15 views

Uploaded by IDES

OFDM is a popular and widely accepted modulation and multiplexing technique in the area of wireless communication. IEEE 802.15, a wireless specification defined
for WPAN is an emerging wireless technology for short range multimedia applications. Two general categories of 802.15 are the low rate 802.15.4 (ZigBee) and high rate 802.15.3 (UWB). In their physical (PHY) layer design, OFDM is a
competing technique due to the various advantages it renders in the practical wireless media. OFDM has been a popular
technique for many years and adopted as the core technique in a number of wireless standards. It makes the system more
immune to interference like InterSymbol Interference (ISI) and InterCarrier Interference (ICI) and dispersive effects of
the channel. It is also a spectrally efficient scheme since the spectra of the signal are overlapping in nature. Despite these
advantages OFDM suffers from a serious problem of high Peak to Average Power. This limits the system’s capabilities
and increases the complexity. This paper compares the signal distortion technique of Amplitude Clipping and the distortionless technique of SLM for Peak to Average Power reduction.

- Digiair Pro User Manual V2.0.10
- LTE Basics_20120718_A_1.0
- Thesis_Underwater Acoustic OFDM- Algorithm Design DSP Implementation A
- All-Optical Signal Processing
- ijsrp-June-2012-72
- 257_pub_18--
- Manjunath b Ofdm Icice Paper
- Seminar Report on WPAN
- 1.a Combined SDC-SDF Architecture for Normal IO Pipelined Radix-2 FFT
- SISO MMSE-PIC detector in MIMO-OFDM systems
- 4g Magic Communication[1]
- matlab code for mtech
- L1 Troubleshooting Guide
- A Novel Joint Synchronization Scheme for Low SNR GSM System
- Chapter 5 TDMA FDMA CDMA OFDMA Reading Assignment Solution
- OFDMA Presentation
- bstract
- A SEMI BLIND CHANNEL ESTIMATION METHOD BASED ON HYBRID NEURAL NETWORKS FOR UPLINK LTE-A
- Lanza 2014
- Detect-And-Forward Multirelay Systems With Decision-Feedback Differential Coherent Receivers

You are on page 1of 4

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCSI.03.02.42

Comparative Analysis of Distortive and

Non-Distortive Techniques for PAPR Reduction in

OFDM Systems

1

Reena Chackochan,

2

Dr. Himanshu Soni

1

Electronics and Communication Department, BIT, Varnama, India

2

Electronics and Communication Department, GCET, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, India

Email:

1

reena_022 @ yahoo.co.in,

2

sony_himanshu @ iitb.ac.in

Abstract: OFDM is a popular and widely accepted modulation

and multiplexing technique in the area of wireless

communication. IEEE 802.15, a wireless specification defined

for WPAN is an emerging wireless technology for short range

multimedia applications. Two general categories of 802.15

are the low rate 802.15.4 (ZigBee) and high rate 802.15.3

(UWB). In their physical (PHY) layer design, OFDM is a

competing technique due to the various advantages it renders

in the practical wireless media. OFDM has been a popular

technique for many years and adopted as the core technique

in a number of wireless standards. It makes the system more

immune to interference like InterSymbol Interference (ISI)

and InterCarrier Interference (ICI) and dispersive effects of

the channel. It is also a spectrally efficient scheme since the

spectra of the signal are overlapping in nature. Despite these

advantages OFDM suffers from a serious problem of high

Peak to Average Power. This limits the systems capabilities

and increases the complexity. This paper compares the signal

distortion technique of Amplitude Clipping and the

distortionless technique of SLM for Peak to Average Power

reduction.

Index TermsOFDM, PAPR, Clipping, SLM

I. INTRODUCTION

The OFDM physical layer implements scalable spectrum

efficiency to achieve high data rates with flexible radio

coverage. OFDM modulation schemes offer many advantages

for multicarrier transmission at high data rates over time

dispersive channels, particularly in mobile applications.

OFDM can reduce the ISI, delay spread of signal and increase

the spectral efficiency of system. Due to the numerous

advantages of this system, it has been successfully applied

in wide variety of digital communications over the past several

years and has been adapted to the wireless LAN standards

as IEEE 802.11a/g. An OFDM signal consists of a number of

independently modulated subcarriers, which can give a large

peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) when added up

coherently. When N signals are added with the same phase,

they produce a peak power that is N times the average power

[6]. A large PAPR ratio brings disadvantages like an increased

complexity of the analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog

(D/A) converters and a reduced efficiency of the RF power

amplifier. To reduce PAPR various techniques have been

proposed, which basically can be divided in three categories.

