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7
7.8 THE EXCITER GENERATOR 7.9 THE AC AMMETER

Synchronous Motors

I OUTLINE
7.1 CONSTRUCTION OF THE STATOR 7.2 CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROTOR 7.10 THE DC AMMETER 7.3 REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING (STATOR) 7.4 APPLICATIONS 7.5 STARTING THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 7.6 THE POLARIZED-FREQUENCY RELAY 7.7 THE OUT-OF-STEP RELAY 7.12 POWER-FACTOR CORRECTION USING A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 7.13 THE BRUSHLESS SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 7.11 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS

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I OVERVIEW

ynchronous motors are a special class of motors that provide features not found in other motor types. As their name implies, synchronous motors operate at their synchronous speed and are not subject to the slip found in other polyphase motors. One big advantage of synchronous motors is that they actually improve power factor for the location in which they are installed. Synchronous motors are generally used to power large equipment such as compressors and pumps. In this chapter you will learn about the operation and installation of synchronous motors.

I OBJECTIVES
After studying the lesson material in this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain how and why reduced-voltage starting is necessary on the large synchronous motor. 2. Explain the automatic starting sequence in the rotor circuit and how it runs at synchronous speed. 3. Describe how the synchronous motor can be used to improve the power factor in an industrial power system. 4. Describe the brushless main rotor control in a brushless motor.

7.1 CONSTRUCTION OF THE STATOR


The stator of the small synchronous motor is constructed like any polyphase motor, with the coils laid in the slots 120 electrical degrees apart. Depending on the speed and style of the rotor, the stator may be large enough to walk through. Larger stators have either a cast-iron frame or a welded-steel ring with feet welded on to mount the stator to the floor. The laminated sheets that make up the core are pressed into the frame and secured; they are insulated from one another by an oxidation process that reduces the cross-sectional area of the core. This is necessary to reduce eddy currents, which can cause damage. An advantage on the larger stators is that the stator coils are individually constructed and connected. These coils are formed and use rectangular wire. The end of each coil is made so that it can be bolted to the next one. This facilitates in-field replacements, eliminating the need to pull the stator and completely rewind it. The rotating field of the motor runs at the synchronous speed determined by the frequency and the number of poles. Synchronous motors that run over 500 rpm are considered high-speed units.

7.2 CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROTOR


The rotor of the synchronous motor has windings that are wound around iron cores called salient poles or projecting poles. They are connected to a ring called a spider ring, which is mounted on the rotor shaft, so that the entire assembly rotates. The poles are bolted to the ring, which is usually made of cast iron. In the case of higher speeds and increased centrifugal force, there is a dovetail groove into which the poles slide (Figure 71). The pole cores are laminated, as was the stator core, to prevent eddy currents in the iron. You may question the need for the laminations, because theory tells us that at synchronous speeds the lack of relative motion offers no induction into the iron core. This is correct at speed, but we must consider the period during which the rotor is in locked

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F I G U R E 7 1 End-view diagram of the shaft, spider ring (with dovetail joints), and projecting poles for a synchronous motors rotor.

WINDINGS POLE PIECE

DOVETAILS

SHAFT

rotor. This period runs from the instant when the stator is energized to the point at which the DC is connected to the rotor. The tremendous heat that would be induced into the core as a result of the eddy currents would be detrimental to a long life of service. All the windings of the rotor poles are connected in series, and two leads are brought out to slip rings, which are connected to the shaft but insulated from it. This allows the DC excitation current to be connected to the windings via brushes that ride on the slip rings. The rotor of the synchronous motor cannot start to rotate when the windings are connected to the DC exciter supply (how the windings are connected and the theory behind it will be explained in section 7.11 on operating characteristics), so another method of starting the rotor is required. This method is to start the rotation as an induction motor. It requires squirrel-cage bars laid in slots on the pole faces and connected at the ends. This assembly can be individual for each pole and is labeled damper windings. The bars can be connected all around the rotor by a conducting ring, also known as a shorting ring. The assemblies are mounted high in the slots and have a small cross-sectional area. This helps the phase angle in the winding and provides better torque (see Figure 71). They can be constructed in this way because at synchronous speed there is no relative motion to induce a voltage and current in the winding. No heat is developed when no current flows. This winding is called an amortisseur winding (see Figure 72). The main DC exciter windings on the salient poles are wound around the cores, so that the wire is exposed. This aids in the cooling of the rotor (see Figure 71). These motors are very sim-

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F I G U R E 7 2 Photograph of a synchronous motor with amortisseur winding.

