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ONE DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Dynamics- relation of force in motion Mechanics- study of motion of the objects Kinematics- science describing motion of objects Distance-(SQ) how much ground and object is covered during its motion. Speed-(SQ)how fast an object is moving Average Speed- the average on an instantaneous speed = Distance/Time Average Velocity= Displacement/Time Displacement= (VQ)final- initial Instantaneous Speed(v)- speed at any given time Velocity(V)- the rate at which an object covers distance; V=displacement(m)/time(s); m/s Acceleration=(f-Vi)/t; m/s2 Kinematics Formulas(KF) o Vx=Vix+axt o x-xi=Vixt+(1/2)axt2 o Vx2= Vix2+2axx; x=x-xi Constant Acceleration Vx=Vix+(1/2)axt2 o if ax=0; Vix= Vx or Vxcos Free Falling Objects (Vi=0)-just like KF; doesnt encounter air resistance. o a=g(gravitational for acceleration); o x= y o gearth=9.8 m/s2, gmoon= 1.6 m/s2, gsun=270 m/s2 Projectile Motion o Initial Velocity Vxi=Vi cos Vyi=Vi sin at the top of the arc path, Vy=0; Vy=Viy-gt Vy=Vi sin -gt tm(max time to reach max height ym)=Vi sin /g t(total t of flight)=2tm=2Visin /g R(distance in the x direction)=Vxt=2Visin 2/g Momentum(p)=mV; kg.m/s Principle of Conservation of Momentum o m1Vi1+m2Vi2=m1Vf1+m2Vf2 o

Newtons 1st Law of Motion- In the absence of external forces, an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion continues in motion with a constant Velocity (that is, with a constant speed in a straight line); Balanced and Unbalanced Forces Newtons 2nd Law- The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on the body and is in the same direction. F (mf- mi)/t; F=ma; LAW OF ACCELERATION Newtons 3rd Law- for every action theres an equal and opposite reaction. Inertia- resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion. Equilibrium- the condition of a system in which competing influences is balanced. Forces- push or pull upon an object; o Contact Forces-frictional, tension, normal, air resistance, applied, spring FORCES o Action-at-a-Distance Forces- magnetic, gravitational, electrical Forces Forces in equilibrium o E.G.

Work- product of force and displacement; mechanical work, the amount of energy transferred by force acting through a distance. o W=F.d Wapplied force=F.d=F.d.cos Wfrictional force=f.d= f.d.cos 180o Wnormal force=N.d. cos 90o Wnet=W.d Energy- capacity of physical system to do work; 1Joule(J)=1N-m Mechanical Energy o K.E.=(1/2)mv2;kg.m2/s2=N-m o P.E.= KE Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy o Einitial=Efinal Momentum (p)- Momentum is sometimes referred to as linear momentum to distinguish it from the related subject of angular momentum. Linear momentum is a vector quantity, since it has a direction as well as a magnitude. Angular momentum is a pseudovector quantity because it gains an additional sign flips under an improper rotation. The total momentum of any group of objects remains the same unless outside forces act on the objects (law of conservation of momentum); p=mv Impulse- the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that body. A small force applied for a long time can produce the same momentum change as a large force applied briefly, because it is the product of the force and the time for which it is applied that is important. The impulse is equal to the change of momentum. I=Ft=mv=p Collision- an isolated event in which two or more moving bodies (colliding bodies) exert relatively strong forces on each other for a relatively short time. o Elastic Collision- KE and P are conserved o Inelastic Collision- KE is not conserved Law of Conservation of Momentum- the total momentum of a closed system of objects (which has no interactions with external agents) is constant. One of the consequences of this is that the centre of mass of any system of objects will always continue with the same velocity unless acted on by a force from outside the system. o u= velocities before collision v= velocities after collision Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)- the motion of a simple harmonic oscillator, a periodic motion that is neither driven nor damped. A body in simple harmonic motion experiences a single force which is given by Hooke's law; that is, the force is directly proportional to the displacement x and points in the opposite direction. o angular frequency= 2f o ffrequency=(1/2) k/m o Tperiod=1/f=2 m/k Enegry in SHM(E); K.E.= (1/2)mv2

