European Journal of Scientific Research

ISSN 1450-216X Vol.74 No.2 (2012), pp. 186-204 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River, Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

Aina Olubukola Adeogun Corresponding Author, Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research Unit Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Email:; Tel: +2348055261105 Taofeek Ademola Babatunde Biology Department, Umaru Musa Yar’Adua University Katsina, Nigeria E-mail: Tel: +2348037851688 Azubuike Victor Chukwuka Ecology and Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria Email: Tel: +2347030306066
Abstract The worldwide deterioration of surface water quality has become a growing threat to human society and natural ecosystems hence the need to better understand the spatial and temporal variabilities of pollutants within aquatic systems. This study was aimed at evaluating water and sediment parameters of Ona river to identify major pollutant sources using multivariate statistics. Accumulation Factor (AF) indicated that BOD and COD significantly built up with an accumulation factor of 7.70 and 4.83 respectively. Heavy metals Cu, Pb, Mn, Cd and Cr accumulated significantly in the sediment and water. The river recovered significantly from a number of physicochemical parameters: EC (58%), TDS (64%), TS (61%), Chloride (65%), COD (79%) and BOD had the highest recovery value of 87%. All the heavy metals measured showed a high level of recovery in both water and sediment except for Zn (41% in both water and sediment) and Fe (38%) in the sediment. Factor analysis (FA) showed that sediment factor accounted for 39.95% of the total variance in water quality, while the second factor, labelled as seasonal factor accounted for a complementary 21.94%. Discriminant analysis (DA) highlighted sediment factors as the major determinant of water quality, with seasonal factors playing an augmenting role.

Keywords: Physicochemical parameters, sediment quality, water quality, Ona river, accumulation factor, river recovery capacity,

beverage industry. 2009. Wei et al. Effluents from these industries are connected by a network of canals that empty into this river. 2007. 2007. 2001. 2004).1. This however cannot be achieved without a spatio-temporal evaluation of water and sediment quality of the aquatic systems of concern (Don Pedro et al. Six sampling points were chosen along the river course for this study. Ibadan. UN WWAP. 1 and 2). Shrestha and Kazama. 2003. 2001. These factors may be geogenic or lithological.. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) for the interpretation of complex data matrices and better understanding of the water quality variation have been developed (Vega et al. It is in view of the limited supply of freshwater worldwide (Chinhanga. 2010). The coordinates of the sampling points were taken using GPS (Garmin GPS 12 x L). while point’s downstream (DSR. . 2009. The first sampling point located upstream (UPS) had no industrial or domestic inputs impacting the water.. The non-linear nature of environmental data makes spatial and temporal variations of water quality often difficult to interpret therefore creating a critical need to provide a representative and reliable estimation of the quality of surface waters (Dixon and Chiswell... agricultural production and processing industry. Reghunath et al. Vié et al. thus suitable as a reference/ control point. the application of different multivariate statistical techniques such as Discriminant Analysis (DA). Environmental data acquired by investigating the dynamics of water quality may present complex patterns and variability which are dependent on a number of unpredictable factors. 2010) and freshwater systems which constitute a large number of inland water ways (Sigee. Murray et al. Lee et al. Introduction The widespread deterioration in water quality of inland aquatic systems have been reported in the last decade (Olajire et al. Vié et al. 2002). meteorological and anthropogenic (Bricker and Jones. 1996). Adeogun et al. 2000. 2002.. 2.. 2008).. Materials and Methods 2. while the last two sampling points were located downstream after the point of discharge (DSR. Bu et al. This study was aimed at examining the impact of all sources of pollution on water and sediment quality of Ona River. Study Area Ona river (7o 19’-7o 42’N. 2005) play a major role in the assimilation and transportation of contaminants from a number of sources (Vutukuru.. Shell. The first two points were 3000m and 1500m respectively from the effluent discharge point.2011). Wunderlin et al. 2003. Sequel to this challenge.. Southwest Nigeria 187 1. hydrological.3o 55’E) is part of a dense network of inland watercourses that flows through Ibadan city southwards into the Lagos lagoon and industrial facilities located adjacent to this river include a food industry. Effluent discharge points (EDP 1 and 2) were 600m apart within the effluent discharge area.. and to identify the parameters responsible for spatial and temporal variability in water and sediment quality. The second sampling point was located at a site receiving domestic discharge (DDP). 2010) and the role of anthropogenic activities in the decline of water quality that the protection of the integrity of water resources have been given topmost priority in the 21st century (USEPA. Mara.. 1 and 2) were 1500m and 3000m respectively away from the effluent discharge points. 1998. 2003..Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River. 1995. 2004. 3o 48’. Heberer. Two sampling points were also taken along Oluyole industrial estate where effluents from these industries are being discharged into the river respectively (EDP 1 and 2).