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ilar to an alternator and can be used as such. With a prime mover connected to the shaft and a voltage regulator connected to the output to control the exciter, we have generated power.

7.3 REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING (STATOR)


Because of the size and weight of the rotor, along with the starting currents of the synchronous motor, often the voltage to the stator must be reduced. These currents are from 550% to 700% of the motors full-load current.

7.4 APPLICATIONS
Because of its steady speed, the synchronous motor is used to power large, sometimes slow-moving machines. Large plant compressors are popular uses of synchronous motors. The fact that the motor can also provide power-factor correction is a major factor. The very large bores of the compressor make for high air volume without high piston speed and the resulting friction. Fans, pumps, and large industrial grinders are powered by this motor. Mills in the steel industry are a prime candidate for synchronous motors with their steady speed. Larger high-speed motors are popular in the natural-gas pipeline system, as the power required demands higher speeds. Rememberhorsepower is a product of speed, so higher rotor speeds offer more power. Synchronous motors in high-speed application typically have a brushless exciter as described later in section 7.13. A brush-style exciter is typically not used in a highspeed application due to ignition problems caused by the brushes physical contact with the slip ring. Proper and regular maintenance, though difficult to perform, can reduce the occurrence of ignition problems in brush-type exciters. Figure 73 shows the rotor of a synchronous motor being installed in the stator at an industrial location.

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F I G U R E 7 3 Photograph of the motor and equipment.

7.5 STARTING THE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR


To understand the starting sequence of the synchronous motor, a fair knowledge of logic is required. We will list each step of the starting sequence and explain the theory. An explanation of the individual components follows. The exciter motor-generator set is started and power is provided for the DC coil of the polarized frequency relay (PFR). The DC coil is energized, and flux from the coil fills the iron core in the PFR. The armature of the PFR cannot pull in at this time, because the flux follows the shortest path in the iron. Study the PFR closely, and especially the paths that the flux follows, as this relay will connect the rotor to the DC exciter at just the right moment to sync our rotor with the rotating field. The start button is pressed and CR1 is energized, closing both its holding contact in parallel with the start button and the contact in series with the coil of the main starter, coil M. Note that both a contact of the M contactor and a contact of the CR1 are in series, with both in parallel with the start button, thus requiring that both CR1 and M are energized to latch up CR1. The energizing of coil M also closes the three NO contacts in the line connecting the stator to the line. The low-impedance coils of the magnetic overload relays see the stator current, and the plungers (armatures) are drawn toward the core. The fifth contact of the starter in series with the field contactor coil F closes, attempting to energize coil F. Pay attention to the PFR, as it will open the NC contact and prevent coil F from being energized at this time. The current transformer that surrounds line 1 provides a voltage to the AC ammeter. As we are in locked rotor, the meter will read from 500% to 700% of full-load current.

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Now the stator is energized and the rotating synchronous field has been established, rotating around the stator frame. The amortisseur windings are seeing 60 Hz, and a voltage and current are being induced in the winding. Because the current is 180 out of phase with the stator, the poles are unlike and there is an attraction between the two. The rotor windings are also seeing 60 Hz, and a voltage and current are induced in those windings. They are all in series, so that the voltages add, producing a very high total induced voltage. It is imperative that the circuit not be left in an open condition; with no current flow and with the losses incurred, the voltage would rise to a level at which the insulation would be damaged by the stress of the voltage trying to find a path to ground. We see in Figure 74 that the rotor circuit has a complete path for the current to flow. This provides a means of dissipating the heat in the rotor as a result of current in the winding, as well as limiting the rotor current through the discharge resistor. The low-impedance coil of the out-of-step relay is energized, and the plunger is drawn toward the core. Note that if any of the three magnetic overloads or the out-of-step relay plungers pull all the way up into

F I G U R E 7 4 Control circuit for a brush-style synchronous motor starter.


