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# Fluid Mechanics for Drilling

## Pressure loss calculation

Dr Reza Ettehadi Osgouei
Petroleum Engineering
Department
PAB4333 - Advanced Drilling Engineering
Forces on a Fluid Element
Consider a flow of an incompressible fluid in a circular pipe with radius R. The
free body diagram of a fluid element is shown in the figure.
Since the flow is steady state, incompressible, and the inlet area and outlet
area of the control volume is constant, the momentum conservation equation
reduces to:
The force balance on the fluid element is

P
P-AP

t+At

t

r+Ar

Az

r

t+At

t

( )
.
CS
F ma v v n dA = =
}}

CV
v dV
t

c
+
c

}}}

0 =
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Forces on a Fluid Element
Equating these two equations and solving for t gives
where C is the integration constant. For pipe flow, because of physical
meaning, i.e., if r is zero (pipe center), t goes to infinity, which is contradicting
to the fact that t is maximum at pipe walls, so C should be zero for pipe flow.
Thus, equation reduces to
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
2
P r C
z r
t
A
= +
A
2
P r
z
t
A
=
A
( )
( ) ( )( ) t t t t t
t t
A + A + A A
+ A A A =

r r z z r
P P r r P r r F
2 2
) 2 ( ) 2 (
Forces on a Fluid Element
A special case of this equation is the shear stress t
w
at the wall
Consider
The shear stress varies linearly from zero at the centre-line to a maximum
value t
w
at the pipe wall.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
4
2
D
Z
P
R
Z
P
w
w
A
A
=
A
A
=
t
t
2
P r
z
t
A
=
A
R
r
w
=
t
t
The shear
stress
distribution
can be
written as
Laminar Flow
Newtonian Model
Relation between the shear stress, t, and pressure drop was
derived in previous chapters. The relation for a circular pipe is
determined as
(valid only for a circular pipe)
Using the definition of a Newtonian Model fluid,
Velocity Profile & Pressure Losses of a
Fluid Flowing Through a Circular Pipe
2
P r
L
t
A
=
A
v
r
t
| | c
= =
|
c
\ .
2
v P r
r L

| | c A
=
|
c A
\ .
by integrating this equation
Using the boundary condition, at r=R, v=0, integration constant, c,
can be determined as
Velocity profile of a Newtonian fluid flowing in a circular pipe.
( )
2
4
P r
v r c
L
A
= +
A
2
4
P R
c
L
A
=
A
( )
( )
2 2
1
4
P
v r R r
L
A
=
A
For practical purposes, i.e., at the field, flow rate, Q, is the known
parameter
This relation is known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 0 0
2
R R
Q v A v r r d dr v r r dr
t
u t = = = ( (
} } }
( )
( )
2 2
0
1
2
4
R
P
Q R r r dr
L
t

A
=
A
}
4
8
P R
Q
L
t

A
=
A
Remember velocity profile
The volumetric average velocity u is that velocity which, if
uniform over the flow area S, would give the volumetric flow rate
and is therefore defined b
uS Q =
( ) ( )
2 2
1
4
P
v r R r
L
A
=
A
4
2
max
R
L
P
v
A
A
=
4
8
P R
Q
L
t

A
=
A
2
R S t =
t 8
2
2
R
L
P
R
Q
u
A
A
= =
max
0 v v r = =
Remember velocity profile
u v 2
max
=
( ) ( )
2 2
1
4
P
v r R r
L
A
=
A
4
2
max
R
L
P
v
A
A
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

A
A
=
2
2
max
2
2
2
1
1
4
1
R
r
v v
R
r
R
L
P
v

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
1 2
R
r
u v
Or
Differentiating the last equ.and putting r = R,, the velocity
gradient at the wall, which is equal to the shear rate, is given by
or, in terms of the volumetric flow rate Q
Differentiating
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
1 2
R
r
u v
D
u
R
u
dr
dv
wN
8 4
= = =
3
4
R
Q
wN
t
=
Power Law Model
Using the similar approach ,the governing equation can be written
as
The velocity profile can be derived for a Power Law
relation between flow rate and the pressure drop can be determined
as
2
n
v P r
K
r L
| | c A
=
|
c A
\ .
( )
1
1 1
1
2 1
n n
n
n n
P n
v r R r
L K n
+ +
(
( A
| |
=
( | (
A +
\ .

1
3 1
1
2 3 1
n
n
n
P n
Q R
L K n
t
+
| |
( A
| |
=
|
| (
A +
\ .