Chloride (Cl-) was analyzed by titrating a known volume of water sample with standardized 0. DO and TDS were determined at the time of sampling in the field with a digital CS-C933T Multimeter (TOPAC INSTRUMENTS INC).Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Nitrate. 2. due to their net negative charge and participation in sorption and cation exchange processes (Ademoroti. Parameters such as pH. Collection of Samples Bi. 1986. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). pH. Temperature. Physicochemical analysis of water samples was carried out using standard methods of water analysis (USEPA. COD was determined by the titrimetric method and BOD was determined using the incubation method oC for five days (APHA-AWWA-WPCF.014N mercuric (II) nitrate solution. . 2005). Measurement of Physicochemical Parameters A total of 12 physicochemical parameters were measured namely Temperature.188 Aina Olubukola Adeogun. 1996b). prewashed. Samples were kept in the refrigerator prior to analysis. River sediment samples were collected with a Van Veen grab and stored in clean polythene bags to avoid contamination. Total Solids (TS). 2. rinsed with deionised water and dried.monthly samples of water and sediment were collected between February and July 2010. Chloride ion.3. surface water was collected at the middle of the river. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).2. APHA-AWWA-WPCF. Water samples for physicochemical and heavy metal analysis were collected in clean plastic bottles. Phosphate w a s determined colorimetrically by the ascorbic acid. Electrical Conductivity (EC). 1979. Total Suspended Solids (TSS). Total Solids (TS) was determined using gravimetric at 20 procedures by evaporating a known volume of water to dryness in a pre-weighed crucible on a steam bath at 105oC. 1986). 1995).molybdenum blue method (Eaton and Franson. Trivedi and Goyal. Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka Figure 1: Map of Ona River showing sampling points. EC. The use of fine portions (clay fractions) was as a result of their role as metal accumulators. At each sampling point. disaggregated and sieved to obtain clay fractions. 1995). Phosphate. Sediment samples were later air-dried in the laboratory. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Nitrate was determined by the phenol disulphunic acid method (Marczenko.

immediately after the discharge point). Multivariate analysis was carried out with the computer program SPSS 18. The degree of contamination as a result of anthropogenic inputs was estimated by the Accumulation Factor (AF). The water extract was analyzed for metals (Fe. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used where several dependent variables were measured for each sampling unit instead of one variable.4. 2002).Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River. Ibadan. S1 is the corresponding average level upstream where the water is relatively unpolluted. 2002) Step-wise Discriminant Analysis (DA) which is also a multivariate statistical technique was used for spatio-temporal analysis of water quality data.0 was used for this analysis. 2005). Johnson and Wichern. then filtered into 20ml standard flask and made up to the mark with distilled water (Ademoroti. Heavy metals in sediment were extracted with concentrated nitric acid at the ratio of 2g of sediment sample to 5ml of acid. USA). Southwest Nigeria 2. The FA is a data reduction technique and suggests how many varieties are important to explain the observed variances in the data. The solutions were evaporated in a crucible to approximately 5ml. Factor analysis is designed to transform the original variables into new uncorrelated variables called factors. AF is the ratio of the average level of a given parameter downstream (after a source discharge) to the corresponding average level upstream (before the source discharge) (Fakayode. Prism Graph pad software version 5. The mixture was gently heated in a water bath temperature of (105o C) until the sediment became bleached. 2005). Cu. Mn. and Cd).e. which are linear combinations of the original variables.0 for windows (SPSS Inc. 1996b). 2002). Accumulation factor (AF) was calculated by dividing the average parameters downstream with upstream values (Fakayode. The mixture was diluted to 20ml with distilled water decanted and filtered for analysis. Data were further subjected to Factor Analysis (FA). Zn. The degree of River Recovery Capacity (RRC) for Ona river was calculated using the formula adapted from Ernestova and Seminova (1994) as modified by Fakayode (2005) given as: RRC= (S0-S1)/S0 × 100 (Expressed in %) where: S0 is the level of a parameter downstream (i. 2. Analysis for Heavy Metals 189 Water samples for heavy metal analyses were filtered and digested with 10ml of concentrated analytical grade nitric acid to 250ml of water sample. Statisitcal Analysis Data for physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations of water and sediment samples were presented as mean values and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Analysis of heavy metal content of water samples. . The axis defined by PCA is rotated to reduce the contribution of the less significant variables (Johnson and Wichern. Linear discriminant functions were used to describe or elucidate the differences between the sampling sites and the influence of season on water and sediment quality of each sampling site. The objective of MANOVA was to investigate whether the mean vectors of water quality parameters across sampling points were the same or if the variables differed significantly across sampling points (Rencher. sediment samples and effluent samples were carried out with a Perkin Elmer (Analyst 200 version 6. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used for extraction of the different factors.5. 2002. Pb. Cd. The relative contribution of all variables to the separation of groups was highlighted (Rencher.0) Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS).