M L1 L2 L3

MAG. OL CT

AM

AC T1 F1 T2 T3 F2

OL

CT START STOP CRI 120 V M CRI DC AM SHUNT + EXCITER ARMATURE SHUNT FIELD RHEOSTAT F CRI M OL OUTOFOL STEP

PFR DC OUT-OF-STEP RELAY PFR F M

F DISC RES

REACTOR

PFR AC

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the core and actuate their NC contacts in series with CR1, the stator will be disconnected from the line. This gives us a period of time to get the rotor up to synchronous speed. The reactor also sees the 60-cycle current, and the XL induced in the reactor provides the voltage for the AC coil in the PFR. Remember the rule for voltage in a parallel circuit. The voltage remains the same in all branches. The flux in the iron provided by the AC PFR coil drives the flux from the DC PFR coil out to the ends of the core, thus pulling in the armature and opening the NC contacts in series with the F coil. If we study the description of the operation of the PFR, we see that this happens every half cycle. This must be understood, because this is what drops the armature out at the precise moment to step the rotor up to the synchronous speed. Now we have rotation! As the rotor starts to rotate, we see that the frequency is reduced in proportion to the increase in speed. As the speed is increased, the current in the rotor is reduced, and the speed at which the out-of-step plunger moves toward the core is reduced by the reduction of flux in the core. Although the speed is reduced, it will still be drawn up into the core if the rotor does not reach synchronous speed. The reactive voltage in the reactor is being reduced with the decrease in rotor current, and at the same time the frequency is declining. At the optimum point, the frequency is low enough and the AC PFR cannot force the DC flux through the armature, and the armature opens, closing the NC PFR contact in series with the M contact. (Remember that this M contact closed when the M coil was energized.) This energizes the F coil and the contactor closes the two NO contacts, connecting the exciter generator output to the rotor. A millisecond after the closure of the NO contacts, the NC F contact opens, disconnecting the out-of-step relay coil and the discharge resistor from the rotor. The contact operation of the make before break of the F contactor contacts is essential to prevent the high-voltage spike that would be induced in the rotor circuit if the circuit were allowed to open for even a millisecond. This spike would damage the contacts on the F contactor and the rotor coils. We are at synchronous speed and we can look at the DC ammeter in series with the exciter output. We see that the meter is connected to a meter shunt; thus a voltage is provided for the meter via a voltage drop across the shunt. Again, the meter is in parallel with the shunt, and the drop across the shunt is the voltage that the meter reads. We can vary the field strength by varying the rheostat in series with the shunt field of the exciter. The output of the exciter is varied to control the flux in the rotor poles. The strength of the rotor field determines the power-factor correction of the synchronous motor. This will be explained in detail in section 7.12 on power-factor correction. Now our motor is up and providing reliable power for our equipment while also correcting the power factor in our plant. This combats the reactive voltages that are induced by the inductive loads in our plant. These inductive loads oppose the power provided by the utility and, if left uncorrected, will add large penalties to our monthly utility bills.

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7.6 THE POLARIZED-FREQUENCY RELAY


The polarized-frequency relay (PFR) is shown in Figure 75, which provides details on the relays wiring and operation. Figure 76 provides additional details, including an analysis of a waveform of the voltage that operates this relay. Remembera magnetic field surrounds a conductor as a direct result of current in that conductor. The field (flux) follows the path of least reluctance (core). The design of the core requires the DC coil to be placed at position C. This coil is energized by the exciter generator as soon as it is started and has an output. The flux (drawn in red) that flows in the core follows the path from point C to point B, as in view B. At this time there is no flux from the AC coil. This flux will not pull in the armature, as the path it follows will not magnetize the armature, at point S. This constant flux (nonalter-

F I G U R E 7 5 Wiring connections and operation of a polarized-field frequency relay. Courtesy of Electric Machinery Manufacturing Co.

A
TO SOURCE OF DIRECT CURRENT DISCHARGE CONTACT (CLOSED) FIELD CONTACTOR (OPEN) FIELD DISCHARGE RESISTOR OUT-OF-STEP RELAY F LINE CONTACTOR F DC COIL (C) WHEN RELAY CONTACT (S) IS OPEN, FIELD CONTACTOR IS NOT ENERGIZED

AT SLIP FREQUENCIES UP TO PULL-IN SPEED, REACTOR DIVERTS CONSIDERABLE PORTION OF INDUCED FIELD CURRENT INTO COIL (B) SLIP FREQUENCIES INDUCED IN FIELD WINDING FLOW THROUGH DISCHARGE CIRCUIT

