DESIGN OF A STEAM POWER PLANT

REPORT ON VOCATIONAL TRAINING KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION KOTA, RAJASTHAN

Fig 1. KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER PLANT at kota,rajasthan

Submitted by: - ABHISHEK MEENA B.TECH ELECTRICAL ENGG. EN.ROLL 09115004,E-1

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CONTENTS
TOPIC 1.Certificate Copy 2.List of Figures 3.Abstract 4. KSTPS Profile 5. Circuit’s 5.1 Introduction:  Fuel and Ash Circuit.  Air and Gas Circuit.  Feed water and Steam Circuit.  Cooling Water Circuit 6. Design of a steam power station 6.1 Boiler 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Boiler drum 6.1.3 Economizers 6.1.4 Air Preheater 6.1.5 Superheater 6.1.6 Description 6.2 Steam turbine 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Impusle Turbine 6.2.3 Impulse-Reaction Turbine 6.2.4 steam flow 6.2.5 HP Turbine 6.2.6 IP Turbine 6.3 Generator 6.3.1 Turbo Generator 6.4 Cooling System 6.4.1 Introduction 6.4.2 Hydrogen dryers PAGE NO.

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6.5 Excitation system 6.5.1 Introduction 6.5.2 Static Excitation system 6.6Dearator 6.7 Condenser 6.7.1 Feed water Heater 6.7.2 Force draught fan 6.7.3 Induced Draught fans 6.8 Switchyard 6.8.1 Introduction 6.8.2 Circuit Breakers 6.8.3 Isolators 6.8.4 Circuit Transformer 6.9 Protection 6.10 Coal handling plant 6.11 Ash handling plant 6.12 Control Room 6.13 Conclusion 6.14 References

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LIST OF FIGURES.
Fig 1. KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER PLANT at kota,rajasthan Fig.1.1 TWO CHIMNIS OF KSTPS Fig 1.2 plant overview Fig. 1.3 inside view of a boiler furnace Fig. 1.4 Boiler house Component Fig. 1.5 Outer side view of boiler drum Fig. 1.6 Economizer tubes Fig. 1.7 Air preheater Fig 1.8 Superheater Fig 1.9 Steam Turbine used in power plant Fig.1.10 View of the internals of a power station Fig. 1.11 Dearator used in thermal power station. Fig. 1.12 condenser Fig. 1.13 Force Draught fan Fig. 1.14 Induced draught fan Fig 1.15 coal handling plant wagon

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Boiler Tube leakage and plant availability > 95%. The objective was achieved with remarkable improvement in the Un-burnt coal. yet it is so widely produced and is the most popular high grade energy. It is desirable to have minimal maintenance and Plant Load Factor (PLF) achieved is better than 90%. 5 . operating cost as well to increase the production. plant down time.tube failures. The Kota thermal power plant was run with an objective to reduce . To achieve these goals higher. Report starts with a brief introduction of KSTPS Profile followed by Boiler.3. switch yard etc. un-burnt coal. While writing the report and while I was on my training I was wondering that science is as ever expanding field and the engineers working hard day and night and make the life a gift for us. Kota Super Thermal Power Station has total installed capacity of 1240 Megawatts. recently at Kota Super Thermal Power Station (KSTPS) the plant control system was upgraded at unit – 1 & 2 from Trans-data technology to Distributed Control System (DCS) technology. Turbine. In Plant Coal is used to generate most electric power because it offers economic and reliability advantages over other fuels The purpose behind training is to understand the difficult concepts in a better way with gain of knowledge. . Generator. The Unit – 1 & 2 represent 2 X 110 MWs capacity. switch gear. Abstract A very peculiar fact about electrical energy is that neither it is directly available in nature nor it is directly used finally in this form.

stored by the “barrage” provides.While Rajasthan mineral sources are immense. it was decided to house initially a 2 x 200 MW thermal power station at Kota on techno-economical reasons as follows Availability of clean water required for station  Proximity to Madhya Pradesh Coal fields.P. 6 .S.P. is designed for ultimate capacity of 1240 MW. For bringing in coal for power station and machinery and equipment etc. its sources for power generation weren’t commensurable with its requirements. The large expense of water.S PROFILE Fig.1. Thermal power station to produce electrical power for supply undertakings K.T.1 TWO CHIMNIS OF KSTPS KOTA SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION is ideally located on the left bank of Chambal River at the upstream of “KOTA BARRAGE”. of industries located.4. a 15Km long private siding from the Gurla Railway Station on Delhi-Bombay broad gauge line has been laid-up to the power station. as efficient direct circulation cooling system for the power station thus avoiding installation of cooling towers. The state Rajasthan is predominantly rural and agricultural .S.S.  Concentration of load in Kota region due to large No.T. K. Keeping in view the higher demands of power.

