~~;yfina'l

COMPUTATIONS CONCERNING '. MOON'S SHADOW
,

OF

NILAKANTHA
••

SOMA YAJI

Edited by K. V. SARMA

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HOSHIARPUR
VlS\lVESHV ARANAND

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VISHVA

BANDHU

INSTITUTE

SANSKRIT AND INDOLOGICAIi'STUDIES PANJAB UNIVERSITY

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General Editor-K"

V. SARMA

by DEV A DA TT A Shastri at the V V" R. I. Press. and pu blisbed by K. Vi SARMA, Acting Director, V .. V. B. I. S. dl I. S., Panj ab University. Hoshiarpur
Printed
4

Paniab

University

Indological Series-6

:q;:~:;;~r~ijfin~~
COMPUTATION!S CONCERNING MOON'S :SHADOW
/

NILAKANTHA ,

.

OF

SOMA YAJI

Critically edited- with Introduction. Translation and Appendices
JBy

K. V. SARMA
Acting Director. V.V.B.1.5. & 1.5. Panjab University, Hoshiarpur

VISHVESHVARANAND PANJAB

VISHVA BANDHU INSTITUTE STUDIES UNlVERSITY

OF SANSKRIT AND INDOLOGICAL fiOSHIARPUR

19:1E;i

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m~mP.aTq:, (tr~r'{~

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All Rightj ReJerved
FlRST EDITION, 1976

Price Ra. 10'1w
Publishers
VISHVESHV ARANAND OF SANSKRIT PANJAB VISHVA BANDHU INSTITUTE STUDIES

AND INDOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

P.O. Sadhu AlIbIalll, Hcshiarpur

(Pb., India)

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION •••

vii-xxvi

and YiparitacchiJyii-Popularity of Ch{1ytigaT}'itain KeralaCandracchayaganita+ Ntlakantha's authorship of the work-Manuscript material-Assessment of the manuscripts-e-Ntlakantha, the author-Personal detailsBirth-place and Family-e-Sankara, the brother, and Netranarayana, the patron-e-Ravi and Damodara, the teachers-Works of Nilakantha-e-Chronology of his
astronomy-Kram,Qcchliyli

Chayaga1)ita in Hindu

wor ks-Versatility
C ANDRACCH..4Y
AGA]YIT

of Nilakantha-e-Acknowledgements
AM

WITH

TRANSLATION

I.

lfim'n!

~TtfCrtfvr~l! (Sbadow from Time)

cn:~f;:r~...: (Introduction)

2 2 4 6 6 8
10

~fw": ~~<M'1: (Moon's true latitude) '" ~i~ fia~e:~ (Moon's second inequality correction)
"fi":r~~tlil~: (Correction
~T~~r.:i

to daily motion)

snlt=tt;f ;:f tKalalagna and Orient ecliptic point) .••

;~~q: (Zenith distance of the Nonagesimal)
Ii:(;ilti~~:n (Moon's Shadow) Ii{;ilti~ttni=f~~ SfCfil~ml~q' (Alternative ..

method for Moon's 12

Shadow) II.
~T~:n:

q)t~"'l(;:r" ... (Time from Sbadow) ~,ai=ftr"

fCfq"U~~",qi{ ;:f~lri«TU~~

(Bases for Viparitacchaytn

...
.'

14 16 18 18 22 24 26-28

(The four main R sines)

iJ'fCfllf (Reduction to the Polar longitude)
'iqttTfq·t~\'l'~ltl "
~Tff:

.,..

fff~T~~oi
'"

;:f.