\ .
Bingham Plastic Model
Using the similar approach as shown above, the governing equation
can be written as
The velocity profile can be derived for a Bingham Plastic fluid as
Since Bingham fluids have a yield stress, this yields to a plug flow,
i.e., at a region close to the center of the pipe, as shown in the
figure.
2
y p
v P r
r L
t
| | c A
+ =
|
c A
\ .
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1
4
y
p p
P
v r R r R r
L
t

A
=
A
The plug flow region radius, r
p
, can be found as
Plug region velocity, v
p
, can be calculated by inserting the plug flow
p
, into the velocity profile equation.

Plug region
r
p
v
p
2
y
p
r
P
L
t
=
A
A
2
2
1
4
y
p y
p
P R
v R
P
L
L
t
t

| |
|
A
= +
|
A
A
|
\ A .
Total flow rate, Q, is the addition of the flow at the plug region and
the flow at the non-plug region. Mathematically,
After necessary calculations, relation between flow rate and the
pressure drop can be determined as
Note that if
y
=0, this equation reduces to Newtonian case.
( ) ( )
2
2
p
R
p p
r
Q r v v r r dr t t = + (
}
4
4
4
4
1
8 3
3
2
2
y y
p
R P
Q
P R
L
P R
L
L
t t
t

| |
|
A
| |
|
= +
|
| A
A | |
\ . A
| |
|
|
|
|
A
\ .
A
\ .
\ .
Yield-Power Law
Using the similar approach as shown above, the governing equation
can be written as
2
m
y
v P r
K
r L
t
| | c A
+ =
|
c A
\ .
1 1
1
2
1 2
m
m m
p y
P m R P
v
K L m L
t
+
A A
| | | || || |
=
| | | |
A + A
\ . \ .\ .\ .
( )
1 1 1
1
2
1 2 2
m m
m m m
y y
P m r P R P
v r
K L m L L
t t
+ +
(
A A A
| | | || | | | | |
(
=
| | | | |
( A + A A
\ . \ .\ . \ . \ .

Note that if
y
=0, equation reduces to
Power Law case, if n=1 , equation
reduces to Bingham Plastic case, and if

y
=0 and n=1 , equation reduces to
Newtonian case.
2
3
1
2
1
2
2 2
3 1 2 1 1
2
2
m
y y y
m
y
y
m
R P R P
L L R R P
Q
m m m
R P L
K
m m m
L
t t t
t
t
t
+
(
| A | | A |
| | | | | |

(
| | | |
|
A A | A |
| | \ . \ .
\ . \ .
(
|
= + +
| |
(
+ + +
A A | |
| \ .
\ .
( |
|
A
\ .
\ .
(

Velocity Profile & Pressure Losses of
a Fluid Flowing Through an Annulus
There are different procedures for
determining the velocity profiles and pressure
losses of a fluid flowing through an annulus
for various rheological models. Since the
exact solution for an annulus is not possible
for some cases, the annulus has been
represented in different forms. One of the
most commonly used methods is to express
annulus as a narrow slot, i.e., parallel plates.
The other very common method for
engineering purposes is using the
hydraulic diameter concept.
Hydraulic diameter is defined as
For an annular geometry, hydraulic
diameter can be determined as
( )
( )
4 flow area
wetted perimeter
hyd
d =
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
4
2
2
o i
hyd o i
o i
R R
d R R
R R
t
t

= =
+
Newtonian Model
Exact Solution:
Derivation of the forces acting on a fluid element in an annular
geometry was derived in the previous chapter. Shear stress for an
annular geometry was derived as
2
P r c
L r
t
A
= +
A
where c is the integration
constant. As mentioned before,
c is zero for pipe, but c has a
finite value for an annular
geometry. For a Newtonian
fluid, governing equation can be
written as
Boundary conditions are; v=o when r=R
i
, and v=0 when r=R
o
2
v P r c
r L r

| | c A
= +
|
c A
\ .
( ) ( )
2
1
2
ln
4
P r c
v r r c
L
A
= +
A
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
ln
1
4
ln
o
o o i
o
i
R
P r
v r R r R R
L
R
R

(
| |
(
|
A
\ .
(
=
(
A | |
(
|
(
\ .

Relation between the flow rate and the pressure drop can be derived by
integrating
( ) ( )
2
o
i
R
R
Q v r r dr t = (
}
( )
2
2 2
4 4
8
ln
o i
o i
o
i
R R
P
Q R R
L
R
R
t

(
(

A
(
=
(
A | |
(
|
(
\ .

uS Q =
2 2
2 2
8
ln
o i
o i
o
i
P v
L
R R
R R
R
R
A
=
A

+
| |
|
\ .
v u =
Narrow Slot Approach
If annulus is represented as a narrow slot, the relation
between the average velocity and the pressure drop will
look like
Hydraulic Diameter Approach
If annulus is expressed in terms of hydraulic diameter,
this diameter is inserted into the pipe-flow equation and
the relation becomes
( )
2
12
o i
P v
L
R R
A
=
A