DO values were generally higher upstream and downstream. Results 3. pH and DO demonstrated a seasonal cycle during the study period. There were considerably lower levels of chloride ions upstream compared to the points of effluent discharge points and downstream sites respectively (Fig 2) and lower values were recorded in the rainy season. and lowest at the points of effluent discharge. Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka 3. The highest values of TDS. Nitrate levels increased in water samples during the rainy season. The pH values at the point of discharge showed an increasing tendency towards acidity from dry season into the rainy season while upstream and downstream values tended towards neutral pH during the rainy season. There was however a progressive increase in DO values at all sampling points with transition into the rainy season. TS and TSS showed the highest values at the transitional period (March and April) between the dry season and wet season. EC.0-8. Water pH ranged from 6.190 Aina Olubukola Adeogun. Figure 2(a-l): Spatio-temporal variations of selected physicochemical parameters of Ona river. Phosphate concentrations were significantly elevated at the effluent discharge points but did not show any significant difference in trend across seasons (Fig 2). Physicochemical Analysis The man values of physicochemical parameters across sampling points are presented in Fig 2. Temperature. TS and TSS were recorded at the effluent discharge points in both dry and wet seasons (Fig 2). High temperature values were o o recorded (29-30 C) between February and April (transition of dry to rainy season) and low values (26-28 C) were recorded between May and July (rainy season).0 with the lowest value slightly below NESREA (2011) acceptable limits for surface waters. .1. COD and BOD values were markedly increased at the points of effluent discharge throughout the sampling period thus showing the contribution of effluent discharge to the increased values (Fig 2).

Southwest Nigeria 191 Figure 2(a-l): Spatio-temporal variations of selected physicochemical parameters of Ona river.Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River.continued . Ibadan. .

Heavy Metals of Water Samples The heavy metal profile of water samples are presented in Fig. 3.2. Figure 3(a-g): Spatio-temporal variations of some heavy metals in water samples of Ona river . Mn. Elevated levels of Cu were recorded at effluent discharge points but there was a marked increase in the rainy season compared to the dry season at all sampling points (Fig 3).192 Aina Olubukola Adeogun. Cr and Fe showed a downward trend from the dry season into the rainy season while Cd showed its highest values in the dry season and onset of the rainy season (Fig 3). Zn although elevated at the points of effluent discharge showed wider differences in values in the rainy season between the upstream value and point of domestic waste discharge (Fig 3). Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka 3. Although Pb showed higher levels in the rainy season compared to the dry season. the highest levels of Pb was detected at the onset of the rainy season (Fig 3).