(Approximate

Orient

ecliptic point etc. and their correction)
ifiT(Ol'T;:rlf'tl!(Time from shadow)

~~~tfCa':
APPENDICES INDEXES

(Conclusion)

I. Index of Half-verses
II. Index of Authorities cited

...

29-30 31

lNTRODUCTION Cbiyaga~ita in Hindu Astronomy
The Candracchayiiganita edited here critically for the first time, from original manuscripts, with Translation and auto-commentary, is an interesting astronomical manual by Nflakantha Somayaji, a reputed mediaeval astronomer of Kerala

(c. 1443-1545 A.D.).

Chayaganita or 'Computations concerning the Shadow' constitutes the Hindu astronomer's method for ascertaining the exact time of occurrence of any event on the basis of the shadow cast by the Sun or the Moon. The expediency of this device during ancient and mediaeval times would be apparent when one considers the limitations of such chronometrical devices as the hour-glass, water-disc, etc. The gnomon, being one of the simplest of astronomical instruments that could be set up at any time and at any place, and readings made independent of circumscribing factors like zero-point etc., is the most handy instrument to record such abrupt occurrences as the birth of a child, death of a person and setting in of the initial menstruum. A knowledge of the exact moment of these happenings, as computed by astronomical methods from the measure of the shadow, facilitates the prediction of the future based on them in accordance with the dictums of astrology. Obviously, the shadow cast by the Sun is measured during day and that by the Moon during night.

Kramacchiyi and ViparHacchiyi
The utility Chiiyi~ga1)ita in the daily life of the mediaeval Hindu, whose prescribed way of life required the performance of numerous religious rites. is not far to seek. Ordinary astronomical computation enabled him to calculate auspicious times tmuhurta) for sacred rites and social functions, in terms of time-units like nii4ikas and vina4ikiis, say, after sunrise or sunset. But, in the absence of accurate chronometers, it was not easy to ascertain when that auspicious moment, as calculated, had arrived. Chiiyligal,Eita came to his rescue in such a situation. For, it was possible to calculate, in advance, the length that the Sun's or the Moon's shadow would attain at the appointed time. One could, then,
vii

V1l1'

I.'

CANDR ~CCHA YAGA~l't AM

set up the gnomon and watch for the shadow to reach the stipulated length and perform the rite at the right moment. This process of computing the shadow for any specific Time is called Krama-cchayn, 'Direct (process of) Shadow (computation)'. The corollary of Kramacchayii, known as Vipartta-cchnyn, 'Reverse (process of) Shadow (computation)', according to which Time is calculated from the length of the Shadow, was, equally, if not more, important in everyday life, in that it enabled the accurate ascertainment of the time of abrupt, nonplanned occurrences like moments of birth and death, unexpected arrivals, untoward happenings and the like. Popularity of ChayagaJ}.5ta in Kerala

The mediaeval astronomers of Kerala seem to have taken the best advantage of this natural phenomenon and devised highly intricate calculations to get the exact times corresponding to the measures of the shadow, taking into consideration also the factors that affected the shadow, such as the latitude and longitude of the place, time of the year, precession of the equinoxes, etc. Practically everyone of the numerous astronomical manuals (Karana-granthasi produced in Kerala contain sections devoted to Chavaganita, both of the Sun and of the Moon. In the Paiicabodha manuals, of which about a dozen different texts have been identified and documented, ChlJyiJ is one of the five subjects dealt with, the others being Vyatipata, Grahana, Srhgonnati and M audhya) Several texts which are devoted solely to computations based on shadow have also come to be composed." Candracchiyigat.tit a

What is more interesting, computations concerning the Moon's shadow being more important, several manuals exclusively devoted to Candracchnya have also come to be coniposed, though the calculations

1.
Astronomy,

See R.V. Sarma, History of the Kerala School of Hindu (Hoshiarpur, 1972), Sn. on 'Bibliography of Kerala Jyotisa',
I

pp. 134-37. See, for instance, Chdyagananastaka ChiiyagafJita, I-II, Chliya~taka of Acyuta Pisarati (op.cit., p. 118), Suryacandracchaysganlta (p. 176), Suryacchayiidig(1)ita, I-II (p. 177). 2.

INTRODUCTioN

IS:

here are more involved and intricate. These include five different works, all entitled Candracchayaganita, and Candracchnynnayanopnyah+ The Candracchayaganita of Nilakantha Somayaji, belongs to this genre of texts and sets out the processes for the computation both of Kramacchaya, 'Shadow from Time' (verses 1-17), and Viparitacchaya, 'Time from Shadow' (verses 18-32), of the Moon. The commentary by Nilakantha himself gives a lucid exposition of the textual verses. The Translation in English, with footnotes wherever needed, as presented on pages facing the text, is intended to set out the sense of the textual verses in terms of modern mathematics, reserving a full-fledged demonstration thereof for being presented elsewhere on another occasion. Nllakal_l!ha's authorship of the work The commences is available title of the concluding carries no benedictory verse but abruptly with the subject-matter. No indication, therefore, in the beginning of the work either about the author or the work. The authorship is, however, ascertained from the verse of the work which reads as follows (p. 25) :
Candracchaynganita

'Victorious shines, illuminating everything, the 'Moon of Shadowcomputation', with its brilliant rays of rules, having been extracted by Nilakantha (Somayaji) from the ocean of astronomical lore.' The commentary, however, carries an introductory verse which specifies the title of the work and also indicates that the author himself composed the commentary (p. 2, below) :

Gf;'(f~ll{fa(fI"Q': ~Qft)
:tP:~~~lfTiffUfa-

~~R!

Sl'Vf1=lf

a,.~,
ifF~'
l

Cfi~T

!qR§qTf.(~S~

'Having paid obeisance to that Brahman, whence (take place) the origin, subsistence and extinction of the worlds, (the work) Candracchayaganita is being commented upon by its author himself, viz : Gargya (Kerala-Nilakantha Somayaji ),'

----_
1. Candra. 2 Op. cit .. pp. 115-16. ,

CANlJRACCHAY AGA~ITAM

, Manuscript material The present edition of Candracchayaganita and its auto-commentary is based on the only three manuscripts of the text and one manuscript of the commentary thus far identified, all of them being preserved in the Oriental Research Institute and Manuscripts Library of the KeraIa U ni versity~ Trivandrum. A. Ms. No. 5862-B, a well-preserved palmleaf manuscript in Malayalam script procured from Shri Tuppan Nampntiri of the Ponnorkkottu Mana, an old family of traditional scholars of Central Kerala. It contains both the text and the commentary. The manuscript is inked and the writing is very readable. However, it is not dated nor is any mention made of the scribe. The codex! contains the following three works, all on astronomy: Laghukalnrpanam, an anonymous karana work, Candracchnyaganita, with auto-commentary, being the work edited here, and Upuritgakriyiikrama, an anonymous work on the computation of eclipses according to procedures enunciated by Nilakantha (Somayaji), as stated in its opening verse :

~lSqcm:r"
Slfl:fT

;:rqf!i~l{ ijr~~lJolffiq~,,;:rT'
;Jflfll~

f({f~~ff

~'1urrf?f)lfT::ifil1: u

B. Uncatalogued folios 173-77 'of Ms. No. 5877, being a codex of astronomical works including Nilakantha Somayaji's Golasiira and Siddhantadarpana. The manuscript is well preserved, but it is not dated nor any mention of the scribe made. . The text alone of Candracchayiiganita is contained herein. C. Ms. No. 475-1, occurring in a codex of astronomical works procured from Nareri Mana (Kutallur Mana), a reputed scholarly family of Namputiri brahmans in Central Kerala, The manuscript is old, brittle and frayed at the edges. It is inked and the writing is very legible, though not attractive. It contains only the textual verses which, however, are accuratelyinscribed. The works contained in the codex are: A. Aryabhatiyam, B. Mahabhaskariyam, C. Laghubhaskariyam, D. Siddhtintadar pan am, E. T'antrasangraha, F. Lilavati, G. Paiicabodha, H. Laghumdnasa, I. Candracchnyaganita, J. Goladipikn and K. GrahalJi'istaka.

A transcript of this codex is available Mss, Library, Madras, No. 5185 a.b,c,
1.

also in the Govt. Or.

INTRODUCTION

_

. The codex can be

dated

by the chronogram

sevyo

dugdhnbdhl-

talpah, viz., the 1699847th day of the Kali era, given as. the date of transcription of one of the works contained herein. ThIS date works out to A.D. 1551, being almost contemporaneous with the author Njlakantha Assessment Somayaji who passed away in about 1545 A.D. of the manuscripts in technical manuscripts to go corrupt and seriously

The tendency found

the ease with which errors find their way into them have not

affected the manuscripts used in the present edition. In fact, the text and the commentary as preserved in our manuscripts are mostly accurate and free from errors. two alternate back to the author himself. The concluding lone manuscript its of the commentary does not Since the manuscript that not this verse, been commented carry the does not not by upon The variants are few and just these one or go readings are indicated. Possibly, emendations

verse and

exposition.

indicate any break here, it is likely contain any technical matter, has the author. Appendices Ms. No. 5862-B contains, an expanded for version of verses additional correction. language, ganita
III

which does

continuation

of three

tbe commentary, verses with an in the Malayalarn 19, paramiipaI and II,

28 and 29, in of

After this is found directions, demonstration been added

a geometrical here, they

verse

kramakotyii etc. Since these two fragments are related to Candracchayiiedited have as Appendices towards the end of this publication.

Nilaka~!ha, the author
Our author is generally referred to with the title Somayiiji, or Comatiri, the last being the Malayalam derivative of the Sanskrit word. A detailed colophon occurring at the end of his Bhnsya on the Ganitapada of the Aryabhatlya contains deal of information about him :

Somasut,

Somasutvan

ri'(f SSfT·~'XT"~"
"T~~~"

~ ~~um
I{tt~"

"1~;:r

it~~,mq-1!~~"~·iT-~ar~vlf"T~-q~~~ttil!VTTrS'Cfi~'Iaf(f~
~T~q)q"J~" ~qfVmAt:liq~q~:tq

"mimi"
It)q~ffi

a good ~T(fit~:-

an~~Ttr~

~:!a'-~·"-~,,)q"{Tmlf)r~Tff(~;!mf"fcrS'-

Uqq 3tt~?ttT;(t!llT~"f

~lPVlf~iti=f

CANDR Ace HAYAGAl:7ITAM

v~ ~.~qqf'a'" f"4'i"e~l1§tt,it ~~~
Personal details

","fqRq~"T~" ..,~ etc.'

"~-':1"(?~)

fiftif~ ,,",,~"!,.

The above-quoted and was a Bh6Ua.

passage

informs that son of

Nllakantha

belonged

to

the Gargya gotra," was a follower of the Alva!ayana-sutra brother named Sankara, close friend Subrahmanya, He had composed

of the Rgveda had a younger by name and a Soma subject sacrifice. he had out

,

He was the He

Jatavcdas and
Jatavedas of the in which

had

an uncle

He was a performer

several works on astronomy,

made deep and extensive investigations, by his available works. Some forthcoming more personal details

a fact which

is well borne

about

Nilakantha

seem to

be

from a Malaya lam work Laghurnmayanai'

This work desof the Gargya-gotra

cribes itself as a work of Rama, son of Nllakantha and resident of Kundagrama,

Cj. the colophon at its end :

~nt~QiVl~'l

"mif~fff~'l

,.;ft-'''~i!fi'QQR:q~'l 31flfT~r· iTfCfi'-mI!fT-~lf-qr(lQ)'~ iffl!l"'l~fff'l~.:f\'S~'l
This Nilakantha

"lla1="~", :q;~rrfq~fff"~fl-~fli'ff~Tq.GJ fqtf:qfi S!ift~n:ntJUi r_;et+! ' s
of the work with our named wife was

is identified by the editor

author."

If this identification

is correct, Nilakantha's

Arya, and he had two sons Rarna and Daksinamnrti. the latter of whom was well versed in the Dharmasastras Sanskrit, Tamil and Malayalam. and learned in the three The great Malayalarn poet languages, Tuiicattu

1. Ed., Trivandrum Sanskrit Series (TSS), No. 101, (Trivandrum, 1930), p. 180.
2. Generally the term Gargya is affixed to his name in references. It may also be noted that in the commentary edited here, he refers to himself merely as 'Gargya', (cf Candracchayaganltam vyakhynyate'sya Gargyena, p. 2), obviousJy, on account of his full name not being amenable for insertion in the verse.

3. Ed. P. R. Menon, Tuiichattu Karyalayam, Chittoor, 2nd edn., 1931.

Granthavali, No.3,

Tunchattu in the

4. Vide P.R. Menon in his article "Tunchattu Ezhuttacchan' Malayalam monthly Tunchattu Ezhuttacchan, 3 (1952-53) 127-35.

INTRODUCTION
,

xiii

Ezbuttacchan is said to have been a student of Nilakantha. Nilakantha is also said to have composed, at the request of a friend, a panegyric in Malayalam on the Goddess Parvatf, the presiding deity of the temple of Urakam in Cochin, in order to ward off the predicted premature death of that friend's daughter.' The authenticity and the source of the information are, however, not corroborative statements. Birth-place and Family evidences have to be found before of the above work quite certain, and accepting the above

Nilakantha hailed from Tr-k-kantiy-ur KUI)da..pura or Sri-KuI}da-grilma), near Tirur, South Malabar, ages.

[Sanskritised into SriS. Rly., Ponnani tal uk, during the middle brahman Malayalam present It

,

a famous seat of learning
spelt also house

in Kerala

The name of his IIlam, as the house of a NampUtiri into Kerala-sad-grama Nilakantha's corresponding to the

is called, was Kelallur (sometimes Sanskritised word Etamana

as Kerallur and Keiannur], is identified as the

Kerala-nall-ur."

Illam, situated a little

to the

south of the local temple." family.'

is stated that Nilakantha's family became extinct and the family property was inherited by the nearest dayadt relations, viz., the Etamana
I

Nilakantha's favourite deity was Lord Siva installed at the famous
temple at Trpparannod quoted above (p. xi). Sankara, the brother, and Netranarayana, refers to his younger the patron brother Sankara
In

(Sanskrit Svetaranya) near his in the colophon

village; to the

cf.,

'-'IT'

~l~';fT~-qOO~H:-tfi~1Jff,afq'A~GT,

ABh.Bha~ya

Nilakantha places in the

several versed

A Bh.Bhasya.

Sat'lkara too

seems to have been well

1. lbid., This stotra is published Malayalam script, Stavaratnamala, Pt. I.

in a collection of stotras

in

2. It may be noted that in the expression Giirgya-Kerala prefixed to the author's name, the word Kerala refers to the name of his house and not to his state, as is sometimes taken.

3. C/., Vatakkumkur
Kerala, vol. I, p. 384.

Rajaraja

Varma,

History to the

of Skt. Lit. in late Sri Rama

4. I am thankful for this information Varma Maru Tharnpuran, Chalakkudi (Cochin),

-I:iv.

CANOl ACCHX YXGA~lTAM

in astronomy and followed his elder brother's studies. Thus, after describing some methods on the Rule of three (TrairtiSika) in his ABh.Bhii$ya, Ganlta., 26, Nilakantha says how his brother who was teaching at the house of his patron explained to the latter some of those theories; cf., 3{~ ~tf~ ~n;q: ~~: 3{f"~~Sr;:r 1ff~\T~lt" a'~trlTrq OT~l:nq'lf;:rT qci~~;:r a'fq. s;rf;:rq'Tfqfff: I ( TSS 101, p. 156) Nilakantha observes at the close of the Bhasya on the Golapada that he was entrusting the Bhnsya to Salikara for its proper propagation. Thus, just before the final colophon. Nilakantha says : ~Cff"q~
am:nfwl~l"ftl 6qT~qffi'f.. I

;rq: fCfltt:qit
'"

tl~

tf~SI'~n~Tf"« 'fa'lT I

;rq)

¥{qcRt R~~;:r

a~q

..

~tqqTthrm

=tf II

fw~

fq;:nlffti'ife'J:an1T.stff"<;~ I

lIfq- ~ ;:lfTlfTf~~~q-f1{ ~tW-itfi{q 1ff~~ ~ "

~fa

tT)~qT(l~A

~tff"

.. u
(TSS 185, p. 164)

That Nilakantha was intimately connected to and was patronised by Kausitaki Adhya Netranarayana, known locally as Azhvanceri Tamprakkal, the religious head of the Namputiri brahmans of Kerala, is known from several references in his writings. It is also clear that the patron had great esteem for Nilakantha's erudition in astronomy, in which subject he too was interested and used to discuss difficult points with Nilakantha, Thus, in the discussion on the calculation of the motion of planets (ABh., Kala., 22-25), Nilakantha says: rfitJlcqf'ifi: ~~q~ ~ ....
cltTmuftri
ctfT~tTTil qT'~lr~~' "

Cfi'Tf!t:I'tffi:r

lflctlilJ'fTqTqvTa:;:rq I'
""

!Ii'e~t a~i{~f! 6qTtr<;~ lffafqctT~fff: ,
$JifiT~f;a~lTT~ti

'l~q~fniSlfa~
ilq
~~qT

I'

!J~tJft it fqannfq 'f~~~'{·af~
irtf

p.ll~trr..;:r~af~QT)fqa I
it~T"r;:r
fq~: It

lfW

Cf):)tITa-CfiT
rlf~qlfq:

;:r~rtT~Ff1Jf: SI'~: • !Hlf'lTcPll( u (TSS 110, p. 63)

~f1l ij'~cf

Again, in the long discussion on the position method of to celestial derive the
~cc{T

calculation 17-21), author

of

the apparent speaking : at~qfq on a

bodies

(A.Bh.,

Knla., our

sakrt-karna,

says
f"G1;g~-

CfiQ

~tfmlq;q~':n;{

~TG~rr CflT~rcrfCfi;rT 3Titi~ql
i;\jf~qTt;{T

~i.{)~);{,,~q"lctfll

~Cf)l6~~T;:rft1im1~

'"

fSfijjlfCfCfiT I '" ... (TSS 110, p. 47)

ift\iqhlqjT

'"

~fff1i~a'

I

'{fer

II

This would indicate the intimacy that existed between Nilakantha and his patron and the common interest that bound them together. On the compilation
~;qlna
otlFSlll;{

of

the

A Bh.Bhnsya,

Nilakantha
I

observes

in one

place: at

ffir:rtf~q

~~lQ(t Cf~UiT: STfCfq'm'
3Ta«f~crrsr

CfiTtftaf:fiifT

:q-r~=itrr ifr~rl:TUfT~itif
Again,

q;n,{ff,!,
context,

f~~qa'

(TSS 101, p. 113).

another

f~ffif

CfiTr:ftcrf6fiifr Sl;f'r~itrr

he remarks

: ~aTci5t~it qlf~cr qaqT~;:r 'illT Cfirf~ff~ I • ••• •• .•• ffffq,! fCftla-