( )
2
8
o i
P v
L
R R
A
=
A

Power Law
Applying the similar procedure (narrow sot), the pressure
loss equation in terms of average velocity, , if the
annulus is approximated as a narrow slot is
If hydraulic diameter is used, the equation can be
derived as
12 2 1
3
n
o i o i
P K v n
L R R R R n
| |
A +
=
|
A
\ .
2 4 3 1
4
n
o i o i
P K v n
L R R R R n
| |
A +
=
|
A
\ .
Bingham Plastic
Applying the similar procedure, the pressure loss equation in terms
of average velocity, , if the annulus is approximated as a narrow slot
is
In terms of hydraulic diameter, the relation can be determined as
( )
2
12 3
p y
o i
o i
v
P
L R R
R R
t
A
= +
A

( )
( )
2
8 8
3
p y
o i
o i
v
P
L R R
R R
t
A
= +
A

Yield-Power Law
Assuming the annulus as a narrow slot, a relation can be
derived as
Thus, pressure loss requires iterative approach.
( )
1
1
2
1
1 2 1
2
m
m
w y w y
m
w
m m
v
m m
K
t t t t
t
+
| | | |
= +
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
2
o i
w
R R P
L
t
A
=
A
Field Approach for Laminar Flow Pressure
Losses in Pipes and Annulus
In these equations, is calculated in psi/ft, and
p
is
in cp, is in ft/sec, d is in inches, t
y
is in lb/100 ft
2
, K is
in eq. cp. and is in ppg.
Example
Determine the maximum possible frictional pressure
losses in a pipe with a diameter of 4.5 in. and length
of 1000 ft. for a Newtonian fluid with a viscosity of
100 cp and has density of 8.5 ppg. flowing in laminar
regime ?
Turbulent Flow
Friction Factor
The kinetic energy per volume of a fluid is defined as
It has been observed that, the ratio of the wall shear stress, t
w
, and
the kinetic energy of a fluid, K
E
, is a dimensionless quantity, called
friction factor. Thus,
2
1
2
E
K v =
2
2
w w
f
E
f
K v
t t

= =
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
In the earlier chapters, it has been derived that
Combining the equations above will give
This equation is a form of Darcy-Weisbach equation, and is called
Fanning equation. The friction factor is called the Fanning friction
factor, which is commonly used in fluid mechanics.
For a Newtonian fluid in Laminar region, the pressure loss as a
function of velocity can be derived (see pervious part) as
4
w
P D
L
t
A
=
A
2
2
f
f v
P
L D

A
=
A
2
32 P v
L D
A
=
A
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Equating both equations for pressure drop yields
Thus, solving for f
f
will give
Since Reynolds Number, N
Re
, is defined as
Therefore, for Laminar flow, relation between friction factor, f
f
, and
Reynolds Number, N
Re
, is derived as
2
2
2
32
f
f v
v
D D

=
16
f
f
Dv

=
Re
v D
N

=
Re
16
f
f
N
=
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Effective Viscosity
For non-Newtonian fluids, same equations used for Newtonian
fluids, i.e., friction factor as a function of Reynolds number and
Darcy-Weisbach equation, can be used as well. However, the
viscosity term has to be well-defined to be used in Reynolds
number.
For practical purposes, in field units, the mean viscosities for Power
Law and Bingham Plastics in pipes are presented below:
Power Law
Bingham Plastics
where and
p
is in cp, is in ft/sec, D is in inches, t
y
is in lb/100 ft
2
,
K is in eq. cp.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
1
1
1
3
96 0.0416
n
n
n
K D
n
v n

| |
+
|
=
|
|
|
\ .
6.66
y
p
D
v
t
= +
Laminar-Turbulent Transition
For -Newtonian
fluids
Laminar flow if N
Re
< 2100
Turbulent flow if N
Re
>2100
In reality;Transition if 2000 < N
Re
< 4000
For non-
Newtonian
fluids.
There is not a common agreement on the critical Reynolds
number as in Newtonian fluids
Some people claim that, using 2100 for critical Reynolds
number is accurate enough for practical purposes.
However, others suggested new methods for determining
critical Reynolds numbers for different rheological models
According to them, unlike Newtonian fluids, critical Reynolds
number is not a constant number. It varies with changing fluid
properties
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Critical Reynolds Number for Power-Law Fluids
critical Reynolds number, N
Rec
, as a function of power (Newtonian)
index, n, as
If the calculated Reynolds number using mean viscosity is larger
than critical Reynolds number, flow is turbulent.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Re
3470 1370
c
N n =
Re
928 v D
N

=
c
N N
Re Re
>
flow is turbulent.
Critical Reynolds Number for Bingham Plastic Fluids
Hanks presented a laminar-turbulence criteria for Bingham Plastic fluids. A
dimensionless term, called Hedstrom number is introduced.
In field units
Hanks pointed out that, there exists a relation between Hedstrom number
and critical Reynolds number, i.e., if Reynolds number is higher, flow is
turbulent. The relation in graphical form is as shown in the figure.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
2
2
y
He
p
D
N
t