is 2.) is the reservoir formed by “Kota Barrage” on the Chambal River.S. in Stage IV started in July.(one unit of 210 MW) = 210 MW Stage IV.(Two units each of 110 MW) = 2X110 MW Stage II.S. A single chimney of 180 Meters height with two separate flues for the two units each of 110 MW is provided.(one unit of 195 MW) =195 MW TOTAL POWER GENERATION = 1240 MW 5. Similarly another chimney with three separate flues is also provided for another three units of 210 MW each.P.The coal linkage for the power station is brought from Dudhichua mines of Singrauli coal field which is about 800 km from Kota. INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING OF UNITS:Construction work for stage-I started in 1977 and first unit of 110 MW was commissioned on 17th Jan. The second unit of second stage was commissioned in Oct.75 cusec for each 110 MW unit.(Two units each of 210 MW) = 2X210 MW Stage III. 1984.The second 110 MW unit was firstly synchronized in July 1983. are as: Stage I . The source of Water (cooling for the P. Thus the units in K. 1989. The second stage units are synchronized in 1989. The comparative use of water from barrage by the P. 2003 and unit VII was done in 2009.T.S. 2001 and the synchronization of the unit was done in July. The commencement of unit VI.1 INTRODUCTION 7 . The water is drawn from this reservoir and after use released near the left main canal of the barrage.(one unit of 195 MW) = 195 MW Stage V.S. The disposal for fifth unit till now is also through the second chimney. After that unit of 210 Mw was started in April 11. 1983. CIRCUITS 5.

(iii) Feed Water and Steam Circuit : The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (LP) heaters through extracted steam from the lower pressure extraction of the turbine. (ii) Air and Gas Circuit: Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of Boiler through the action of forced draft fan and induced draft fan. This ash is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to ash storage tank through ash disposal equipment. Fig 1. Steam is produced in Boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into the boiler again.A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle.2 plant overview The Kota Thermal Power Station is divided into four main circuits: (i) Fuel & Ash Circuit: Fuel from the storage is fed to the boiler through fuel handling device. The flue gas gases are first pass around the boiler tubes and super heated tubes in the furnace. which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash. The fuel used in KTPS is coal. they are exhausted to the atmosphere through fans. In practice of good number of modifications are affected so as to have heat economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of plant. Finally. Then its goes to dearator where extra air and non-condensable gases 8 . The quantity of ash produced is approximately 35-40% of coal used. next through dust collector (ESP) & then economizer.

A small part of water and steam is lost while passing through different components therefore water is added in hot well. The water is drawn from reservoir and after use it is drained into the river. The wet steam passes through superheated. 4.Selection of turbines and their auxiliaries. feed water enters into the boiler drum through economizer.1 Introduction : 9 .Selection of condensers.1. From superheated it goes into the HP turbine after expanding in the HP turbine.Selection of electrical generator 6. From the BFP it passes through the high pressure heaters.Design of fuel handling system. 5.are removed from the hot water to avoid pitting / oxidation.Design of piping system to carry steam and water. In boiler tubes water circulates because of density difference in lower and higher temperature section of the boiler. Thereafter. From deaerator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases the pressure of the water. 3. 6.Selection of boilers. 9.Selection of site 2. Design of a steam power station the followingSteps: 1. The low pressure steam called the cold reheat steam (CRH) goes to the reheater( boiler).1 BOILER 6.Estimation of capacity of power station.Design of cooling system A satisfactory design consists of 8. and their auxiliaries. (iv) Cooling Water Circuit : A large quantity of cooling water is required to condense the steam in condenser and marinating low pressure in it. This water is called the make up water. 6. From reheater it goes to IP turbine and then to the LP turbine and then exhausted through the condenser into hotwell. 7.

A boiler is always designed to absorb maximum amount of heat released in process of combustion.3 inside view of a boiler furnace 10 .under pressure is converted into steam. Fig. These tubes are interconnected to common water channels and to steam outlet. 1.Boiler is a device meant for producing steam under pressure . Water tube boiler:In this type of boiler water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow outside the tubes.A boiler is a closed vessel in which water. The water tube boilers have many advantages over the fire tube boilers · High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heating surface. · Better overall control. · Better heat transfer to the mass of water. It is one of the major components of a thermal power plant. Types of boiler Fire tube boiler:In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which are surrounded by water. · Better efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniform circulation of water in tubes. These are economical for low pressure only.

natural circulation balance draft water tube Boiler . Capacity. of fans in service 11 . of Units. 1. Make : BHEL. : Two./Cm2 6.6 %. 2. : 375 tones per hour. 5. : 139 Kg. No. Steam Pressure. 4. Type : Direct fired.4 Boiler house Component TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF BOILER (2x110MW UNITS) 1. 7. No. 3. Efficiency : 86.Fig.

Quantity consumed Type of handing.a) ID fans. : 1 No. of chimney / stack. : 1 No. No. : . * b) Furnace Oil : 28800 KL per year.No. : 2 Nos. e) Scanner Air fan. c) PA fans. Quantity. : 1 No. : 2 Nos. of coal mills in service. HSD and fuel oil : a) HSD – 5520 KL per year. 198 M3/ Sec Air emitted. Conveyor. f) Igniter fan. Volume of flue Gas/ : : 180 Meters. : Ash disposal B) Oil : Type. 9. 8. FUEL : a) COAL Type. : 2 Nos. b) FD fans. * No. 12 .: 1 / 2. Wet system. of soot blowers : 70 Nos. : Slack Coal. Height of Chimney. : 3074 tonnes per day. d) Seal Air fan. Steam Temperature : 540oC. : 3 Nos 10.