First, there are signal distortion techniques, which reduce

the peak amplitudes simply by nonlinearly distorting the

OFDM signal at or around the peaks. Examples of distortion

techniques are clipping, peak windowing, and peak

cancellation. Second, there are coding techniques that use a

special FEC code set that excludes OFDM symbols with a

large PAPR ratio. The third technique scrambles each OFDM

symbol with different scrambling sequences and selecting

the sequence that gives the smallest PAPR ratio [6]. Fig.1

shows the block diagram of OFDM transceiver system.

Figure 1. Block Diagram for OFDM Transceiver

II. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE RATIO

One of the major problems of OFDM signal is the large

dynamic range of the signal. This amplitude fluctuation is

expressed by a parameter called PAPR.

An OFDM signal consists of a number of independently

modulated subcarriers, which can give a large peak-to-average

power when added up coherently. When N signals are added

with the same phase, they produce a peak power that is N

times the average power [4]. A large PAPR ratio brings

disadvantages like an increased complexity of the A/D and

D/A converters and a reduced efficiency of the RF power

amplifier. An OFDM signal is the sum of complex random

variables, each of it can be considered as a complex modulated

signal at a different frequency. Let us denote the collection

of all data symbols X

k

, k = 0, 1,, N 1, as a vector

0 1 1

[ , ..., ]

T

N

X X X X

= which is a data block. N is the

number of subcarriers. The complex baseband representation

of a multicarrier signal consisting of N subcarriers is given

by (1) which is nothing but DFT.

1

2

0

1

( ) 0

k

N

j f t

k

k

x t X e t NT

N

=

= , s <

(1)

38

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCSI.03.02.

ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 03, No. 02, March 2012

42

Where f

k

is a set of N orthogonal subcarrier frequencies, i.e.

k

f k f = A and T is the symbol period.

Here an approximation will be made that only those samples

of x(t) will be considered which are N times L, where L indicates

an integer that is greater than or equal to 1. The vector

representation of the L times oversampled time domain signal

samples are

0 1 1

[ , .... ]

T

NL

x x x x

= and obtained as

2

1

0

1

, 1

j nk

N

NL

n k

k

x X e n NL

N

=

= 0 s s

(2)

where the sequence { }

n

x can be interpreted as the Inverse

Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) of data block X with N

times (L 1) zero padding. It is well known that the PAPR of

the continuous-time signal cannot be obtained precisely by

the use of Nyquist rate sampling, which corresponds to the

case of L = 1. It is shown in [7] that L = 4 can provide

sufficiently accurate PAPR results. The PAPR computed from

the L times oversampled time domain signal samples is given

by (3)

max[ ]

[ ]

H

n n

H

n n

x x

PAPR

E x x

=

(3)

Where

n

x is a complex valued column vector, H is Hermitian

Transpose, E[.] is expectation operator and

0 1 n NL s s

.

III. SIGNAL DISTORTION TECHNIQUE

To reduce PAPR, there are signal distortion techniques,

which reduce the peak amplitudes simply by nonlinearly

distorting the OFDM signal at or around the peaks. Examples

of distortion techniques are amplitude clipping, peak

windowing, and peak cancellation. In this paper the effect of

amplitude clipping has been simulated and analysed. Clipping

is performed at the transmitter end after addition of CP as

shown in fig. 2

Figure 2. OFDM Transmitter with clipping

For simulation, following operations are performed at the

Transmitter:

Generate random binary data.

QPSK Modulation of data

Serial to Parallel conversion

Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT)

Inclusion of Cyclic Prefix

Amplitude Clipping against a threshold

Calculation of PAPR

Pass through the fading channel

Addition of AWGN noise

The following operations are performed at the Receiver:

Removal of CP

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

Equalization using the channel transfer function.

Extract the usable carriers

Demodulation of data

Binarize the demodulated data

Calculation of BER

Plot the BER Vs SNR.

Plot the CCDF curve.

IV. DISTORTIONLESS TECHNIQUE

In this technique scrambling of each OFDM symbol with

different scrambling sequences is carried out and the

sequence that gives the smallest PAPR ratio is selected.

Examples of distortionless techniques are Partial Transmit

Sequence (PTS), Selected Mapping (SLM) and Interleaving.

In this paper the effect of SLM technique [1] has been

simulated and analysed.

The fig.3 shows the block diagram for SLM.

Figure 3. Block Diagram for SLM

The algorithm to implement SLM is as follows:

Generate random binary data.

