July 7, 2012 Bharat Electronics Limited Nikhil Luthra (UPT- 2727/BTech/2012)



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With the ongoing revolution in electronics and communication where innovations are taking place at the blink of eye, it is impossible to keep pace with the emerging trends. Excellence is an attitude that the whole of the human race is born with. It is the environment that makes sure that whether the result of this attitude is visible or otherwise. A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in developing a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between a student and industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on a broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization. During this period, the student gets the real experience for working in the industry environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course of their studies is put to test here. Apart from this, the student gets an opportunity to learn the latest technology, which immensely helps in them in building their career. I had the opportunity to have a real experience on many ventures, which increased my sphere of knowledge to great extent. I got a chance to learn many new technologies and also interfaced too many instruments. And all this credit goes to organization Bharat Electronics Limited.

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I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude towards T&P CELL, AKGEC GHAZIABAD for providing me with the training letter to BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED, GZB and also to my father who forwarded the letter to the Human Resource Development Department of BEL through Mr. G.S. Pal of PCR Department. I thank the HRD department for accepting the letter and allowing me to complete the training at their organization. I am deeply indebted to Deputy General Manager of PA-R1, Mr. Pramod Saxena for helping me and making me learn under D.E. of PA-R1, Ms. Apoorva Gupta who gave her most precious time in providing guidance to us regarding this project. Further and most importantly, I would like to thank all the other employees and staff of different departments in BEL. Without their inestimable encouragement and support, it would have been difficult for me to have knowledge of the functioning of various types of electronics equipment particularly radars.


PA-R1) Ms. Deputy General Manager and Er. student of B. PA-R1) (PROJECT GUIDE) 6|Page . GHAZIABAD from July 3. Apoorva (D. All his work is genuine and original. Apoorva Gupta.G. Pramod Saxena Gupta (D. AKGEC Ghaziabad has undergone an industrial training at BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED.CERTIFICATE TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that Nikhil Luthra. Mr. Pramod Saxena . 2012 to August 11. He worked diligently and made valuable contribution during this period.E.2012 and made a project on ‘DISPLAY OF SRE RADARs’ under the guidance of Mr.Tech(Electronics Engineering).M.

multi-unit. On the industrial front. First wireless communication equipment were introduced in Indian Army in the year 1909 with the discovery of Radio waves in 1887 by Hertz and demonstration of first wireless link in the year 1905 by Marconi and Vacuum Tube in 1906. was formed in 1953 to undertake local manufacture of telephone equipment. Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountainhead to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. After independence of India in 1947 and adoption of its constitution in 1950. the company’s equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with TCSF of France. broadcasting. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment. BEL. Setting up of radio station for broadcast and other telecom facilities almost immediately after their commercial introduction abroad followed this. Over the years.BHARAT ELECTRONICS LTD INTRODUCTION India. as a country. has been very lucky with regard to the introduction of telecom products. The first telegraph link was commissioned between Calcutta and Diamond Harbor in the year 1852. which was invented in 1876. the government was seized with the plans to lay the foundations of a strong. civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. which were of electro-mechanical nature at that stage. BEL has grown to a multi-product. With telecom and electronics recognized among the core sectors. It was recognized that in certain core sectors infrastructure facilities require huge investments. now renamed as ITI Limited. self-sufficient modern India. 7|Page . has met the requirement of state-of-art professional electronic equipment for Defence. and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU. Hindustan Cable Limited was also started to take care of telecom cables. which cannot be met by private sector and as such the idea of Public Sector Enterprises (PSR) was mooted. with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements. Indian Telephone Industry. Industrial Policy Resolution (IPR) was announced in the year 1952.

BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and Radar Systems Consultancy. About 70% of BEL’s products are of in-house design. Rader’s. The design groups have CADD facility. sound and Vision Broadcasting. Electronic Components. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Optical & Optoelectronics. Product mix of the company are spread over the entire Electro-magnetic (EM) spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. etc. QC checks are performed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines. Central Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. To keep in pace with the component and technology. its manufacturing and products assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. Contract Manufacturing. Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products. the company established its own electron value manufacturing facility. At the moment. the company is installing MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National Airport Authority (NAA). BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO Labs for a wide range of products. Telecommunication. Calibration of Test & Measuring Instruments. environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the products ranges like Defence Communication. Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to the manufacture of Integrated circuits. In the component arena also. the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass Manufacture Facility. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL grade systems. Today BEL’s infrastructure is spread over nine locations with 29 production divisions having ISO-9001/9002 accreditation. etc. BEL was among the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals 8|Page . Automatic testing machines.solid-state discrete component to the state of art integrated circuit technology.

CORPORATE MOTTO . BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans.under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970s. Safety. following Government’s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL. BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution. EMCCA. both hardware and software. the company continued to develop computers based application. USA. Productivity. Standardization etc. 1 in the field of Electronics and 46th overall among the top 1000 private and public sector undertakings in India by the Business Standard in its special supplement “The BS 1000 (1997-98)”. software intensive navel ships control and command system is probably one of the first projects of its nature in India and Asia. BEL was listed 3rd among the Mini Ratanas (Category II) by the Government of India. BEL was ranked No. However. As many of its equipment were microprocessor based. Quality. Most of its software requirements are in real time. 49th among Asia’s top 100 worldwide Defence Companies by the Defence News. MISSION AND OBJECTIVES: 9|Page . BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL.

The passionate pursuit of excellence at BEL is reflected in a reputation with its customers that can be described in its motto. mission and objectives: CORPORATE MOTTO “Quality. expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor. CORPORATE OBJECTIVES  To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices at the expected time and providing excellent customer support. Universities and Academic Institutions.  To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services.  To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional electronics industry in the country. International Companies. MANUFACTURING UNITS 10 | P a g e .  To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization.  To create an organizational culture which encourages members of the organization to realize their full potential through continuous learning on the job and through other HRD initiatives.” CORPORATE MISSION To be the market leader in Defence Electronics and in other chosen fields and products.  In order to meet the nation’s strategic needs.  To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other chosen fields of electronics through in-house research and development as well as through Collaboration/Cooperation with Defence/National Research Laboratories. Technology and Innovation. to strive for self-reliance by indigenization of materials and components.