05) in the concentration of these metals at the point of domestic discharge (DDP) in the rainy season. Ibadan. Although the concentration of Pb. Southwest Nigeria Figure 3(a-g): Spatio-temporal variations of some heavy metals in water samples of Ona river . there was a significant increase (p<0.Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River. . Figure 4 (a-g): Spatio-temporal variations of some heavy metal samples of Ona river. Mn and Cd showed a fair trend across seasons.continued 193 3. while the concentration of Zn and Fe showed a general decrease from the dry to the rainy season with the higher values in the dry season (Fig 4). On the other hand the concentration of Cu upstream showed a decreasing trend with progression into the rainy season (Fig 4). Heavy Metals in Sediment Samples The concentration of Cu and Cr in sediments was higher in the rainy season compared to the dry season.3.

that is. Igeo<5 (strongly to very strongly polluted) and Class 6. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) is used to calculate metal concentrations in sediment by comparing observed concentrations with undisturbed or crustal sediment (control) levels using the expression: Igeo = ln (Cn/1. .e. Muller (1981) further classified Igeo as it relates to contaminant levels into 7 classes i. Class 3. 0.19%. Igeo>5 (very strongly polluted. Igeo<4 (strongly polluted). Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka Figure 4 (a-g): Spatio-temporal variations of some heavy metal samples of Ona river. Class 2. Igeo <3 (moderately to strongly polluted).52% of the elements belonged to Igeo Class 4 (strongly contaminated) indicating that the sediments were strongly enriched with respect to Lead and Cadmium.5×Bn). Table 1: Description of sediment quality Igeo classification (Muller. Igeo<2 (moderately polluted). moderately to strongly contaminated) showing tendencies toward strong contamination. Class 0.2. where Cn is the measured content of element “n”. the enrichment on a geological substrate. Cu and Fe belonged to Igeo Class 2 (moderately contaminated. Class 1.1. Class 5. 1979) Igeo Class 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Contamination intensity Extremely contaminated Strongly to extremely strongly contaminated Strongly contaminated Moderately to strongly contaminated Moderately contaminated Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated Uncontaminated Sedimentation Geoaccumulation factor >5 4-5 3-4 2-3 1-2 0-1 <0 .4.continued 3.23%) while Zinc had the lowest Igeo class of 1 (1.depicting a 100-fold enrichment above the background values). The results were interpreted according to the geoaccumulation index classification table of Muller (1979) (Table 1) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) analysis for Ona river sediment is given in Table 2. Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) The quantitative estimation of aquatic sediment contamination by metal was proposed by Müller (1979) in terms of the Igeo ( Index of Geoaccumulation).37%) indicating that Zn was within background levels or naturally occurring levels in the sediment.3. Class 4.194 Aina Olubukola Adeogun. Bn is the geochemical background value of the same element (metal) ‘n’ and Factor 1. 21.5 is the possible variations of background data due to lithogenic impacts.4.The results for the geoaccumulation index revealed that 44. Igeo<1 (unpolluted to moderately polluted). Igeo<0 (unpolluted). Chromium and Manganese belonged to Igeo Class 3 (32.