QPSK Modulation of data

Serial to Parallel conversion, such that the data is of

the form

1 2

[ , ,.... ], 64,128, 256

N

X x x x = N =

Generate phase sequence vectors as

,1 , 2 ,

[ , , ..., ], 1, 2, .....

p p p p N

p U u u u u = = Here

U=64.

Multiply the data vector with phase sequence vector

to get the modified data block as

1 ,1 2 ,1 ,

[ , , ...., ] 1, 2, .... ,

p p N p N p

x x x U M p u u u = =

Transform the signal in time domain by performing

IDFT using IFFT algorithm.

39

ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 03, No. 02, March 2012

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCSI.03.02.

Calculate PAPR for each modified data block.

Select and transmit the data block with minimum

value of PAPR.

V. SIMULATION RESULTS

The simulations have been carried out on MATLAB, for

10

5

bits and the modulation scheme used is QPSK. As a

performance measure BER (Bit Error Rate) and CCDF

(Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function) curves

are used. The BER has been evaluated for Energy per bit to

Noise ratio from 0 to 25 dB. For convergence of the plot

Monte Carlo method is used for 100 iterations. Here an

oversampling factor of L=4 is used which provides

sufficiently accurate PAPR values [7].

The fig. 4 shows the CCDF plot for amplitude clipping

implemented for different number of subcarriers, N=32, 64,

256. It can be observed that as the number of subcarriers (N)

increases the peak power ratio increases. With respect to the

curve for N=32, the PAPR for N=64 is increased by 0.5dB and

for N=256 its 1dB.

42

Figure 4. CCDF plot for Amplitude Clipping

Figure 5. BER plot for clipping for N=32

The clipping ratio is defined as

A

CR

=

(4)

where A=clipping level and

Here, A for all the simulations has been taken constant, and it

can be observed that as the number of subcarriers increases

the clipping ratio also increases for the same level of amplitude

clipping level.

The fig. 5 through 7 shows the BER plot for clipping

implemented for N=32, 64 and 256 respectively.

Figure 6. BER plot for clipping for N=64

Figure 7. BER plot for clipping for N=256(magnified)

It can be observed from the BER plots for N=32, 64 that as the

CR increases the BER performance gets better and close to

the original unmodified signal.

In fig. 7, for N=256 it can be observed that for CR=3.47,

BER degradation is very less and further increasing the CR

beyond this value does not provide sufficient improvement

in BER but degrades the BER much. So the CR should be

selected judiciously. For N<256, the threshold for CR does

not reach so quickly when compared to N>=256. The CR for

all the three cases has been evaluated for the same level of

amplitude clipping. The out of band emissions resulting from

clipping is evident from fig. 8.

40

2012 ACEEE

DOI: 01.IJCSI.03.02.

ACEEE Int. J. on Control System and Instrumentation, Vol. 03, No. 02, March 2012

42

Figure 8. Power Spectral Density of Clipped OFDM signals

As the PAPR is a random variable, an adequate statistic is

needed to characterize it. A common choice is to use the

Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF),

which is defined as the probability of the PAPR exceeding a

given threshold.

The plot in fig. 9 shows the CCDF curves for SLM

technique simulated for N=64,128 and 256 subcarriers. The

results are as expected, that for higher values o f N the PAPR

also increases. The PAPR values in dB for the modified signal

with N=64, 128 and 256 are 5, 7 and 9 respectively for a

probability of 0.1.

Figure 9. CCDF plot for SLM

Figure 10. CCDF plot for comparison for N=64

The CCDF plot of fig. 10 shows the comparison of the two

techniques. The reduction in the power ratio achieved by

SLM is higher compared to clipping technique. The BER

performance of SLM will be same as the original signal since

the signal is not distorted in any way provided that the phase

sequence used at the transmitter is known at the receiver

end. Table-I gives the comparison between the two reduction

techniques discussed.

TABLE I. COMPARISON

CONCLUSION

Clipping technique causes out of band noise and spectral

regrowth and has a drawback that it reduces PAPR at the

cost of increase in BER. The increase in BER by nonlinear

distortion requires more received power to maintain the

desired BER, which might hamper the power savings from

nonlinear amplification. In SLM, side information about the

transmitted phase sequence need to be sent which is a

drawback since it affects the data rate. SLM successfully

works for any number of subcarriers. It can be seen from fig.9

that by clipping there is 2dB reduction in PAPR, while for

SLM its 9dB when compared to the original OFDM signal.

We will extend the work of reducing PAPR ratio by this

method in the OFDM system under multiuser environment.