pressure gauge etc.1. Fig. automatic alarms.2 Boiler drum Boiler drum is on the height of approx. One for each unit. 1.1. (1) Fig. the use of these devices assists in adequate control and operation of the boiler as also in safety against accidents. of flue gas. : ESP : 140oC.3 Economizers: The purpose of economizer is to heat feed water so as to recover a part of heat.5 Outer side view of boiler drum 6. A number of accessories such as water level indicator. The boiler drum contains both steam and water. safety valve. 53 meters. Which would otherwise be lost through flue gases.Temp. 6. 13 .

which is rotate on its own axis.6 Economizer tubes 6. The principal benefits of preheating the air are: increased thermal efficiency. The air pre heater is made up of Buckets. Air pre heater heat up the air given to the boile 14 .1.Fig. in the middle of layer. in which 3 layer of buckets are put on each other. The air preheater extracts heat from flue gases and increases the temperature of air used for coal combustion. a motor is held.4 Air Preheater: An Air preheater increases the temperature of the air supplied for coal burning by deriving heat from flue gases. 1.

Fig. A superheater consists of a group of tubes made of special alloy such as chromium-molybdenum. These tubes are heated by the heat of the flue gases during their journey from the furnace to the chimney Fig 1. 1.8 Superheater 15 .5 Superheater: A superheater is a device which superheats the steam. This increases the overall efficiency of the steam.1. it raises the temperature of steam above boiling point of water.7 Air preheater 6.

The UV flame scanners installed at two elevation in each of the four corners of the furnace. Oil burners are located between coal burners for flame stabilization. The pulverized fuel pipes from the mills to the bunkers are provided with basalt lined bends to reduce erosion and to improve the life of these pipes owing to poor grade of coal there is a high percentage of mill rejects. The mill rejects are conveyed in a sluice way to an under-ground tank. Turbine – boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure.. furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed. Facilities have been provided to simultaneously unload and transfer 10 light oil and 40 heavy oil tankers to the designated tanks. balance draft. 16 .8% have been provided to reduce environmental pollution and to minimize induce draft fan wear. radiant type. dry bottom with direct fired pulverized coal from bowl mills. A multi-flue reinforced concrete stack with two internal flues has been provided. scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions but out fuel and trip the boiler and consequently the turbine. natural circulation .1.6 GENERAL DESCRIPTION : Boilers are tangentially fired. From this tank the mixture is taken to an overhead hydro-bin where water is decanted and the mill reject are disposed off by trucking. Oil preheating arrangement is provided on the tanks floors for the heavy oil tanks. coupling with scoop tube arrangement for regulating feed water pressure for each unit. Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes. Two boiler feed pumps each of 100 % capacity are driven by AC motor through hyd. For ensuring safe operation of boilers. ESP with collection efficiency of 99. 6. This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load requirement. They are designed for burning low grade coal with high ash content.

Fig 1.2 Impulse Turbine: If the flow of steam through the nozzles and moving blades of a turbine takes place in such a manner that the steam is expanded only in nozzles and pressure at the outlet sides of the blades is equal to that at inlet side.6..2. the drop in pressure of steam takes place only in nozzles and not in moving blades. When the working substance is steam it is called the steam turbine. in impulse turbine.2 STEAM TURBINE 6.section area As a general statement it may be stated that energy transformation takes place only in nozzles and moving blades (rotor) only cause energy transfer.9 Steam Turbine used in power plant Classification of steam turbine: (A) On the Basis of Principle of Operation : i) Impulse turbine ii) Impulse-reaction turbine 6.1 INTRODUCTION : The dry and superheated steam from the superheater is fed to the steam turbine through main valve. In other words. This is obtained by making the blade passage of constant cross. such a turbine is termed as impulse turbine because it works on the principle of impulse.2. It converts the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance into mechanical power by virtue of dynamic action of working substance. Since the rotor 17 .

6. The steam coming from reheated called HRH is passed to turbine via two combined stop and control valves.4 Steam flow : 210 MW steam turbine is a tandem compound machine with HP.2. the drop in pressure of steam takes place in fixed (nozzles) as well as moving blades. The HP part is single flow cylinder and HP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. Since this turbine works on the principle of impulse and reaction both. The individual turbine rotors and generator rotor are rigidly coupled. The HP cylinder has a throttle control.blade passages do not cause any acceleration of fluid. The pressure drop suffered by steam while passing through the moving blades causes a further generation of kinetic energy within the moving blades. hence chances of flow separation are greater which results in lower stage efficiency.3 Impulse-Reaction Turbine: In this turbine. Main steam is admitted before blending by two combined main stop and control valves. IP & LP parts.(3) 18 . giving rise to reaction and adds to the propelling force which is applied through the rotor to the turbine shaft. The HP turbine exhaust (CRH) leading to reheat have tow swing check valves that prevent back flow of hot steam from reheated. The IP turbine exhausts directly goes to LP turbine by cross ground pipes. so it is called impulse-reaction turbine. into HP turbine. This is achieved by making the blade passage of varying cross-sectional area (converging type) Description of 210 MW Steam Turbine 6.2.

5 HP Turbine The HP casing is a barrel type casing without axial joint.2. The inner casing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint flange are relieved by higher pressure arising outside and this can kept small. Because of its rotation symmetry the barrel type casing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick change in temperature. 19 .6. Due to this reason barrel type casing are especially suitable for quick start up and loading.

