution have lower achievement test scores than children in the middle of the weight distribution. Boys and girls who are in the lowest (0-5 percentiles) tail of the weight distribution have achievement test scores that are approximately 4-6 percent (10% of a standard deviation) lower than similar children in the middle of the weight distribution. In fact they find more consistent evidence of a low weight effect than a high weight effect. Taras(2005) who reviews research from published studies on the

association between nutrition among school-aged children and their performance in school and on tests of cognitive functioning. Food insufficiency is a serious problem affecting childrens ability to learn. Offering a healthy breakfast is an effective measure to improve academic performance and cognitive functioning among undernourished populations.

Nutritional and health status are powerful influences on a childs learning and on how well a child performs in school. Children who lack certain nutrients in their diet (particularly iron and iodine), or who suffer from protein-energy malnutrition, hunger, parasitic infections or other diseases, do not have the same potential for learning as healthy and well-nourished children. Weak health and poor nutrition among school-age children diminish their cognitive development either through physiological changes or by reducing their ability to participate in learning experiences - or both. Poor nutrition and health among schoolchildren contributes to the inefficiency of the educational system. Children with

diminished cognitive abilities and sensory impairments naturally perform less well and are more likely to repeat grades and to drop out of school than children who are not impaired; they also enroll in school at a later age, if at all, and finish fewer years of schooling. Theoretical Framework Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology, proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper, A Theory of Human Motivation. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow use the terms Physiological, Safety, Belongingness and Love, Esteem, and Self-Actualization needs to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through.

For the most part, physiological needs are obvious they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function. Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Foods are important to the children. Healthy eating can stabilize childrens energy, sharpen their minds, and even out their moods. Eating regularly can improve focus and concentration, and significantly improve their grades and had fewer problems in the class. Maslows hierarchy of needs is significant to our study since it has the thought that for a human to achieve an optimal functioning, he or she should be able to attain first his or her physiological needs. It is congruent to our study because the respondents are malnourished elementary students. The theory will serve as our basis knowing that if a student will not be able to attain to his or her physiological needs such as food, he or she cannot perform well in other activities including class participation. Conceptual Framework The independent variable of the study is the Level of Implementation of Busog, Lusog, Talino Feeding Program in terms of attendance rate and drop out rate while the dependent variable is the Academic Performance in terms of grades.

IV Level of Implementation of BLT 1. Attendance rate 2. Drop out rate

DV Academic Performance 1. Grades

Respondents Profile 1. Age 2. Gender 3. Weight

Figure 1 Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem This study aims to determine the level of implementation of Busog, Lusog, Talino Feeding Program and the academic performance among grades 1, 2, and 3 pupils of selected schools in Talomo district. Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Weight? 2. What is the level of implementation of Busog, Lusog, Talino Feeding Program among pupils of selected schools in Talomo district in terms of: 2.1 Attendance rate; and 2.2 Drop out rate? 3. What is the academic performance of the respondents in terms of final school year grades? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents profile and the level of implementation of the Busog, Lusog, Talino Feeding Program among pupils of selected schools in Talomo district? 5. Is there a significant relationship between the level of implementation of BLT and the academic performance of the respondents in terms of: 5.1 Attendance rate; and 5.2 Grades?

6. Is there a significant difference on the level of implementation of BLT feeding program of selected schools in Talomo district?

Hypotheses This study will be guided by the following null hypotheses to be tested at 0.05 level of significance. Ho1. There is no significant relationship between the respondents profile and the level of implementation of the Busog, Lusog, Talino Feeding Program among pupils of selected schools in Talomo district. Ho2. There is no significant relationship between the level of implementation of BLT and the academic performance of the respondents of

selected schools in Talomo district in terms of attendance rate and grades. Ho3. There is no significant difference on the level of implementation of BLT feeding program of selected schools in Talomo district.

Significance of the Study The results of this study will be beneficial to the following: School administration of Talomo District Elementary School. This study will provide factual data that will help them to analyze and evaluate the results of the Busog, Lusog, Talino Feeding Program to the school attendance rate and academic performance of the pupils. This will also help them to decide whether to find other sponsors in order for other pupils to benefit from a feeding program.

Furthermore, this will help them to think of better ways so as to maintain the feeding program. DDC Administration. The results of this study will serve as basis whether the school will continue to support the feeding program. In addition to that, this will also enlighten them to help and support other public elementary schools. Parents of the pupils. The results of this study will motivate the parents to give importance to their childs nutrition. Furthermore, this study will educate parents that nutrition has an effect on their childs well being and academic performance in school. This study will also enlighten them to encourage their child to eat nutritious foods. Nursing Students. The findings of this research will serve as a source of information for other researches related to the study. This will also motivate the student nurses to have health teachings to the parents of the pupils in order for the pupils to be healthy. Definition of Terms Academic Performance- How students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers. Age- The period of time that a person has lived. Attendance Rate- The ratio of the number of enrolled students actually in attendance during the course of a school year to the number of enrolled students that school year.

Dropout Rate- The number of people who stop attending school before the end of a school year. GenderA range of characteristics particularly used in to the distinguish cases

between males and females,

of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. Grade- A level of academic development in an elementary, middle, or secondary school. Level of Implementation- The extent of action exerted by the school involved in conducting the feeding program, measured through the outcome of the attendance and dropout rate. Respondents- The ones involved in the study; the recipients of the BLT Feeding Program. Weight- A measure of the heaviness of an object.

CHAPTER II Research and Methodology This chapter presents the research design, research setting, participants, measures, procedure, statistical tools, scope and limitation of the study. Research Design The researchers will utilize the non-experimental descriptive, correlational, and comparative research designs. It is descriptive because it will describe the demographic profile of the respondents and the level of implementation of BLT Feeding Program. It is correlational because it aims to determine the significant relationship between the level of implementation of BLT and the academic performance of the respondents among selected schools in Talomo district in terms of attendance rate and grades. It is also comparative design because it will determine the significant difference on the level of implementation of BLT feeding program of selected schools in Talomo district. Setting The study will be conducted at Romualdo C. Quimpo Elementary School, Baliok Elementary School, Bago Elementary School, and Talomo Elementary School. The institutions have six levels, Grade 1, Grade 2, Grade 3 and Grade 4, Grade 5 and Grade 6. Each level is composed of four to five sections. All of these institutions are located at Talomo, Davao City.

Participants Table 1 Frequency Distribution of Respondents Per School Name of School Romualdo C. Quimpo Elementary School Baliok Elementary School Bago Elementary School Talomo Elementary School Total Number of Recipient 40 40 40 40 160

The table shows the frequency distribution of the respondents from different schools of Talomo districts. There are 40 Grades 1, 2, and 3 pupils from each school, with a total of 160 pupils who were the recipients of the feeding program. Sampling Universal sampling will be employed in the study.

Research Measures

To determine the level of implementation of BLT Feeding Program in terms of attendance rate and drop out and their academic performance, the researchers will utilize the school records of the respondents. Procedure The researchers formulated a title, and presented to title defense. After the approval of the title, the researcher will undergo a proposal defense. After approval of the proposed study, the researchers will write a letter to the principals of the different schools in Talomo district asking permission to conduct the study and utilize the school records of the recipients for data gathering. Scope and Limitation of the study This study will focus on determining the level of implementation of BLT feeding program and the academic performance of Grades 1, 2, and 3 pupils of school year 2009- 2011 of Romualdo C. Quimpo Elementary School, Baliok Elementary School, Bago Elementary School, Talomo Elementary School.