Civil Aviation and Railways. The Unit has now diversified into manufacturing of electronic products for the civilian customers such as DoT. and other users. Meteorological Dept. Periscopes. manufacturing Optics/Opto-electronic equipment was integrated with BEL in 1983. the Bangalore Complex has grown to specialize in communication and Radar/Sonar Systems for the Army.. Magnesium Manganese-dioxide Batteries. Binoculars and Goggles. PUNE (MAHARASHTRA) This Unit was started in 1979 to manufacture Image Converter Tubes. professional grade Antennae and Microwave components. Surgical Microscope and Optical Sights and Mussel Reference Systems for tank fire control systems. BEL’s in-house R&D and successful tie-ups with foreign Defence companies and Indian Defence Laboratories has seen the development and production of over 300 products in Bangalore alone. GHAZIABAD (UTTER PRADESH) The second largest Unit at Ghaziabad was set up in 1974 to manufacture special types of radar for the Air Defence Ground Environment Systems (Plan ADGES). At the present the Laser Range Finders for the Defence services. Police. Subsequently. AIR and Doordarshan. Lithium Sulphur Batteries and X-ray Tubes/Cables were added to the product range. ISRO. Since then. The Unit’s product range included Static and Mobile Radar. As an aid to Electorate. at Machilipatnam. VSNL. MACHILIPATNAM (ANDHRA PRADESH) The Andhra Scientific Co. Gun Sights. the unit has developed Electronic Voting Machines that are produced at its Mass Manufacturing Facility (MMF). The Unit has successfully 11 | P a g e . the product line includes passive Night Vision Equipment. Navy and Airforce. Tropo scatter equipment.BANGALORE (KANARATAKA) BEL started its production activities in Bangalore on 1954 with 400W high frequency (HF) transmitter and communication receiver for the Army. The Unit provides Communication Systems to the Defence Forces and Microwave Communication Links to the various departments of the State and Central Govt.

TALOJA (MAHARASHTRA) For the manufacture of B/W TV Glass bulbs. Professional grade Radio-communication Equipment in VHF and UHF ranges entirely developed by BEL and required by the Defence services are being met from this Unit. BEL established a Unit at Hyderabad in 1986. DLRL. KOTDWARA (UTTER PRADESH) In 1986. DRDL and DMRL. The Unit is now fully mobilized to manufacture 20’’ glass bulbs indigenously. this plant was established in collaboration with coming. BEL established another Unit at Chennai to facilitate manufacture of Gun Control Equipment required for the integration and installation and the Vijay anta tanks. JOINT VENTURES BE-Delft Electronics Limited 12 | P a g e . Focus is being given on the requirement of the Switching Equipment. Commander’s Panoramic Sights & Tank Laser Sights are among others.diversified to making the Surgical Microscope with zoom facilities. The Unit is now manufacturing Stabilizer Systems for T-72 tanks. PANCHKULA (HARYANA) To cater the growing needs of Defence Communications. HYDERABAD (ANDHRA PRADESH) To coordinate with the major Defence R&D Laboratories located in Hyderabad. this Unit was established in 1985. Infantry Combat Vehicles BMP-II. CHENNAI (TAMIL NADU) In 1985. BEL STARTED A unit at Kotdwara to manufacture Telecommunication Equipment for both Defence and civilian customers. Force Multiplier Systems are manufactured here for the Defence services. France in 1986.

With the strength of Bharat Electronics in the Radio Communications fields and the technology of Multi-tone. USA has been established in 1997-98 for manufacture of High End Routing Anode Medical Diagnostic X-ray tube called CT MAX. London. Its products include night vision goggles and binoculars. CUSTOMER PROFILE & BEL PRODUCT RANGE 13 | P a g e . Thomas Hospital. UK has also been established in Bangalore in 1997-98 to manufacture state-of-art Mobile Communication for the workplace. a JV with General Electric Medical Systems. in the field of Radio Paging. which is used in CT Scanners. GE BE Private Limited GE BE Private Limited. development and manufacture of Image Intensifier Tubes and associated high voltage power supplies for use in military.BE-Delft Electronics Limited. night vision weapon sights and low light level input applications. Multitone invented paging in 1956 when it developed the world’s first system to serve the “life or death” environment of St. BEL. The joint venture unit will also establish a reloading facility for X-ray tubes and will also market the conventional X-ray tubes made at Pune Unit of BEL.Multitone Private Limited A joint venture between Bharat Electronics and Multitone Electronics Plc. South East Asia market are addressed by this joint venture. the joint venture company is in a position to offer tailor made solution to the Mobile Communication needs at workplace in various market segments. the first joint venture of the company with Delft Instruments. Bangalore. Holland and UTI was established in the year 1990 for conducting research. Pune. security and commercial systems.

Mobile and Transportable Satellite Uplinks. Fire Control Radar. EW Systems. Rural and Main Automatic Exchanges. Torpedo Decoys. NAVY AIR FORCE NON-DEFENCE PARA-MILITARY SPACE DEPARTMENT Communication Equipment and Systems. Tank Fire Control Systems. Hub Stations. Simulators. Transmission Equipment (Microwave and UHF) and PCM Multiplex. Flight and Onboard Sub-Systems. Air Defence and Fire Control Radar. Low. Communication Equipment and Systems. Flyaway Satellite Terminals. Solar Panels for Rural Exchanges. Cameras. IFF. Precision Tracking Radar. OB Vans. LNA Modems. Navigational. Display Systems.Equipments: DEFENCE ARMY Tactical and Strategic Communication Equipment and Systems. Surveillance and Tracking Raiders. Antennae. Flyaway Earth Stations. Surveillance. Secrecy Equipment. TV Studios on turnkey Basis for Educational Programs. SCPC VSAT. Ground Electronics. Studio Equipment. OptoElectronic Instruments. IFF and EW Systems. Stimulators and Trainers. Battlefield Surveillance Radar. Up/Down Converters. Digital Switches. ALL INDIA RADIO DOORDARSHAN (TV NETWORK) NCERT DEPARTMENT OF TELECOMMUNICATION VIDESH SANCHAR NIGAMAND OTHER CORPORATE BODIES 14 | P a g e . Medium and High Power Transmitters. SONAR Systems. Stabilizer Systems. Communication Equipment and Systems. MCPC VSAT. SW &FM Transmitters. MW.

Semiconductors-Discrete. Hybrid and Circuits. Clinical and Surgical Microscope with Zoom. Transmitting Tubes. Integrated Circuits. Batteries. Components: DEFENCE Transmitting Tubes. Communication Equipment for Metros. Secondary Surveillance Radar. Radar. Satellite Communication Equipment. Vacuum Interrupters. Lasers. Liquid Crystal Displays. NON-DEFENCE All India Radio. Microwave Tubes. Piezo-Electric Crystals. Communication Systems. IRRIGATION & ELECTRICITY BOARDS MEDICAL & HEALTH CARE RAILWAYS Airport Surveillance Radar. Bipolar and CMOS.CIVIL AVIATION METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT POWER SECTOR OIL INDUSTRY FOREST DEPARTMENTS. Integrated Circuits. X-ray Tubes. Crystals. Communication Systems. Microwave Tubes. Silicon Transistors. and Vacuum Tubes. Ceramic Capacitors and SAW Filters. Microwave Radio Relays and Digital Microwave Radio Relays. Doordarshan (TV Network). Telephone Industry Switching Industry Instrumentation Industry Medical & Health Care System/Networks: 15 | P a g e . Cyclone Warning and Multipurpose Meteorological Radar. Linear Accelerators. Telecommunications and Civil Industries Entertainment Industry B/W TV Tubes.