REACTOR FOR PFR

INDUCED CURRENT COIL (B)

RELAY ARMATURE (A) (CLOSED)

TO SOURCE OF DIRECT CURRENT

DISCHARGE CONTACT (OPEN) FIELD CONTACTOR (CLOSED)

FIELD DISCHARGE RESISTOR OUT-OF-STEP RELAY

LINE CONTACTOR F

REACTOR FOR PFR

WHEN RELAY CONTACT (S) IS CLOSED, FIELD CONTACTOR IS ENERGIZED RELAY ARMATURE (A) (OPEN)

DIRECT CURRENT TO FIELD

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F I G U R E 7 6 Polarized-field frequency relay operations. Courtesy of Electric Machinery Manufacturing Co.

DC

AC

DC

AC

B
AC INDUCED-FIELD CURRENT IN COIL (B) DC POLARIZING CURRENT IN COIL (C) RESULTANT MAGNETIC FLUX IN ARMATURE (A) EXCITATION APPLIED IN THIS DIRECTION M MOTOR SYNCHRONIZED O RELAY OPENS RELAY ESTABLISHES CONTACT (S) TO APPLY EXCITATION TO MOTOR

nating) causes the relay to be polarized. The relay stays in this condition until the AC coil is energized (view B). When the rotor circuit is energized and the reactor sees the 60-cycle current, a reactive voltage is induced in the reactor. This reactive voltage is the source for the AC coil. Each half cycle, the AC current (coil) will produce flux that will alternate, producing an aiding flux for one-half cycle and an opposing flux for one-half cycle in the core. When the aiding AC flux flows with the DC flux at point B, the DC flux flows in the core (excites the iron around the core from point C to point B), and the AC flux tries to pull in the armature to point A. The AC flux is not strong enough to pull it in alone. As the AC coil sees a change in the direction of current flow, the flux will change direction and oppose the direction of the DC flux (view A). This will force the flux of the DC coil out to the end of the core and pull in the armature. The combined flux of both coils flows through the armature A. As long as the AC coil sees sufficient frequency, the armature will be pulled to the core. Rememberthe combined flux flows only each half second. As long as the rate of the frequency is high enough, the armature will stay pulled to the core. Once the armature is pulled in, the flux of only the AC coil is strong enough to keep the armature pulled to the core during the half cycle when only the AC flux flows in the armature. As the rotor increases in speed, the frequency drops in proportion to the speed. At the point at which the AC flux is no longer strong enough, the armature drops out (point S). The closing of the NC PFR contact in series with the M contact energizes the F coil. Excitation is applied to the rotor at this point. By looking at the waveforms in Figure 76, we can see that the frequency drops to a low value, around 3 Hz at 95% of synchronous speed. The AC coil sees the current in the aiding direction for 166 ms. This is too long at the lower cur-

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rent and frequency, and the flux in the armature is not sufficient to keep the armature pulled in to the core. When the field is connected to the rotor, the rotor-induced current is opposing the DC exciter current. It takes a moment for the induced current to reverse (point O). As the exciter establishes poles, the time from point O to point M, the poles magnetize and the rotor syncs up with the rotating field. We have synchronous speed. Rememberthis is for brush-style synchronous motors, not brushless.

7.7 THE OUT-OF-STEP RELAY


The device designed to protect the starting winding, either the amortisseur or the damper windings, is the out-of-step (OSR) relay (see Figure 77). If the rotor runs at synchronous speed, there is no relative motion to provide induction in the starting winding. The small crosssectional area of the starting winding makes it a resistive circuit, and, if it is left in circuit (less than synchronous, at which frequency induces a current in the winding) for a period in which excessive heat is generated, catastrophic damage to the rotor could result. The OSR is a current-type relay, meaning that the magnetic field that actuates the relay is a product of the circuit current with which the low-impedance coil is in series. This relay is a time-delay relay whose timing is controlled by adjusting the plunger (armature) so that a certain field strength is needed to pull it up into the core, tripping the NC contact in series with the CR1 relay. The relay will have a piston immersed in a viscous fluid, usually silicon-based to prevent the ambient temperature from affecting its viscosity, which controls the amount of time it takes for the piston to ascend into the core. The piston is connected to the bottom of the plunger and has an adjustable orifice to control the displacement of the fluid from the top of the piston to the bottom. As the orifice is reduced via a movable cover that slides over the orifice to control its size, the time it takes for the piston to ascend in the core is extended. This feature allows the OSR to be used on motors of many different sizes.
F I G U R E 7 7 Photograph of an out-of-step relay used on synchronous starters. Courtesy of Allen-Bradley Co.