110 MW. Economic output Rated speed.6 IP Turbine The IP part of turbine is of double flow construction. Direction of rotation viewing from Rated steam pressure before 130 ata stop valve. The center flow compensates the axial thrust and prevents steam inlet temperature affecting brackets.2. TECHNICAL DATA OF 110 MW TURBINE The main technical data of 110 MW turbine is given below : Rated output. 6.7 LP Turbine The casing of double flow type LP turbine is of three shell design. The outer casing consists of the front and rear walls. 146 ata stop valve. The arrangements of inner casing confines high steam inlet condition to admission branch of casing. 3000 rpm Clockwise the front bearing pedestal. . Maximum steam pressure before Rated temperature of steam before 535oC the stop valve. The double flow inner casing is supported kinematically in the outer casing. The pressure in outer casing relieves the joint of inner casing so that this joint is to be sealed only against resulting differential pressure. bearing etc. while the joints of outer casing is subjected only to lower pressure and temperature at the exhaust of inner casing. The shells are axially split and have rigidly welded construction. The casing of IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double shell construction.2. the lateral longitudinal support bearing and upper part. Maximum temperature of steam before 20 545oC the stop valve. The steam from HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from above and below through two inlet nozzles. 95 MW.6.

Main steam temperature. double row design. MP Cylinder 12 moving wheels. HP Cylinder 2 row carts wheel + 8 moving wheels./Cm2 535oC. LP cylinder 4 moving wheels of Quantity of oil for first filling. 150 Kg. of steam before 545oC. Double flow IP turbine with 20 reaction stages per flow. MP Casing. Overall length. for the turbine.5 K Cal/Kwh. Main steam pressure. 535oC. Rated Temp.975 Mtrs. Maximum Temp. MP Casing. of steam before 535oC. output.Rated pressure of steam 31. Rated pressure of steam before35 ata MP Casing. Reheat steam temperature. Single flow HP turbine with 25 reaction stages. 3000 rpm. 475 T approx. Informative heat flow at the economic Informative heat rate at the rated 2152.approx. 1800 liters. 210 MW. 16. TECHNICAL DATA OF 210 MW TURBINE Rated Output Rated Speed. 21 .6 ata MP Casing. 2135 K cal/Kwh output. Weight of turbine.

one 195 MW turbine installed for unit 6( Under final stage of construction & generation of power is expected in August. A generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. 2 steam check valve in CRH.Double flow LP turbine with 8 reaction stages per flow. At KTPS there are 2x110 MW turbines installed for unit 1 & 2 and 3 210 MW turbines installed for units 3. 2003). 6. In a coal fired thermal power station other raw materials are air and water. 4 & 5.. 2 main stop & control valves. The coal is brought to station by train or other means travels from the coal handling system.3. 6.1 Turbo Generator Generator is the main part of thermal power station or any power plant. 22 . 2 reheat stop & control valves. 2 bypass stop & control valve.3 GENERATOR Thermal power station burns the fuel and use the resultant heat to raise the steam which drives the turbo-generator.

C.m.(6) 23 . The generator is driven by directly coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 r. pressure & purity in machine under the conditions.p. Temperature detectors and other devices installed or connected within then machine. The source of excitation of rotor windings is Thyristor controlled D.Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within frame & circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor. The auxiliary equipment’s supplied with the machine suppresses and enables the control of hydrogen pressure and purity. the Generator is designed for continuous operation at the rated output. permit the windings. supply. shaft sealing lubricating oils. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temperature of windings. teeth core & hydrogen temperature.

75MVA 230V (b) STAGE –II & III Make Manufacturer Rated capacity Rated Output Rated current Rated terminal voltage Rated speed Power factor Excitation voltage Phase sequence Insulation class No. of generator terminals Max. star 6 68. 15.75 KV 3000 rpm 0. of turns per phase/pole Short circuit ratio KWVC Craftworks.TURBO GENERATOR SPECIFICATIONS:STAGE –I (a) Make Manufacturer Type Apparent Output Active Output Power factor Rated voltage Rated current Rated speed Frequency Phase connections No.G.8 lagging 310V Double star B 10 0.P. 137.Germany BHEL 247 MVA 210 MW 9050 Amp. 3000 rpm 50 Hz Double gen. Output with air cooling Excitation voltage Russian BHEL T.5MVA 110 MW 0.8 lagging 11 KV 7200 Amp.49 24 .

3) Smooth operation of machine in view of vertical elimination of wind age noise & the use of heavy gas light enclosure and dirty probe casing. 6.4.4 COOLING SYSTEM : 6. 2) Corona discharge is not harmful to insulation? Since oxidation is not possible.75 KV 3000 Rpm 0. The satural of silica gel is indicated by change in its color from blue to pink. of Turns per Phase/Pole Short Circuit Ratio KWVC Craftworks. This reduces the windage losses in high speed machine like turbo-generator.German BHEL 247 MVA 210 MW 9050 Amp. Hydrogen is used for cooling medium primarily because of its ability to transfer heat through forced convection is about 75% better than superior cooling properties & low density. Increasing the hydrogen pressure the machine improve its capacity to absorb & remote heat. of dryers are provided to absorb the hydrogen in the Generator. The silica gel is reactivated by heating. 15.2 HYDROGEN DRYERS: Two nos.8 Lagging 310 V Double Star B 10 0.1 INTRODUCTION : for cooling generator a hydrogen cooling system is employed. Relative cooling properties of air and hydrogen are given below : 1) Elimination of fire risk because hydrogen will not support combustion.4. 25 .49 6. Moisture in this gas is absorbed by silica gel in the dryer as the absorbed gas passes through it.(c) STAGE –IV Make Manufacturer Rated Capacity Rated Output Rated Current Rated Terminal Voltage Rated Speed Power Factor Excitation Voltage Phase Sequence Insulation Class No. By suitable change over from drier to the other on un-interrupted drying is achieved.