There have been events of decrease in turnover and profit after Tax due to reasons beyond reasonable control of the company. for 16 | P a g e . But the company’s strength lies in its capability to combat the threats.Identity Card Systems Software. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BEL has a unique history of profit making Public Sector Enterprise right from its inception. Office Automation Software. LCD On-line Public Information Display Systems and Communication Networks / VSAT Networks.

The company is putting all efforts to minimize the effect of the restrictions by early establishments of alternative arrangements. The company is also opening an office in Singapore to procure components from Asian markets. Also several R&D projects with long gestation periods will go into commercial production during the current fiscal. in particular the ground 17 | P a g e . Corrective measures against western sanctions have been undertaken. Thus in the long run the restrictions will prove as blessings resulting in self-dependence and better profit margins. which are likely to translate into higher turnover and profitability. while reviewing the Defence requirement of the country. BEL GHAZIABAD UNIT Formation In the mid 60’s. BEL hopes to generate 25 per cent increase in turnover with a 15 per cent rise in net profit in the current fiscal year over the previous. the government focused its attention to strengthen the Air Defence system.example US Embargo on exports to BEL. The Defence Research Laboratories and Academic Institutions are also being persuaded with for indigenisation of certain special category of devices and components.

Over the years. the industrial license for manufacture of radar and microwave equipment was obtained.electronics system support. for the air Defence network. BEL was then inserted with the task of meeting the development and production requirement for the plan ADGES and in view of the importance of the project it was decided to create additional capacity at a second unit of the company. 1972 saw the commencement of construction activities and production was launched in 1974. In December 1970 the Govt. sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. It has also installed and commissioned a large number of systems on turnkey basis. In 1971. PRODUCT RANGES The product ranges today of the company are: RADAR SYSTEMS  3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force. The unit enjoys a unique status as manufacture of IFF systems needed to match a variety of primary raiders. Public attention was focused on the report of the Bhabha committee on the development and production of electronic equipment.At about the same time. This led to the formulation of a very major plan for an integrated Air Defence Ground Environment System known as the plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer of the apex review committee . the unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of equipment needed for Defence and civil use. 18 | P a g e . The ministry of Defence immediately realized the need to establish production capacity for meeting the electronic equipment requirements for its plan ADGES. More than 30 versions of IFF’s have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum technology to solid-state to latest Microwave Component based system.

ANTENNA  Antennae for Radar.  Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers. Synthesizer.  Most of these products and systems are the result of a harmonious combination of technology absorbed under ToT from abroad. Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems. etc.  Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems.  Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems.  Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications.  VHF. Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force. Receivers etc.  Telemetry /Tele-control Systems.  Battlefield Surveillance Rader for the Army. COMMUNICATIONS  Digital Static Tropo scatter Communication Systems for the Air Force. MICROWAVE COMPONENT  Active Microwave components like LNAs. UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment.  Tactical Control Radar System for the Army. THE ORGANIZATION 19 | P a g e .  ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation.  IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and export.  Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence.  Turnkey communication Systems Projects for Defence & civil users. Defence R&D Laboratories and BEL’s own design and development efforts.  Bulk Encryption Equipment.

20 | P a g e . For the development and production of the Mobile Torpo scatter System and the equipment. EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS      Radar Communication Antenna Systems Microwave Components 3. SUPPORT DIVISIONS          Material management Marketing & Customer Co-ordination Quality Assurance & Torque Central Services PCB & Magnetics Information Systems Finance & Accounts Personnel & Administration Management Services. DESIGN & ENGINEERING The pace of development and technological obsolescence in their field of electronics necessitates a strong Research and Development base. 2. This is more important on the area of Defence Electronics.    DESIGN & ENGINEERING DIVISIONS Development and Engineering-R Development and Engineering-C Development and Engineering-Antenna. BEL Ghaziabad has since its inception laid a heavy emphasis on indigenous research and development. About 70% its of manufacture today relate to items developed inhouse.The operations at BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with Additional / Deputy General Manager heading various divisions as follows: 1.

These divisions are further divided into different departments to look after products of a particular nature. Most of the engineering documents are available online. BEL is currently setting up a 21 | P a g e .and microcomputers and dedicated design application. EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS As a supplier of equipment to the Defence services and professional users. Owing to the crucial and building block nature of the technology involved. each of them has a drawing office attached to them. Design facilities are also constantly being modernized and substantial computer-aided design facilities are being introduced including installation of mini. BELMAC. Activities are divided into various departments like Production Control. BEL’s own homegrown ERP system. A separate NC programming cell has been set up to develop the programs for execution on the CNC machines. The manufacture and control of production is through a central systems. About 170 graduate and post-graduate engineers are working on research and indication of the importance R&D has in BEL’s growth. strict adherence to specifications and tolerances. BEL Ghaziabad has been equipped with several repeat occurrences and increased throughput. which are equipped with latest drafting and engineering software. Three Design and Engineering group are product based viz. A central Records & Printing section takes care of the preserving the engineering documents and distribution thereof. has to be in-built into the design and manufacturing process. Microwaves Integrated Circuits (MIC) used extensively in the production of subsystems for Radar and Communication equipment constitutes a very vital part of the technology for these systems and is generally imported. Communication. Radar and Antenna.BEL was awarded the Gold Shield for Import Substitution. For this BEL Ghaziabad has well defined standards and processes for as well as manufacturing and testing activities. Apart from conventional machines. The PCB layout and PCB master making is done at CADD Center. MICROWAVE COMPONENT GROUP Frequencies greater than 1 GHz are termed as Microwaves. Works Assembly. and QC WORKS.