Resultant Force or Net Force(F)a Vector produced when two or more forces acting upon a single object; the overall force acting on an object; single force that will replace the given force system. R or Fnet= Fx+ Fy; =tan-1 (Fy/ Fx) Moment or Torque- is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or piVot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist. M=F.d[(Force)(Perpendicular Distance)] Centripetal Force(Fc)- a force that makes a body follow a curved path: it is always directed orthogonal to the Velocity of the body, toward the instantaneous centre of the path. Centrifugal Force- represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the centre of rotation. Centre of Gravity(Mass)-m=mass o x'=my/m; y= mx/m Uniform Circular Motion (UCM)- moves with a constant speed but has a changing velocity because of the continuing change in direction. o ac(centripetal acceleration)=v2/r; tangential or orbital speed2/radius of the circular orbit o Fc(centripetal force)=m ac=mv2/r

P.E.= (1/2)kx2;x=Aamplitude M.E.=E=(1/2)mv2x+(1/2)kx2 Fluids- any substance in the liquid or gaseous state. Fluid Statics- study of fluids at rest; atoms and molecules of an object is constantly moving Density-mass per unit volume o Mass Density, =m/v=kg/m3 o Weight Density, w=W/V=mg/v=N/m3 o Relative Density, relative= substance/water Mass- amount or quantiy of matter present in an object. Volume- amount of space acquired by the object. Pressure- force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure; P=F/A o unit: N/m2=Pa o 1atm =1.013x105Pa =1.013x106dynes/cm2 =1.013x105 bar =760 mmHg =76 cmHg =760 torr =34ft H20 =14.7 psi(per square inch) Pressure Gauge- instrument use to measure Gauge Pressure. o Open-Tube barometer, Mercury Barometer, Aneroid Barometer, Bourdon Barometer, Sphygmomanometer Gauge Pressure, P-Po= gh Absolute Pressure, P= Po+ gh Total Pressure, (F1/A1)=(F2/A2)+ gh F1<<F2 Archimedes Principle- when a body is submerged in a fluid, the fluid exerts an upward force on the body equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the body. Fluid Dynamics- study of fluids in motion. Ideal Fluid-fluid that is incompressible Buoyant Force- upward force exerted by the fluid. Surface Tension- It is what causes the surface portion of liquid to be attracted to another surface. Viscosity- measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity. Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction; internal friction. Turbulence- no steady state pattern; the flow patter changes continuously. Laminar Flow- adjacent layers of fluid slide smoothly pass each other and the flow is steady. Flow Tube- formed by the flow lines passing through the edge of an imaginary element of an area. Streamline- a curve whose tangent at any point is in the direction of the fluid velocity at that point. Stagnation PointContinuity Equation(flow rate) o A11=A22 Total Work(fluid),W=(P1-P2)V

Kinetic Energy(fluid), K.E.=(1/2)m 2 Change in Kinetic Energy(fluid) o K.E.=(1/2)V(22- 12) Potential Energy(fluid), P.E.=mgh;h=y2-y1 Change in Potential Energy o P.E =mg (22- 12) Bernoullis Equation o P1-P2=gh+(1/2) (22- 12) Fluids flowing to sufficient large pipes. Flows within bulk fluids(air flowing around airplanes) o Fluids at rest o Speed of Efflucx, =2gh o Rocket Propulsion, =2(P-Po)/ Temperature- indicates the average measure of energy flow or energy in motion; from HOT to COLD. Calorimetry- study of thermal properties of matter Thermal- heat(a form of energy) Calorie, Ca- unit of heat; used for food value o 1cal=4.186J o 1cal=1000cal=1kCal(water as base substance) Thermometer- device used to measure temperature o Temp. Scales Tf=(9/5)Tc+32 Tc+(5/9)(Tf-32) Tkelvin= Tc+273.15 TRankine=Tf+459.7 Thermal Equilibrium- Two systems A &B are in the thermal equilibrium. If their temperature are the same. Phase Equilibrium- the coexistence of two states of matter at the same temperature and pressure(Ice Water). Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics- Two systems A & B are in Thermal Equilibrium with a third system C. Triple Point- the coexistence of the 3 states of matter at the same pressure and temperature o Tc=0.01oC=273.16K o P=0.0061atm=610Pa Standard Temperature and Pressure(STP) o T=0oC o P=1atm=1.013x105Pa o 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4L o Na=6.02x1023atm/mol Linear Expansion, L=LiT; =coefficient Area Expansion, A=2AiT Volume Expansion, V=ViT o P1V1/T1=P2V2/T2 Instead of material to expand when heated, materials are forced to CONTRACT. o P=F/A= -YT(SOLIDS);Y=Youngs Modulus When materials are heated but held to expand and experiences COMPRESSIVE STRESS. o P=F/A= -BT(SOLIDS);B=Bulk Modulus Phase of Matter- specific state of matter, pressure and temperature.