of thyrister converters.5 EXCITATION SYSTEM: 6. The excitation system makes contribution improving power system stability steady state condition. 4) Field suppression equipment. excitation system is to supply required excitation current at rated load condition of turbo Generator. TECHNICAL DATA: HYDROGEN COOLER: Nos. Brushes excitation system. of elements: 6 Cooling medium: Water. 5) Field flashing equipment. The excitation system that is commonly termed quick response system and has following principal feature: . The excitation system must be reliable. I. In KTPS static excitation system is provided it mainly consists of the following:1) Rectifier transformer. Quantity of H2: 30 M3/ sec.6.2 STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM: The modern excitation system adopted presently on BHEL make turbo-generator. 3) An automatic voltage regulator (AVR). Exciter supply is given from transformer and then rectified. Discharge losses: 1500 KW.5. Inherent voltage regulation: 39% 26 . stable in operation and must response quickly to excitation current requirements. Quantity of water Temp: 34oC. of peak. Cooling cold H2 Temp.4 times the rated filed voltage and nominal exciter response of minimum 0.5. Conventional DC excitation system.Exciter of quick response & high voltage of not less than 1. H2 at 2 ATM.5.: 400C How resistance (H2 side): 12 mm. 2) Nos. 6.1 INTRODUCTION.

In particular. 27 .11 Dearator used in thermal power station.(2) Fig. : 0. dissolved oxygen in boiler feed waters will cause serious corrosion damage in steam systems by attaching to the walls of metal piping and other metallic equipment and forming oxides (rust).Short circuit ratio Type: HC-WLL-BS/C46.0005 cm³/L) or less.6 Dearator A Dearator is a device that is widely used for the removal of air and other dissolved gases from the feed water to steam generating boilers. Generator Brushes:Number: Size : Grade: 42 25x32 mm. HM 6R. 6. It also combines with any dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid that causes further corrosion. Most Dearator is designed to remove oxygen down to levels of 7 ppm by weight (0. 1.5%.

28 . For best efficiency. The cold water in the pond is then re-circulated by pumps to condensers. the same water is to be used over and over again. The water is sprayed out at top of tower and as it falls into pond beneath it cooled by the upward draft of air.12 condenser To condense volume of cooling water is huge and continuous volume of cooling water is essential. The exhaust steam from the low pressure turbine enters the shell where it is cooled and converted to condensate (water) by flowing over the tubes as shown in the adjacent diagram. the condenser generally works under vacuum. the temperature in the condenser must be kept as low as practical in order to achieve the lowest possible pressure in the condensing steam.7 Condenser The surface condenser is a shell and tube heat exchanger in which cooling water is circulated through the tubes. 1. so the heat which the water extract from the steam in the condenser is removed by pumping water out of cooling tower. Such condensers use steam ejectors or rotary motor-driven exhausters for continuous removal of air and gases from the steam side to maintain vacuum. The cooling tower is simple concrete shell acting of air. In most of the power stations . Since the condenser temperature can almost always be kept significantly below 100°C where the vapor pressure of water is much less than atmospheric pressure.(3) Fig.6.

The feed water heating equipment then raises the temperature of the water by utilizing extraction steam from various stages of the turbine. there should be a supply for large amounts of air. Preheating the feed water reduces the irreversibility involved in steam generation and therefore improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the system.1 Feed Water Heater: In the case of a conventional steam-electric power plant utilizing a drum boiler. The condensate pump then pumps the condensate water through a feed water heater.7. Air combustion is supplied by force draught. The rest of the air (secondary air) after passing through the air preheater enters the furnace through the dampers (controlled openings).(5) Fans used in a Thermal Power Plant 6. the surface condenser removes the latent heat of vaporization from the steam as it changes states from vapor to liquid. This reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid thermal shock to the boiler metal when the feed water is introduced back into the steam cycle.13 Force Draught fan 29 . Fig. Part of the air (primary air) goes to the mills picking up the powdered coal. The heat content (btu) in the steam is referred to as Enthalpy. 1.2 Force draught fan In order to burn the coal and convert it to heat.6.7.

3 Induced Draught Fans The function of induced draught fan is to draw the flue gas out of the furnace.itis placed near the stack.14 Induced draught fan 30 . reducing the pressure inside the boiler to less than atmosphere one Fig.7.6. the blower is installed near the base of the chimney and the burnt gases are sucked out of the boiler. In an Induced draught system. 1.