The division is divided into purchase. IGQA. the importance of Quality and Reliability is of utmost importance. Shipping takes care of packing and dispatch of material to customer. MATERIAL MANAGEMENT Material Management division is responsible for procurement. All material for consumption in the factory passes through stringent inward goods screening in IGQA department before being accepted for use. QUALITY ASSURANCE & TORQUE In the area of professional Defence electronics. Environmental Labs.from the raw material to the finished product. phase shiftier. For this state of the network analysis are used. Subsequent to manufacture and inspection. Custom Clearance Cell. low noise amplifiers. It also takes care of disposal of unused or waste material. storage handling. synthesizers etc. Inventory management & disposal. Raw material store. Chemical store. issue of purchased parts as well as raw materials required to manufacture various equipment and spares. directional couplers. Marketing department looks after order acquisition. the end product is again put through a rigorous cycle of performance and environmental checks in Environmental Labs. involves scalar as well as vector measurements. 22 | P a g e . Component store. assembly of miniaturized component viz. this facility will be the main center for the MIC requirements of all the units of the company. Ghaziabad includes facility for preparation of substrates. The manufacturing facilities of hybrid microwave components available at BEL. When in full operation. Commercial department looks after order execution. BEL has therefore established stringent processes and modern facilities and systems to ensure product quality. Test Equipment Support and QA departments are grouped under this division.modern MIC manufacturing facility at a planned expenditure. MARKETING AND CUSTOMER CO-ORDINATION This division is responsible for acquisition and execution of customer orders and customer services.

electrical parameters. Quality Assurance department facilitates ISO 9000 certification of various divisions. are obtained from other sources. The microwave division is ISO9001 certified whereas the remaining three division viz. Technical Literature. However. impedance etc. Radar. Coils and transformers are manufactured as per various specifications such as number of comprises of almost all modules a modern ERP systems but is Host and dumb terminal based. Magnetic department makes all type of transformers & coils that are used in different equipment. insulation between layers.having circuit pattern on one side of the board and double sidedhaving circuit pattern on both sides of the board are manufactured in house. gap in core.The testing. Single sided PCB blanks. Communication and Antennae are also ISO9002 certified. Multilayered PCBs. 23 | P a g e . CENTRAL SERVICES Central services Division looks after plant and maintenance of the estate including electrical distribution. laid down in the documents released by the D&E department. transport etc. All production divisions of BEL Ghaziabad are ISO9000 certified. having many layers of circuit. types of windings. number of turns. All the instruments come to this department for periodic calibration. telephones. captive power generation. dielectric strength. Printing Press and Finished Goods are the areas under this division. Coil and Magnetics. calibration and repair facility of test Instruments used in the factory is under the control of Test Equipment Support. PCB FABRICATION & MAGNETICS PCB Fabrication. INFORMATION SYSTEMS IS Department is responsible for BEL’s own home grown manufacturing and control systems called BELMAC.

Industrial Engineering Department and Safety. MANAGEMENT SERVICES This department deals with the flow of information to or from the company. Provident Fund. Bill Receivable. Cost and Material Accounts. Cash Sections. Establishment. Industrial Relations. Bills Payable. It is Broadly classified into three major sub-sections – Management Information System.FINANCE & ACCOUNTS The F&A division is divided into Budget & Compilation. ROTATION PROGRAM 24 | P a g e . P&A Division is divided into various departments like Recruitment. Welfare. PERSONAL & ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT There are at present about 2300 employees at BEL Ghaziabad. Security and MI Room. Payrolls. HRD. of which more than 400 are graduate and postgraduate engineers.

25 | P a g e . The cooperative staff at the various departments made the learning process very interesting.C.Under this students are introduced to the company by putting them under a rotation program to various departments.Communication Magnetics  Microwave lab Rotation period was to give us a brief insight of the company’s functioning and knowledge of the various departments. Fabrication Quality Control Works-Radar Work Assembly.B. The several departments where I had gone under my rotational program are:     Test Equipment and Automation P. A brief idea of the jobs done at the particular departments was given. which allowed me to know about the company in a very short time.

TEST EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMATION : This department deals with the various instruments used in BEL. Examples of some test equipments are:         Oscilloscope(CRO) Multimeter Power meter Power Splitter Signal Analyzer Logical Pulsar Counter Function Generator etc. model and type. To calibrate instruments software techniques are used which includes the program written in any suitable programming language. New Delhi provides the standard values yearly. So it is not the calibration but programming that takes time . it is being sent here for its correct calibration. Mainly the calibration of instruments is carried out here. As every instrument has a calibration period after which the accuracy of the instrument falls from the required standards. So if any of the instruments is not working properly. 26 | P a g e . Test equipment and automation lab mainly deals with the equipment that is used for testing and calibration . BEL follows International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. The national physical laboratory (NPL). it is said to be one set down to NPL. The test equipments are calibrated either half yearly or yearly. After testing different tags are labeled on the equipment according to the observations. A calibration is basically testing of equipment with a standard parameter.The section calibrates and maintains the measuring instruments mainly used for Defense purpose.For any industry to get its instrument calibrated by NPL is very costly. There are 300 equipments and they are of 16 types. They are compared with the standard of National Physical Laboratory (NPL). So. so it is the basic need for every industry to have its own calibration unit if it can afford it. It is done with the help of standard equipment should be of some make.

Bad Workmanship/ Finish --. Red – Can’t be used.Wrong Component / Mounting --. The standard for QC. the equipment is sent to responsible department which is rectified there. PCB’s and other things the defect found are given in following codes.Physical and Mechanical defects. WS = Workmanship & PS = Process Standard After the inspection of cables.           A B C D E F G H I J --.Wrong Writing --.Wrong Component / Polarity --. should be disposed off.Stenciling --.Alignment Problem --.Others (Specify) --. which are followed by BEL are:       WS 102 WS 104 PS 520 PS 809 PS 811 PS 369 Where. 27 | P a g e .Bad Soldering --.Design & Development After finding the defect. Perfect Yellow – Satisfactory but some trouble is present.   Green –O.K . --.

No load current . full load current .C. 3. which are used in the various defense equipments i.After manufacturing the transformer/coils the item is offered to the inspection department to check the electrical parameters(DCR . This department basically consists of three sections: 1.Production of transformers and coils are being carried out by the works departments. dielectric strength .MAGNETICS In this department different types of transformers and coils are manufactured . communication equipments. The various types of transformers are as follows : i) ii) iii) iv) Air cored transformers Oil filled transformers Moulding type transformers P. 2. insulation resistance and mechanical dimension as mentioned in the GA drawing of the product.e. inductance .B Mounting transformers :(a) Impedance matching transformers (b) RF transformers (c) IF transformers 28 | P a g e . This department divided into two groups: (a) Planning and (b) Planning store.) PRODUCTION CONTROL :.) WORKS (PRODUCTION) :.) QUALITY CONTROL :.Basic function of production control is to plan the production of transformer and coils as per the requirement of respective division (Radar and Communication). radar . The D&E department provides all the information about manufacturing a coil and the transformer.

The distance between the two turns should be maintained constantly that is there should be no overlapping. The plasatic layer is inserted between two consecutive layers. paper . b. Craft paper .) Preparation of former : Former is made of plastic bakelite comprising a which winding is done. d.) Winding : It is done with different material and thickness of wire. The various types of windings are as follows : i) ii) iii) Layer Winding Wave Winding Bank Winding male and female plates assembled and glued alternately to form a hollow rectangular box on c. polyester film are being used. 29 | P a g e . moisture .) Protection : To protect the transformer from the external hazards . oil paper . dust and to provide high insulation resistance . The winding has specified number of layers with each layer’s having a specified number of turns. various types of insulation sheets viz. they are impregnated.The various types of cores are as follows : i) ii) iii) iv) v) E type C type Lamination Ferrite core Toroidal core Steps involved in the process of manufacturing of transformer/coils: a.) Insulation : For inter-winding and inter layer . leather .