State of Matter- normal state of matter at specified condition. Thermodynamics- branch of Physics that deals with the study of relationship of work and energy. Heat Transfer (Heat Flow)- energy in transit from one region to another region; direction-hot to cold. Quantity of Heat, Q=mcT; Q+& T+=warming, if (-) then =realeasing of energy. o Specific Heat of Water Cliquid=4.186J/gCo=1cal/gCo Cice =2.09J/gCo=0.5cal/gCo Csteam =2.01J/gCo=0.48cal/gCo Heat Fusion, Q=mLf ; Lf=3.34 J/gCo=80cal/gCo Heat Vaporization, Q=mLv ; Lv=2.26x103J/gCo=540cal/gCo Sublimation- transition of a substance from the solid phase to the gas phase without undergoing intermediate liquification; Sublime Materials. Heat of Sublimation-corresponding heat het sublimation. Super Cooling or Under Cooling- the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point, without it becoming a solid. Super Heating (boiling retardation or boiling delay)the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling. Superheating is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites, while taking care not to disturb the liquid. Amorphous Solid- a solid in which there is no longrange order of the positions of the atoms. Most classes of solid materials can be found or prepared in an amorphous form. For instance, common window glass is an amorphous solid, many polymers (such as polystyrene) are amorphous, and even foods such as cotton candy are amorphous solids. Conservation of Heat or Energy- heat gain=heat lost Mechanisms of Heat Transfer o Conduction- happened only in solid materials; heat current, H=[kA(Th-Tc)]/L K=heat conducvity, Th= hot temperature Tc=cold temperature o Convection(fluids)-material itself move from one region to another; H=hAT h=thermal coefficient of convection o Radiation- heat transfer by electromagnetic waves; H=AeT4 e=emissitivity =Stefan-Boltzman Constant, 5.67x10-8W/mK Electrodynamics- study of charges in motion. Electric Force, F= kq1q2 /r2; Newton Electric Field, E= F/ qo=Er= kq1 /r2 Electric Potential Energy, U=kq1q2 /r Electric Potential, V=U/ qo=kq1 /r Capacitors- electronic devices used to store energy by storing e-charges on a two parallel plates connected to voltage supply,

Capacitance, C-the ability of capacitors to store charges; C=Q/V, F=Farad o Series Capacitors 2 Capacitors, C=C1C2/C1+C2 Multiple, 1/C=1/C1+1/C2+...1/Cn o Parallel Capacitors C=C1+C2+....Cn C= oA/d, o=8.85x10-12C2/Nm2 Ohms Law-the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them. V=IR Resistors- a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current passing through it in accordance with Ohm's law Resistance, R- electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the passage of a steady electric current. An object of uniform cross section will have a resistance proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area, and proportional to the resistivity of the material. o R=V/I, =Ohm o R= L/A, = Resistivity o Resistors in Series R=R1+R2+....+Rn o Resistors in Parallel R=R1R2/R1+R2 R=1/R1+1/R2+...1/R3 Current, I- a flow of electric charge (a phenomenon) or the rate of flow of electric charge (a quantity). I o I=V/R, A=Ampere o I=nqdA d=drift velocity q=charge n= no. of charges per m3 o Current in Series I=I1=I2=In Voltage or Electric Potential Difference, V- a short name for the electrical force that would drive an electric current between those points. Specifically, voltage is equal to energy per unit charge. o V=IR, V=Volt o Voltage in Series V=V1+V2+.....Vn o Voltage in Parallel V=V1=V2=Vn Reaction of Materials to Temperature o R=Ri[1+T] Ri=resistance at an initial temperature, Ti =coefficient of thermal resistivity. Kirchhoffs Rule o Loop Rule o Junction Rule- the algebraic sum of potentials must be equal to zero, node branch is a point in the circuit. Kirchhoffs Current Law- at any junction of a circuit, current entering the junction is equal to the current

leaving the junction.

