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A Presentation by

Peter Leeson
to the

Romanian Association for Better Software
August 2, 2012 City-Plaza Hotel, Cluj-Napoca (Romania) ©Q:PIT Ltd 2012

Can Process Make You Happy?

Cluj-Napoca – 02 August 2012

Can Process Make You Happy?
Making your organization work for  you

02 August 2012

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Copyright Statement
• SM Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method, ATAM, CMM Integration, COTS Usage  Risk Evaluation, CURE, EPIC, Evolutionary Process for Integrating COTS‐based  systems, Framework for Software Product Line Practice, IDEAL, Interim Profile,  OAR, OCTAVE, Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation,  Options Analysis for Reengineering, Personal Software Process, PLTP, Product Line  Technical Probe, PSP, SCAMPI, SCAMPI Lead Appraiser, SCE, SEPG, SoS Navigator, T‐ Checks, Team Software Process, TSP, are service marks of Carnegie Mellon  University TM Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute (stylized), Carnegie Mellon  Software Engineering Institute (and design), Simplex, Stylized hexagon are  trademarks of Carnegie Mellon University Q:PIT is a trademark of Q:PIT Ltd, Milton Keynes, UK ® Capability Maturity Model, Capability Maturity Modeling, Carnegie Mellon,  CERT, CERT Coordination Center, CMM, CMMI, FloCon, OCTAVE are registered in  the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University The Q:PIT swirl is a registered trademark of Q:PIT Ltd, Milton Keynes, UK

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Can Process Make You Happy?

Cluj-Napoca – 02 August 2012

Peter Leeson
• • • • • • Director of Q:PIT Ltd SCAMPI Lead Appraiser and CMMI Instructor SEI Visiting Scientist Over 35 years of software engineering 20 years as process improvement professional Process Improvement experience in Australia,  Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, England,  France, Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Mexico,  Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden,  Switzerland…
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Q:PIT Ltd
• International association of independent  process improvement professionals • Q:PIT means…
– Reducing the cost of Quality through Process  improvement, Information management and  Teamwork

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What are we trying to achieve?

Foundations of Quality
People

Process

Technology

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What do you need?

What do you need?

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What do you need?

How do you make people happy?

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Living Wages

Resources

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Skills

Continuity

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Stability

Plan

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Methodology

View the Product

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Vision

Environment

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Leadership

Team

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Support

Control

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Voice

Recognition

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Feedback

Trust

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Eustress

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Freedom in Framework

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Putting it into context

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Maslow

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Maslow
Morality, creativity, spontaneity,  problem solving, lack of  prejudice, acceptance of facts

Self‐esteem, confidence,  achievement, respect of/by  others

Acceptance of facts Lack of Prejudice Problem Solving Creativity

Friendship, family, sexual  intimacy

Security of body, employment,  resources, morality, the family,  health, property

Breathing, food, water, sex,  sleep, homeostasis, excretion 02 August 2012 ©Q:PIT Ltd 2011-2012 33

Maturity
Maturity is climbing the Maslow  pyramid

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In an Immature Organization

• No consensus on what are the  objective or goals of
– – – – The organisation The project The product The process
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Improving…
• Requires commitment from all levels of  management and practitioners to the effort • Document what you are doing, then read  what you did • Measure, collect, analyse, learn • Management requires that processes be  documented and measured • People accept to learn from their mistakes  rather than fear retribution
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Life in a Maturing Organization
• People (at all levels) see issues and problems  as possibilities to improve • Measurements are seen as a necessary  management tool • Estimates are based on facts and documented • The schedule is based on the estimates • Commitment is maintained and considered as  commitments by all involved
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In a Mature Organization

Working together towards a common goal
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A Mature Culture 1/2
• Common approach to the work and the success  of the organization • Decisions and estimates based on facts, data and  experience • Plans based on what can be achieved and  working together to ensure customer satisfaction  with regard to quality, functionality, budget and  delays • Assurance that the resources required for a task  will be available as expected
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A Mature Culture 2/2
• Liberation of the imagination to continuous,  common improvement • Focus of all on delivering a product that satisfies  the customer and placing the customer’s needs  and expectations first • Everyone taking personal responsibility for the  quality of his/her own work and ensuring that the  quality is optimized before responsibility is  handed over to the next step of the development  lifecycle
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Immature Processes
• Processes are ad hoc and improvised by practitioners  and their management • Process descriptions are not rigorously followed or  enforced • Performance is highly dependent on current  practitioners • Understanding of the current status of a project is  limited • Immature processes result in fighting fires:
– no time to improve—constantly reacting – Firefighters get burned – Embers may rekindle later
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Immature Processes
• Processes are ad hoc and improvised by practitioners  and their management • Process descriptions are not rigorously followed or  enforced • Performance is highly dependent on current  practitioners • Understanding of the current status of a project is  limited • Immature processes result in fighting fires:
– no time to improve—constantly reacting – Firefighters get burned – Embers may rekindle later
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Mature Processes = Fire Prevention
• Process descriptions are consistent with the way work  actually gets done • They are defined, documented, and continuously  improved • Processes are supported visibly by management and  others • They are well controlled—process fidelity is evaluated  and enforced • There is constructive use of product and process  measurement • Technology is introduced in a disciplined manner
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The Role of Process