MICROWAVE LABORATORY Microwave lab deals with very high frequency measurements or very short wavelength measurements. The testing of microwave components is done with the help of various radio and communication devices. The power measurements being done in microwave lab are in terms of S. Spectrum Analyzers 6. Reflectors 4. reflection etc. A good waveguide should have fewer loses and its walls should be perfect conductors.bandwidth . In the antenna section as well as SOHNA site various parameters such as gain . Acceptance Test Procedure(ATP) Production Test Procedure(PTP) Drawing of various equipments that are to be tested is obtained and testing is performed on manufactured part. Circular waveguides are used where the antenna is rotating. Filters 2. Power measurements are done for microwave components because current and voltage are very high at such frequencies. are checked.VSWR . Amplifiers and Accessories 30 | P a g e . phase . Mainly the testing is done on coupler and isolators and parameters are tested here. Network Analyzers 5. There are two methods of testing: 1. Different type of waveguides is tested in this department like rectangular waveguides. In rectangular waveguide there is min. These waveguides can be used to transmit TE mode or TM mode. distortion. The instruments used for this purpose are as follow: 1. 2. Isolators 3. This depends on the users requirements.parameters. Phase and magnitude measurements are done in this section.return loss. circular waveguides.

C.2. 2. 3.2mm and the standard size of the board is 610mm to 675mm. It Consists of the fiberglass sheet having a layer of copper on both sides. Raw material for PCB’s Most common raw material used for manufacturing of PCBs is copper cladded glass epoxy resin sheet. FABRICATION P.4 and 3.B.C. 2.B.  Operation in process Following steps are there for PCB manufacturing :             CNC Drilling Drill Location Through Hole Plating Clean Scrub and Laminate Photo Print Develop Cu electroplate Tin electroplate Strip Etching and cleaning Tin Stripping Gold plating Liquid Photo Imageable Solder Masking (LPISM) 31 | P a g e . The thickness of the sheet may vary as 1. : Circuit on Both side. stands for Printed Circuits Board. : Several layers are interconnected through hole metalization. Single Sided Board Double Sided Board Muti-layer Board : Circuits on one side.P. TYPES OF PCBs 1.

Hot air dry.Antitarnic dip.Mild etch.e.Copper plating.Spray water-Rinse-Anti Tarnish Dip-Hot Air Drying. The base material. are developed. following observation is done. The unwanted copper i. Bakelite and Teflon etc. Next. which is used for PCB plate are Glass Epoxy. After through hole metallization. is a non-conducting board on which a conductive board is made.B. After this. Solder marking is done to mark the tracks to get oxidized & finally etch. 32 | P a g e . If the ckt. To identify b/w the negative and positive. is printed on it. This is followed by resist striping and copper etching. is black and the rest of the sheet is white. photo tool generation is done which is followed by photo printing. To give strength to the wires so that they can not break. pattern plating is done.Electrolyses Copper-Plating-Plating. A negative and a positive of a ckt.Spray. The procedure for pattern plating follows : Loading. After completion of manufacturing proceeds it is sent for testing.  Procedure for through hole metallization Loading-Cleaner-Water Rinse-Spray Water-Rinse-Mild Etch-Spray Water-Rinse-Hydrochloric Acid-ActuatorWater Rinse-Spray Water-Rinse-Accelerator Dip-Spray Water.C.Unloading.        Photo print Develop Thermal Baking Hot Air leaving Non Plated Hole Drilling Reverse Marking Sharing & Routing Debarring & Packing P.Rinse. Varnishing is done as anti fungus prevention for against environmental hazard.Water rinse.Water rings. In this the PCB is kept b/w two blue sheets and the ckt. To prevent the copper from getting etched & making the whole circuit functionally done.Cleaner.Water rinseSulfuric acid-Tin plating. off the tracks is etched by any of the following chemicals. it is positive otherwise negative.Unloading. tin is stripped out from the tracks.Water Rinse-Electrolytic. After this solder marking is done. This is done before molding.

following procedure takes place.5 degree. screen preparation is done.) + Butyrate solo solve 50gms/kg. Next. 33 | P a g e .) : (300gms. while reducer is used as thinner. Ink preparationIt uses :Ink-----100gm Catalyst----10% of total weight Reducer-----10% of total weight The catalyst is used as binder and prevents the following. which was due to wrong method applied or wrong machine. Liquid photo imaginable solder mask (LPISM): In this first presoaking is at 80 degree Celsius for 10 to 20 minutes.There are three types of solder marking done in BEL: Wet solder mask: Due to some demerits this method is totally ruled out. The three things are then fully mixed. The next is ink preparation: Ink + Hardener 71 % : 29 % (150 gms. The board is covered by a silk cloth whose mesh is T-48. final baking for one hour at the temt. Water-Lactic acid-Water-Bleaching power-Water-caustic Soda-Water-Air dry-TCE.alignment. Dry pin solder mask: Due to wastage of films about 30% this method is also not used now. The angle to tilt of the board is 15 degree to 22. After this shearing or routing is done which is followed by debarring and packing. The demerit was non. After wash out. of 20degree C is done. For wash out.

SURFACE MOUNTING TECHNIQUE FLOW CHART Start Baking Solder Screen SMT Component Placement Solder Other side needs SMDs yes Solder Printing SMDs Placement Clean Soldering Inspection Repair Needs Repai r no Stop 34 | P a g e .

Any error in the PC is entered in the process card by certain code specified for each error or defect. plating and stenciling etc. cable assembly .QUALITY CONTROL (WORK ASSEMBLY) According to some laid down standards. 5. 4. the quality control department ensures the quality of the product. The mistakes in the PCB can be categorized as: 1. After a mistake is detected following actions are taken: 1. Shop mistakes 3. painting. Inspection mistakes The process card is attached to each PCB under inspection.cable form . Division code is given. are done as per BEL standards. racks and shelters as per latest documents and BEL standards . purchased and inspected according to the specifications by IG department. Recommendation action is taken 35 | P a g e . The raw materials and components etc. The assembly inspection departments inspects all the assembled parts such as PCB . D & E mistakes 2. modules . Similarly QC work department inspects all the items manufactured in the factory. The fabrication department checks all the fabricated parts and ensures that these are made according to the part drawing. Object code is given. 3. Change code is prepared. 2. Observation is made.