Kirchhoffs Voltage Law- in a loop, the algebraic sum of the voltage is equal to zero. Sign Conventions

o o o

R=resistance r=internal resistance Voltage


Magnets- any substance that posses the properties that are able to attract other materials especially those materials with iron Magnetic Domain- similar to molecules of substances having the polarities, north and south such that when they are aligned in one direction that creates the magnetic properties. Lodestone- natural permanent magnet AlNiCuCo- strong permanent magnets. Types of Magnets o Permanent Magnets- object made from a material that is magnetized and creates its own persistent magnetic field. o Temporary Magnets o Electromagnets- made from a coil of wire which acts as a magnet when an electric current passes through it, but stops being a magnet when the current stops. Magnetic Flux, - the number of magnetic field; Wb=Weber Magnetic Field, B- Magnetic fields surround magnetic materials and electric currents and are

detected by the force they exert on other magnetic materials and moving electric charges, o B= /A=wb/m2=T=Tesla Magnetism Due to Moving Charge o F=qBsin o a= 2/R o =2R/t=qRBsin /m R=radius of circular path o F=ma=m 2/R Magnetic Field Due to a Current Carrying Wire o Straight Conductors B= oI/2R o=4x10-7Wb/Am o Circular Coil B= oIN/2R N= no. of turns of coil o Solenoid B= oIN/L Waves- a disturbance that propagates through space and time, usually with transference of energy. Types of Waves o Mechanical Waves- waves that need medium of transmission but the particles of the medium DO NOT move from one region to another. Transverse- a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular to the direction of energy transfer. Longitudinal- waves that have the same direction of oscillation or vibration along their direction of travel, which means that the oscillation of the medium (particle) is in the same direction or opposite direction as the motion of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves have been also referred to as compressional waves or compression waves. o Electromagnetic Waves- wave that do not need medium of transmission Light, visible light, x-ray, UV Light, infrared, microwaves, radio and tv waves. Properties of Waves o Reflection o Refraction- bending of waves through barriers; waves that have the same direction of oscillation or vibration along their direction of travel, which means that the oscillation of the medium (particle) is in the same direction or opposite direction as the motion of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal waves have been also referred to as compressional waves or compression waves. o Diffraction- a wave encounters an obstacle. It is described as the apparent bending of waves around small obstacles and the spreading out of waves past small openings. o Interference- the addition (superposition) of two or more waves that results in a new

wave pattern. Interference usually refers to the interaction of waves that are correlated or coherent with each other, either because they come from the same source or because they have the same or nearly the same frequency. Constructive Interference Destructive Interference Characteristics of Waves o Wavelength, - determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings, and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns =/ f; =speed o Frequency, f- no. of cycles f=1/T= / ; Hz=Hertz o Period, T= 1/f Doppler Effect- is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. o f=[( + r)/( + s)]fo:Both source and receiver are moving. f= observed frequency fo=emitted frequency. = velocity of the medium r= the velocity of the receiver relative to the medium; positive if the receiver is moving towards the source. s= the velocity of the source relative to the medium; positive if the source is moving away from the receiver. o If the source moving away from the observer is emitting waves through a medium with an actual frequency f0, then an observer stationary relative to the medium detects waves with a frequency f given by the equation with r=0 o A similar analysis for a moving observer and a stationary source yields the observed frequency then s=0. Infrasound- sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz (Hertz) or cycles per second, the normal limit of human hearing, covering sounds beneath 20 Hz down to 0.001 Hz Ultrasound- cyclic sound pressure with a frequency greater than the upper limit of human hearing, 20 kHz serves as a useful lower limit in describing ultrasound. Sonic Boom-commonly used to refer to the shocks caused by the supersonic flight of an aircraft. Shock Wave-it carries energy and can propagate through a medium (solid, liquid, gas or plasma) or in some cases in the absence of a material medium, through a field such as the electromagnetic field.