6. Each of the two 110 MW generator is connected to this system through a step up of 125 MVA 240/ 11 KV yard generator transformer. It is rated for 245 KW.3 ISOLATOR : All the isolators are provided in 220KV switchyard and are motor operated. They are BHEL make.8. There are two step down transformer each feeding 6. 6. 270/7/7. 6. BS-IS & SB-IB.6 KV system ( Station Switchyard ) viz. Each station transformer has two windings one secondary side and is rated for 50/25/25 mva . single phase. The four isolators are provided with earth switch. Each of four feeder are provided with bypass isolators which is connected across line breaker and breaker isolator. station transformer. Triple pole double breaker type and power switch yard L&T make these and are rates for 245 KV and 1250 A.8 SWITCHYARD 6. A brief description of equipments of 220 KV system is as follows.4 CIRCUIT TRANSFORMER : All the 220 KV current transformers are provided for measuring and protection.2 kva four feeder take off from 220 switch yard.1 INTRODUCTION. Jaipur GSS.2 CIRCUIT BREAKERS : Each of generator transformer. 6. two to SKATPURA . 220 KV System : Two 220 KV bus bars have been provided in switch yard and are interconnected through a bus coupler.8. 2500 A and 13400 MVA circuit breaker is used to break the circuit either in load condition or in no load condition. oil filled nitrogen sealed 31 .8. line feeder and bus coupler is provided with minimum oil circuit breaker of BHEL make. By closing bus coupler between 220 KV buses and putting line feeders whose breaker required maintenance of any one bus through by pass isolators and all other line feeders whose breaker is by passed is then transformed to bus coupler breaker.GSS and other to HEERAPURA .8.

S.T. BHEL. If we have to do some work on line. elicitor magnetic type P.outdoor type. It has larger value of capacitance and will change upto line voltage. generator transformer . has two secondary windings on secondary side and selected for 220/53 KV. are multi-cored with each core having specification upon duty it is to perform. 9 32 . first earth line through earthing isolator for discharging the line capacitance and then work.S. LIGHTENING ARRESTOR : For protection against lightening each of line feeder. All the L.T. station transformer has been provided with three L. (one for each phase).’S are core for each phase of BHEL make. For metering and measuring 600-300/ IA. are 2 Ø outdoor type and are rated for 198 KV these are manufactured by W. All the E. oil filled outdoor. of generator transformer and station transformer are located near them. 10/53 KV. 1) 2) 3) 4) Bus bar protection core I 1250/250/IA. Hyderabad.5 and is used for metering other secondary winding has O/) of 200 mva accuracy class 3 and used for protection. Distance protection core II 600-300/IA. There are single phase . N2 sealed . 220 KV MOCB : Manufacturer Total Nos. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER : each of 220 KV buses is provided with three P. The L.A. Feeder circuit have 5 cores. O/C and E/F protection core 600-300 /IA.A. insulator. One secondary winding has O/P of 500 mva accuracy class .T.A.

Air. Rated Voltage. 220 KV Current Transformer : Manufacturer.II. Nominal Current. Outdoor. 220 KV. of Phase. Trichy. 3Ø 245 KV. No. 2240 Amp. No. 110/53 V.Type HLR 245/2503 B-I. Motor charging Spring Closed. Type Rated Voltage. Secondary Voltage Wdg. Rated Frequency. Class of Insulation Rated Primary Voltage. MAIN BUS BAR : Material Type of Insulation. 2220/ 53 V. A&S Power SWGR Ltd. Rated Frequency. 50 Hz. 220 KV.I Wdg. 245 KV. BHEL. 1-Ø A. Type of operating mechanism. of Phase. 36 Double break operated. 50 Hz. 110/53 V. Nominal Max. 33 . Electrolyte Aluminium. 220 KV ISOLATORS : Manufacturer Number Type Rated Current. Oil filled. 1250 Amp.

3-Ø 198 KV. Type No. 15. Nominal Discharge Current. POWER CAPACITOR : Make Type. Minimum clearance B/W Phase. 415 V. of Poles. W-S Isolators India Ltd. for circuit breaker operation. 19. 500 KA.3 mm. Rated Voltage. Chennai. of Phase. 3. Long Duration Rating. Heavy Duty CPL II. 10 KA.Maximum clearance B/W Phase. No. L&T Limited.3 mm. of Phases. 500 V. No. ML1 ML2 ML3 ML4 ML8 ML12. Maximum Continuous Voltage 500 V. 34 . Type Air Circuit Breaker. CIRCUIT BREAKER : Make L&T Circuit Breaker Ltd. Rated Voltage for main Contacts. 220 KV LIGNTENING ARRESTOR : Manufacturer. 100 KA. High Current Impulse. 3-Ø Rated Voltage.

The whole transportation of coal is through conveyor belt operated by 3-Ø Induction motor. In DC side . fuses and single phasing and phase fail protection.9 PROTECTIONS : In A C side charges may be provided with overload protection to avoid overload. It costs approximate 2 crores of rupees per day including transportation expenses. 6. The coal is firstly unloaded from wagon by wagon triplers then crushed by crushers and magnetic pulley and pulverized to be transformed to the boiler. The approximate per day consumption at KTPS is about 1400 metric tons. The main coal sources for KTPS are SECL (South Eastern Coalfields Limited). 35 . Everyday 3 to 4 trains of coal are unloaded at KTPS.10 COAL HANDLING PLANT INTRODUCTION: It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it provided the fuel for combustion in boiler. Each train consists of 58 wagons and each wagon consists of 50 tons of coal. ECL (Eastern Coalfield Limited) and BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Limited).6. Output will be provided with HRC fuses converted output will be continuously monitored in each link to find the failure. Diodes and SCRs will be provided with semiconductor fuses for fast action on short cut faults. Sometime provided with AC under voltage and AC abnormal voltage protection. The coal is brought to the KTPS through rails there are fourteen tracks in all for transportation of coal through rails.