faal'llCflff«
~;:r:' .••..

GllT~t(T;::r'iT~i&,! , (TSS 101, p. 156).

It is c1ear from the above that the credit of enthusing in his investigations, and, in fact, to have prompted him to

Nilakantha write been his good family are

A Bh.Bhii$ya,

goes to Nctranarayana,'

the members

of whose

known all through the annals of Kerala history to have scholars and, at the same time, patrons of scholarship. Ravi and Damodara, Nilakantha That Ravi was imbibed the Teachers informs well versed us in his

ABh .Bhiisya
and

that (TSS that

he

studied

Vedanta under Ravi, cf. Ravlta atta-Vediinta-itistrena, also in jyotissastra in astronomy some of his knowledge

101, p. 180). Nilakantha from Ravi, where

from Ravi is clear

the introductory verse to Nilakantha's Siddhantadarpana, his teacher, has been mentioned by double entendre: ?;fl~~l")~~ ;::r~qT \1rrrCfitf

'{f~ a~T

I

----

~~SI'«lqT;:~ln

~id
to

~q)fo'(~ fl;:o~=iiEta-I'

1. Even with introductory verse,

regard

Nilakantha's

Tantrasangraha,

its

~ fqlSUrr f<=ff~ci ~~~ol\ifilC{ ~qziti!l~r~UT I ~l:j'rrcfTsrt ~rfaif a~1{ o=fln ;:n~'ltar'lt ff II
has a veiled reference to his patron (Netraj-Narayana that work too seems to have been written. at whose instance

CANDRACCHi YAGA~lt

AM

A work on astrology, Aciiradipikll, which is a detailed commentary,
in verse, on Muhurtastaka is ascribed to this Ravi.'

The teacher of Nilakantha who actually initiated him into the science of astronomy and instructed him on the various principles underlying mathematical calculations was Darnodara, son of the Kerala-DrggaQita author Paramesvara," of the Bhargavagotra resident of the village of Alattur [Sanskritised into Asvatthagrama) was situated quite near Njlakantha's as also in his other works, Nilakantha and his studies under him. stayed with his guru at the latter's own village. reverentially residence of how In refers even and which

his ABh.Bh(j~ya,
to his teacher

He speaks

as a boy he his studies;

prosecuting

cf. 'fllT ~!f~ '::Hn:n if~ ~q etc. (ABh.Bhii~ya, TSS 110, p. 48). He also refers, often, to his teacher's views and quotes him; cf. sr'filurff~
1:q;:iGfTgq)~CftT'(tflfii"l

~lqC{-~rJf)(rU~llT~~~~~),,,a-if

~~;;ftifi,,)ctnTaqfCfff :

etc. (N's Grahana-grantha' in the Trivandrum Palace Collection, Ms. No 975; transcript with me, p. 61); n~)Cfffq~~T~rfi: (4BIz.Bhti$ya, TSS 101, p. 47); ~lIhr
fi{i(;i:q ~

(fitt ~fl{-~~~f'fT: q~ilf~~q~lfnf~:

'a:r~i(T"lI;:f

etc." (ibtd.; p. 48); a'qfq -

Hri~fqtSCfi~~ "....ctl

. ttl ell'T~Teiifi~I:lTq:fe:rq~'ff!6'1Jj:r" ,
on verse 27, Ms. Trivandrum with

~~lf~l1C;:~~1Jftffo~ (SiddhantadarpaQa-vyakhya,
Palace Collection, No. 975; transcript Similar quotations later authors of make, astronomer the times and other

me,
not

p. 30). which Nilakantha and

references,

proclaim Damodara

only to be a prominent of erudite works on

but also as the author

the subject, manuscripts Nilakantha

of which, are yet to come to light. in the footsteps of Paramesvara, founder

followed

of the D tgganita system of astronomy in Kerala and one of. the foremost astronomers of the land. For him Paramesvara was not only the revered father of his Guru but was also his Parama-Acarya, which term he generally refers to him in his works; ·cf" ~ by

'f11fq-

1. Ulloor, Kerala Snhitya Caritram, vol. II, p. 114. of this work, see Kerala Uni. Mss. Lib., No. 3336-B. 2. 3! Cf. the detailed colophon quoted above, pp. xi-xii. On this work, see below, p. xx,

For a Ms.

INTRODUCTioN ~M~~or

xvu

j.

:qf1=l"C!q"{q~~lJfr t;;f~t~1l"~'
I

(4546) tfff !Ii~
I

q,{T~lf q3=tI-

imt~~fof9{9flffT
q-~l1~~Tfq
Golapnda,

etc.

(Siddhtlntadarpat;.a-vyakhy71,

verse ~8);

ffr~nt:GcfTfq91P:n+r, ~ffq_ Sffff'nf1ftl'! verse 3).

7;rfq~(ARh. Bhasya,

Works of Ntlakantha
Njlakantha study of and his investigations has written several and works which the reflect science his deep ripe scholarship in astronomy, embodying be made here: astronomy)' in three and the results of lucidly.

in the subject

interpreting

A mention of his works may, advantageously} 1. paricchedas, proced ures. Golasara: ('Quintessence embodying the of basic

Spherical

astronomical

elements

2.
enunciating

Siddhnntadarpanai
the astronomical

a short constants

work with

in thirty-two reference to concepts

anustubhs,
the

Kalpa

and specifying his views on the main astronomical

and topics

on which there is difference of opinion among authorities.
3. title Candracchaytiganita, or merely a short work Chnyag anita, under in thirty-two which it is sometimes cited, verses on the of the shadow

methods for the calculation cast by the Moon

of time from the measurement

and vice-versa, being the work edited here. on the Candracchiiyiiganita, included in the

4. A commentary present edition. 5. 432 verses. Tantrasangraha'

divided work

into

eight

chapters and

comprising erudite

This is a major

of Nilakantha

is an

1. Cr. edn. with Translation, Hoshiarpur, 1970.,

by K.V. Sarma,

V.V.R. Institute,

Critically Ed. with Translation by K.V. Sarma, Adyar, Library, Madras, 1955. Two short anonymous tracts, entitled Siddhantadar'panasiddha-puryayadayah and Siddhiin tad a rpanastha-paryaya-bhudin an it added as Appendices to this edition, vouch for the popularity of this text. 3. Ed. 188 (1958).
Candra. 3

2.

with

the

commentary

Laghuvivrti by

Sankara,

in TSS

CANDRACCHiYAGArdrAM

treatise on astronomy. As a work belonging to the Tantra class, it takes the commencement of the Yuga as the starting point for calculations. In the several chapters, it deals with: I. Astronomical constants and general planets. Sun. principles and conceptions. II. Geocentric of the positions Moon of the and the VII. The

III. The Sun's shadow.
etc. VIII.

IV. Eclipses Srngonnatt an elaborate which

V. Specialities in the Sun's eclipse.
6. Aryabhatzya-Bh7i$ya,l

VI. Vya tipii fa. of the Moon. commentary in the the of

Phases of the Moon, and sutra-like

on the cryptic 121 aryas the commentary makes when method of

text of Aryabhata

comprehends A perusal and

fields of Mathematics

and Astronomy.

will amply prove that it is no false claim that he designates his work as a 'mahabhasya' eXpOSItIOn adopted by him:

Nilakantha explains

~;ftqinliifz,:qflffq'~fi:f"f«i:f;:Cf-'SQ"~!:n~ Iq~T~T{)!r' \;~"{~ 1!f"ct>ff(=fq(q"lt~ clf'ffff;Q'qHrfctltar fi{~f"iaqi{§~nSlq~i1 ~~~TfeatJGT~ ~'fi'~;jf'tqi{\jfTaq2\j,f~a- fr{~~ffffl ffftf r~f~ ~tfliQ')fff~rq.!ti{~6:fl:n~f't qU~ tf~qrfr ~ -~na(nfq·i(fOTff~Rfpiiiff-q, f~(I'~~~,ZT fi{~f(nf(g<=rf({srf<=rqf~Qq~-{f~qiiffilffri\iQ')fa~TfflfYfferqq(:f~qtrtr'{fq~fq~lTa-

f,,~~ q1=m1:
101, p. 180). came
~fff'

3l;~ ... ~ r

faf"{Cta qltJfCfqfi{-rra-Tlfi6fQ'ffatrff~p.iQ'T~qT;i aQTttT,! (TSS
In commentary, (TSS another context, recalling how he Ntlakantha remarks:

to

write

the

'iqT~ SlCf!lRf

~Cf(=iT: srf<lffn{fqi
o!frl.SqT.,Qf~QH' ~ II

ll'tCfi~lf~f'+f~;:q~uatrIGtHot;:rt iifi+fhqfq

srfffqf~ftrff ~ qqrifi~f:q~q

101, p. 156). The lucid manner in which the difficult conceptions about the the calculations justify the only on the are made clear, investigations appellation wealth

celestial globe and astronomical of quotations, studies presented herein

and the results of personal amply has given to his work.

and comparative "Mahabhasya' and

which Nilakantha Gola padas of the is covered

Ntlakastha has commented

on the Gar}.ita, Kalakriya
other three sections; cf.

A rya bhatiya

, leaving out the Gitikapada,

which he says

by the

commentary

enid

f~qTVf'tTfif6t(Tf:r{~1Tfacn, qfffffi~fijiTq~qcerT~ Sf~Tlrff I (TSS 101, p. I).
7. Siddhantadarpana-vyakhyn, a

fit fff~Tq'qfQ'
commen tary

~a'am~qT;r;lerr~:

on

his

own

Siddhantadarpana, of which an incomplete Ms. is available in the Palace Library Collection, Trivandrum, No. 975. The commentary is elaborate

1.

Ed. in TSS 101, 110, 185 (1930, 1931, 1957).

INTRODUCTION and resembles, in diction and treatment, gives the his actual

xix

Aryabhatiya·bh(j~ya.
date of his of birth

It (see

is in this work that Nilakamha below, p. xxiii).
8. Grahar;,anil'1)aya,

a work of this
;:f

on the work

computation are yet

lunar and quote from

solar eclipses. but later authors this work;

Manuscripts

to be discovered,

and Nilakantha

himself I ~~f!~Trit

in his ABh.Bhll$ya

cf, crier' ~1Jf11~-r.i

,!<fo\1TQf{'(1=lfitq flfTq: I

9 (=I'~<f~ l1rfr~~urfifuTit'"
'"

fq~qCfi)f(!"q~Tql5li""lJ~~Q):

q~q~qCfi)fG&": qTa);rT~~~Tf(Q{: f~~efq&lqCfi)G~ttffm&lqiifa~)ffa':
q~ tt~Tfrt~ lfvtif qTa)"1~~~T~2:

I

'I
I

af!J~q ~~ q.sG~Trr~lfiff~fl~ f~q~
qqi;a-

II

W'q~ &lq ~TaQ, fC{ffq q,

t

~?i~)srq' qqT~: ~;:6)i~
,

f~el{ II
(TSS 185, p. 102) in his commentary
OIl

These verses are quoted also by Sankara Nrlakantha's Tantrasangralia remark: the introductory 9. narayana,
a!<f~nl~Cf

(on ch. IV, verse 27, TSS

188, p. 107) with

~~U'fRuTit
Tamil

I
son on had of Ananta-

Sundararajaprasnottara. was an astronomer and author districts are of the

Sundararaja, country commentary Sundararaja for

contemporaneous Vnkyakarana the of greatest certain of this work. questions

with Ntlakantha in the Tamil

of a detailed computed.'

or Viikyapaiicadhyiiyi respect for Nilakantha points in astronomy. formed a regular to work are yet Sundararaja

which is a manual

on the basis of which almanacs clarification to these Manuscripts refer to this

whom he addressed Nilakantha's

detailed answers but both authors

work, come to

Sundararajaprasnottara. light,

in his commentary

on the last verse of eh. V of the Yakya·

karana says" :
8l~

cpu3T#'U'f

g qfc;tTTrrT!llif;olq

~~

f~~i;fiiUfq~Tq'~~-:(CAT'l~qU"lqT'{tffi"

!!if(ffiffa- ssih,a·*~~~~~.n~fr:renf«-rrT~· .. ...
8l1~qe;rtq~aQ)'

Qqrr)iUl
K.S.R.

---.-1. Cr. ed. by T.S. Kuppanna Inst., Madras, 1962. Sastri and K.V. Sarma,

2.

Ibid., p. 119,

CANDRACCH.l

YAGA~ITA M

~'f)"1i(?)~'~ ~)~~fGt;n at~lI~V~N ~;:~~~T~sr~;ft~~r~ snaQ,fq-ff;r I fr;t ~fOtitir.fCf fq'Wlt f~~ftt~ ~~ , I ,
Nilakantha 48 : cf. ~;:~~~T:jf5f!t'l)~\T~lr ;pnCfCfqi;lttlt~;gq,!, 10.

v;i\'

too refers to this work in his ABh.Bhli[fya, Gola., (TSS 185, p, 149).

A Grahana-grantha, copied in continuation of Njlakantha's Siddhantadarpana-vynkhya in the Trivandrum Palace manuscript No. 975. The work as available in this manuscript begins 'atq '1~GT,!' and without any more introduction, continues : ,,;:~~qfq ~i!fiT~ q-~ "rfR~)<fn'ftT"T~T;' ilTffftr 9~tJf~!:f[:q] sw:n'nt~rq:~Q'r~. It goes on to describe the necessity of correcting old astronomical constants by observation, deals in detail with the Saiabda-salnskiJra, quotes the verses of N's Paramaguru Paramesvara from his Siddhnntadipikn i Mahabhaskanya-bhasyavyiikhya)/ on the latter's observation of some, eclipses, and after some more discussions ends abruptly. There is no doubt that this work is from Nilakantha's pen. References herein to his own works, teacher, etc. fully confirm this point. One of his own works is referred to herein thus: 3lff q-~ l1llT ~r~rrrfUra- ff~~Ter;:rffqT ~",~qT"q'l~Cfff~-'3Rq~~lftt etc, (p. 60 of my transcript). The verses quoted are from Nrlakantha's Candracchaynganita, vv. 8-10. He refers to his grand-teacher Paramesvara and his ABfz.Bh(j~ya too, herein: cf., o~'nq fij';[FCfqlfq~)qTe[ff'f"
~QJr;lf~"Tfq-itSGrfif:q qT~Ttt "~q~~~ Cf~llqlGt,fi{ q-~it!lCf\)tKI'SfCfii(Gf 3lrtrifq-,,~ ~Tq~~CfffSf~'=tUf

f~cTii(lf

tfiT~fCjfilfT-'l)(>f'lTqT<taTfq~flfTf~~TaTf":

of my transcript). The ABh. Bhiisyt: also is referred to elsewhere in this work (cf. pp. 62, 63 of the transcript). For a characteristic reference to N's teacher, see: Sf~~tr"tO'f 'Tl;ir~ng'li(:f~if' -(=lnfi{ifT ~Tq~·~l1T~\T~7.fT~"(~}J~-~~),qff" ~~)ifIii{)~, a~fCfa'{fq 3l'li'fcTqT;i:ni~ct II (p. 61 of the transcript).
f'$fi~:nf~~

W<fafqfmi:

qQlf;i:n~ U (pp. 57-58

11.

Grahapariksakrama

(?).

Puliyur Purushottaman

Namputiri

The well-known Kerala astrologer has edited" an old, incomplete"

----1. Ed. Madras Govt. 2.

o.. Ser.,

130 (1957).

Pub. by the Astrological Research Institute, Bombay-25, 1950. its

3. The colophonic words at the end of the edition indicating completion form only the editor's addition.

INTRODUCTION

Malayalam summary of a Sanskrit work under the tiitle Grahapariksakrama. The textual verses were not available to the editor and he presumed that the author was Drgga1J.ita-Paramdvara.1 These verses are, however, found in NilakaI}tha's Bhasya on the Golapiida of the Aryabhatiya, under verse 48 (TSS 185, pp. 132-49). It is a long tract of about 200 verses, summing up the principles and methods followed in Hindu astronomy and forms a veritable handbook on the subject.
It ends:
tfir «~qff: sr)~T q,{Tm ~)faqlf;r~ !fil:~'f1ifli!f(ifti!fi~~~~ '0 ~
Co ...

,

ferqfof~2(q;r II

It is not however very definite whether this rs an independent

work with the title Grahapartksakrama Bhnsya or is but a part of the Bhiisy«,

and is quoted

in extenso in the

Nilakantha should have written more works than those mentioned above since there are quotations attributed to him in later works, for instance, in Sankara's commentary Laghuvivsti on Nilakantha's Tantrasangraha, which could not be traced to his known works. Again the Trivandrum Palace Ms. No. 975 containing Nilakantha's Siddhiintadarponavyakhya and the work on eclipses described above, has, in continuation, some incomplete tracts with no definite titles, which again, to all appearances, seem to be Nilakantha's writings.
I _

to some, Ntlakantha has composed a work entitled Grahanirnayai It is likely, however, that this is only the Grahana .. nirnaya, noticed above. Ulloor attributes to Nilakantha a work called Ganitayukti. Thus, speaking about a BhafjiiyuktibhlJ:jii:, he says that "it is not the work of Kelallur Comatiri, author of Ganitayukti=" The ascription is wrong and the fact is that while our author belonged to the Gsrgya-gotra, thiis latter work is by an anonymous author belonging to

According

1. Vide the editor's Introduction, p. i ; see also Shri Namputiri's review and opinion of Ganitaprakasiktt by K. V. A. Rama Poduval, Canannore, 1950, p. xiv.
Hist. of SkI. Lit. in Kerala, Ulloor, Kerala Sahitya Caritram, vol. II, p. 117,

2.

Vatakkumkur,

vol, I. p. 389 :

3.

Ulloor, ibid., p. 122.

CANDRACCHAYAGA~IrAM

the Bharadvaja-gotra as foIIows ;1

as

is dear

from

its first

verse,

which

runs

f~fG~CiTtf'i{c~itCfa'TT~tr~;; ~"f=t:{~ ..

~r
Chronology

~~nr.,

,

~Fli;ff If;Tf~:q~qfora~Cfall': It

of Nj lakantha's

Works

It has been noticed! that Nllakantha's his Tantrasangraha present writer's and Gdasara the investigations which are chronology have, nothing could be said about this matter. The first five works enumerated darpana, Candracchayiiganita, the above,

A Bh,

Bha$ya

is later

than But The on

quoted in the former. of his other works. shed some light

however,

viz., Golasiira, Siddhantathereon, in their and turn, Tantraquoted as 1500

commentary

sahgralia do not refer to any other work, but are, in other works of Nilakantha. comprehensive

Of these, the Tantrasaiigraha

is the most

of the five and gives the date of its composition

A.D., i.e., it was written when the author was fifty-eight, and on these considerations it may be presumed that the other four works were written
before this date. in the The Graliananirnaya have yet to be and the Sundararajaprasnottara, and which are quoted This Bhnsya, of which manuscripts discovered

A Bh.Bhasya,

have also to be ascribed to this period.

his mature work, Nilakantha remarks: (ef., treatise once; com. on The Siddhnntadarp ana-vyakhyn on verse 25: which
fq't1=t{a- t

wrote when he was very old, as he himself QI:fT~lfT"qlr~eri! (rSS 101, p. 156). to the Aryabhatiya-Bhasya
'fliT

"lI'iU 5fql:f~T ••• q~T~~f~~q
qml,

which refers

tfcf

;l;n~~ttlTo~T~~r~ the

srqf~~fqfo
than ;

p. 22 of my transcript) eclipses too

is still later. refers to (ibid., 63). 'fll'T f~~o~

And so also his discursive

ABh.Bha:;ya more

cf'., a~ tfi,~f-::Ji'llqT~

~fi:{ci

(p. 63 of my transcript)

~oq_ ~of

iTf'lTfffqT~ fqfff=tOft~rnff{ff;

Date of Nllakar:a!ha Indisputable author. Sankara, evidences Nilnkantha's are available regarding the date of our on his teacher's pupil, in his commentary

1. Ms_: the Kerala Ulliv. 2.

1Vfadras, 1\1a1. D. 339, pp. 83-89, now, transferred Res. Inst. and Mss. Library, Trivandrum.

to

Ulloor, Kerala Si1hitya Caritram, vol, II, p. 119.

INTRODUCTION

Tantrasahgraha, contain completion

points out

that the Thus

first the

and last

verses of the work and of the meaning

chronograms of the work.

specifying
I

dates

of commencement the natural

after giving

first verse of the work : '~ fqtSUTT f'l~~

f:r'f<i'
Ot~

~iT~

~qtq.q EtiT~tij ,
'I

\illTfffq'f \iQTfi:iq
Sankara says: Q;lIJf!(=q 'lfqlStff6 I These April 1500. The Siddhantadarpana two Kali
3n~TifUf ~f.{ 31~~a~t:('ttl

rt';{T rrnJl.}"lrrTlf €t

!(~T~ 3lTfG:(!fT ~qffT ~~qqT~i=f
tr':nftei{f+fqT~irlJn~

sr~o:al\+~ff.frraffii?q~tt;:~

::3'qf~~:,

'~e=~rtlITfrrfQ~~qT'iir

dates,

16.80,548,

and 16,30,553, work both dates

out

to in

Kali Year 4601,

Mina 26,

and 4602, l\Te9(l I,

occurring

and Nrlakantha's

own commentary

thereon

give the year and actual date of his birth. Cj. :

Text:

~f(1«rc;;:rlSeqt~
&;:rflP.:p:r:q")qsil '" '"

'fe{ifI'ffhnGit ~ !=f Iq!lf~qr{9"

ita- ~ff:
a~ It

I

(Sid. Dar. 18)
~T~
n-;:S!tf

Com.:
'lT~fa6l{1;a'GT1i~tfl:

f~E;:W~a:~Hffqen {g.;;r '"

t~q?f

I

ri~ll

3if5eqt~:
apt I

I

t{

T.f

tih.v;;~Ftt
~o:

q~Tf~~Cflf~~f!-~mf+iff; (4500) I

IT(!ftu:

q3=:ti:q~~lf~rrr~~({:

(45) I
3Hl~

~Cfmfft~T&rq;
STTq~)

'f~Ci~l~

TO' ( 4545)
....

Cfi~tt;~t~nqfff 31q~:q~'it~T:

tflff

\3'\i!t