Management Customer Engineering Teams

Environment

Methods Technical assets

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What Is a Process?
Procedures and methods defining the relationship of tasks

People with skills, training, and motivation

Tools and equipment

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Mature Processes Are  Institutionalized
• “That’s the way we do things around here” • The organization builds an infrastructure that  contains effective, usable, and consistently  applied processes • The organizational culture conveys the process • Management nurtures the culture • Culture is conveyed through role models and  recognition • Institutionalized processes endure after the  people who originally defined them have gone
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Using Your Brain
The Context for Improvement

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The Delivery Process

2. Plan

3. Work

1. Envision

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The Managed Process
4. Measure

2. Plan

3. Work

1. Envision

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The Improvement Process
5. Improve 4. Measure

2. Plan

3. Work

1. Envision

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The Risk Management Process
5. Improve 4. Measure

2. Plan

3. Work

1. Envision

6. Discover

Enigma

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The Four Major Areas
5. Improve 4. Measure

2. Plan

3. Work

1. Envision

6. Discover

Enigma

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The Development Process As Human  Reasoning
5 4

Left Brain
2 3

Right Brain
1 6

Limbic
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Cerebral
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The Four Quadrants of the Human  Brain
Left Brain

Right Brain

Limbic
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Cerebral
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Whole Brain Thinking
Stimuli

Me Ego Spirit Soul Self

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Establishing Direction
Deciding to Change Promoting Change

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Value and Cost
• What is the value of improvement to your  organization? • Why would you want to invest so much  money, knowing you will have no return on  investment in this budget cycle or the next? • What are the benefits of improvement to your  business, to the quality of your products and  services, to your customer satisfaction?
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Cost and Investment
Cost
• Improvement is a cost:
Staff is not made available Tools are too expensive Don’t bother the “real” projects What is the minimum we need to  do to satisfy the lead appraiser? – Can we do a CMMI appraisal in 2  days like an ISO audit? – Focus on training staff to answer  the questions of the appraisal team – Staff are trusted to understand and  apply without training or support – – – –

Investment
• Improvement is an investment:
– The cost of bad quality is  understood – Improving all future projects is  critically important – even if it  presents a risk to the success of  one on‐going project – Customers are involved in the  improvement programme – All new processes, projects,  products are measured according  to a primary need – Management is actively and visibly  interested in the return on their  investment
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Management and Leadership
• Management needs to understand the cost of  process improvement and be willing to make the  necessary adjustments • Leadership means going there first:
– Is management ready to apply the principles of  process improvement to their own work? – Who does quality assurance on management’s work? – Has your management applied formal decision and  risk analysis techniques to deciding why they should  do process improvement?
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Your CEO said…
IT is our business. Our aim is to deliver innovative IT support solutions that add value for our customers and  support their business growth. We help our customers by constantly innovating, and introducing new, easier, and more secure support and  delivery services. We help increase the efficiency of customers' operations and add value to related products and  services. We also bring value to our customers’ end‐users who depend on their reliability (and, by definition, to the  hardware and software suppliers that serve them) – through the provision of fast, secure services which, in most  instances, benefit from a valuable quality guarantee. And, of course, we bring value to the consumers and the businesses that use us to manage their infrastructure – by  bringing greater levels of convenience, security, and confidence. During the past financial year, the number of customers who rely on us increased by 14.7%. Technological change is having a significant impact on the European market. For example, e‐commerce represents a  large and rapidly growing share of the overall market, retailers are progressively investing in new facilities and  solutions, and it is widely anticipated that mobile devices will come to be used to initiate sales on a mass scale.

What the **** does that mean?
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Key words…
IT is our business. Our aim is to deliver innovative IT support solutions that add value for  our customers and support their business growth. We help our customers by constantly innovating, and introducing new, easier, and more  secure support and delivery services. We help increase the efficiency of customers'  operations and add value to related products and services. We also bring value to our customers’ end‐users who depend on their reliability (and, by  definition, to the hardware and software suppliers that serve them) – through the provision  of fast, secure services which, in most instances, benefit from a valuable quality guarantee. And, of course, we bring value to the consumers and the businesses that use us to manage  their infrastructure – by bringing greater levels of convenience, security, and confidence. During the past financial year, the number of customers who rely on us increased by 14.7%. Technological change is having a significant impact on the European market. For example, e‐ commerce represents a large and rapidly growing share of the overall market, retailers are  progressively investing in new facilities and solutions, and it is widely anticipated that  mobile devices will come to be used to initiate sales on a mass scale.