REPORTER. In work assembly following things are done : Material Receive: Preparation. MFC: MULTI FUNCTIONAL CONSOLE. WORK ASSEMBLY COMMUNICATION e. MSSR: MONOPULSE SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR. Tinning.The wire coming out from the components is of copper and it is tinned nicely by applying flux on it so that it does not tarnished and soldering becomes easy.g EMCCA. 4.This is done before mounting and under takes two procedures. 2. Preparation of general assembly.capacitors and other components are tinned with the help of tinned lead solution .The resistors . MFC. Its main function is to assemble various components. It has been broadly classified as:      WORK ASSEMBLY RADAR e.g. INDRA –II.WORK ASSEMBLY This department plays an important role in the production. equipments and instruments in a particular procedure. Writing lists of all components. MSSR. EMCCA:EQUIPMENT MODULAR FOR COMMAND CONTROL APPLICATION. 3. Schematic diagram to depict all connections to be made and brief idea about all components. The stepwise procedure followed by work assembly department is: 1. 36 | P a g e . Preparation of part list that is to be assembled.

Testing: Lacquering. Wave Soldering. part list drawing and bringing all the components before doing the work.This is done in environmental lab at temperature of 40 degree C for 4 hrs and three cycles. which are tinned.This is only done on components which are not variable. The soldering irons are generally of 25 W and are of variable temperature. one of the wires of the component is soldered so that they don’t move from their respective places on the PCB plate.It means soldering the components of the PCB plate with the help of soldering tools.After this variable components are sleeved with Teflon.Bending. Cleaning: Inspection.This comes under quality work. The product is then sent to store. Storing. Heat Ageing. Touch Up. On the other hand of the component is also adjusted so that the PCB does not burn. 37 | P a g e .This is done in a machine and solder stick on the entire path.This is done by hand after the finishing is done.Preparation is done by getting the entire documents . Before Lacquering mounted plate is cleaned with isopropyl alcohol. Mounting.

38 | P a g e .

Its ability to measure the distance with high accuracy and in all weather is one of its most important attributes. fog. a British scientist. ships. the principle of radar is not confine to any particular frequency range. later work in radio engineering was almost entirely at longer wavelengths. who demonstrated the feasibility of detecting the 39 | P a g e . The reflected energy to the radar not only indicates the presence of a target. or target. It is interesting to know that although Hertz’s experiments were performed with relatively short wavelength radiation (66 cm).RADAR (RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING) INTRODUCTION Radar is an electromagnetic system for the detection and location of reflecting objects such as aircrafts. but by comparing the received echo signal with the signal that was transmitted. in 1886. spacecraft. peoples and the natural environment. the basic principle of radar detection is almost as old as the subject of electromagnetism itself. It can operate in darkness. Heinrich Hertz. haze. scientists. and engineers contributed to the development of radar. The shorter wavelengths were not actively used to any extent until the late thirties. Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected by metallic and dielectric bodies. rain and snow. It operates by radiating energy into space and detecting the reflected echo signal from an object. The use of radio waves to detect "the presence of distant metallic objects via radio waves" was first implemented in 1904 by Christian Hülsmeyer. Although most of the radar units use microwave frequencies. Several inventors. vehicles. experimentally tested the theories of Maxwell and demonstrated the similarity between radio and light waves. its location can be determined along with other target related information. RADAR DEVELOPMENT Although the development of radar as a full-fledged technology did not occur until World War-II. There are some radar units that operate on frequencies well below 100 MHz and others that operate in the infra-red range and above. One of the biggest advocators of radar technology was Robert WatsonWatt. Radar can perform its function at long or short distances and under conditions impervious to optical and infrared sensors.

This acronym of American origin replaced the previously used British abbreviation RDF (Radio Direction Finding). 165546. A portion of the transmitted energy is intercepted by the target and reradiated in many directions. This frequency shift is 40 | P a g e . There it is processed to detect the presence of the target and determine its location. which delivers it to a receiver. BASIC PRINCIPLE An elementary form of radar consists of a transmitting antenna emitting electromagnetic radiation generated by an oscillator of some sort. The range. to a target is found by measuring the time it takes for the radar signal to travel to the target and return back to the radar.presence of ships in dense fog and received a patent for radar as Reichspatent Nr. After the Titanic ran into an iceberg and sank in 1912. The name reflects the importance placed by the workers in this field on the need for a device to detect the presence of a target and to measure its range. Another of the first working models was produced by Hungarian Zoltán Bay in 1936 at the Tungsram laboratory. or receiver. If the target is in motion. The reradiation directed back towards the radar is collected by the radar antenna. Although modern radar can extract more information from a target’s echo signal than its range. there is a shift in the frequency of the echo signal due to the Doppler effect. A transmitter generates an electromagnetic signal (such as a short pulse of sine wave) that is radiated into space by an antenna. (Radar engineers use the term range to mean distance) The target’s location in angle can be found from the direction the narrow -beamwidth radar antenna points when the received echo signal is of maximum amplitude. people were interested in ways to make such happenings avoidable. the measurement of range is still one of its most important functions. the idea first came about as an anti-collision system. or distance. There are no competitive techniques that can accurately measure long ranges in both clear and adverse weather as well as can radar. A single antenna is usually used on a time-shared basis for both transmitting and receiving when the radar waveform is a repetitive series of pulses. and an energy-detecting device. While radar development was pushed because of wartime concerns. The term RADAR was coined in 1941 as an acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. a receiving antenna.

the echo comes back a moment later.proportional to the velocity of the target relative to the radar (also called the radial velocity). Let's say there is a car coming toward you at 60 miles per hour (mph) and its horn is blaring. or reflected off of. TYPES OF RADAR Based on function radar can be divided into two types:  PRIMARY OR SIMPLE RADAR  SECONDARY RADAR 41 | P a g e . The echo occurs because some of the sound waves in your shout reflect off of a surface (either the water at the bottom of the well or the canyon wall on the far side) and travel back to your ears. The change you hear is caused by Doppler shift. You will hear the horn playing one "note" as the car approaches. Here's how to understand Doppler shift (you may also want to try this experiment in an empty parking lot). Doppler shift is also common. You probably experience it daily (often without realizing it). It's the same horn making the same sound the whole time. or rain. Doppler shift in the extreme creates sonic booms (see below). sea. ECHO AND DOPPLER SHIFT Echo is something you experience all the time. The Doppler frequency shift is widely used in radar as the basis for separating desired moving targets from fixed (unwanted) “clutter’ echoes reflected from the natural environment such as land. Doppler shift occurs when sound is generated by. Radar can also provide information about the nature of the target being observed. The length of time between the moments you shout and the distance between you and the surface that creates the echo determines the moment that you hear the echo. a moving object. If you shout into a well or a canyon. but when the car passes you the sound of the horn will suddenly shift to a lower note.