~~~~f~I7lF's?!
",\...;t

tl<=rn-{~;:rq~i:rtff: I oa'T
'" '" :q efi\Vfific~Tn.F.fi~crra'
I

Cl;:JT~~'fil: qS:'i:{q~~~'4T 31~+l~ ·q~qi~UfT 310:

q~::P1f: I Sfrf~Iii~~

linT 'i;lriq-q~ih'C{~r~ur
q3=~qut!(f~faft:{1ll1aT I

'~~t!(flft~'

(45 36)

~fff

tfic?Zic~

q~T~Q
~f"
which a
I

t{;:C;!:fT1SC'Qt:ff!lTffhTPl !=f rfq<fic~+! 1

tqiijiiH'iT{:f·

il'Tqi=tT~

~'C{~Cf~l1.

I

cPU ~~lfurrjT.f
Ms. 975;

l(lf(iiTnr~at p. 14 of my on the ripe old

a-cff:

(16,60)181) IG,60JI81,

[Trivandrurn

Palace

transcript). Kali day age,

Here Nila ..

kantha himself says that he was born That Nilakantha centenarian, is attested lived to a

works out to A.D. 1443 Dec. (Kali 4545 Vrsciku), even to become
by a contemporary

reference

made of him in a

Malayalam work on astrology, vi:., the Prasnasara by Madhava, a Namputiri brahman of the Ificakknzhva house in Kerala, who wrote his work in A.D. 1542-43. Here, Mudhava suys that 11(' could count upon reputed authorities like 'Kclanallur' to recommend his work.

(,1'.:

· xtiv

CANDRACCHA

YAGA~lf

AM

a:l·a:yataadaravil adiyil Attima ttam Iokottaran punar-itinn-iha

rKetanallur' j
adarippan untanekam

abhasar allarivatuljavar porum prasiddhi The date of composition

perikollavar

jI
as Kali

of this

work, Prasnasiira, is given

4644 (A D. 1542-43) by the following verse in the work itself ezhunuttorupattettavatu Kallam ataya

nal /
ayatu

varunna visuvad bhavatat tvam (4464) kalyabdam Rightly does Ni lakantha remark in (TSS his A.Bha~ya:

/1

"lfT~ SJqlf~r

••••••

lI'qtlfi~f~itCf Qq-t~T;:rqT~Giq~

10 1, p. 156).

Moreover,

we know of at writing the and the work

least two more works composed ABh.Bhasya, viz, the commentary

by him subsequent

to his

on the Siddhitntadarpana

on eclipses, both of which quote the ABh.BhtJ~ya. Versatility For astronomical other page astronomer, of Nilakantha a mere Jyautisika and one aspect, of his Nilakantha philosophy seems and who had specialised to be very his only on its Every well read.

writings

substantiate

knowledge of the several Sundararaja, himself the Tamil 'one who had mastered informs us that he He can point" and purpose." occasion

branches of Indian

culture.

calls him

sad-darsani-pirangata, Nilakantha cf.,

the six systems of philosophy';' studied Vedanta under Ravi: refer to a Mimariisn authority Pingala's Chandas-sutroi and

Ravita ntta-Vedantasiistrena. dictum to the same

to establish a mathematical the lexicons

with equal felicity apply a grammatical

are quoted as the

1.

CJ. his commentary

on the Vakyakarana, 5.19

(edn., p. 119).

2. C/. ABh.Bhd$ya, TSS 101, pp. 54, 158, where Parthasarathi Misra's Vyiiptinirnaya and Advaitavivarana, and Ajita (com. on Slokavarttika) and its commentary Vijayii corne in for quotation. On Go/apnda, 50, the Brhattik« of Kumarila Bhatta is cited. 3. Cf quotations from the Vakyapadiya, ABh.Bhli$ya, TSS 110,

p. 31.
4.
See ABh.Bh(J$ya, TSS 10J, p. 4.

INTRODUCTION

xxv

demanded. The scriptures and the Dharmasastra texts also come in for citation.' And, so also the Puranas" like the Bhagavata" and the Vi$1)u." As for Jyotisa works, Nilakantha exhibits a surpnsmg familiarity to his with a large number of them, of his are own times. He from the Vedanga-Jyotisa cites all of down the treatises quotations types of jyotisa texts, specialisation, proper. that Nilakantha Paiicasiddhn .. Sripati's only common astronomy

Ganita, Samhita and Horn, but as became his subject main1y from texts dealing with Some of the more important quotes are: mtka, Vediinga-Jyotisa, and Brhajjataka texts of all-India prevalence Aryabhatiya,

Varahamihira's the Of texts

Brhatsamhitii, the

Suryastddhanta,

Siddhantasekhara of Haridatta, Pararnesvara's from his own

and Muiijala's

Laghumiinasa.

in Kerala may be mentioned

Parahitaganita

or Grahacaranibandhana and Bhaskara's of Paramesvara as also passages author whom who works much Bhtisya on the latter and citation Kerala

Bhtisya by Bhaskara I on the Aryabhattya, super-commentary teacher thereon; other works in for

Laghu and M ahn-Bhask ariyas, Govindasvamin's like bis Aryabhatiya-vyakhya Nilakantha quotes profusely also come is Madhava,

Damodara. of the times.

Another

often styled 'Golavid'," Manuscripts of several

was a reputed astronomer quoted by Nilakantha the numerous authorities

are yet to be unearthed. quoted by Nilakantha

Indeed, a detailed study of is bound to throw

light on the history of Hindu astronomy.

Acknowledgements
As indicated earlier, all the manuscripts used for the present

1.
pp. 48, 49; 2. 3. 4.

See Com. on Siddhantadarpana, of Sayana, Manusmtti,

verse 1;

the Grahana

work,

and ABh.Bha!iya, Golapada, verse 48, See Com. on Siddhantadarpana,

where the

Taittiriya-

upanisad, Kalanirnaya

etc. are quoted. verse 1.

cr, 11'Bh.Bha:fya, TSS
C/., ibid., p. 8.