Table 3: Accumulation Factor and River Recovery Capacity for physicochemical parameters of Ona river EC -I -1 TS TSS Cl-1 TDS (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (Ω cm ) AF 2.4 1. COD and BOD showed the highest percentage recoveries of 79% and 87% while phosphate and nitrate showed the lowest recoveries of 47% and 42% respectively in water downstream.7 Sediment (µg/g) AF 85 41 RRC AF: Accumulation factor.6 AF Water column (mg/l) RRC 91 41 % 6. Recovery values for Zn and Fe were 41% and 65% in water and 41% and 38% respectively in sediment indicating that there was little or no change in values downstream compared to values upstream especially for Zinc.Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River. Pb was the highest accumulated metal in water and sediment downstream and was 21 and 17 times more than the average levels upstream whereas Cu. Pb 21.3 3. except Zn and Fe showed a recovery of >90% and >80% downstream for water and sediment respectively. All the metals.50 87 DO (mg/l) 0.0 2.6 38 Cu Zn 11.9 47 COD (mg/l) 4.6 90 7.8 65 1. Cr and Cd showed an accumulation of about 10 times and 6 times more than average levels upstream for water and sediment respectively.83 79 BOD (mg/l) 7. Southwest Nigeria Table 2: Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) values of surface sediments of Ona river Igeo 1. In other words there was a drop in COD and BOD values by 79% and 87% respectively in waters downstream compared to values at the discharge points or points of impact.5 3.4 81 Fe 2.9 0.59 2. Table 4: Accumulation Factor and River Recovery Capacity for heavy metals in water and sediment samples of Ona river.7 42 The Accumulation Factor and River Recovery Capacity for heavy metals in water and sediment are presented in Table 4.5 1.6 5. P0 -3 (mg/l ) 1.7 87 Cr 15 93 6.6 85 Cd 12 91.80 3. while less than 50% of phosphate and nitrate introduced at discharge point was removed by self-purification downstream. The trend in accumulation factor of the parameters revealed that the COD and BOD of water downstream was about 5 and 8 times respectively more than values observed upstream.66 2.5 95 17.00 RRC% 58 64 61 64 65 AF: Accumulation factor.2 2.39 -156 Nitrate (mg/l) 1. Mn.7 1. RRC: River recovery capacity % .9 94 Mn 10.39 2. Ibadan.2 Sediment quality description Moderately contaminated Uncontaminated to moderately contaminated Strongly contaminated Moderately to strongly contaminated Moderately to strongly contaminated Strongly contaminated Moderately contaminated Heavy metals Cu Zn Pb Mn Cr Cd Fe 195 The Accumulation Factor (AF) and River Recovery Capacity (RRC) of the physicochemical parameters during the sampling period are presented in Table 3. Other parameters showed an average accumulation factor of 2. RRC: River recovery capacity.

977 .94% of the total variance in water quality. Multivariate Analysis All studied variables were subjected to multivariate statistical techniques to explore temporal and spatial variations in parameters. 0.209 3.023 43. A total of four factors were extracted. accounting for 39. Factor 1 (sediment factor).994 14.000 0.05). Cu.000 0.003 0. The results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for water and sediment parameters are presented in Table 5. COD and BOD and negative loadings for Zn_sediment. and Cd in water. Table 5: Multivariate analysis (MANOVA) for spatial and temporal variations in water and sediment parameters of all sites of Ona river Test Pillai’s Trace Wilks’ Lambda Hotelling’s Trace Roy’s Largest Root Pillai’s Trace Wilks’ Lambda Hotelling’s Trace Roy’s Largest Root Value 4. cumulative percentage variance and component loadings are summarized in Table 6. DO. pH.000 .53 0.317 43. accounting for 5. Fe. and 78. was highly correlated with concentrations of metals in water and sediment (Pb. Mn. Pb. and Cr.000 Effect Spatial Temporal Factor analysis (FA) was carried out to identify the sources of variation in the water and sediment parameters. Factor 2. Mn.363 74.258 . Fe_sediment and Temperature. Cr.5.994 14.994 Sig.000 .000 . It can be inferred from this data that there was a significant difference in water and sediment parameters across the six sampling sites and across seasons (p<0.317 F 3. was highly correlated with TDS and Chloride levels and accounted for 10. Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka 3.000 . Cu and Cd in sediment). denoted as the mineral factor.94% of the total variance.000 129. Factor 3.383 25. Factor 4 showed high positive loadings for TS and EC and was termed the conductivity factor.994 14. accounted for 21.95% of the total variance and reflected the change in season by the positive correlations with TSS. The Eigen-values for the different extracted factors. .68% of the total variance in water quality.51% of the total variation was accounted for by these four factors. percentage variance accounted. Season. designated as seasonal factors.666 3.196 Aina Olubukola Adeogun.705 14. Zn.

