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Literature Review Article 01:

Critical Success Factors for Change Management What is it that successful organizations have that makes the difference? The following success factors seem to be consistent in organizations who radically transform themselves:

Strong Leadership The CEO drives the change process, leading the organization to greater heights. There is no substitute for a strong leader. He sets the direction, and the priorities. Consensus at the Top The CEO and first reports agree wholeheartedly on the need for dramatic change, and all work together in defining the vision and the resources required for success. Teamsmanship is real, not feigned. Contributions are sincere, not politicized. A Shared Vision A well articulated vision of where the organization will be in three to five years, expressed in specific performance outcomes, cascades throughout the organization. Every employee has personal objectives that tie to the vision. Each has a direct effect on the outcome, and a well-defined personal stake in achieving the vision. Continuous Catalytic Activity at the CEO Level Executives realize they do not have the objectivity, skills and experience to enact radical change. External, objective, apolitical, and experienced catalysts and consultants are used to help navigate, find direction, and implement plans. Trustworthy Communications Top Down/Bottom Up The CEO and first reports continuously, repetitively, and consistently meet with all groups for two-way communications. The CEO is highly visible to all. Weekly or biweekly employee exchanges take place. Fears are addressed. Truth and honesty prevails.

The Right Attitude

Hidden personal agendas in top and middle management are cast aside to make room for a major collective effort. The theme is "get on board, or get out of the way." Those who block the effort are quickly disposed. Lots of Guts A willingness to take risks and attack sacred cows to achieve substantial results is prevalent. The focus is longer term, replacing the monthly P&L as the driver for everyday operations. Problems are anticipated and directly addressed. A Comprehensive and Systematic Approach A comprehensive master plan is created that addresses key integrated leverage areas: culture, reward systems, strategy, process, structure, and staffing/skills. All leverage areas are linked and the plan is structured in manageable phases. The process is continuous. High Employee Involvement All employees participate heavily in achieving team-based performance objectives. Individualism is not lost in the team environment, but reinforced. Problems are diagnosed and solved through teams that run their own operation. All participate in continuously improving personal, team, and organization performance. The focus is on quality, cost, delivery, and customer satisfaction. Permanently Empowered Employees Decisions are driven downward to the team level on a permanent basis, not a special project or temporary basis. Layers of management that get in the way of fast decisions are removed, and accountability rests with the team. Team leaders provide direction, priorities, and facilitation to the team. Teams evolve to self-management. Ownership of Change by a Vast Majority of Employees High employee involvement in problem solving, finding solutions, and implementing them creates authorship and ownership of the process. Peer pressure makes things happen. Employees are trained and learn new skills. Motivation is provided by the vision, strong leadership, team involvement, and reward systems that reflect achievement of the vision. Financial Resources Equipment and staffing is provided as part of the master plan. Substantial investments are made to reduce non-value added time on the shop floor and in the office. Cost/benefit analyses identify the results that will be achieved.

Extensive Education and Training at all Levels Most employees, including upper and middle management, have been conditioned over the years to be individuals and stars. Our society teaches this. They simply do not know how to behave as team members should. Courses in dealing with personality differences, team building, stress management, conflict management, and many others can go a long way in getting people to work cohesively. In addition, courses in process mapping, set-up reductions, statistical process control, etc., can provide the techniques for re-engineering the processes. Commitment to See It Through Plans do not get derailed at the signs of resistance or difficulty. Solutions to problems are found and implemented. If something does not work, something else is tried.

Article 02:
Title: Critical success factors for lean implementation within SMEs Author(s): Pius Achanga, Esam Shehab, Rajkumar Roy, Geoff Nelder Journal: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management Year: 2006 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Page: 460 - 471 ISSN: 1741-038X DOI: 10.1108/17410380610662889 Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited Abstract: Purpose The aim of this research paper is to present the critical factors that constitute a successful implementation of lean manufacturing within manufacturing SMEs. Design/methodology/approach A combination of comprehensive literature review and visits to ten SMEs based in the East of the UK were employed in the study. The companies' practices were observed to highlight the degree of lean manufacturing utilization within these companies. This was followed by interviewing of the relevant and key personnel involved in lean implementation. Results were analyzed and validated through workshops, case studies and Delphi techniques. Findings Several critical factors that determine the success of implementing the concept of lean manufacturing within SMEs are identified. Leadership, management, finance organizational culture and skills and expertise, amongst other factors; are

classified as the most pertinent issues critical for the successful adoption of lean manufacturing within SMEs environment. Research limitations/implications Continued skepticism within SMEs about the benefits of lean to their business is one of the fundamental limitations this research faces. SMEs are, therefore, not very willing to provide useful information and data, timely for further investigation. Originality/value The novelty of this research project stems from the realization of critical factors determining a successful implementation of lean manufacturing within SMEs environment. The results would provide SMEs with indicators and guidelines for a successful implementation of lean principles.