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7.8 THE EXCITER GENERATOR


The field windings of the synchronous rotor require a DC field to polarize the poles. As the DC current circulates through the windings, a pole is established depending on the direction of the flow. On many synchronous motors, this power is supplied by a motor-generator set. This small generator is started to provide the power for the PFR DC coil and for the rotor when stepping up to synchronize with the rotating field. The prime mover for the generator is an AC polyphase induction motor. The generator is a shunt style that is self-excited. In Figure 74, the armature is in parallel with the shunt field and its field rheostat. As the armature is spun by the AC motor, the windings of the armature cut the residual lines of flux in the stationary field. The magnetic domains in the shunt-field iron core are aligned as a result of the DC current in the winding. Even when the current ceases, the alignment of the domains remains. A small voltage is induced in the armature that provides current for the shunt-field winding. This shunt field is our stationary field. As the voltage starts to rise, it continues to increase the current in the shunt winding. This rises to a point at which the shunt field rheostat will limit the current and the output will stabilize. When the field contactor closes and the rotor is energized by the exciter, the rheostat will control the strength of the rotor field. By varying the rotor current, the pole can be either just strong enough to keep the rotor locked up with the rotating field, or it can be overexcited, cutting the stator coils ahead of the coils that are excited by the source. This will provide a leading power on the line, which will affect the systems power factor. As the field strength is varied, a power-factor meter will indicate to the operator what the power factor on the system is. If the system shows a lagging power factor, raising the field current will overexcite the rotor, and the power factor will be improved. Figure 78 shows a typical MG set used to provide the necessary DC excitation.

F I G U R E 7 8 Photograph of a typical MG set used to supply DC excitation voltage to the synchronous motors rotor.

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7.9 THE AC AMMETER


The AC ammeter is connected to a current transformer (CT) and receives a voltage signal from the CT. The conductor that the CT surrounds is the primary of the transformer. As the expanding and collapsing magnetic field that surrounds the conductor cuts through the secondary winding (doughnut), a voltage is induced in the winding. This voltage is proportional to the current in the conductor that the doughnut surrounds. This voltage will deflect the meter and indicate the current in the conductor. Note that the meter is a voltmeter with a face that is marked off in increments of amps. The secondary of the CT must never be allowed to be an open circuit. Each turn of the winding will have a specific voltage induced in that turn. The voltage of each turn will be added to all the others, and this voltage can rise to a level that will damage the insulation of the winding. With an open circuit, the absence of current in the circuit prevents the XL and the losses from keeping the voltage within limits. The load of the meter completes the circuit. As a safeguard, a resistor is in parallel with the secondary in case the meter fails and opens the circuit.

7.10 THE DC AMMETER


The DC ammeter is also a voltmeter similar to the AC unit. Because it is a DC meter, a DC voltage source must be provided. Without the alternating current of the AC unit, induction is not possible. In order to monitor the DC current, a shunt is installed in series with the load, providing a voltage source for the DC meter. The shunt is a low-resistance material that will drop voltage across it when there is current through it. A resistance of 0.0005 ohms will drop 50 millivolts across it with 100 amps of current through it. Most DC ammeters have a 50-mV movement. You can see that the low resistance of the shunt will have little effect on the circuit. In order to calibrate the shunt, a measured current flows through it, and a 50-mV meter is connected to the studs (these are usually 8-32 screws or studs). If the voltage across the studs is 45 mV, then a cutting tool is routed into the shunt and material is removed (see Figure 79) until the drop across the shunt is 50 mV. If the shunt
F I G U R E 7 9 Diagram showing the shunt conductor and ammeter. The notch in the shunt allows the shunt to be calibrated to specific current values.

AMMETER

NOTCH

+
POWER

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is rated at 400 amps, then with 400 amps through it, it will drop 50 millivolts across the studs. The calibrated resistance of the shunt using Ohms law would be 0.000125 ohms.