REFERENCES

[1] Bauml, R.W, Fischer, R.F.H., Huber J.B. , Reducing the Peak-

to- Average Power Ratio of Multicarrier Modulation by Selected

Mapping, Electronic Letters., 32(22), pp.2056-2057, October

1996.

[2] Muller, S.H. and Huber, J.B., A novel peak power reduction

scheme for OFDM,IEEE conference proceedings PIMRC, pp.1090-

1094, 1997.

[3] Ngajikin, N.Fisal and S.K. Yusof, PAPR Reduction in

WLANOFDM System Using Code Repetition Technique Student

Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD) Proceedings,

Puhajaya, Malaysia, pp.85-89, 2003.

[4] Xiaodong Lit and Leonard J. Cimini, Jr. Effects of Clipping

and Filtering on the Performance of OFDM , IEEE

Communications letter, VOL. 2, NO. 5, pp.131-133, MAY 1998.

[5] Han, S. H. and J. H. Lee, An overview of peak-to-average

power ratio reduction techniques for multicarrier transmission,

IEEE Wireless Communications, pp.56-65, Apr. 2005.

[6] Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for wireless communication systems

ISBN 1- 58053-796-0, Artech House, Inc. 2004.

[7] Tao Jiang and Yiyan Wu, An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power

Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals IEEE Transactions

On Broadcasting, vol. 54, pp. 257-268, No. 2, June 2008.

41

- Digiair Pro User Manual V2.0.10Uploaded byAnnie Da-Bath
- LTE Basics_20120718_A_1.0Uploaded byOgg Silverlemone
- Thesis_Underwater Acoustic OFDM- Algorithm Design DSP Implementation AUploaded bylazzycat
- All-Optical Signal ProcessingUploaded byJoel Martínez González
- ijsrp-June-2012-72Uploaded bymalhiavtarsingh
- 257_pub_18--Uploaded bybavar88
- Manjunath b Ofdm Icice PaperUploaded byManjunath Basavaraju
- Seminar Report on WPANUploaded bymemakky
- 1.a Combined SDC-SDF Architecture for Normal IO Pipelined Radix-2 FFTUploaded byshanofa
- SISO MMSE-PIC detector in MIMO-OFDM systemsUploaded byIJMER
- 4g Magic Communication[1]Uploaded bySowjanya Daliparthi
- matlab code for mtechUploaded bySangha Mithra
- L1 Troubleshooting GuideUploaded byPetyo Georgiev
- A Novel Joint Synchronization Scheme for Low SNR GSM SystemUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Chapter 5 TDMA FDMA CDMA OFDMA Reading Assignment SolutionUploaded byHammna Ashraf
- OFDMA PresentationUploaded byRajat Kumar
- bstractUploaded byVidyadhar Melkeri
- A SEMI BLIND CHANNEL ESTIMATION METHOD BASED ON HYBRID NEURAL NETWORKS FOR UPLINK LTE-AUploaded byJohn Berg
- Lanza 2014Uploaded byHernans De La Torre
- Detect-And-Forward Multirelay Systems With Decision-Feedback Differential Coherent ReceiversUploaded bymtechprojects
- 4g Magic CommunicationUploaded byvarnakumar4270
- lec19Uploaded bykenjo138
- whitepaper-making-5g-nr-a-reality.pdfUploaded byAmr Hassan
- etrij.feb2010.0001 (1)Uploaded byGokhan
- [doi 10.1007_978-3-319-63940-6_32] Samsonovich, Alexei V.; Klimov, Valentin V. -- [Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing] Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA) for Young Scien.pdfUploaded bykanhe
- Performance Comparison NOMA_OFDMUploaded byfekadu
- 342.pdfUploaded byAnonymous BkmsKXzwyK
- A Comparison of Convolutional and TurboUploaded byyusufapw
- Video IP App NoteUploaded bycatalin_chirilov
- STR 1F (Inglês)Uploaded byEric Delaney