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Key words…
IT is our business. Our aim is to deliver innovative IT support solutions that add value for  our customers and support their business growth. We help our customers by constantly innovating, and introducing new, easier, and more  secure support and delivery services. We help increase the efficiency of customers'  operations and add value to related products and services. We also bring value to our customers’ end‐users who depend on their reliability (and, by  definition, to the hardware and software suppliers that serve them) – through the provision  of fast, secure services which, in most instances, benefit from a valuable quality guarantee. And, of course, we bring value to the consumers and the businesses that use us to manage  their infrastructure – by bringing greater levels of convenience, security, and confidence. During the past financial year, the number of customers who rely on us increased by 14.7%. Technological change is having a significant impact on the European market. For example, e‐ commerce represents a large and rapidly growing share of the overall market, retailers are  progressively investing in new facilities and solutions, and it is widely anticipated that  mobile devices will come to be used to initiate sales on a mass scale.

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Innovation
• Expectation for
– Change – Cutting edge – Rapid development and delivery

• Implementation focus
– Lean – Agile – Requirements management – Peer reviews
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Key words…
IT is our business. Our aim is to deliver innovative IT support solutions that add value for  our customers and support their business growth. We help our customers by constantly innovating, and introducing new, easier, and more  secure support and delivery services. We help increase the efficiency of customers'  operations and add value to related products and services. We also bring value to our customers’ end‐users who depend on their reliability (and, by  definition, to the hardware and software suppliers that serve them) – through the provision  of fast, secure services which, in most instances, benefit from a valuable quality guarantee. And, of course, we bring value to the consumers and the businesses that use us to manage  their infrastructure – by bringing greater levels of convenience, security, and confidence. During the past financial year, the number of customers who rely on us increased by 14.7%. Technological change is having a significant impact on the European market. For example, e‐ commerce represents a large and rapidly growing share of the overall market, retailers are  progressively investing in new facilities and solutions, and it is widely anticipated that  mobile devices will come to be used to initiate sales on a mass scale.

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Reliable
• Expectation for
– Security – Reliability

• Implementation focus:
– Quality assurance – Configuration management – Strategic service management – Incident resolution and prevention – Service continuity
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Key words…
IT is our business. Our aim is to deliver innovative IT support solutions that add value for  our customers and support their business growth. We help our customers by constantly innovating, and introducing new, easier, and more  secure support and delivery services. We help increase the efficiency of customers'  operations and add value to related products and services. We also bring value to our customers’ end‐users who depend on their reliability (and, by  definition, to the hardware and software suppliers that serve them) – through the provision  of fast, secure services which, in most instances, benefit from a valuable quality guarantee. And, of course, we bring value to the consumers and the businesses that use us to manage  their infrastructure – by bringing greater levels of convenience, security, and confidence. During the past financial year, the number of customers who rely on us increased by 14.7%. Technological change is having a significant impact on the European market. For example, e‐ commerce represents a large and rapidly growing share of the overall market, retailers are  progressively investing in new facilities and solutions, and it is widely anticipated that  mobile devices will come to be used to initiate sales on a mass scale.

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Customer Value
• Expectation for
– Customer satisfaction – Efficiency

• Implementation focus:
– Requirements development – Verification and validation – Organizational performance – Quantitative management
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Key words…
IT is our business. Our aim is to deliver innovative IT support solutions that add value for  our customers and support their business growth. We help our customers by constantly innovating, and introducing new, easier, and more  secure support and delivery services. We help increase the efficiency of customers'  operations and add value to related products and services. We also bring value to our customers’ end‐users who depend on their reliability (and, by  definition, to the hardware and software suppliers that serve them) – through the provision  of fast, secure services which, in most instances, benefit from a valuable quality guarantee. And, of course, we bring value to the consumers and the businesses that use us to manage  their infrastructure – by bringing greater levels of convenience, security, and confidence. During the past financial year, the number of customers who rely on us increased by 14.7%. Technological change is having a significant impact on the European market. For example, e‐ commerce represents a large and rapidly growing share of the overall market, retailers are  progressively investing in new facilities and solutions, and it is widely anticipated that  mobile devices will come to be used to initiate sales on a mass scale.