Rated Current. : : : 71 KW. The rollers roll with the help of a rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring induction motor with specification: Rated Output. is in the form of net so that coal pieces of only equal to and less than 200 mm.15 coal handling plant wagon The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections:1) 2) 3) Wagon Unloading System. Crushing System. The bigger ones are broken by the workers with the help of hammers. 36 . WAGON UNLOADING SYSTEM: Wagon Tripler: It unloads the coal from wagon to hopper. which is made of Iron. size pass through it. Conveying System. Rated Voltage.22 Amp. It is a mechanical system having two rollers each at its ends. From the hopper coal pieces fall on the vibrator. 14. 415 V.Fig 1. The hopper.

(approx. . When the motor operates the rollers roll in forward direction moving the wagon towards the “Wagon Table”. 3 50 Hz. End product size: : 80” 5 A breaker. : (-) 0-500 mm. size. Crushing System: Crusher House: It consists of crushers which are used to crush the coal to 20 mm. Rotary Breaker: Type Capacity Feed Material. The four rollers place themselves respectively behind the first and the last pair of wheels of the wagon. Ring granulators.e. Secondary Crushers. No. End Product size: Motor rating. There are mainly two type of crushers working in KTPS:Primary Crushers i. : 1350 TPH Rates/ 1500 TPH Design.Rated Speed. : : : 975 rpm. 125 KW. : 2 Nos. Roll Crusher: Type Capacity Feed material Feed size. Frequency. 100 rpm. of phases. : Coal with rejects. On the Wagon table a limit is specified in which wagon has to be kept otherwise the triple would not be achieved. i. : 12’ x 21o Rotary Breaker. Primary Crushers: Primary crushers are provided in only CHP stage 3 system . (-) 1200 mm. Feed size. (-) 0-200 mm. 37 . which breaking of coal in CHO Stage 1 & Stage 2 system is done at wagon tripler hopper jail up to the size (-) 250 mm.e. i) Rail crushers or ii) Rotary breaker. : 800 TPH Rated/ 1000 TPH Design.) (-) 500 mm. : Rom Coal.

Breaker rpm. of toothed rings and 18 Nos. Main parts of granulator like break plates. The unique feature of this granulator is the minimum power required for tone for this type of material to be crushed compared to that of other type of crushers. of ring hammers. CONVEYING SYSTEM: Stacker Reclaimer: The stacker re-claimer unit can stack the material on to the pipe or reclaim the stack filed material and fed on to the main line conveyor. Construction & Operation: Secondary crushers are ring type granulators crushing at the rate of 550 TPH / 750 TPH for input size of 250 mm. The coal is admitted at the top and the rings stroke the coal downward. These rows are hung on a pair of suspension shaft mounted on rotor discs. In CHP Stage 1 & 2 having 64 Nos. Crushers of this type employ the centrifugal force of swinging rings stroking the coal to produce the crushing action. The crusher is coupled with motor and gearbox by fluid coupling.Motor rating. cages. Most of the crushers employ a combination of three crushing methods. Shearing and Compression. The rotor consists of four rows of crushing rings each set having 20 Nos. 12 Secondary Crusher: Basically there are four ways to reduce material size: impact attrition. and output size of 20 mm. The coal discharges through grating at the bottom. The spacing of the bar determines the maximum size of the finished product. While stacking material is being fed from the main line conveyor via tripler unit and vibrating 38 . crushing rings and other internal parts are made of tough manganese (Mn) steel. : : 125 HP. Ring granulators crush by compressing accompanied by impact and shearing. of plain rings. 1500 rpm.

10 KW. Conveyor 3A. of conveyor. 90 KW. Specification of conveyor motor. : 1) 1350 tone per hour. All 3-Ø induction motors. 2. 2) 750 tone per hour. 360 KW. Travel Motor. : Horizontal length. 6 5 Motor (KW) 90x2 55 37 39 Capacity RPM 1480 1480 1470 .) : Belt width. 2x6 KW. S. 90 KW. : Schedule of motor: Bucket wheel motor: Boom Conveyor motor: Intermediate Conveyor Motor : Boom Housing Motor: Slewing assembly. 7. No. 1400 mm. No. Angle of induction. Variable to suit the system. 2. Vibrating Feeder. As per conveyor profile drag. 70 KW. 1400 mm. : Speed.feeder on the intermediate conveyor which feds the boom conveyor of the stacker cum reclaimer. Lift (M) (approx. During reclaiming the material discharged on to the boom conveyor by the bucket fitted to the bucket wheel body and boom conveyor feeds the material on the main line conveyor running in the reverse direction. 3. 22 KW. 1.5 KW. 38 28 meters. Total installed power. Conveyor Specification: Capacity.2 m/second. Conveyor belt Specification of Stacker / Reclaimer: Belt width. 3B.