94 72.711 . Ibadan. The first DF accounted for 83.769 .83 5.94 21. Five discriminant functions (DFs) were found to discriminate the quality of the six sampling sites used in this study (Table 7).05).904 .928 .878 % Variance Explained % Cumulative Variance 39.794 .89 10.878 .596 -. The relative contribution of each parameter is given in Table 7.68 78. while other parameters exhibited a low contribution to the discriminant function.809 -. The clusters were created by data rotation.772 -.834 .866 . 93. Furthermore.95 61. The second group of parameters (DF2) that accounted for the remaining spatial variations was Pb in sediment and Cd in sediment (Table 7).727 .Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River.750 .0% of the total spatial variance. and the second DF accounted for 10. The mean concentration of Pb in water.968 .947 .635 .824 -. .sediment Note: Groups of values circled along the same column represent clusters of parameters with high significant loadings for each factor.560 .609 2 3 4 197 . sed .8%.808 . Wilks’ Lambda test showed that all five functions were statistically significant (p<0.94 39.682 .931 . Southwest Nigeria Table 6: The varimax rotated factor loadings for water and sediment parameters of Ona river Factor Pb Cr Zn Cr_sed Fe Mn Cu Cd Pb_sed Mn_sed Cu_sed Cd_sed BOD Zn_sed pH TSS Fe_sed Season DO COD Temp Nitrate Chloride TDS Phosphate TS EC 1 .863 . Spatial variations in water and sediment parameters were evaluated through step-wise Discriminant Analysis (DA). Pb in sediment and Cr in sediment showed a strong contribution in discriminating the six sampling sites and accounted for most of the expected spatial variations in the river.51 Rotation Method: Varimax and Kaiser Normalization.781 .8% of the total variance between the six sampling sites was accounted for by the first two DFs.

905 . and Cr in sediment.153 8.571 -1.325 83.871 3.e. the domestic discharge point (DDP) showed high positive loadings for the factors represented by the second discriminant function (DF2) indicating that the DDP was characterized by elevated levels of Cd compared to EDP 1 and 2.636 .577 . the industrial effluent discharge points (EDP 1 and 2) showed high positive loadings for factors represented by the first discriminant function (DF1) indicating that the effluent discharge points were highly characterized by elevated levels of Pb in water and sediment.154 .440 2.0 83.824 .4 100 From the canonical discriminant plot (Fig 5).984 . UPS and DDP depicted negative associations with these factors indicating that these sites were characterized by minimal levels of these metal contaminants.478 -4.5 97. The sites upstream from the discharge points i.956 -4.435 .351 1.291 2.153 3.257 2. On the other hand.118 . Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka Discriminant function coefficients for spatial variation in water and sediment parameters of Ona river Function 3 2.3 99.198 Table 7: Aina Olubukola Adeogun. Figure 5: Discriminant plot for spatial variation in water and sediment parameters of Ona river .0 2 3.703 .477 0.sediment 1 -1.30 Parameter Pb Cu_sed Pb_sed Cr_sed Cd_sed Fe_sed % Variance % Cumulative Variance sed .8 93.119 7.162 .488 -3.477 -.187 -2.8 4 1.404 -1.126 -2.783 10.60 5 .261 -9.

and DO in were parameters that exhibited the highest change across seasons. Ibadan. Figure 6: Discriminant plot for temporal variations (Fischer’s linear discriminant functions) for water and sediment parameters of Ona river .e.05) showed that this DF and its constituent variables with the highest contributions were able to significantly discriminate water and sediment parameters influenced by seasonal changes. DA was conducted to assess whether there was a significant difference in seasonal trends and which parameters exhibited a seasonal trend or had strong associations with change in season. Southwest Nigeria 199 Temporal variations in water and sediment parameters were also evaluated through Discriminant Analysis (DA). DF1 accounted for 100% of the total variance between seasons. Table 8 presents the standardized function coefficients.Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River.591 1. Table 8: Discriminant Function Coefficients for temporal variation in water and sediment parameters of Ona river Function 1 -. which highlight that Cr in sediment. Wilks’ Lambda test (p< 0. i. there was an increase in Zn from dry season to the wet season.818 100% Parameters Temp DO Zn Cr_sed % Variance sed – sediment Discriminant plot for temporal variations (Fig 6) showed that the dry season was strongly characterized by increased temperatures and elevated levels of Cr in sediment while DO availability and temperature had strong positive associations with the wet season.041 1. Data was subjected to DA after data was sorted into two seasonal groups. Zn in water. dry season and wet season. Although Zn showed negative associations with both seasons.869 -1.