110, pp. 16, 26.

5. On this Madhava, (c. 1340-1425), who was a teacher of Drgganita-Pararnesvara, see the present writer's Introduction to his edition of Madhava's Venvaroha (Trippunithura, Cochin, 1957), and Sphutacandraptih (Hoshiarpur, 1973).
Candra. 4

n:vi

CANDRACCHAYA.GA~IT

AM

edition of Condracchnyagastta with commentary are preserved in the magnificent manuscripts collection of the Oriental Research Institute and Mss. Library of the Kerala University. I am grateful to the authorities of the Library for making available to me the said manuscripts for use in this edition. A sad interest, however, relates to this publication, in that Shri N. Rama Sastri, Senior Pandit in the Library, who copied the main manuscript for me, is no more. To Prof. T.S. Kuppanna Sastry, lately of the Presidency College, Madras, I am highly obliged for the help rendered towards the translation of the work. The V. V. R. 1. Press deserves to be complimented for the efficient and prompt printing of the work in spite of its heavy and pressing work schedule.

K.V.

SARMA

V.V.B.ltS. & I.S., Panjab University, Hoshiarpur,

•Sankara Jayanti' ~ May 4, 1976

COMPUTATIONS CONCERNING MOON'S SHADOW
By
NILAKANTHA .. SOMA

YAJI

;ft~Efitn;-~Tq~fu-mRr~
~;~:;:~ttJlifWJa+f
'\

~. tti~

~p-1Tqfura(t

[ ~~gf~i~: ]
li_if;~ ~~2q'(ijJ :q a~T~T"tJ;{f~€fil;{I
ij~~T~ ~ 1f;(~1tr ITq~af

~f~ij:
(I~,

Sl'qT It ~ II
WtF
I

l~;qf~fff(C1tt:

,~qaT lft=qntS(Q{1:t{

~;:Sf=tiW~T;rfur~ Cfiqf OlITlSlI'ltffl'St=lf ~~

~rniUf II

wi;~1f~~~;:r +rw~r=~r~Uf~fq(ll=( I ~~lfTlfqf<+T5fT~:~ wi~~qT(U{c~q ~c.rT'l :q~~arf;;rf![tScrlf;:r:q~~ q~~ur~T~~r~qf~t·Jf!f'l P3f~!l1T~~FCf"t :q qU~Cfi~~q-~![CfTSql]l~lT +r~"lflflTT~m ~¥t~~lf :q;:[=ti~Tlfr q~lI +rrursrCfi1r~ ttQrnn~ ~fCf I ~rlfTlfllrr~lf m~~;fffifij";g:(qrq:

m~fqcr

~~~1l1cr~lfa I ~~~lfT: t~l~lTF+r~lf+rr~ ~1=~i?fHf (f~CfiT~~~: qfr&refi=tcr ~efT fYf:sr~rqT: II 9 ~ ~
(f~~~

CfiT~r;:Cf~ ~~CfT" II

[ ~f~,,: '~~f.lftq:] ~''"ftq~T;~~1."(~1!Jl~T
-~-----~--

m~ tTTl=~S~ 3~t~~ij~f,riiqy;rqt;~u~tfG:'{. II ~ t I __
.....

~ iqi

~tit f%~.iToqt: I

*
~~lf~lfqT
q~1{-'

..

'~TlfTlffUJ~q ~1 ~lI'~lJ 'CfiT~Tq ~, GPHlJr:

trfUrCfll' 1 '~n:rTlfT: CfiT~flI'

trfUre'+r' ,

... ..

.

fqll'~:
1.

I

Mss. used:

A.

No. 5862-B;

B. No. 5867 (ff. 173-77); Mss.

C. No. 475 (f. 65), all from the Kerala Univ. Or. Inst. and Mss. Lib., Trivandrum. B. ~q;:~t!~~; c. Ms. used:

2. 3.
~l,!qT-l.

~~ frayed

out.

A. adds here ffif~ A. No. 5862-B. being the same as text no. A.

COMPUTATIONS

CONCERNING
lJy

MOON'S

SHADOW

NjLAKA~rHA

SOMA YAJI

1.

COMPUTATiON

OF SHADOW

FROM TIME

(Introduction) 1. Let the Moon's Shadow (prabha)l be computed after determining the true sun and moon, the moon's apogee and ascending node, the ayanafnsa2 at the time and the latitude of the place (for which the computation is made).

(Tbe Moon's True Latitude) 2. The R3 sine of the 'true moon~minus-ascending node' multiplied by 270 and divided by the 'Last Hypotenuse', is the true latitude of the moon. It is north or south, (respectively, for the first two quadrants and the last two quadrants), square subtracted from R2J, is the 'perpendicular' The square root of tits tkoti),
--

------------_----

1. Prabha is used In the sense of 'shadow' equivalence between their measure.

on account of the

2. Ayanamsa is the distance of the Vernal equinox-point from the first point of the Indian Zodiac, i. e., the First point of the sign Mesa. 3. R = f~\flfT of 3438 units.

@TQtm' ( ~ \.9 0

) ~~

fqelcra-~GfiTe~:ft~A'~'l~:;~a- I srf~
~\ifTrrT '+r~7.fT'( ~ ~ x)f({ ~
(~'~~:

:q~~f:gi fer;:lf~rr '1rij' f~!frT~lf ln1=lfT~~lfT~CfiTl=lf

;:rr;:clf1:fiur., fiIcrTrr~cri'l ~~ I cr~ ij' ;q '1rcrT;:r:q;:a- itq-r~r ~t'h:1:t:, 9;~r~1 ttt~~: fCfel'1crcCfl1iT ~~uft~
~cr)s~~
Cfi"~urJf:;lfa-.:>

\ifTcrr ~~cerr

at

@Tmf~f~:

lf~~~ct

I

fcr~q: I tJ:Cflrcrrer ~PTIrruT~ fcreW
ij"

(~\.9o)

f.:r~clf

q~lfJfTTJl-

;q;:[~lf

:l;fRlf: I ;lfcrT'1T~ _~ fq~l:f~ f[c2fTS~lT: I rr f[(Jrlf~:gcGfiuT;rI :q?_f crf[&lti qm~lf f~;tfCfm~ fCf!lTT5lf W1r~lfTq I ~r fi:f&TCfGfiTfc: I ~
II ~ II

[ .;I~trrirajQ'~: ]
-,

lJCCfJ1l cr~ f~a')~Pn~;:[T~Cf
.... ~

~fq

!:f?_f~

f~ffir.i Ffiit ~
\oj

~~)"Tct~ftfc~lfTfGf~f~~f~:-

~;:~:;:;fr;ni~lfG;;rfuf~~:~')R;ft~qy: I ., f€r\itrfm ~$~~f~(f;;ft ,,~q7.Jr:ffi fer~: q:;~

II ~ II

N~~T~f ~')~Gi~~qtJij~qfll~Y;f:mq
~ij~--at-m:rrq:;I"'""'~~'=4I"1'iII~~tlu;:;rq~ ~ ~'(J l':f ... ~ .~ " ~
~<:' ~~

I

I:

II ~ II

~\i7.lT;;:f ~:q:;~

qiCfif~~

~;r3!l qit!fT~ ~qT~ NS.it: ~$~ I ftJ~iwsi~~~tRJ ~~.TTsfuijII \l f I s
fcrm~~q I
~~ cF~· WISt fA'f!l{!lT~~ rcrcrf&Tql1: I f ~T"lT~'ti)~T f~Q:(lf [~fq- f~ClrT :q;:sr~:gc~clfT ~cqT 9))fcCfj~

:q-Cfh:~i fcr;:lf~lf ~;:~~=t:f fGPITTclf CfiTc:qr \iffCft ~@ccrr crt Efqf:q·
f[;:lf~lf ~~V;q;::tt~~cT~~~~i
a-Pl

~\ifFf,Tc~;ft\if1~ ~@(crT
tn~~lI11f'T
f!(cTTSscff

~~crrssr:~
qtq~Cf~lfT

tft:CfiTfc~~ ~lfTa-rl! I a-q lfq
=tr
:qlf~Cf~ U<t

,!~Cf!: f~~'tlfr ~(crT a-cq)~ [~fq

~;:~:;:qT'1Tip::r:q ~:iI"Tq)~

~Cf)f.:r~;:~flf

¥TC{ r"1 a-ttf =tr ~\jfTq}~~lf:q q~·lft~~i{

~liTq

a-q

fQf~'t11m'{

I ~;f"lP=r~

~uf :q

~Q

~'ll!uf

fqt=~lf.
ctT

~lfTq

f~lf'rr
I

a~

~(qrs~;:rr;:clfCfiOf., ~(crrs9=cf
Cfi'fl:fT:;T~ur1!.

:q-;:clfCfioT ~ffi: I ~;:n:f'1
~\jfTtn~ ~r!f~~

~ci'1~

~;:t;:;:cr)'lJq; cf'fl1Tf~1T :q;:[~:g2" cr;:r~,
+rcfi"{r~T er.;fqfa-

+rCfi~TGT,ur~ I
'i::f~~

fCf~~si fCf~T;r: I ~ef =trt=a-Ffrn:crTlfFflcCfilTI
:qq"{q~

i~T~:'

sr~lJ~~~fa: ~lfTq II ~~X II

("~ s )

~cr

5f~l1f~c~fffi:-

9~1~rl;r~q;r~)iiqi;:({-(

'~:!'(\9 ) e.:f
(J~T

tficP.:rT~j ~;:~ ~q+f~lf+rmfT

~~

1

l!ifT~TC{urlf: I

(The Second- Inequatity-Correc

lion)'

3.

The R cosine of the

'true

sun-mjnus-moon's

apogee'

X

R

sine. or R cosine, respectively, of the equation of the 'cerure-corrcctedmoon-minus-true sun' X the equation of the 'centre-corrected-m Jon's daily motion' -:- (20 x R x the moon's daily mean motion) is, respectively, the moon's bhuja-phala and koti-phala ,

4.

Add to or subtract from R, the koti-phala according as the 'true

sun-minus-moon's apogee' and the 'equation of the centre-corrected0 moon-minus-true sun' are both in the same ayana (i.e., from 90° to 270
or from 2700 to 90°), or in different 270° and the the 'Last square other is from bhuja-phala. 270
0

ayanas (i.e.,

one this root.

is from and This

90 to add to is the

to 90°). the

Square square

of the

Find

Hypotenuse'.

5.
subtracted

R

X

bhujn-phala -: the 'Last Hypotenuse' is from
0

is to be added or as the 'true
(i.e., between 90° and

from the equation

of the 'centre-corrected-moon', or Capricorn, Reverse

sun-minus-apogee' minus-sun' traction

Cancer 0°

270°, or between 270 and 90°) if it is the light fortnight is between and 180'». if it is the dark fortnight

ti.e.,

if 'moonand sub-

the addition

ti.e ., if 'moon-min us-sun' is between

180° and 360·).

4. Muiijala correction

This is called (932 A. D.),

Evection. and after

First, him

Vatesvaru

(904 A.D.), gave

then this

Sripati

(999 A. D.)

in Hindu astronomy.

[ rrf(f~~~t1:: ]
'lfT{{T~~T

~$~r lIfift=r{~qf;~~~6r

~~Tstr"tT'lf:ITr~.f
:q~T~ ~(qr ~;:(lf~Ufrr

~~ml1T~~Usfq:q

S5('

«I
II ~ II

lffcr~p:tiT,{J1TQ [cQ'16Tit;n] ~r~qTSStcfl1~ ~l~T~lifUf

~fa I ::qf:sr~Z"!flfil 8Q'nm.i~ :q;:Sflff~p.:riWT II ~ a II

~ ~~TcTi1

t~ftr:e:
ii~~crtyCfT
wr'l:q~

3fQ'~'~'1

~eft~[t!1:q fqm-tfifT~- [ ~;i)sq~] ~fcr I ~;itS1i fu"~fTlf=if ~f!ia)S~ ~T'W: I ~"()St:lflTii:q~ii {i~ ~er I
l:(Cf

sr~q-f~fij":[

~;:stT ;;rT~: I

(f~

ii f"[~fTlTf~~\ifTtO~· ii fi:crTlT~:-Be~:jfT-

:q ~Pfir~l=!: I CilnTrqT~ ~q!.f.,:q~rt ~PfiT~~, ~<:f

tf)~J{7 f[a-Tlf~cflf ~;p:qrrCf~ 1ficrtflfcCfTq:

~cf~ fu(,:ft~cfir:ij

~;:srt 1_;fr~r: II \ b II
[ !fil~\Wl~;j

I

;;rQ:up;r~q)ifTa:T

1f;QISflr

~T~~r~tiT:~~~

m

sn'~tti.. ]
~~T4ij~r;:Cf~ I

Q~nil:{:q~~Tt!fT, ~'i~T~

~f;t~i):5
t~7

II

\9

II

~ f( ~T~r:, 'l~~~s;r
~~ !1~tCfi~lt'l

:q~ ~Hffi~r;:~~~ I
ij~

oq~<i ~r.T~~ij~:qTt~ 8g~~q:q

II

t:

II

~rlTTij"pliiflf ~l;:rflrFrlTrrl1T~ - [W,,1\jfliqtf):] ~fiJ I ~er)t3fcf tnci!fnf~1fi'~ q-qty"'\ gFlTP.r ~~ -J1PH: srTUfF.fi~Fcr~ =tf ~lfHf I c:. Cf~ srTUT";~r;:a~ 'fa-lf)~7 (~~) ~rf~~ ffr<ff;:;rCfil:rCf I =tf~srTurT: srf~ t ifTiir~cH: I a-~rS~TfSc~W~T ~TWT: I arfJ:lfq- cn(!f"TcJ:i"Cf)l{_' a-~ 5I"TUfCfl~T~a~ ~"ijfq-~li~: ~lrUf~farCfi~r~ ~Cf1Ii~ I :q~>ITUfr lrq-T~JC{crf ~(_;rr~T Cf'li{ I ~a~~q~rfq ~f~(lf crffJf;:ifcrrci fcrcn lfcrsrrurTll~ ~~~T: I ~ tf'SC! :qT~r~TfqCfT ~~'qTlfr'!. UWT~ srfq!1Jfi:cr I fi{f~~~ ~~cnr~r{sr~~~G -.., ""

~~'!- 4.
6. 7.

C. ~~r.r1 frayed out. ~qr

5.

C. f({<lTf'lQTT: frayed out.

c. ~!9"~frayed.
C. (~'l to ~nl=lft (verse lOd), which occur in the bottom line of the obverse of the folio and top line of the' reverse, are frayed out, leaving but traces of the letters. which however, do not indicate any variant reading.

(Correction 6. moon The daily motion

to daily motion) of the centre-correctedAdd the ayanmn§a to

of the equation

x

R -:- the Last Hypotenuse

is the daily m?tion to the used here,

i.e., in the computation

of the moon's shadow."

this corrected moon, and to the true sun (and use them).

(Kilalagna

and the Orient ecliptic point)

7. Reduction the

Add to or subtract from the true sun of the time the even or odd quadrants. Add or

taken, subtract

the the

to the equator (Red. eq.) at one minute of arc per prana as

sun is in

ascensional difference (cara) of the (latitude of the) place in prnnas (taken as minutes of arc) as the sun is (in the six signs) from Libra,

(Tulii), or Aries (Mesa), respectively.
(taken as minutes of arc), of the before sunrise, respectively.

Also add or subtract

the prnnas or to go

time gone after sunrise,

8.
places)

This

is called

Kalailagna).

Place

this

separately

(in two to the

and find the ascensional

difference

and the reduction

equator pertaining to this (in minutes of arc). Add or subtract them in the reverse order (to that mentioned in verse 7), to the KDlalagna. Repeat this operation several times. The (Oep) (Lagna or Priig-lagnat is obtained. exact Orient ecliptic point

----""--------------"
5.

------~------

"~------~-it pertains to

Though this rate of motion is given as per day, the shadow.

the moment taken for computing

<{lI"TCfferiiT: srTurT!1'if~5fT11fCf)~FCf"{~~~~~cpm;lfr:
ij'

I

~fCf;

rfiT~T(~~,

'CffceprJ:fu~~tTct

~~l!: ? (j~~i:tCfCl cpT<1~rt ~4'flCf;:lfflf 51T~Gfr;: '+!~tlfl1r9~ srtUfep~T;:a"i. ~ lf~Tc~fT CffBli-~Cf Cfirn~~it cqffi ~lfTq I !lTur~;:;rrr(J~l{ ~l~ U'll{ ?[uT ~lit, ~"{G~i{ 1:rtn~lrri ~~fiH,!of =if ~q: I 1:tCf+rFrfcf c ~t1l;:f Pi~l{ I ~Cf)S~~TSfGfwQ": CfiT~: I cr~;CfQ+I;-ff(fll='l~ ~~t;t ~ ac;: ;Gfl1m I ~<qlfth=liCfTq; ~F1~~ifT:;;;r~ !lTureti~Trai:.. :q ~@ccrr iflCf~ tzCf Cf)l~\'i~ srrUPfi1:1Tr(f"{ll; ~)~ a-ri ~lit ?truf ~ =1:fl::lJfq if)~litef.r~of :q ~lfTC{ ~fcr :q~T~Uf ~T~~~' ~zf ~g: ~'l: ~~: ~T~ lfTcr~fqWl'i: I ¥iffcrfwt:;i (f~ srfij'~ ~i;::f ~ ~lfr~ II \3.~ II
llT~lf~
I

~i~fi1fff ~nCfCf I ...

~i:f fc::rf'ff:

«~iia-:

CfaT$'1';:fiJf(1i.,-

'iir~~~~qt~~n~l~

t«t_ t5f\itJlt(f
'"

6

;q~~

~iqqi: I

tfil~~r;rl~~~ft;rr:~T~~;~~~~i~n II tI a
~:ijq~~~~
:q EfiT~

fap~(ijq9 ~i;r~T~Cf~
~~ !l~)cp~~~

~f*Jl'lT~it8 I m+tT11 -q'P.i)s;:q~TQ'~TIO It

~ 0 II

~;:~lf~CfT~)\T~~T ~~qT
'fi'(Tt{fip;~m:

~~erqAl(''fl!:;lfa .. [3{;~~~TIH"] ~ ~Rr , '1\lfTq~Jf<:fi)fc: I ~T Ictifq~c;rt:{' (~<Ps'9) ~fCf I cflH

tCf~!ITTe:f\rllt ~ccrr

f~v;(lfr ~qTSS~
~ lf~

q(={,C!q ~cr~!lf\111PfCTrtl£ I

ern) ~i;:rr~+n~CfP:r

CfjT~~f'lflf rfitfe~qt~Q')~CfTaliT
C; I{

Ff?tW~t:Gf~t

~cCfr

~'~(i~;r 1fTTfClit a-~~lf ~lfT:jlff( I CfiCfQ\ ~it 2 fq~T\rlfl!I B' !~&lq:I ~:q Gf~Uf: I lf~T crr~~rq
15furCfTf~' (
Y.,,~ ~~"{T(~ )

f~~ ~J:qillFftCfT<:: fqwtt:l('a-(f~9 ~T;q: fcp:r)lrStlf~r~~GafrrTSf&~
f~~'l~f~1Jf~CfTq_
"

tTW-l

~Cf, q~flf

II ~ - ~

0

II

,,~...

..

8,

A. B. give an alt. reading ~ for

1t

9. 10.

B. C. f~~~l'f for fq~q B. C. ~~T; B. gives also ~~T as alto reading.

(Th:e Zenith distance of the Nonagestma], Zdn)

9. (a) Multiply the R sine of the latitude of the place by the final semi-day-diameter (i.e., R cos 24°) and divide by R. (b) Multiply the R cosine of latitude of the place by the R cosine of the KlJ/aiagna, and divide by 8452.

10. The difference of the two, or sum, is the Zenith distance of the nonagesimal (Zdn), when the Knlalagna is, respectively, in the six signs beginning from Cancer or in the six signs beginning from Capricorn. In the case of the difference, if the part using R cosine of place (i.e., b) is greater, the Zdn is north. Otherwise, and in the case of the sum, it is south, always.

:est({Cf~q~Tq(f'Q'

'"

""

~

011

ifHJ: ijT;-qS;:r.r~r;:ij~'{ I

r-:

...

~Tf~~~ ij~

trq_

ij~~qT~~~: qUfll~: II ~ ~ II f:f\itrT G(1)T~~Tf;;rQT I II ~ ~ It

:qrit;:r~;itifT{ij'T

~qiTi!rqT 6:QT, If(f~T f;r\iq~T ifT~ ~qij

ijm ~~q~TR;;~T~ f,r~l1r:a12 qtQ~~tr~ I

~: ~~i: ~:m~~tfj~iTgq~ijT i !iijT
~~;:r
q-\W~CfFfTrr~l1T~- [~q~~q~yqif~,!

II ~~ II

fq~q C!!t~q :q :tfr:ft~cij"· f~Cf8"T1=~ lfY;Srltq, fGI~~ ftflfY\ifltC{ I ~T ~fff:' fq~Bq- fWtScflf fGtt \lTWT I Ri" 'lcWf ,{lf~6fli t;:rr;:rTquT'( ~ '( 0 0 )

1 ~fa' , ~c:rT~~
1
II

d€li
~~~ii