- Low Energy Routing for WSN’sUploaded byIDES
- Study of Structural Behaviour of Gravity Dam with Various Features of Gallery by FEMUploaded byIDES
- Assessing Uncertainty of Pushover Analysis to Geometric ModelingUploaded byIDES
- 13Uploaded bySalah Hassan
- Opportunities and Challenges of Software CustomizationUploaded byIDES
- Enhancing Data Storage Security in Cloud Computing Through SteganographyUploaded byIDES
- State EstimationUploaded byshivagokul
- Artificial Intelligence Technique based Reactive Power Planning Incorporating FACTS Controllers in Real Time Power Transmission SystemUploaded byIDES
- Rotman Lens Performance AnalysisUploaded byIDES
- Various OSI Layer Attacks and Countermeasure to Enhance the Performance of WSNs during Wormhole AttackUploaded byIDES
- Design and Performance Analysis of Genetic based PID-PSS with SVC in a Multi-machine System Considering Detailed ModelUploaded byIDES
- Optimal Placement of DG for Loss Reduction and Voltage Sag Mitigation in Radial Distribution Systems using ABC AlgorithmUploaded byIDES
- Genetic Algorithm based Mosaic Image Steganography for Enhanced SecurityUploaded byIDES
- Texture Unit based Monocular Real-world Scene Classification using SOM and KNN ClassifierUploaded byIDES
- Secure Multi-Party Negotiation: An Analysis forElectronic Payments in Mobile ComputingUploaded byIDES
- Permutation of Pixels within the Shares of Visual Cryptography using KBRP for Enhanced SecurityUploaded byIDES
- 3-D FFT Moving Object Signatures for Velocity FilteringUploaded byIDES
- Blind Source Separation of Super and Sub-Gaussian Signals with ABC AlgorithmUploaded byIDES
- Selfish Node Isolation & Incentivation using Progressive ThresholdsUploaded byIDES
- Responsive Parameter based an AntiWorm Approach to Prevent Wormhole Attack in Ad hoc NetworksUploaded byIDES
- Optimized Neural Network for Classification of Multispectral ImagesUploaded byIDES
- Ontology-based Semantic Approach for Learning Object RecommendationUploaded byIDES
- Cloud Security and Data Integrity with Client Accountability FrameworkUploaded byIDES
- Genetic Algorithm based Layered Detection and Defense of HTTP BotnetUploaded byIDES
- High Density Salt and Pepper Impulse Noise RemovalUploaded byIDES
- Mental Stress Evaluation using an Adaptive ModelUploaded byIDES
- Comparative Study of Morphological, Correlation, Hybrid and DCSFPSS based Morphological & Tribrid Algorithms for GFDDUploaded byIDES
- 204498292 Band Clustering for the Lossless Compression of AVIRIS Hyperspectral ImagesUploaded byrnagu1969
- Microelectronic Circuit Analogous to Hydrogen Bonding Network in Active Site of -lactamaseUploaded byIDES
- 1-140204053501-phpapp01Uploaded byAaqib Ihraz

- NFPA AFCI Fact SheetUploaded byFlorabel Tolentino Sera Josef
- 8 features of civilization power pointUploaded byapi-240830336
- FMVSS Part 581 - Bumper Test SystemUploaded byavi5050
- Rasasala vs GMP ( Dept. Presentation)Uploaded bySanand Ratnam Thekkayil
- Edward SteichenUploaded byZmajček VC
- 9700_w01_ms_2Uploaded bySathya Seelan
- Other Problems Faced by FCIUploaded byarshnagpal
- Civil engineering reliability.pdfUploaded byAnonymous swWVf3TW5O
- SPW3 Manual Rev 5Uploaded byJPYadav
- New Holland - B90B LOADER BACKHOE PARTS MANUAL.pdfUploaded bydimaqdc
- Chem Sketch GuideUploaded bynnnxxxnnn
- 7.01_Master and Chief MateUploaded byravilulla
- Four Bolt Unstiffened End PlateUploaded byRnD2013
- DVR User ManualUploaded bySergio Hernán Moreno Mussin
- Controladora HP 830Uploaded byFlores Cortés Eduardo
- TorqueUploaded byvince_bau07
- Nag Hammadi Library - MelchizedekUploaded byDavid Jose Lopez Wong
- Hidrogen Pentru Motor Cu ApaUploaded byc1962
- EIL Material Selection ChartUploaded byVijaya Sekhar
- Form 2 Science Mock Test (Sem 1 Term 1)Uploaded bySpike Chingyen
- Mongolian SpotsUploaded byiekafz
- Ardas Full DetailUploaded byAnmol Singh
- Effects of Compaction on Embankment Breach Due to OvertoppingUploaded byina_cri
- ESCALATOR.pdfUploaded byScott Smith
- 6T30 6T40-45 Rebuilders Kwik Reference Guide_KRG- 6T30 6T40-45Uploaded byrebuilder67
- jisppdUploaded bytikamoesthafa
- How Do Columns in RC Buildings Resist EarthquakeUploaded bykooadu
- graphing trig functionsUploaded byapi-285179261
- HCl Spec1Uploaded bycryovikas1975
- referencestandardsbybhavana-140128044128-phpapp01.pdfUploaded byjyothi