the all year round discharge of effluents impacts the sediment quality. The high levels of these nutrients clearly overwhelm the river recovery capacity thus indicating poor water quality. 1995. Taofeek Ademola Babatunde and Azubuike Victor Chukwuka The descriptive analysis indicated that the change in each water and sediment parameter across sampling sites and seasons. which is an index of metal enrichment in the sediment revealed the heavy metal concentration as Cd>Pb>Cr>Mn>Cu>Fe>Zn (Table 2). Therefore. 2011). >90 for water. 2008. there is a higher tendency for metal deposits to be retained in sediments than for it to be released into the water column. Najafpour et al.95% of the total variations in water and sediment parameters. Bu et al.e. 1983).. 1994). This ability of sediments to store pollutants such as metals is a clear pointer of the role of sediment quality in assessing and evaluating metal contamination in natural waters (Wardas et al. Adeogun et al. 2005. showed elevated values at points of effluent discharge (EDP 1 and 2).handedly removed by aquatic-plants and facultative algae which constitute part of the river’s selfpurification mechanism (Fakayode.. 2005. 2011). the contribution of some compounds of human origin to the natural environment far overshadows natural sources (Charkabi and Sakizadeh. This suggests that a longer stretch of un-impacted river will be required for higher recovery values. The accumulation factor of the physicochemical parameters (Table 3) clearly indicated elevated values downstream compared to the reference point upstream and is a clear pointer of anthropogenic impact. The River Recovery Capacity (RRC) values for these parameters indicated that the level to which the self-purification mechanism of the river was able to refresh water in the presence of pollutants was not very high.200 4. Metals such as Cd.94% of the total variations in water quality. The ability of river sediments to store metal contaminants of human origin has been reported (Salomons and Stigliani. The low recovery values observed for Zn and Fe downstream compared to upstream values may be a reflection of their mobility within the river system (Thornton. Naji and Ismail. The increased values of heavy metals downstream compared to average values upstream strongly implicate anthropogenic activity and this is confirmed by the accumulation factor reported for each metal downstream compared to upstream values (Table 4). The geoaccumulation index (Igeo). Zn and Fe showed the least accumulation. The second factor i. This replenishing effect for most metals is to a large extent not dependent on seasonal changes. 2002). 2006. 1996).. 2007. The high recovery of BOD. 2000. Cr and Pb have higher possibilities of interacting with organic matter in the aqueous phase and settling. Results of the factor analysis (FA) indicated that Factor 1 accounted for 39. Although all the heavy metals showed a level of accumulation downstream. Shrestha and Kazama. thus reflecting in the high concentration of these metals in the sediment (EC. 2009). In other words. Demark et al. COD and Cl downstream may also be a pointer to the efficiency of the river’s aeration mechanism which is another means of self-purification (Ernestova and Semenova. The high recovery observed for most of the heavy metals i. Netpae & Phalaraksh.e. This suggests a high abundance of these metals within this stretch of river studied hence there was no significant change in availability downstream compared to upstream values. Discussion Aina Olubukola Adeogun. The low recovery values observed for phosphate and nitrate suggests that these substances are being released into the river in quantities that cannot be single. 2009) even in levels that sometimes outweigh the content of metal in water and fish (Klavin et al. more specifically human factors. and >80 for sediment may be attributed to the natural heavy metal removal mechanisms of river systems one of which entails redistribution and partitioning of the metals between water and sediment (Fakayode.. Factor 2 which was termed seasonal factor accounted for 21. This pattern clearly implicates unnatural sources and reports have it that although potentially harmful substances may have either natural or human-made sources or both. This factor was labelled sediment factor because of the nature of positive loadings within the factor (Table 6).. The observed values showed that about 60% of most of the physicochemical changes due to domestic and industrial input upstream was alleviated about 3000m downstream of the discharge points. By comparing these two factors the FA depicts that the highest variations in water and sediment quality was as a result of non-seasonal factors. Sediments are an integral and inseparable part of the aquatic environment and play a very important role in the physicochemical and ecological dynamics of any aquatic system. which in-turn ensures a replenishment of contaminant levels within the water column. 2006). This is consistent with reports that .

