Notes on nervous control  Explain the need for communication systems (nervous control) within organisms o Gives ability

for all living organisms to respond to a stimulus o Nervous system work closely with the endocrine system and has functions:  Receive sensory input by special nerve cells called receptors  Process and integrate the information received through integrators and convert stimulus into electrical impulses  Act upon the information received by transmitting them through the body to the relevant effectors (gland or muscles) which then initiate the appropriate response Diagrammatic interpretation of the nervous system o Input -> Receptors (sensory neurones) -> integrators (inter neurones) -> motor neurones -> effector -> output Organisation of the nervous system o Made up of 2 systems: Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

Human nervous system

Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord Inter-neurones

Peripheral Nervous System Everything else Sensory and motor neurones

Somatic Nervous System Voluntary

Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary

Parasympathetic Motor System Relaxing responses Digest and rest 

Sympathetic Motor System "Fight or flight" responses

Describe the structure of cells of the nervous system o Nervous tissue made up of 2 kinds of cells: neurones and Glial cells  Neurones serve to transmit nerve messages  Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that are found in direct contact with neurones, often surrounding them eg Schwann cells o Nerves are made up of bundles of nerve fibres (nerve fiber = nerve cell) 1

Created by SefLRho (2012) DHS

Neurone cells o Properties of neurones  Have extreme longevity (can function optimally for a lifetime (over 100 years) given good nutrition  Unable to undergo mitosis (highly specialized and lose certain cellular functions, no centrioles  Exceptionally high metabolic rate (require continuous and abundant supply of oxygen and glucose, even minutes without oxygen also cmi)  Excitable! o Structure of neurones  Cell body (centron)  Contain a relatively large and round nucleus with a prominent nucleolus  Surrounding cytoplasm constitutes the perikaryon  Cytoskeleton of the perikaryon contains neurofilaments and neurotubules  Numerous mitochondria, free/bound ribosomes and pronounced rough ER  Site for metabolic activities such as synthesis of membrane and neurotransmitter substances  Dendron and dendrites  Dendrons are short cytoplasmic extensions from the cell body which branches into smaller and much more highly-branched dendrite  Receive signals from other neurones  Known as the receptive segment of a functional neurone  Direction of conduction always towards the cell body  Axon hillock  Point of origin of axons  Known as the initial segment of a functional neurone  Axon and myelin sheath  Each neurone has one axon  Long cytoplasmic extension that is usually single but can be branched  More than 1 metre long  Has diameter of ~1um, larger diameter = faster impulse transmission  May be myelinated (faster) or non-myelinated (slower)  Known as the conductive segment of a functional neurone  Direction of conduction always away from the cell body  Myelin sheath is derived from membranes of Schwann cells  Largely made up of lipid called myelin and increase the speed of transmission and serve a insulator to prevent leakage of electrical current  Node of Ranvier  Formed at the gaps between two adjacent Schwann cell wrappings  Allows for faster conduction via saltatory conduction  Synaptic terminal  Specialized ending of axon that relay signals to other cells by release neurotransmitters  Each axon can branch into hundreds of thousands of synaptic terminals  Known as the transmissive segment of a functional neurone o Types of neurones  Classified by arrangement of cytoplasmic processes  Bipolar neurones (2 processes: 1 dendron and 1 axon) 2

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Unipolar neurones (dendritic and axonic processes are continuous, cell body lies to the side)  Multipolar neurones (many dendrites radiating from the cell body)  Anaxonic neurones (no differentiation between dendrons and axons) Classified by function Sensory Neurones Interneurone Motor neurones Afferent neurones Efferent neurones Short axon and long dendrite NA Long axon and short dendrites Conduct impulses to the CNS Conduct impulses within the Conduct impulses away from CNS the CNS

Gilal cells o Small and non-excitable cells that play supporting role in the nervous system o Surround the neurones and hold them in place o Supply nutrients and oxygen to neurones o Insulate one neurone from another o Destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons o Direct axons of neurones to their targets o Eg Astrocytes – provide structural support for neurones and form blood barrier between brain and cells lining the capillaries o Eg Oligodenderocytes(CNS) and Schwann cells(PNS) which form myelin sheath Reflect arc o Simplest form of response o Rapid, automatic and stereotyped response to stimulis which are not under the control of the conscious brain o Involuntary Resting potential o Ions in solution are always present in pairs eg cations AND anions  In the cytosol, main anions (A-) are proteins, amino acids, sulphate, phosphate etc. K+ is the main couterion for trapped anions A-. Cl- is present in low []  Outside, the main anions are Cl- and the main counterion is Na+ o As membranes are impermeable to charged particles, charges can be locally separated in such a way that there is a voltage or potential  Voltage/potential is formed because oppositely charged ions tend to flow back towards each other to main electroneutrality. This flow is called potential/voltage o Plasma membranes have unequal distribution of ions and electrical charges between the two sides of the membrane  Outside of the neurone membrane = more positive  Insides of the neurone membrane = more negative o The charge difference is the resting potential (measured in mV) o Resting potential for neurones is -70mV (inside more negative than outside) o Potential can be changed to be more negative (hyperpolarisation) or less negative (depolarization) by  Membrane permeability  Changes in ion concentration on either side of the membrane Explain how the resting membrane potential is maintained o Facilitated diffusion of Na+ ions and K+ down their concentration gradient  Na is found outside cell and K is found inside 3