Article 03:
Title: Lean manufacturing: a perspective of lean suppliers Author(s): Yen Chun Wu Journal: International Journal of Operations & Production Management Year: 2003 Volume: 23 Issue: 11 Page: 1349 - 1376 ISSN: 0144-3577 DOI: 10.1108/01443570310501880 Publisher: MCB UP Ltd Abstract: The main thrust of this paper empirically examines the connection between lean production and various aspects of the logistics system. This paper performs a comparison analysis to find whether significant performance/practice differences exist between lean suppliers and non-lean suppliers. The research findings indicate that, even given the same organizational constraints and resources, lean suppliers gain significant competitive advantages over non-lean suppliers in production systems, distribution systems, information communications, containerization, transportation systems, customer-supplier relationships, and ontime staging/delivery performance.

Article 04:
Implementing the Lean Sigma framework in an Indian SME: a case study Authors: Kumar, M.1; Antony, J.2; Singh, R. K.3; Tiwari, M. K.4; Perry, D.1

Source: Production Planning and Control, Volume 17, Number 4, June 2006, pp. 407423(17) Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd Abstract: Lean and Six Sigma are two widely acknowledged business process improvement strategies available to organizations today for achieving dramatic results in cost, quality and time by focusing on process performance. Lately, Lean and Six Sigma practitioners are integrating the two strategies into a more powerful and effective hybrid, addressing many of the weaknesses and retaining most of the strengths of each strategy. Lean Sigma combines the variability reduction tools and techniques from Six Sigma with the waste and non-value added elimination tools and techniques from Lean Manufacturing, to generate savings to the bottom-line of an organization. This paper proposes a Lean Sigma framework to reduce the defect occurring in the final product (automobile accessories) manufactured by a die-casting process. The proposed framework integrates Lean tools (current state map, 5S System, and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)) within Six Sigma DMAIC methodology to enhance the bottom-line results and win customer loyalty. Implementation of the proposed framework shows dramatic improvement in the key metrics (defect per unit (DPU), process capability index, mean and standard deviation of casting density, yield, and overall equipment effectiveness (OEE)) and a substantial financial savings is generated by the organization.

Article 05:
International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management Issue: Pages: Volume 2, Numbers 1-7 / 2000 777 - 789

URL: Linking Options World class manufacturing in small and medium enterprises - A. Gunasekaran Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) play a significant role in improving the national economy. In most cases, SMEs produce their own products, but at the same time they produce items for large scale industries. These create certain interdependencies among SMEs and between them and large scale industries to improve the competitiveness of SMEs. Over recent years, large scale industries have undergone many changes in their production environment by implementing World Class Manufacturing (WCM) techniques such as JIT, DE, TQM, BPR, Lean and Agile manufacturing, and technologies like FMS, CIM and OPT with the objectives of improving productivity and quality. However, the implementation of WCM techniques

has not received due attention from SMEs. Realizing the importance of SMEs in the national economy, an attempt has been made in this paper to discuss the application of WCM strategies/techniques in SMEs. In this paper, a conceptual model has been developed to demonstrate the importance of best practices of manufacturing (WCM) in SMEs. Furthermore, a case experience from British SMEs is discussed. In addition, a strategic framework has been offered for improving the competitiveness of SMEs with the help of WCM strategies/methods.

Article 06
Title: Factors affecting successful implementation of total productive maintenance: A UK manufacturing case study perspective Author(s): C.J. Bamber, J.M. Sharp, M.T. Hides Journal: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering Year: 1999 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Page: 162 - 181 ISSN: 1355-2511 DOI: 10.1108/13552519910282601 Publisher: MCB UP Ltd Abstract: Modern manufacturing requires that to be successful organizations must be supported by both effective and efficient maintenance. One approach to improving the performance of maintenance activities is to implement and develop a total productive maintenance (TPM) strategy. However, it is well documented that a number of organizations are failing to successfully implement such strategies. This paper outlines research carried out by the Aeronautical, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department at Salford University aimed at discovering the factors affecting the successful implementation of TPM. This research has led to the development of a generic model indicating factors affecting the successful implementation of TPM. The validity of the generic model has been tested in a UK manufacturing small- to medium-size enterprise (SME) and the case study research findings further triangulated through a review of documented case study evidence. This research has also led to the development of recommendations to improve the TPM development and implementation program of the case study organization. Further development of the research has resulted in a step-wise program or generic

roadmap for UK SMEs which is proposed as a tool for the implementation or rejuvenation of an organizations TPM program.

Article 07
International Journal of Services Technology and Management Issue: Volume 5, Numbers 5-6 / 2004 Pages: 488 - 506 URL: Linking Options Applying lean manufacturing principles to information intensive services Uday M. Apte and Chon-Huat Goh
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Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275-0333, USA. School of Business Camden, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ 08102, USA

Abstract: Lean manufacturing principles have been successfully applied to manufactured products for several decades to significantly reduce inventory in the supply chain and to increase productivity as well as the quality of the products. However, it is not clear whether such principles can be similarly applied to information intensive services that usually do not carry inventory. In this paper, we use an example of insurance claims handling process to illustrate how the lean manufacturing principles can be beneficially applied, albeit with some modifications, to information intensive services. Since such services do not have significant amount of inventory, we argue that minimising cycle time plays the same role as reducing inventory. We also show that a slightly different but parallel set of metrics should be used to evaluate the performance of the system after the implementation of lean principles to information intensive services.

Article 07
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