Cfi~rci1~

lfq

Cl'a) ~rqt ~ ~)lfrq

I sr q'(fl~f: II ct

qTUfri=fl1'1l1r~ ~- [:q;i)rr~;;iI'TR;rT] I a'a' f~~ ~~Q"rfal1lfr~FrrllT~

~fa-

I ,,~~1;n'iJ~
fSl\ilflft

fcnTr~lf ii~:jlfTqr;:rTlf cu:rra-rcrT~~)crltq
,,~ ] il'lVJ:'

[~q~)e~r l!~
t!(ft

tifl~fif:;~r~T;:rt.1lrrFf

«J:~CffCf I a-~r ~~Tfi~lfr
'ffiiTS?r cfTVJ

~Q"a-

iSfr~l:fl:frsf;croT

~iffr sr lffqCfi)~T ~~:]

\jf'cf1TfGcCf11fcr ~

fQ{"q~u.

II ~ ';(I'

qTurT~ 'Cf~qiiita'm ~ij'rq f~iiqlft ~ccrr~StCi ~CfT.,1CfTcr q,{Tfqcrro~~YH~~ I ~~ ~: tt~r,~ ~TCi:f)Tft.1tifl:m:!: I ac'fi)fe~~q~fij~p:nI ~<fz:f Cfiyfu"!lT;~ ~Cff~lfTq

~~~;:r lf~TQrs~~"C~lr

qfcqa-1lta--[~:

~fa- I aat

ffT;:cr~q~lfa

'I ct ~ II

q'~q-ll. ... ..

C.

Cfrt to ~:rliTcm (verse 12), frayed away, leaving only
~T

traces.

12.

C.

in

f~~lflCa: omitted.

(The Moon's Shadow)

11. The sum or difference of the Zdn and the moon's latitude, when they are of the same or different directions, respectively, is called Nati, The R sine of the angle got by subtracting the Nati from three signs, is called Para-Sanku.

R minus or plus R sine (Oep-minus-moon), respectively, when (Oep-minus-moon) is in the six signs from Aries or Libra,
multiplied by called Bana. R cos moon's latitude and divided by R, is

12.

multiplied by R cos Zdn and divided by R is to be subtracted from the Para-Sanku. This is the Great Gnomon (Mahan prabhn or Mahn-Sanku) of the moon, (i.e., Maha-Sanku=. R sine altitude the moon). Its R cosine is the,..Great Shadow (Maha-ChiiJii).
13.
Bl11)Q

~JI:U~fi~ijT 'mITSS~aT

i~fij~~T~;r

lU~l';rT

I

ijij:

~ZT ll;r(=rT( l{Jfij~~T II ~ II ~

~~~~ WS:~TtfT~ gmrr~m.:~TlrTrn:r;:('tf~mih~a~rr::r.,s:'2"l1i~-(f'T~fCT I m ll~~rrr ~~fl:n [r({W~ar[a1lf~~fCfCfq-s:Ttf

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fw~

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I

86r Ii{ fmi fqwf~ruralfq ~1J~tftl~:

~~~~)

f~ cq1.:~(:flta~~ q~mfr: 11

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fGmr~~ (cfq ~i~t:(~~

!JfVrri rCl'f;e '"'1m!
I'

~~ls~4qttri af;if~qifqm

[ 1i:I~~g'Q'titq~ ~!f)T~T;:(I~'!. ]

ifT~~~qqJ(Jll
W;:ij{

ifTF;tJ~~ ~~~~~qm II ~Rn

~~ f;r\TtTTt~ ijr;:rffi~~p.n: I
~~

II

~lf{lit~f~iTfG~T
(P:JT,

15~qitft~;pft;rqT t
=r.r

ij~T~~q~'lll~

ijtaT

SlllT II

t ~ II
~\9 II

~it~~;:r q~Tij~i: m~l~t~q~T ij~: I su~,: iTQqr;:q~ s~~ a~qy ;rT~1~?H;:cr~It ~
"~,,-13. ... , IS. B. c.