Primary radar locates an object by transmitting signal and detecting the reflected echo. it operates with a cooperative ‘active’ target while the primary radar operates with “passive target’. It is also desired to know the height of aircraft. To give controller this information second radar called the “SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR”. fitted on the aircraft. coded for the purpose of identification. i. The transponder on board the aircraft on receipt of a chain of pulses from ground interrogator. (SSR) is used. IFF UNIT IFF is basically a radar bacon system employed for the purpose of general identification of military targets .e. A secondary radar system is basically very similar to primary radar system except that the returned signal is radiated from the transmitter on board the target rather then by reflection. The transponder is connected to the aircrafts altimeter (the device which measures the planes altitude) to transmit back the coded message to the radar about its status and altitude. providing two way data communication on different transmitter and receiver frequency. is received back to the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation.Primary radar or the simple radar locates a target by procedure described in section. Secondary radar system consists of an interrogative and a transponder. a hostile aircraft does not know what code to transmit back to the ground station for the corresponding receiver code. This works differently and need the help of the target aircraft it séance out a sequence of pulses to an electronic BLACK BOX called the TRANSPONDER. The interrogator transmitter in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft.The bacon system when used for the control of civil air traffic is called as SECONDARY SURVEILLANCE RADAR (SSR). But in cases as controlling of air traffic. the controller must be able to identify the aircraft and find whether it is a friend or foe. automatically transmit the reply. ADVANTAGES OF SSR OVER PRIMARY RADAR 42 | P a g e . Military aircrafts uses a similar kind of radar system with secrete code to make sure that it is friend or foe.

the switch switches control to the receiver. which allows the antenna to receive echoed signals. Separate transmitting and receiving frequencies eliminate ground and whiter return problems. Once the signals are received the switch then 43 | P a g e . receiver. switch. data recorder. antenna. Reply pulses are stronger then echo signal of primary radar. which then directs the pulse to be transmitted out an antenna. Everything starts with the transmitter as it transmits a high power pulse to a switch. Just after the antenna is finished transmitting the pulse. Reply signal is independent of the target cross section.    The interrogate and reply mode works on the L band The SSR operates on the same frequency channel for both military and civil air traffic control by using compatible airborne aircraft Basic Radar System A basic radar system is spilt up into a transmitter. processor and some sort of output display. Interrogation and reply path coding provide discrete target identification and altitude.

microsecond is a millionth of a second). as found on many merchants’ ships. The switch may toggle control between the transmitter and the receiver as much as 1000 times per second. uninterrupted electromagnetic waves. Later the data must be processed to be interpreted into something useful. Any received signals from the receiver are then sent to a data recorder for storage on a disk or tape. The pulse itself would consist of an EM wave of several wavelengths with some dead time after it in which there are no transmissions. The time taken for each pulse to be transmitted is called the pulse width (PW) or pulse duration. Mathematically. has three main parts:  The antenna unit or the scanner  The transmitter receiver or ‘transceiver’ and 44 | P a g e . they transmit rhythmic pulses of EM waves with a set amount of time in between each pulse.transfers control back to the transmitter to transmit another signal.1 microseconds long for penetrating radars or 10-50 microseconds long for imaging radars (a display. PRT = 1 / PRF or PRF = 1 / PRT WORKING OF A SIMPLE RADAR A radar system. which would go on a Pulse Width and Bandwidth: Some radar transmitters do not transmit constant. The time between each pulse is called the pulse repetition time (PRT) and the number of pulses transmitted in one second is called the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Typically they can be around 0. Instead.

The gun shouts electron to 45 | P a g e .The IF signal is received by the receiver by the receiver where it is demodulated to video frequency signal range. the transmitter is switched off and isolated. The frequency of the radio waves is basically about 10. An important part of transceiver circuit is ‘modular circuit’. and then passed to the display system. This ‘keys’ the transmitter so that it oscillates.000 MHz. pulses per second are transmitted. The visual display unit The antenna is two or three meter wide and focuses pulses off very high frequency radio energy into a narrow vertical beam. a signal is produced in the output which is of intermediate frequency range or IF range . undisturbed two-way communication is established. another device called ‘duplexer’ is used. Thus by means of the duplexer. The antenna is rotated at the rate of 10 to 25 rpm so that radar beam swaps through 300degree Celsius all around the ship out to a range of about 90 kms. To avoid overlapping of these echoes with the next transmitted pulse. Though it is varied to suit the requirements. These pulses are short range pulses hence can’t serve out the purpose of long range work . we need to generate the power. or pulses for the right length of time. These pulses are generated by the means of a local oscillator. which consists of a electron gun in its neck. amplified. Everything depends on accurate measurement of the time that passes between the transmission of pulse and the return of the echo. longer pulses are best for longer-range work. The RF echoes emerging from the duplexer are now fed to the mixer where they are mixed with the RF energy. The pulses so designed are ‘video pulses’. In all radar it is vital that the transmitting and the receiving in a transceiver are in close harmony. The weak echoes from the target are picked up by the antenna and fed into the receiver. Between these pulses. Once two are mixed. Short pulses are best for short-range work. About 1000.In order to modify these pulses to long range pulses or the RF pulses. The transmitted power is generated in a device called the “magnetron” which can handle all these short pulses and very high oscillations. The display system usually carried out the control necessary for the operation of whole radar .It has a cathode ray gun.

Another type of signal used that is relatively new is laser light that is used in devices called LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). or scattering coefficient. They use certain kinds of electromagnetic waves called radio waves and microwaves. Once the radar receives the returned signal. the strength of the returned signal. This is where the name RADAR comes from (Radio Detection And Ranging). the antenna is pointing to the dead ahead.the phosphorescent screen at the far end. The beginning of each trace corresponds exactly which the moment at which the suppression radar energy is transmitted. Phosphorescent screen glows when hit by an electron and the resulting spot can be seen through the glass face. of the target F = pattern propagation factor 46 | P a g e . The screen is circular in shape and I calibrated in the edges . or the change in frequency of the signal. it calculates useful information from it such as the time taken for it to be received. So when the calibration is at zero degree on the tube calibration. This radio motion of the electron is known as trace is matched with the rotation of the antenna. Sound is used as a signal to detect objects in devices called SONAR (Sound Navigation Ranging). RADAR EQUATION The amount of power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the radar equation: where • • • • • Pt = transmitter power Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna σ = radar cross section.The electron beam travels from the center of the edge. The basic idea behind radar is very simple: a signal is transmitted. it bounces off an object and some type of receiver later receives it.

or land vehicles or it may be used for mapping of land. In a real-world situation. where R is the range. The major areas of radar application are briefly described below:  Air Traffic Control (ATC): Radar is employed throughout the world for the purpose of safely controlling air traffic route and in the vicinity of Airport. and tracking of the aircraft or space target. which means that the reflected power from distant targets is very. In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location. and contributor of the cost of almost all of its development. This yields: This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range. The major use of radar. Ground – based radar has been applied chiefly to the detection. although there has been increasingly important civil application. Shipboard radar is used as a navigation aid and safety device to locate buoys. pathloss effects should also be considered. The propagation factor accounts for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. chiefly for marine and air navigation. Rt = Rr and the term Rt2 Rr2 can be replaced by R4.• • Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target Rr = distance from the target to the receiver. Airborne radar may be used to detect other aircraft. in the air. terrain avoidance and navigation. In space. location. APPLICATIONS OF RADAR Radar has been employed on the ground.resolution radar. very small. shorelines and other ships as well as for observing aircraft. on the sea and in space. The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for vacuum without interference. storm avoidance. has been the military. ships. 47 | P a g e . Aircraft and ground vehicular traffic at large airport are monitored by means of high . radar has assist in the guidance of spacecraft and for remote sensing of the land and sea.