16. 7. 12. 9. 5. 7A. machines are installed known as plow feeder machines.9B 12 9C 3C 1A 1B 1C 1D 2A 2B 2C 90 75X2 37 75 90 110 30 30 37 37 150x2 225 225 1480 1480 1480 1470 1485 1485 1470 1470 1470 1470 1490 1490 1490 Feeders: This structure is erected to serve the purpose of storage. 10. 6. Underground These machines collect the coal from conveyor and drop it to the other from one conveyor with the help of jaws and this coal is taken to huge erected structure from where the coal falls to the ground.8B 9A . Jali chutes are used to prevent dust.11 ASH HANDLING PLANT 40 . 14. 13. 8. 15.7B 8A.Plow 4. 6. 11.

and disposed off to pumping area by means of hydro ash pumps .At a time one pump is working and other two are stand by .It is also provided for removal of fly ash to the common slurry sump.LTD.The ash handling system is provided for continuous collection of bottom ash from the furnace hearth and its intermittent removal by hydro ejectors to a common slurry sump .These are high pressure and low pressure pumps for this purpose .two separate discharge lines are provided one for each unit but only one line is used .5 km away from the disposal pump house .The ash slurry from the two units is taken in one discharge line through electrically operated valves. 2) Air and Gas Plant. This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:1) Fuel and Ash Plant. Each boiler is provided with ash precipitator for collecting the fly ash from the flue gases with high efficiency of collection to minimize the dust mains and to reduce the wear of induced draft fan .The fly ash separated from flue gases in the ash precipitator is collected in hoppers at the bottom from where it is mixed with water to form slurry.DELHI on a turn key basis . 3) Ash Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant. erected and commissioned by M/s INDORE PVT. 41 . From the ash disposal pump house ash slurry is pumped through pipe lines to the ash damp area within about 1.Bottom ash from the boiler furnace is passed through slag crushers and then slurred to the slurry chamber at the suction of the ash disposal pumps .The complete ash handling plant is supplied.

axial shaft . The scheme of control and instruction is provided to control the parameters and safe operation of equipment.t.12 CONTROL ROOM GENERAL: In control room various controls are provided simultaneously various measurement are made various relays are provided here. Automatic control is provided for combustion for feed water regulation and reheat temp. relay. There is one unit control from which two adjacent unit of 110 MW each can be controlled. The operation of various rents and chain are done locally as per requirement. reheat steam . There is a data logger to ensure accurate lagging of essential data. The parameters recorded in control room included per pr. fuel oil flow.mill differential . Ratio steam flow maintained automatically. metal temperature etc. recorders and other devices in near side of room. turbine shaft .r.6. feed water. and temp. The unit control room has a set of parameters panel for indicating or recording parameter of boilers or turbo sets. mill outlet temp. back pressure in condenser . CP. FAN CONTROL DESK : 42 . Of line steam. The combustion control is designed to inlet maintain the desired steam pressure at turbine only variation thereof utilized to very fuel input to the boiler w. control valve operation. The VCB also control panel for one generator and contains exciter synchronizing arrangement. The unit control room also houses most of electronic regulator . 1. I. . turbo sets and boiler feed pumps? The operation of unit is basically controlled from unit control room. turbine speed. steam pressure. In addition are local panels at the boilers. Instrumentation Limited Kota is major supplier of apparatus.

STEAM & WATER DESK: Drum Level Control Flow of steam & water.IV: 1) 2) 3) 4) CP. b) H2O pressure. Forced draft fan ( 2 Nos. Oil pressure. Control Values.5 to 10 wcl). Stop Values. of mill (inlet & outlet). Stator Rotor Temp. Primary Air Header Pressure (750-800 mm. oil flow. i) ii) 3.) at full load and 2 Induce Draft Fans Run. 1) 2) 3) GENRATOR CONTROL PANEL : Voltage Current MVAR.II 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CP. 43 . Furnace Pressure (. TURBINE DESK : Pressure Control.) at full load. Temp. Speed Control. Effectors.i) ii) iii 2. Deaerators. level wcl. For Stator Cooling (a) H2 pressure. Flow of air. CP.III 1) 2) 3) 4) CP.) FO Wind box pressure or wind box differential pressure. Primary Air Fan (3 Nos.). Fuel Control Desk : Coal. Temp. Differential Pressure of mill. Pressure of Steam & Water. of steam and water. Load Control.V : Induced draft fan ( 3 Nos.

Training is not carried out into its tree sprit. It was a memorable experience for me to take training. but the greater part is of planning proper management. 44 . There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done. It also provides an opportunities to lean low technology used at proper place and time can cave a lot of labour e.6.g wagon tippler(CHP). It is recommended that there should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structured description and working of various machines. But there are few factors that require special mention.13 CONCLUSION After the successive completion of my training I got the practical knowledge of power plant and make my knowledge better than before. I hope this training will help me for my career and to enrich my knowledge to become a good engineer. I am very thankful to everyone who helped me directly or indirectly during my training.

com/doc/32553390/KSTPS-Traning-Report 45 .wikipedia. Kota thermal power plant. Kota http://www.S).T.in/images 7.wikipedia. A papor on Industrial Visit of Kota Super Thermal Power Plant http://seminarprojects.6. 2. Description of kota super thermal power plant http://www.org/wiki/Economiser 6.Wikipedia http://en. Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd.scribd. Economizers. Kota Super Thermal Power Station (K. References ^ "Kota Thermal Power Plant".wikipedia http://en. http://en.google.org/wiki/Deaerator 5.P.S.com/Thread-kota-super-thermal-power-plant-industrial-visit 4 Dearator.com/doc/59265358/Kota-Super-Thermal-Power-Plant 8.scribd.14 1. http://images.co. Wikipedia .org/wiki/Kota_Super_Thermal_Power_Plant 3.wikipedia.

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