~~~for

~(e

14.

C.

~iT~rl~f frayed out.

c. ~

frayed out.

14. The Great Shadow, multiplied by a gnomon of any length, and divided by the 'Great Gnomon -min~s-the fifteenth part of the rate of motion of the moon per day" is the Correct Shadow moon (measured in the same unit as the gnomon used), of the

(Alternative

method for the Moon's

Shadow)

15.

Find the product of the Bll)a got above (in verse 12) and the The difference between this and the R sine Bahu (i.e., base). if the Natt is of their "sum Zdn.

R sine of Zdn, divided by R. of Nati (got in verse the same direction

11)
as the

is called

If of different

directions

(instead of their difference) is the Biihu. 16. R cos latitude of the moon should be multiplied The square root by R cos adding

'moon-minus-Oep'

and divided by R.

got by

the square of this and the square of Biihu is the Great Shadow. 17. The perpendicular,

(I. e.,

R

cosine),
'1

of

this,

(i.

e.,

v(R I-Great

Shadow"),

is the Great Gnomon.

From this,

the moon's.

shadow of the desired time is to be got, ( as before).

6.
depresses apparent

The purpose of subtracting the moon by about

the l Sth part of the daily rate for parallax vertical to of the moon, the horizon and Hindu the true near circle,

of and

motion is to correct the Great Gnomon proportionately elsewhere along the

which

53' in the mean

lessens its astronomers daily rate of

altitude upon

which the shadow depends proportionate

take the horizontal

parallax

.motion, though this is a bit rough. 7. the quantity The second half is not clear :

"~"l)T:

~)~~T;:lf~?r

~~:",

"The moon will be visible provided the Great
to be subtracted,

Gnomon

is greater

than

(i.e., the 15th part of the daily motion, in verse 14}." Otherwise the moon will be below the horizon. This half is not commented _upon by the author.

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Si"T."rtur

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crc;riTi:1ij'rlfrrr~ ~
16.

~1:fTC( I CPU

~«fGf,T{1:

c.

fiT frayed out.

II.

COMPUTING

THE TIME FROM THE SHADOW

(Bases for Vlparltaccbiyii)

18. If the problem is to find the exact time, given the moon's shadow together with other requirements (like the date and rough time of day)" then, by using the shadow and the rough time and lagna, the sun and the moon, and the moon's node, and its apogee for the sake of computing the second inequality corrected moon, are to be computed.

8. Time from shadow is multivalued. Thus, for a given shadow, even on the same day, Wecan have two times, one with the moon being east of the meridian, and the other west, not to speak of different days, That is why the rough time when such length of shadow will occur, is required, which is obtained from tables constructed for different places ~connecting the shadow with the time.

alfT~l'lCfirmct ~CfiT~ fq~ft!;Zf fwtGT9: "{mT9: G~f~!l:q ~c~.fTf~tcrT~'T: tsrtS~'qJtff ~11t"t! ~TUtlf
qs~~fUTa~

qo:~fcq~~crr

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fq'lT~l:f: I tp~T~qT'liferTf~ ~~~~TfUf I t:tq1!~rnq Sf,*!fa- lfHlr ;rT~Cfir: ~~: I erT~:q f(Fr~FHG:fCl fiT:f~rn~T e erer) f~~~;:f fqWT~Zf f!lIte: 'U f~-

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[ ·~r:qmTq~]
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[T~~I~~
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I
I~T'(24)~

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~

,...

tr~ fcr~qGfcrt :qct:trr~
ij'

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I

~ ~~c~!ffrc+p:fi~

:qrq-rclffi:, at!ffii![iii~TCfa~crrC! I (J('fi)fC:~f1t I cp:rT\if1it=tfpftlf '1foa-=tf (2715)

',,'f~: ti' m

lenil

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f~vr~T"(~q): ~~f~: CfiTlff
17.

.I

~fcr~i{Qlf~fr=(fqfit~)hfa I tftift=r· f~rrrf~~)f~~fff!l:q l f'li' ~"{~ _trre;~ff ?

Verses 19 and 20 are quotations from McIdhava of Sangamagrama and have been quoted by Nilakantha
himself
lil~ii

in his Aryabhaliya-Bh(j~ya,

Goldpada

(TSS

185,

p. ].08) with the introductory the Karanapaddhatt 18.

statement:

'fer ~;:r if)1;1fq~T

fqe-l'1~.fOt {W-Tq?fjqriillil' ...

tTf11fofq~q-: SI'(!f;ffa: I See also

of Putumana Somayaji,

9. 9..10.

B. fij[~fo (left out. . .

(The foW' main R sines)

19. Multiply the R sine of moon's latitude by the R cosine of the greatest declination ("iz., 24 according to Hindu astronomy). Multiply the R sine of the declination by the R cosine of the moon's latitude. Divide each prod uct by R. These two products are to be added or subtracted one from the other (according to the instruction in verse 20)
0

Add the two products, if the declination and the latitude are of the same direction; if not, subtract one from the other. The result is the R sine of the true declination of the body in its own orbit. Its R cosine is the radius of the diurnal circle of the body"

20.

~1. The it sine of the true declination, multiplied by the
equinoctial shadow and divided by 121 is called the Earth-sine (K~ilijyQ). This multiplied by R, and divided by the radius of the diurnal circle is the sine of the Car", its arc being the Cora in pranas (CariJ3u or
CaraprllTjQ) .

fcr~Cfqd"t

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fq}crcr~l1: '" I Cf~lf ~~q'Sl'q~q
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.

f~m~~T:q~~lfriflfif

~m

memuT
[

II· ~ ~ - ~ 1 11

~lt~1i ]

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fSr~q{ ~(~

ij~iTtmij I ~~ij
epf~

~~~

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II

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fq ~ ti~ I~-

[ ~Fiq ]

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tJ:Cf~r~:

I Cf)T{1~ttrTq?f111~ :q;:srTf~-

f~!lT)'i, cr~r lSflif;T.fiT ~
II ~~ II

~W'l~"{f~t8'T~

I

crlf)f~EfaTl=it ~:q

~ll~(I~q'Q~'

~1t~ ~T

1ft: I II ~\l II
I

q~;;f

~::{~~: ~q~ i'ij' stt~$~(~~

~f5ri() (ff;i(~m:

~tt1q ij~ifn;:ij\;:[T~~i:

,,~ti(r.:i

ijt'fT

~q

trTtrf~qJaTfqq{~

II ~~ II.

(Reduction to Polar longitude : Drk-karma)

22•. MUltiply R sine ( of the latitude of the moon etc.) by R sine Zdn and again by R. Divide this by the product of their R cosines (i.e., the product of R cos lat. and R cos Zdn). Find its arc. This should be added to the moon etc. at rise if the latitude and the Zdn are of the same direction, and subtracted, if of different directions. At their setting, the addition and subtraction are to be reversed.

23. When (the moon etc. are) at mid-heaven," the declination of the Kiilalagna itself is the R sine Zdn. But, in this case, (I.e., in doing the drk-karma of verse 22, for the moon etc. at mid-heaven), the addition is to be done if the directions of the latitude and the Zdn are different, and subtraction, if they are of the same direction.

(The approximate Orient Ecliptic Points etc. and their Correction)

24 a. The longitude of the planet (i.e., the moon etc.) corrected thus, (i.e., ace. to verses 22, 23) is the respective (approximate) ecliptic point at rising (i.e., Orient), setting (i.e., Occident) and mid..heaven (i.e., meridian) (as the case may be).

9.

.By 'mid-heaven' is meant here the meridian.

~
'J[~

~~tf~~~
11·

~

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~

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I

II ~~ II

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~if~=tiT~Tfq~

~ ..~tEf~q~;;rTR:IO

iI'\'m' (I"R~tA~ I

~: ~)
OOCf):q~~~~ ~if~:tpT~~r~Tirr

ft:enr.rlUl:
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II ~\9 II

[~iltli "'f.lq~!]

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I

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\J~f(If'lqf,.q!l

qti

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~fcr I

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=I

19.

c. ~

frayed

OU~,

24 b. The Meridian ecliptic point, with difference applied, is its time. (when corrected).

its Right

ascensional

25. This plus three signs is the Kal ilagna. Using the declination, moon etc. of this Kalalagna time, the Meridian ecliptic point is to be found repeatedly, till there is no difference (between the previous result and the next),

26-27. To the Orient ecliptic point got (in verse 24a), cara and also Right ascensional difference are to be applied to get its corresponding time. The Occident ecliptic point got, plus six signs, is its correspond .. ing Orient ecliptic point. From its corresponding time (got by applying its eara and Right ascensional difference), the moon, Zdn, the ecliptic point etc; are to be computed, and this Orient ecliptic point time is to be made correct by successive approximation. The difference between this time got and the time of the sun (with the cara and the Right ascensional difference applied to it also) is the time of the moon etc. (in their own rising, transiting and setting) day or night.

[ 9TQ'~:

'filr(w(l.,QWf"... ]

. ~~~r1lTi6T
.~~ "'-!

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'>:l

;~~tJJrl ~ ilitf(
~;~qy;:~~T J

qTitiT~;mrnJt~l~

Ftqq~~: II ~z:: tt :
\l) ~

f:r~tJP~;r .n: ~t!ff4:~('hfT;-~ p
W~l1;ijT ~ ~f'«lT

N\itp:n

~ijT

I

;~~~un~. N~{lJT t I ~8. II

~")'o~T2~ q~'lfT;~nt:

m~, ~~qr:21 !:f~~qij'~ll:
II ~ 0 II I

I

~~ftfft~t'"i'{cri~TWf;:ij~r11JT+TImr:

:,8~1~~;:~Jf~ ~'~ ~q~ lfl! ijqt ~n~qfq~Q {~T~+tTf ffir~~:q:;T~~qy:

II ~~ II

T:{cf =qr[~lf \3'~lp:re;!fT~ffcr+rlfCfiT~FflT;;~Cfccrr :q~ ~~ct?tf~ .. l1Wlfrs.:~~~r[;;crT~i1Fftlf ~Tf~PT~rlTraOlfcpT~T;;lf;:f l1~rcp-tf~~;;T~[~s:~TlfT~ar] s:fcr J \lfrlfTf~9)T~~lfTtfT ~~~?1Tftlf~TlfT: ~')!1~ "at qifr lff~lfcCfT cr;:~~T~q I fCFlfl?ff{? ~~vrN,! I acq-~ ~~Tlflfr~\lfTcnTc~Tfc+:repm~~TVJTclfCfi': 9V1f ~lf~: I ~~ lm=£t;;pr;:crr crR~fcr~lft ~CfTQT~T~OlfT~fTerf;~)CT~Ic=rI ~c(i~ lfT\lf~C! I ttcfWfr '1~l O1'iTQFSlfT I

Ws.:~.

fCfTfc'fiUfTct faiilHtifT~~A'')a., ~TlI'T";{ ~CfrsSt6l! 3tim~lfTlI'T~clf~q: I cr~ f'Q'TlSi f6riilttrT ~cqrT ~qTQT'U~\Jlflfr ~Cf~ \jc~lI'Tf'llftfTqr~lfTc{ I CR~Tq-~~r fqa)ifffilTllIJT: ~: I
:tr~

a-

rra-5ITOTT: SnCfepq-T~~~
~
IitlfT: I

SlTUfT1: fCf~T~~Rq.:(f'{srT1JflRfT: ~CfRTcr"[r.rT: ~filiClf ;ft~?fT ~;;fCfft~mrclfTlfr: tG[';;pilTTtcr@rrTlfTff~lI'T~rrrrr~ pfq I Cfi~f{? a~" 9::Cfffiiq~ I fCfiI1~ o~~C! f"~: "'m'lt)iq): "T~trf,,;g:~~i{ It ~ ~:;- <t 11 ~
21.

~it~,: I srclFfEfiqT~

~;i=t :qrfq~~$l('fTet +re;lf~rrCflT~a:: ~~r t{f~crSlT~: ~Gf ~TlfTCfreflfTrrTa-rrCT-

mfr

fCf&TqTqo;)flqlf~
iIi1i
aTQt={

f~a-

? ~eft~¥lft

23.

c.

c.

~T\ilfT for m~T

22.

c. ~rrr:

for fllCllT:

ifRcrr ~a-~

(The Time from Shadow proper)

2S. The square root of the square of the shadow-plus-144, is called the Shadow-hypotenuse. The radius of the diurnal circle diminished or increased, by the Earth-sine (got in verse 21), respectively as the declination is south or north, is called Antya.

2Sb-29. The Equinoctial Shadow-hypotenuse is to be multiplied by Rand divide:d by the Shadow- hypotenuse. This should be subtracted from the Antya, multiplied by R and divided by the radius of the diurnal circle. The arc of this is to be found by using the R versed-sine" table. This is the Hour-angle of the moon in priinas.

30 a. These pr'D1}1S are to be subtracted from the time of the mid-day (i.e., the time of the Meridian ecliptic point) if the moon is east of the meridian, and added to, if west.

30b-31. These pranas are to be subtracted from the time taken at first, (see verse IS). Using the motion during this period to correct the sun, moon etc., the whole operation is to be repeated several times, as before, so that two consecutive times, got by using the sun and the mOOD,become equal.

10..

If the 'sine' is the bow-string, the 'versine' is like the arrow

placed on i~. Hence the expression blJ,rJalb.

2C~~Q~m

~tH(~~Tfm:
i~~ - SfllTqfilr~~"':

I II ~~ II

~q~matfWl·

[

I'

,fa tT"q-iti{~-;:f1l'1tllGl$~),",r~-f.lf~

~'ii.etq,,,r1lTa" ..
lIq\~

II

]

24. 25.

A. omits this .verse and the colophon following. In place of this colophon A reads only

1;f1:

t

ssr1:

I

JJfi:

I

B. reads «~Ir

~~.

C. carries no colophon!

32. extracted

Victorious

shines, illuminating with its brilliant

everything, the 'Moon

of

Shadow-computation',

rays

of rules, having been

by Njlakantha from the ocean of astronomical lore.

[

Thus ends

THE COMPUTATIONS

CONCERNING

MOON'S

SHADOW

By Girgya- Kerala-Nilakar,t!ha.Somayiji ]

Al?PENblX 1

l~~~"i~l7.n~T

~~F~;rT ~epl!IN

tRt

q~~ I

~T~~;4{!Ititq-T~T'

~iiqT ~7.f~;:~{{~aT II

t

II

tt~tiij;q~~~t:lfT~}l~~f;;r~n((

I

~~T«T~Ta:

~qi~s"~rtfT~~~i,~~a~ II ~ II

