AS/NZS ISO 14041:1999

ISO 14041:1998

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Australian/New Zealand Standard™
Environmental management— Life cycle assessment— Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis

AS/NZS ISO 14041:1999 This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee EV/5, Life Cycle Analysis, Environmental. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 1 March 1999 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 24 February 1999. It was published on 5 April 1999.

The following interests are represented on Committee EV/5:
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Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Australian Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Association Australian Industry Group Consumers Federation of Australia Institution of Engineers Australia Nature Conservation Council of N.S.W. New Zealand Forestry Research Institute Plastics and Chemicals Industries Association Incorporated RMIT University Strategic Industry Research Foundation Waste Management Association of Australia

Review of Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Joint Australian/ New Zealand Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto. Full details of all Joint Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazines ‘The Australian Standard’ and ‘Standards New Zealand’, which subscribing members receive, and which give details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggestions for improvements to Joint Standards, addressed to the head office of either Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand, are welcomed. Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in a Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 96361.

AS/NZS ISO 14041:1999

This is a free 7 page sample. Access the full version at http://infostore.saiglobal.com.

Australian/New Zealand Standard™
Environmental management— Life cycle assessment— Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis

First published as AS/NZS ISO 14041:1999.

Published jointly by: Standards Australia 1 The Crescent, Homebush NSW 2140 Australia Standards New Zealand Level 10, Radio New Zealand House, 155 The Terrace, Wellington 6001 New Zealand
ISBN 0 7337 2589 9

ii

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee EV/5, Life Cycle Analysis — Environmental. This Standard is identical with and has been reproduced from ISO 14041:1998, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis. The objective of this Standard is to specify the requirements and the procedures necessary for the compilation and preparation of the definition of goal and scope for a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and for performing, interpreting and reporting a Life Cycle Inventory analysis (LCI). The term ‘informative’ has been used in this Standard to define the application of the annex to which it applies. An ‘informative’ annex is only for information and guidance.
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As this Standard is reproduced from an international Standard, the following applies: (a) (b) (c) Its number appears on the cover and title page while the International Standard number appears only on the cover. In the source text, ‘this International Standard’ should read ‘this Australian/New Zealand Standard’. A full point substitutes for a comma when referring to a decimal marker.

References to international Standards should be replaced by equivalent Australian, New Zealand or Australian/New Zealand Standards, as follows: Reference to International Standard or other Publication ISO 14040 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS ISO 14040 Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

© Copyright

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA / STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate royalty payment. Australian requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards Australia. New Zealand requests should be directed to Standards New Zealand. Up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard may be copied for use exclusively in-house by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand. Inclusion of copyright material in computer software programs is also permitted without royalty payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified. The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at any time.

iii

CONTENTS
Page
1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Normative reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Terms and definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 LCI components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Definition of goal and scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1 1 1 2 4 8 13 13 16 19 22

6 Inventory analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Limitation of LCI (interpreting LCI results) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Study report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex A (informative) Examples of a data collection sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annex B (informative) Examples of different allocation procedures ..........

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iv

INTRODUCTION
This International Standard deals with two phases of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), goal and scope definition and Life Cycle Inventory analysis (LCI), as defined in ISO 14040. The goal and scope definition phase is important because it determines why an LCA is being conducted (including the intended use of the results) and describes the system to be studied and the data categories to be studied. The purpose, scope and intended use of the study will influence the direction and depth of the study, addressing issues such as the geographic extent and time horizon of the study and the quality of data which will be necessary. The LCI involves the collection of the data necessary to meet the goals of the defined study. It is essentially an inventory of input/output data with respect to the system being studied.
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In the interpretation phase of LCI (see clause 7 of this International Standard), the data are evaluated in light of the goal and scope, the collection of additional data, or both. The interpretation phase also typically results in an improved understanding of the data for reporting purposes. Since LCI is a collection and analysis of input/output data and not an assessment of the environmental impacts associated with those data, the interpretation of LCI results alone cannot be the basis for reaching conclusions about relative environmental impacts. This International Standard may be used to: — assist organizations in obtaining a systematic view of interconnected product systems; — formulate the goal and scope of the study, define and model the systems to be analysed, collect the data and report the results of an LCI; — establish a baseline of environmental performance for a given product1) system by quantifying the use of energy flows and raw materials and emissions to air, water and land (environmental input and output data) associated with that system both for the whole system but also broken down by unit process; — identify those unit processes within a product system where the greatest use of energy flows, raw materials and emissions occur with a view to making targeted improvements; — provide data for subsequent use to help define ecolabelling criteria; — help to set policy options, e.g. concerning procurement. This list is not exclusive, although it does summarize the primary reasons why LCI studies are carried out. Complementary International Standards ISO 14042 and ISO 14043 concerning further phases of LCA are under preparation (see Bibliography). A Technical Report providing examples of practice in carrying out an LCI as a means of satisfying certain provisions of ISO 14041 is also under preparation.

1) In this International Standard, the term “product” used alone is synonymous to “product or service”.

1 AUSTRALIAN/NEW ZEALAND STANDARD

Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis
1 Scope

This International Standard in addition to ISO 14040 specifies the requirements and the procedures necessary for the compilation and preparation of the definition of goal and scope for a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), and for performing, interpreting and reporting a Life Cycle Inventory analysis (LCI).
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2

Normative reference

The following normative document contains provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, this publication do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent edition of the normative document indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. ISO 14040:1997, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework.

3

Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14040 and the following apply. 3.1 ancillary input material input that is used by the unit process producing the product, but does not constitute a part of the product
EXAMPLE A catalyst.

3.2 coproduct any of two or more products from the same unit process 3.3 data quality characteristic of data that bears on their ability to satisfy stated requirements 3.4 energy flow input to or output from a unit process or product system, quantified in energy units
NOTE Energy flow that is input may be called energy input; energy flow that is output may be called energy output.

COPYRIGHT

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AS/NZS ISO 14041:1999, Environmental management - Life cycle assesment - Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis

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