Automatic detection and tracking equipment are commercially available for use with radar for the purpose of collision avoidance. an important adjunct for HF (short wave) communications. The ionospheric sounder. water resources. Some of the largest ground based radar is for the detection and tracking of satellite. ice cover. and for detecting navigation buoys.  Law Enforcement: detection of intruders. radar has also been employed as a means for the  Military: Many of the civilian application of the radar are also employed by the military. especially in poor visibility.  Space: Space vehicles have used radar for rendezvous and docking and for landing on the moon. which include the measurement and mapping of sea condition. is radar. Radar has been used as a remote sensor of the weather. The traditional role of radar for military application has been for surveillance.Radar has been used with GCA (ground control approach) system to guide aircraft to a safe landing in bad weather. Remote sensing with radar is also concerned with earth resources. geological information and environmental pollution. agriculture. 48 | P a g e . forestry condition. navigation and for the control and guidance of weapon. It is also used to probe the moon and planets.  Ship Safety: Radar is used for enhancing the safety of ship travel by warning of ship potential collision with other ships.  Remote Sensing: All radar is a remote sensor. In addition to the wide use of radar to measure the speed of automobile traffic by highway police. Shore – based radar of moderately high resolution is also used for the surveillance of harbors as an aid to navigation.

Here we will be talking about use of SRE and its Display at an Air force station. • One Display equipment located at ATC(Air Traffic Control) Centre. SRE systems are based on the following main items: • One Radar Station • One Operation Centre • One Display equipment located at BADC(Base Air Defence Control) Centre.mainly used in interrogation. Primary surveillance radar( Distance upto 80 NM) 2. Secondary surveillance radar( Distance upto 200 NM). ATC( at runway) RADAR Station (Has a transmitter and a receiver) Operation Controller centre BADC(in main building) Radar Station is composed of : • 2 Radar Head Processors (RHPs)-Linux based • 1 LCP PSR.SURVEILLANCE RADAR EQUIPMENT(SRE RADARS) They are of two types: 1.Windows based 49 | P a g e .

• 1 Controller Working Position (CWP) for display. and sends the processed data (tracks) to Operation Centre and to BADC Centre. •The two radar Control Panels on LAN allow the full control of the radar equipment on site.• 1 LCP SSR. receives the radar data from primary surveillance sensor and from secondary surveillance sensor. The RMM console (2k x 2k) provides for display of raw videos and synthetic data (Plots and Tracks). •TOY GPS clock allows labelling each data sent by RHP with time reference.Windows based • 1 Radar Maintenance Monitor (RMM) – Linux based • 1 Auxiliary Cabinet (Equipment) Operation Centre is composed of: • • • • • • 1 Auxiliary Cabinet (Ops) 2 Controller Working Positions (CWP) for display 1 Remote Radar Control & Monitor System (RRCMS) 1 Map Generation System 1 Record & Replay System 1 Safety Net System Equipment at BADC/ATC centre is composed of : • Fiber optics interfaces and distribution units for data coming from the Radar/Ops Station. RADAR Head: •The Radar Head Processor (RHP). present in all the sites. 50 | P a g e .

The DEC-9G Digital Electronic Clock is able to receive data from GPS satellite and send time and date to the RHP host computers for time stamping purposes. The DEC-9G is located in the radar site and connected to both the RHP units. One Controller Working Position (CWP) provides for the required radar display functions. high resolution color display. The DEC-9G Clock consists of one GPS Unit with antenna and the interconnection cables. two displays are provided for presentation of PSR Processed Radar Video and Synthetic data. The displays are 2K x 2K. •At BADC/ATC Centre. RADAR SITE GPS Clock: The Timing Unit is the DEC-9G Digital Electronic Clock with a GPS receiver. •The control and monitoring of the radar head (sensors) is provided through the Remote Radar Control and Monitor System. The displays are 2K x 2K high-resolution colour display. all the necessary equipment for PSR video and data interfacing with the Radar Station is installed. 51 | P a g e .Remote Presentation: •The Remote Presentation and Control is provided through the equipment that is installed at the following centres: – Operation Centre – Base Air Defence Centre (BADC) – Air Traffic Control (ATC) •At the Operation Centre.

coming from the PSR. Processed. presented by RMM. It is used to draw maps for Air Traffic Control. The following types of maps can be drawn: 1. realised to produce maps in the UNIX/LINUX environment. MSAW maps Record and Replay: The purpose of Record and Replay is to backup on tape the data stored on disk by the CSCI REC (Recording) and to restore on disk data previously stored on tape so that it is possible to review the data by the CSCI PLB (Playback). together with the suitable Trigger (PSR or SSR).RADAR Distribution Unit (RDU): Radar Distribution Unit (MESAR) provides the choice of the videos. STCA maps 3. The available set of raw videos are one of the following: •PSR Raw Videos (Raw. OPERATION CENTRE XMG: The Map generator is a software application package. are sent to the RMM. Safety Net: 52 | P a g e . The video selection is performed by the RMM through the RS232C port. Geographical maps 2. Maps) •SSR Raw Video (Channel A) •SSR Raw Video (Channel B) The NORTH and ACP signals.

to detect dangerous situations related to an aircraft that is flying at a too low altitude. to detect dangerous situations between two aircrafts. Safety Nets sub-system is composed of two subfunctions by which it detects different kind of conflicts. -Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW). 53 | P a g e . These subfunctions are : -Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA).The scope of Safety Net is to predict the tracks positions and analyse them in order to detect dangerous situations (conflicts) and to eventually alert controllers.

Ghaziabad has given us an exposure to the activities at a large public sector-undertaking unit. The making of this report on DISPLAY OF SRE RADARS has given me great knowledge about the organization and the technology used here. 54 | P a g e . This being a large organization deals with wide spectrum of technologies.CONCLUSION The industrial training at Bharat Electronics Limited. It allowed me to know about how tasks are divided into groups and how they perform it.