~~~tft a~~~{rif' Afi~~IlT~;:r aT~(ft' qr '-l~qp:6T '..:::I
"

:qr firefT

qT~~~TSn1lJr

ftrmqr II ~

II

1.

These verses are found in A, i.e., Ms. No. 5862-B, in continuation of the Commentary.

APPENDIX
DERIV ATION OF THE IN

I
OF THE

HOUR~ANGLE PRA~ AS

MOO~

1. The square root of 144-plus-the square of the Shadow is called the 'Shadow-hypotenuse'. The radius of the diurn al circle, diminished or increased, respectively, by the Earth-sine (got in verse 21), as the declination is south or north, is called AntyiZ.

A third of the moon's daily motion in degrees is to be multiplied by the Shadow in angulas and added to R. This should be
multiplied by the Equinoctical Shadow- hypotenuse. Shadow-hypotenuse and divided by the

2.

3. The result is to be subtracted from the Antya got above and the product multiplied by R, and divided by the radius of the diurnal circle. The arc of this, using the versed-sine, is the Hour-angle in prii1)as.1

1. The three verses here instruct the same thing as given by verses 28-29, with the exception that a correction is made to the first R used in verse 29. This is necessary and does duty for the correction to be made for the sake of the moon's parallax and corresponds to the correction applied in verse 14. See note there.

APPENDIX

n

q-~+rTq~CfiTc~T

F.r~qij=l1J

fi:r~ctr a-cCflT~'qT I
II ~~ 'I

~lSe:;pf~a :q)~ f~T~
l'q'{q'Tq~"~T' C((~, ~qiq~~
tt;itf(f~ cn~~ I

l1"Tqfcr~Q:l1"Tllt ~a: stTl:!'~ Cfi~,
I

~qicn:-qf'flVit~~tfl~ CR:Cf~ qf(fa'''~(?) afctihltihi; ~TfCf$a1i~ fq;f£ ta'Ga1fCf~, qfi!Son1S aCf~~ at.,.. ~Tf~s- afrli f.~ \iQZTfCf~ 3fT fi{;ff~~ ~fui!";:q1 ,!~~srf~~~ Cflre afr~ ~v ~~Tfifcti, alT ~~f ~l~~lfqGstoi ~~ ~ I fq;;f qf~Gi'tffi:~~# ~ff~f{~ qeCf~qfes3fl1i 3TctiTVT;nf~nqTfq~~ iTT. =(ri \;~Cf~' at~ CICf&1qQQ{O(f{'fqni it;af~~~ q~IJifjTfiffttT~ ~~ t:(T~ an. fa;! ~~lfilffi ~l,,~qus~f~;f ~~ 3Tv~s-f~ ~fft'~~ n~qT~ alr~ ~Tq" \;QGT~ , atg 3lq'5fiqqVS~~' ~qTq'~~@' ~fe~TqQS~,! 1 qf~utT~~~Z alf'i a~~Cf~ aTTli \jlfT~ ~Gm~ I at~ ifiTeqqlJifjq'!I 3Tfaii al';ff~l;;lf.ffZI!fiY;(fqlfq~~ ~1S ~Tf! ~'lCTCl~ I aT~ CfiTfeRI~T~ra,! I itiTfe~cn{!)uaf~fa~ q)~, 3Tq'5fiqf~;~~g Cfivi~~;~ iufwCfil! I n~q)~ ~Cf&lq,!' ~Cf~qCfftf~ fcr&lq~f~ ~Tf~ '~iit q~~~' ~~ I fq&lq-ClCf~~s-~ ns:.s-~ U~Cfif~qR=t ~'JfiTfi(1Cfi~ ~ I f~\j£fT~,;rf~;~ tfiT~ ~cn~T~Taf,!,; ~)fz ~l!if~",~ q~ fqf~ta1JliTf;(fI arfd l\jftit q~~q~'f~~!fi~ ~fQz~ c{ait~ ~f~' tt;T{T~ ~~vi ~~ @'lJiq'Tfq~ ~'!' fa~Cf~ Cfi)fz ~cn~,!1 Efiffe f ~~~!fCt! ~;g q;2 ~'?£ @'1J~~s-~q~G~ qli~ 'n~s-fw~ qTlTT;a-{ ~fi" I Olf~i ~-a' ~ ~~~~ li~ ~~ff"~,! I ~a-~;1 ,!;"f'{~Ciq~ffqTifiqn-{i!sf~ n ~tml'if!;,! ,

'6ftit

q-.:,q-{'

~f..r.,(? ill'!)

,

1. .~ This demonstration, in the Malayalam language, of verse 19 of the Candracchnyaganita is found inscribed in Kerala Uni. Ms. 5862-B, in continuation of the text and Sanskrit commentary edited here. Short
fe'

and

'0'

which occur in Malayalam are represented
.

in the following passa~e by ~ and I,respectively.

I

I.

INDEX OF HALF-VERSES

IlT~-~~-q'T~~"'~T~-fcrlR6:q;:~~,~~~;l~
~)CJiT'fi;rp{

...

~~~f~
\ :q;:i-a8jIQ(¥ffGni, ";'fq~qt
....

~~m
~

'If)(51{

~~'!.
"-"0
2
20 10

f(,

alTo

12 12

aRQu,""ir.I11!_::fT(f ~"""

.

Cfr!. ~~

.. ,

"

8

• ur';m~, ,~
~'~~;e',

~\9

amq, ffi~"~J;n, Ap. I atqq~T U t Ottr 0 • at.ni.:~~q':' atto
attCf~ ~, ~"
~t:;

26
16 12 20 14

~ ~'qt{~~
ii(;Qr''ffi1(8ll: ,
II \

ft

6
20

I ~~

~'o

2
24 10

i(~c~'l)fftl." ~~

atf,!~'W',

(taT Cltflflqtti)fc, , ~

I~);n~, 115Z~~~,

~ "

4 16, 28
18

aCCti'f~ ~~, ,,, RQf o:q f~i, 0lI10
CfiT9~~qqCftt, c
._...

12
12

~i1tU,a~'I'~!,~t;

~fqfcm~~~', ~0 !5tfQ1JfTct1 f~g~~, ~ ~"'\'t~"ltq, 1
~~~qf~):
'!filfr6Rr
I ';( ~

22
4

4
12 6

gt=rlii(Tf~~t:!!(,q, atn 0 'l'1
~~T\ilm~,
\9

8
18 I6 10 10
I ~

firof~l~, f~GQ:tm~,
fe.~WtfNT: fQf~tfi

;q,

12 4

~!lCfC{, ~,
"

..

~
~

~~"mn ((fr, ,~
~q~'Hq,

...

...

fa~q~ cit:q;~t

4 22 .

'CAi1Jffttr, ~,
~,

.l1TTftct~liClf

2

ifi)f~, 't 'fil~\1I"'fq,

4

qtqmr.i~Qfft,

Ap, I

26

;tfliq:

18

29

~o
~1flftqfft 9L(CC'flt,

"1~lqlllfVtm:t
~ ~~

... f..

10

8 22,26 18

amn~rn
~

a~ttm' :;rtfiurr,~~ ...

~d"vi

.. cq,m8f;;~T ~et, ..

ntqlt(1T,

~,

16 6

,

~f't, ~~

8qT"tmt!
~,):

q\=(~~,

Ap. I 26

;ft~;rnqtt,

~1

22
24

m.:~tfC~ElT,

~ 1:;

22, 26

;ih=r'6'mm, ~~ ....
q~~nq~ifi)c!'qT, 'I'

.IOI'Cf~qt{mTt{, 1 ~

.. qAt"'".a~ lti'Tlf, ~ ~
~~:,
11:;
~ 1:;
~qj, "
~\9

...

16, 28
12
18

me'Ta... f~~, ;~:no m.: ~:!;, 1~
1=('~'l.I, ~ 0 ",rim": ~i~;fff,~ 0
mRfT
~f~it i1~, ~ ~ ~ f~ 1ftT1l=f:,
t;

Wltslm{, 1"

12 12
10

22
16 18 6

~(Wtr.:i

~)(

18 12
14

"~TSStffi

tra':, ~ 't

qiPC()qffqf,,:,

~qJ,!~U(),
~";fqqlf):

22, 26
6

~rq,q.,

~1

22 2
2 16 16 12 12

~;;: 9i~qml., ,

mlfim~ n~q,
umatf~, "

20 10 12 18 8

811:r.n

ttT1=lits~,~
Qqfo

ttl'f'{: trCfr.i,

~)"~m,"
f~liqqtf~q'{i, ~ ~
Co

'~~'ifi)fc.
~1Qf

~0

f~
. ;~

"~J 1 . . cwrrq..
0

~m:~~~',1"
nfllB',

1,

aR~~Jqf,

t:;

6

n,

INDEX

O:F' AUTHORITIES

CITED Page

Aryabhatiya-Bhl1~ya of Nilakantha Somaydji Madhava of Sangamagrama

12 16

Karanapaddhati Ptuhyam Putumana-Somayajt

...
•••

16 12

16

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1-2. G. A. Grierson's Linguistic Survey of IndiaA Summary, by Siddheshwar Varma, Pts, I-II, each

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u

Pt. III Appendices

Upanisad-uddhnra-kota,

and Indices by Vishva Bandhr

New Vnrttikas to Pnnint'« grammar, by Vishva Bandhu and Munishwar Deo . A comparative and critical dictionary of Vedic interpretation: A specimen, by Vishva Bandhu and S. Bhaskaran Nair

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7.
8. :"9. 10.

~ History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy, by K. V. Sarma
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Candra-sphutnpti of Mlldhava, cr. ed. with Translation and Introduction by K. V. Sarma Decennial Index to the Vishveshvaranand Indologicol Jou. ual , vols. I-X (1963.1972), by K. V. Sarma Bibliograp -Sternbach
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Ksudraka.i.asutra by B. R. Sharma

with the Com. of Sri~'ivasa, cr. ed.

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Kl1ngari-A descriptive study of the Kdngra valley dialect of Himachal Pradesh, by SbyamLal Sharma Sphutanirnayatantra of Acyuta with auto-commentary, cr. ed. with Intro, and Appendices by K. V. Sarma

Bhasikasutra of Maharsi Katyayana with two coms., " . cr. ed. by Braj Bihari Chaubey 24.00 17~ '.Deslr,J.ptive Catalogue of Manuscripts of VV BIS & IS~ , Panjdh University, Hoshiarpur, by B. R. Sharma 20-00 18. CandracchllyagalJita: Computations concerning .Moon's Shadow by Nilakantha Somayaii, cr. ed..,; with Intro., Trans. and Appendices by K.V. Sarma . ....16 - era
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