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Both ions would diffuse down their concentration gradient But the channels that allow for the facilitated diffusion of these two ions work at different permeability  Na+ channels has much lower permeability than K+ channels  K+ channel sets up an expeted membrane potential of about -90mV (if not Na+ channels are present)  Adding the ‘lesser effect’ of Na+ channels, membrane potential rest at -70mV o Active transport of Na+ and K+ by sodium potassium pump  Active pumping of Na-K pump causes more Na+ to be pumped out than K+ to be pumped in  3 Na+ is pumped out for every 2K+ pumped in  Thus, there is a net loss of positive charges Describe and explain the generation of action potential o When the neurone is stimulated, voltage gated Na channels open increasing the permeability of the membrane to Na+ ions by about 600x o Influx of Na+ causes depolarisation o When the depolarization occurs beyond threshold of -50mV, action potential is initiated o Na+/K+ pump inactivated and all sodium channels open (positive feedback) o This causes upstroke then spike to +40mV o At +40mV, voltage gated sodium channels close and voltage gated K channels open o K influx into the cell o Na/K pump reactivated o Resting potential restored/repolarised o There is a slight hyperpolarisation (undershoot) because there is slight delay in the closing of all potassium channel compared to sodium channel Describe and explain the transmission of an action potential along a myelinated neurone o Along myelinated neurone, action potential occurs only at node of Ranvier  Meyelinated areas do not have the necessary pumps/channels o After the first action potential, the action potential is propagated by being regenerated at the next node of Ranvier away from the origin of the nerve impulse o The first action potential causes Na+ ions to spread to the adjacent negative areas and depolarize the next node of Ranvier to beyond threshold for a new action potential o The passive spread of Na+ occurs both ways (front and back) but action potential can only be formed at the ‘front’ node because the ‘back’ node is in refractory phase and cannot be stimulated to produce another action potential  All Na+ channels are still closed o 2 kinds of refractory phase  Absolute  Lasts for 1 millisecond  No amount of depolarising stimuli can cause action potential  Relative  Last about 5-15 ms  Higher than threshold stimuli is needed to cause action potential o Speed of transmission  Diameter of axon  Wider diameter = faster transmission because there is lesser resistance of the axoplasm  Presence of myelin sheath 4

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Myelin sheath act s insulator to prevent leakage of charges Current only allowed for form action potential at the nodes of Ranvier and force it ‘jump’ from one node to another o (instead of many many many action potentials, action potential only at node = faster)  Temperature  Affects the rate sodium channels open  Higher temp = more KE = faster opening Describe the structure and function of cholinergic synapse o Structure  A synapse if a specialized junction between two neurones or between neurone-effector  are narrow gaps and the space is called the synaptic cleft  transfer by electric or chemical (more commonly chemical)  a cholinergic synapse is synapse that uses acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter o Function  Transmit between neurones  Unidirectional  Filter low level noise Explain how synapse functions, including the role of Ca2+ ions o Arrival of action potential to the synaptic end bulb o Opens voltage gated Ca2+ channels o Influx of Ca2+ activates set of calcium-sensitive proteins that are attached to vesicles that contain neurotransmitter chemical o Protein changes shape (conformation change) and causes the synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft via exocytosis o Released neurotransmitter diffuse across cleft and bind to specific receptor on the post-synaptic membrane o This binding of neurotransmitter causes changes in the permeability of the post-synaptic membrane o Can be depolarising or hyperpolarising depending if it EPSP (excitatory post synaptic potential) or IPSP (inhibitory post synaptic potential) o If EPSP  Ligand-gated Na+ channels open  Influx of Na+ = depolarise  If beyond threshold, new action potential o If IPSP  K+ and Cl- channels open  K+ exit cell  Cl- enter cell  = more negative and harder to reach threshold (>-70mV) o Effect of neurotransmitter short-lived as neurotransmitters are degraded or diffuses away from the receptor site  Acetylcholine is degraded by acetylcholinesterase o Synaptic delay  Time needed for Ca2+ to enter axon terminal  Time taken for synaptic vesicles to fuse with membrane and release neurotransmitter  Time taken for neuroT to diffuse across cleft EPSP 5

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o o

o

Usually 1 EPSP is not enough to reach threshold and cause action potential Spatial summation  Several different pre-synaptic terminals (with several EPSP) act simultaneous on same postsynaptic cell  Together, they cause depolarisation to beyond threshold Temporal summation  Repeated stimulation of 1 pre-synaptic membrane at high frequency to release a lot of EPSP

Compare graded and action potentials

Graded/Eectrotonic Can depolarising or hyperpolarising No threshold

Action ALWAYS depolarising Depolarisation must happen over threshold before action potential can begin Intensity of stimulus causes different amount of Intensity doesn’t matter. Once over threshold, all to polarisation/depolarisation the same amount of depolarisation. Changes in intensity reflected in frequency Passive spread from site of stimulation Action potential at one site depolarises adjacent sites to threshold and action potential to the same level Effect on membrane potential decreases with Amount of depolarisation independent of distance distance because action potential at one site depolarises adjacent site to beyond threshold and action potential to the exact same amount of depolarization No refractory period Absolute and relative refractory periods Occurs in most cell membrane Occurs on in excitable membranes of specialise cells eg neurones and muscle cells  Compare transmission of action potential along neurone to synaptic transmission Along neurone Electric Involves 1 neurone Calcium ion no required Only excitatory Occurs immediately All or none response Recovery due to repolarisation (opening of K channels) and Na/K pump Refractory period Speed affected by diameter, temp, myelin At synapse Chemical Involves 2 neurones Calcium ion needed EPSP or IPSP Synaptic delay Several EPSP can be summed to reach threshold Recovery requires acetylcholinesterase No refractory period but synapse can be fatigued due to shortage of neuroT Affected by drugs 6 Created by SefLRho (2012) DHS

Bi-directional (depolarisation waves spread both ways)

Uni-directional

7 Created by SefLRho (2012) DHS

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