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Policies
• Translating real objectives into realistic  expectations • Policies are constitutional law
– No one is above the law – It is known by everyone

• If the policy does not come from senior  management, they will not consider themselves  bound by the policy • The policies reflect the management expectations  (and not the contents of some model, standard  or theory!)
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Writing a Policy
• Questions:
– What makes us different from others? – Why would a prospect come to us rather than to our competitors? – How can we ensure that we are satisfying our customers without  jeopardizing the future of our organization? – What do we mean when we use the word "quality"? How do we  measure that? – What are the critical practices that are required by all teams in order  to satisfy these objectives? – What behaviour do we expect from our staff? – How can we ensure that we learn and continuously improve these  practices and behaviours over time? – How can we encourage, monitor, measure and enforce this behaviour? – How can we communicate this to everyone concerned?

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Contents of the Policy
• Define Quality
– When you talk about quality in your marketing material,  what do you mean? How do you define quality in a  pragmatic, measurable manner?

• Process Expectations
– Why do you believe that process is going to help your  organization? – What do you expect to get out of processes?

• Staff Expectations
– What do you expect your staff to be doing? What should  their attitude be? – What do you want your staff to deliver in terms of results?
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Enforcing the Policy
• A law is useless if it is not enforced • The policy must reflect the monitoring, control  and enforcement procedure • Before enforcing staff activities, you need to  understand how to monitor it, how to  measure your objectives

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Focused Improvement
QA

Solid basis for change through Configuration Management
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How to Measure
• What do you believe will be the visible  difference? If there is no visible difference in  effect, don’t do it • How can you reduce the uncertainty of the  result? • What do you already know? What can you  find out?

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Keep It Simple
• You can reduce uncertainty significantly if you  collect a little information • Do not fall in the trap of believing it needs to  be perfect to measure

Illustration from “How to Measure Anything: Finding the Values of Intangibles in Business” ©2010 Douglas W. Hubbard
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Start at Maturity Level 2
Level 5 Optimizing
Causal Analysis and Resolution Organizational Performance Management

Process Areas

Quantitative Project Management 4 Quantitatively Managed Organizational Process Performance Customer and Product Requirements Organization Process Definition Validation Verification Technical Solution Product Integration Risk Management Organizational Training Project Planning Configuration Management Measurement and Analysis

3

Defined

Organizational Process Focus Integrated Project Management Decision Analysis & Resolution Requirements Management Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Product and Process Quality Assurance

2 1

Managed Initial

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Start at Maturity Level 2
• Maturity Level 2 focuses on understanding  what satisfies needs and expectations, what  works • Maturity Level 3 focuses on sharing the best  practices that were identified at Maturity  Level 2

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Start at Capability Level 2
• Capability Level 2 focuses on understanding  what identifying the expectations and  allowing experienced people to satisfy them  as well as they can • Capability Level 3 focuses on sharing the best  practices that were identified at Maturity  Level 2

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Apply the Generic Practices
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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2

3

07-June-2012

First – this is real, not theory!
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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2

3

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Communicate the Organizational  Expectations
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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3

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Ensure they have the means…
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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2

3

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…to do the work efficiently…
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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3

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…and effectively.
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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2

3

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Check the expectations are met
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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2

3

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Only then, consider standardizing
1 Perform Specific Practices Establish an Organizational Policy Plan the Process Provide Resources Assign Responsibility Train People Manage Configurations Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Monitor and Control the Process Objectively Evaluate Adherence Review Status with Higher-Level Management Establish a Defined Process Collect Improvement Information
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2

3

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Generic Practices

Why are you  doing this?

What value are you  getting out of it?

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Generic Practices

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Generic Practices

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Generic Practices

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Always remember
• Performance Improvement is a culture change
– It is not easy – It is completely dependent on management – It can be highly successful if done correctly – It requires you to change (and not only everyone  else!)

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But it’s worth it!
• The result will make life more predictable for  you in your daily work • The result will remove the barriers that keep  you from being proud of your work • The result will focus on fixing the system  instead of blaming the people

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But it’s worth it!
• The result will make life more predictable for  you in your daily work • The result will remove the barriers that keep  you from being proud of your work • The result will focus on fixing the system  instead of blaming the people

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Resources
• This presentation can be found at  http://www.slideshare.net/PeterLeeson/can‐ process‐make‐you‐happy‐13828882 • The first part of this presentation is extracted  from “Forget Process; Focus on People” (FP2):  http://prezi.com/qm4wcnk_5hnb/forget‐ process‐focus‐on‐people/ (with explanations)

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Contact Information
• Peter Leeson
– Q:PIT Ltd PO Box 6066 Milton Keynes MK1 9BH United Kingdom – Direct Line: +44 (0)20 8133 4120 – Tel: +44 (0)1 908 506 908 – Fax: +44 (0)7006 010 575 – Mobile/Cell: +44 (0)773 998 98 67 – E Mail: Peter@qpit.ltd.uk – Skype: qpitpjl – Internet: http://www.qpit.net
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