=
2
2
37100
y
He
p
D
N
t

=
HedstromNumber vs Critical Reynolds Number
If the calculated Reynolds number using mean viscosity is larger
than critical Reynolds number, flow is turbulent.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Determination of Friction Factors for Turbulent Flow
Friction factor for laminar flow
For turbulent flow, empirical correlations
Newtonian Fluids
Colebrook equation (modified version of Nikuradze equation) is most
widely used empirical correlation of friction factor for Newtonian
fluids. Colebrook equation is given as
Or Blasius equation
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Re
16
f
f
N
=
( )
Re
1
4log 0.395
f
f
N f
f
=
0.25
Re
0.0791
f
f
N
=
BinghamPlastic
It has been suggested that, if
flow is turbulent for a Bingham
Plastic fluid, i.e., if Reynolds
number is greater than the
critical Reynolds Number,
Colebrooks equation can be
used for determining the
friction factor.
Newtonian Fluids (turbulent flow)
Colebrook friction factor
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Power Law
Dodge & Metzner proposed a friction factor correlation including the
power index, n, of the fluid as
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
1
2
Re
0.75 1.2
1 4 0.395
log
n
f
f
N f
n n
f
| |
=
|
\ .
Dodge & Metzner friction factor
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Turbulent Flow in Annular Geometry
For determination of Reynolds number, equivalent diameter definition,
which is derived from narrow slot representation of an annulus, is given
as
Mean viscosity term , for Power Law in annulus geometry
Mean viscosity term , for Bingham Plastics in annulus geometry
where and
p
is in cp, K is in eq.cp, v is in ft/sec, D is in inches and
y
is in lbf/100 ft
2
.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
( )
0.816
e o i
d D D =
( )
1
1
1
2
0.0208
144
n
n
n
o i
K v
n
n
D D

(
+
(
=
(

(

( )
5
o i y
p
D D
v
t

= +
Reynolds number in annulus geometry
Reynolds number can be calculated in field units as
Same friction factor correlations, as described for pipe flow, may be
used for different rheological models. For pressure drop calculations,
the same equation used for pipe flow (Darcy-Weisbach) can be
used, except pipe diameter is replaced by equivalent diameter.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
( )
Re
757
o i
v D D
N

=
Practical Calculations
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Example
A fluid is flowing in a pipe with an ID of 2.5 in. with a flow
rate of 400 gpm. Fluid has a yield stress of 15 lb/100 ft
2
and has a plastic viscosity of 25 cp. Density of this fluid is
10.2 ppg. Determine the frictional pressure loss for this
pipe-fluid system.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Critical Reynolds number for a Bingham Plastic
Using the figure, critical Reynolds number is determined as 5500.
2
2
37100
y
He
p
D
N
t

=
( )( )
( )
2
2
37100 10.2 2.5 15
56763
25
He
N = =
Re
928 v D
N

=
( )
2 2
400
26.14
2.448
2.448 2.5
Q
v
D
= = =
ft/sec
( )( )
( )
6.66 6.66 15 2.5
25 42.2
26.14
y
p
D
v
t
= + = + =
cp
( )( )( )
( )
Re
928 10.2 26.14 4.5
928
26385
42.2
v D
N

= = =
Since N
Re
>N
Rec
, flow is turbulent.
psi/ft
( )
0.25 0.25
Re
0.0791 0.0791
0.00621
26385
f
f
N
= = =
( )( )( )
( )
2
2
0.00621 10.2 26.14
0.67
25.8 25.8 2.5
f
f v
P
L D

A
= = =
A
Annular Friction Pressure Losses Due to Pipe Movement
The friction gradient caused by the pipe movement
using the slot flow approach to laminar flow an equation
can be derived :
For laminar flow of Newtonian fluid
Where v
a
is mud velocity in annulus ft/s and v
p
pipe
velocity
For non-Newtonian fluids clinging factor Kc is introduced
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Annular Friction Pressure Losses Due to Pipe Movement
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Annular Friction Pressure Losses Due to Pipe Movement
There are two cases to consider
Closed end pipe
Open ended pipe
For closed in pipe the flow rate in the annulus is equal to
the rate of the fluid being displaced by the pipe.
Finding the annular velocity for open ended pipe is much
more complicated so it is usually ignored.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Example
Depth 10,000 hole size is 7.875
Drill pipe 4 OD
Mud 10 lbs/gal
600
=65
300
=40
Pressure gradient .5 psi/ft
Frac. gradient .56 psi/ft
Determine the max pipe speed for tripping the drill string.