7.11 OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS


Now that the motor is up and running, lets check out some of its characteristics. If the motor has no load and the rotor is in sync, the angle between the stator and the rotor is 0. This is known as the torque angle. As a load is applied to the motor, the rotor starts to fall behind the stator. It does not slip, but the angle between the stator and the rotor increases, and thus the torque angle increases. When the angle between the stator and the rotor is 0, the counter voltage will be equal and opposite to the source voltage on the stator. As the angle is increased (more load has been placed on the rotor), the counter voltage is affected and the stator current is increased, providing a stronger pole on the stator. This keeps the rotor in sync. As long as we stay within the limits of the motor, it can run with the rpm constant. The synchronous motor is sensitive to any problems in the distribution system. If the power system or network voltage decreases (sags), the rotor might pull out of sync and be tripped off line by the out-of-step relay. If a drop in power occurs for even a few milliseconds, the rotor will start to slow. As power is restored (the time off was too short to drop out the M coil), the rotor slips back and now operates as an induction motor. As soon as the rotor slips back, the induction in the rotor provides AC current to the PFR AC coil; the NC contact opens and the exciter is disconnected from the rotor. The out-of-step relay sees this current and starts the plunger ascending toward the core. The PFR performs its function and the rotor returns to synchronism, unless the OSR reaches its preset limit and trips.

7.12 POWER-FACTOR CORRECTION USING A SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR


The synchronous motor is the only machine that offers power-factor correction and at the same time performs a major function, such as running a plant compressor. The degree of excitement in the rotor field controls the power factor in our system. This assumes that the size of the synchronous motor is large relative to the balance of the load connected within the plant. With the rotor running at synchronous speed and the load held constant, lets see how the exciter current affects the power factor. We will see the effects of the rotor when it is underexcited, set for unity, and overexcited. By looking at the vector diagram shown with each description, we can see how the current either lags, is in phase, or leads the source voltage in the stator. Rememberin industry the provider of the electrical energy will penalize the user for a lagging or, in some cases, a leading power factor. This power will show up on our utility bills. With the torque angle constant and the field underexcited, the vector diagram (Figure 710) shows the current lagging the source voltage. The rotor voltage ER, supplied by the exciter, provides a field that is sufficient enough to hold the rotor in sync. We can see on the dia-

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F I G U R E 7 1 0 Phasor diagram showing the relationship between the rotor voltage (ER ) and the stator voltage (EA ) when the field is underexcited.

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CEMF

ER

TORQUE ANGLE LAG I EA

gram that the stator current (I ) is lagging the source voltage (EA). As a result of the inductive reactance (XL) of the stator, the stator current (I ) is 90 behind the rotor voltage (ER). The torque angle will remain in this position until there is a change in load. If more load is added, the torque angle will increase, and the stator current (I ) will move in a clockwise direction and lag the stator voltage (EA) at a greater angle. This increase in the angle will give the stator an increase in current and the means to handle the heavier load. The circuit is inductive, and the power factor has gone farther into the lag. This changing of the torque angle is often referred to as the rubber-band effect. Picture the rotor being pulled around the stator by a rubber band rather than by the magnetic connection. As the load is increased, the band is stretched, with a decrease in load lessening the tension on the band. All the while the rotor stays in sync. With the stretch or lag scenario in effect, along comes the operator and adjusts the exciter voltage. The increase in current strengthens the rotor field, moving the rotor in the field or in a counterclockwise direction (lessening the tension on the band). We have increased the field to the point at which the CEMF is equal and opposite to the source and the stator current is in phase with the source voltage (Figure 711). With the synchronous motor steady (no change in load), additional inductive loads in the plant have been added to the power-distribution system. These added loads have reduced the power factor in the plants power-distribution system. The operator can once again adjust the exciter voltage rheostat, increasing the current in the rotor. This increases the strength of the field surrounding the poles in the rotor. This expanded field cuts the coils ahead of the source and induces a power in the stator that leads the source. This leading power produces a leading power just as a capacitor does. This corrects the power factor on the system. In the phasor diagram (Figure 712), we see that the overexcited field has moved the current into a counterclockwise direction putting the current in the lead. This corrects the power factor on the system.
F I G U R E 7 1 1 Phasor diagram showing how an increase in exciter current under a heavy load condition can help maintain stator current (I) at a 90 angle from rotor voltage (ER ).