Pb in sediment and Cr in sediment were the most significant parameters that discriminated between the six sampling sites.0% of the total spatial variance across the sampling sites (Table 7). Kumar et al. designated as seasonal factors. Conductivity can be measured to establish a pollution zone. COD and BOD and negative loadings for Zn_sediment. only one DF accounted for 100% of the temporal variations in water quality across sampling sites. 2008). these metals are mobilized from sediments into the water column thus resulting in a relative decrease in sediment concentrations compared to the initial concentrations. 6) Zn had a stronger relationship with the rainy season than Cr. 2008). 2009). in transition from dry to wet season. (2005) reported sewage from industrial and municipal areas as major sources of Cd into freshwater systems. Bu et al. Karbassi et al.Spatial and Temporal Variations in Water and Sediment Quality of Ona River. 2008..200 μS cm-1 (Fig 2). conductivity factor showed high positive loadings for TS (0. This suggests that there is a strong relationship between TS and EC. phosphate and chloride could be responsible for elevated levels of EC downstream (UNESCO/WHO/UNEP. although from the discriminant plot (Fig. The increased mobilization of Zn in water means that there will be reduced levels in sediment.. Pb content in water might be due to terrestrial run off from sewage effluent.897) accounting for 5. 1990a.. Some authors (Thornton. and the relationship is not dependent on seasonal changes. The loadings of this factor suggest that the transition in seasons affects the water temperature and pH which in turn regulate the COD and BOD content (Jain. while the increased values of Cr in sediment indicate that there will be reduced values in the water column. e. Factor 4 i. . 2002.68% of the total variance in parameters. 1983.94% of the total variance in water and sediment parameters. Najafpour et al. Factor 3. This is a depiction of the same trend by variables from different media. especially in polluted waters. the first discriminant function (DF) accounted for 83. Alloway. Zinc showed increased mobilization in water in the rainy season than in the dry season.703) and Pb in sediment (3.e. 2010). Throughout the sampling period the EC at the effluent discharge points was above 1. In other words. but the results from the FA implies that anthropogenic effects outweighs the seasonal effects on metal availability in Ona river. It accounted for 10.. From the spatial discriminant analysis (DA). showed positive loadings for TSS. Khadka and Khanal. 1996).. From the temporal discriminant analysis (DA). The presence of Cr in sediment as a significant variable in both spatial and temporal DA is an indication that Cr availability is affected by both anthropogenic and seasonal factors. or the extent of influence of run-off waters. 2005). The positive association of the domestic discharge point (DDP) with Cd in sediment implicates inputs of Cd from domestic waste discharge into the river. The presence of heavy metals and other conducting species such as nitrate. ground water flow. Season. 2002. The negative correlation of Pb in water (-1. 2002) or runoff from agricultural fields where phosphorus fertilizers with lead impurities have been applied (Ramachandra..This factor also depicts that the levels of Zn and Fe in sediment had a strong negative relationship with seasonal changes. It has been reported that seasonal variations in precipitation.. whereas Cr represent a group of metals that will require more rigorous geochemical factors for mobilization (EC. pH.. 2004. 2010) have reported that Zn represents a group of metals that are easily mobilized from sediment deposits in the presence of seasonal factors. 2006). This factor is an essential feature of any water-body which represents mineral content resulting from the balance between dissolution and precipitation. surface run-off.119) with the DF also brings out the inverse relationship between sediment contaminant and contaminant in the overlying water column. Ibadan. consequently the concentrations of pollutants in river water (Vega et al. Nodeberg et al. DO.g.000 μS cm-1 but may exceed 1. Fe_sediment and Temperature.913) and EC (0.000 μS cm-1. or those receiving large quantities of land run-off. The spatial DA using the first DF suggests that Pb in water. 2007. 1998. Cr showed higher availability in the sediment in the dry season and lower availability in the rainy season. Southwest Nigeria 201 anthropogenic discharges constitute a constant polluting source for aquatic systems (Singh et al. interception and abstraction strongly affect river discharge and. Nodberg et al. named the mineral factor was highly correlated with TDS and Chloride levels. According to UNESCO/WHO/UNEP (1996) the conductivity of most freshwaters ranges from 10 to 1. Factor 2. On the other hand.. Mtethiwa et al. through seepage from waste sites (Fatoki et al. around an effluent discharge. This agrees with reports that sediments hold a very large percentage of the total quantity of a metal present in an aquatic system (Netpae & Phalaraksh. In other words there is a higher tendency for Pb to be retained in sediment than released into the water column..

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