CEMF

ER

TORQUE ANGLE EA

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F I G U R E 7 1 2 Phasor diagram showing how overexcitation can cause the stator current (I) to move in a current in the lead, and correcting power factor in the system.

CEMF

ER I LEAD

TORQUE ANGLE

EA

In conclusion, the synchronous motor can control power factor in the plant by varying the field current in the rotor. The synchronous motors that we have covered have the rotor connected to the exciter by slip rings and brushes. Although this system offers hundreds of hours of reliable service, it will still require periodic maintenance. The brushless system has replaced the slip-ring style.

7.13 THE BRUSHLESS SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR


The brushless synchronous motor starts with the assistance of the amortisseur winding, just like its counterpart. The brushless-style main rotor receives its current from a rectified AC supply that rotates on the same shaft as the rotor. When the rotor accelerates to 95% of the rotating field, the AC source to the single-phase rectifier is energized, providing current through the bridge rectifier. The bridge DC output is connected to the exciter field coil, a series of coils surrounding the exciter rotor, which is connected to our motors shaft. As the exciter rotor spins in the DC field of the exciter field coils, an AC voltage is induced in the rotor. The rotor is a three-phase system, with the leads connected to a three-phase bridge rectifier that rotates on the shaft. The two leads from the main rotor coils in the synchronous motor are connected to the output of the three-phase rectifier on the shaft. The lead that is connected to the three cathodes on the bridge will be positive, while the lead connected to the three anodes will be negative. The rectified output of the three-phase bridge provides the current for the main rotor. As the rheostat on the exciter field is adjusted, the exciter rotor output to the threephase bridge is varied. This controls the level of excitement in the main rotor, which in turn controls the power factor.

I SUMMARY
The synchronous motor is a mechanical marvel. Not only does it provide torque and horsepower to spin large loads, but it also can correct the power factor in the plant. Sometimes referred to as a synchronous condenser, this motor can use the strength of the field in the rotor to create a leading power that acts as a capacitor to improve power factor. With its separately excited field, the rotor can run at the same speed as the rotating field as it makes its way around the stator. We call this rotating speed the synchronous speed, hence the term synchronous motor. One definition of synchronous is happening, or existing, or arising at the same time. In the past, most of the vehicles on the road had manual transmissions. They

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Chapter 7 | Synchronous Motors


posed a test for the driver when it came to shifting, with a combination of working the clutch and moving the shift lever to change gears smoothly. With the advent of the synchronized transmission, anyone could drive a manually-shifted vehicle. A set of brass rings with a slight interference on the contacting surfaces would cause the driven gear to match the speed of the drive gear. The two could then be meshed without grinding or manipulating the clutch: They were synchronized. The synchronous motor will not start

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as a synchronous motor; it must start as an induction motor. Special windings called amortisseur windings are placed in the surface of the rotor, and, through the process of mutual induction, unlike poles are induced in the rotor with respect to the stator, so the rotor starts to follow the stator field. When the rotor reaches approximately 90% of the synchronous speed, a DC field is introduced in the rotor and the rotor syncs up with the stator field, matching its rate of speed.

I REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. The stator of the small synchronous motor is constructed like any polyphase motor, with the coils laid in the slots ________ electrical degrees apart. 2. Depending on the speed and style of the rotor, the stator may be large enough to ________ through. 3. The rotor of the synchronous motor has windings that are wound around iron cores called _______ poles. 4. The pole cores are ________, as was the stator core, to limit or reduce ________ currents in the iron. 5. All the windings of the salient poles are connected in (series/parallel) ________, and two leads are brought out to ________, which are connected to the shaft but insulated from it. 6. Because of the size and weight of the rotor, along with high starting currents from ________ to ________ of the full load, many times the voltage to the stator must be reduced during starting to ________ the demand on the distribution system. 7. Reduced-voltage starting is accomplished by one of several methods. List them: ________, ________, ________, ________, ________. 8. Because of the steady speed characteristics, the synchronous motor is used to power large, sometimes slow-moving machines such as ________, ________, and ________. 9. The synchronous motor is the only machine that offers ________ correction while at the same time performing a major function, such as running the plant compressor. 10. What is added to the synchronous motor to start it as an induction motor? 11. Refer to Figure 71 and list the starting sequence:

12. As inductive loads are added onto the distribution system, what adjustments must be made to the synchronous rotor circuit.