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Greetings

Oi. Olá.

Hi. Hello. olá is not as commonly used as oi and it’s also slightly more formal. Between 6 am and 12 noon. The word dia means ‘day’. Between 12 noon and 6 pm. Note that the word for good changes to boa. This is because tarde (afternoon) is a feminine word. boa noite can be used when greeting someone after 6 pm, as well as when taking leave at night or before going to bed. Note that the word noite is also feminine, like tarde. Tudo means ‘everything’ or ‘all’. There are lots of greetings that start with tudo (see below). bem means ‘well’. This is the most popular greeting in Brazil. bom means ‘good’. joia means ‘jewel’. (lit.) beleza means ‘beauty’. (lit.) legal means ‘cool’, ‘nice’. certo means ‘right’. E aí literarlly means ‘And there?’, but it’s used as ‘What’s up?’ E aí is normally followed by one of the greetings starting with “Tudo...” The answer is said with the entonation of a statement.

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Bom dia.

Good morning. (Lit.: ‘Good day’.)

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Boa tarde.

Good afternoon.

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Boa noite.

Good night.

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Tudo bem?

All well?

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Tudo bom? Tudo joia? Tudo beleza? Tudo legal? Tudo certo? E aí?

All good? All great? All great? All cool? All right? What’s up?

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E aí, tudo bem? Tudo bem? (Question) Tudo. (Answer) Tudo bem. (Answer) Tudo bom? (Question) Tudo. (Answer) Tudo bom. (Answer)

What’s up, all well? All well? Yes. (Literally: ‘All’). All well. All good? Yes. (Literally: ‘All’.). All well.

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The answer is said with the entonation of a statement.

Greetings

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Tudo bem, obrigado. E você? Tudo bem, obrigada. E você?

All good, thank you. And you? (masc.)All good, thank you. And you? (fem.) Men always say obrigado, regardless of whether the person they are talking to is male or female. Women always say obrigada, regardless of whether the person they are talking to is male or female.

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obrigado

thank you (masc.)

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obrigada

thank you (fem.)

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E você?

And you?

Grammatical Gender
There are two genders in Portuguese: masculine and feminine. Masculine:  The masculine gender is normally used for male persons, animals. Most nouns ending in - o, - l, - r and - z are masculine: o gato cat o bar o papel paper o juiz  Also masculine: The names of lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, capes and mountains o (oceano) Pacífico the Pacific (ocean) o (lago) Ness o (rio) Nilo the Nile (river) o (cabo) da Boa Esperança o (mar) Báltico the Baltic (sea) os Himalaias Names of Seasons: o verão (summer) / o outono (autumn) / o inverno (winter) BUT a primavera (spring) Words of Greek origin ending in - a o cinema cinema o telefonema telephone cal Feminine:  The feminine gender is normally used for female persons, animals. Most nouns ending in - a, - ade, - ice and - gem are feminine: a panela pan a cidade a irmã sister a viagem a velhice old age  Sciences and arts a Medicina a Química  Days of the week: a segunda-feira a terça-feira a quarta-feira Medicine Chemistry a Engenharia a Pintura

bar judge

Lake Ness Cape of Good Hope the Himalayas

o clima o mapa

climate map

city trip

Engineering Painting

Monday Tuesday Wednesday

a quinta-feira a sexta-feira

Thursday Friday

Greetings

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BUT o sábado Saturday o domingo Unlike English, the days of the week are written with the initial letter in lower case.  Most concrete nouns ending in - e and - ão are masculine: o leite milk o limão BUT a mão hand  Most abstract nouns ending in - e and - ão are feminine: a morte death a paixão Forming the feminine: Most nouns ending in - o form their feminine by changing this ending to - a: o menino boy a menina o gato cat – male a gata o brasileiro Brazilian – male a brasileira Most nouns ending in consonant form their feminine by adding - a to the masculine: o professor teacher a professora o cantor singer a cantora o juiz judge a juíza Some nouns ending in - or form their feminine by changing this ending to - triz: o ator actor a atriz o imperador emperor a imperatriz Nouns ending in - ão form their feminine by changing into - ã, - oa, or – ona o anão dwarf a anã o patrão boss a patroa o solteirão bachelor a solteirona Some nouns have a common form for both genders: The only thing that changes is the article: o estudante student o artista artist o colega colleague o dentista dentist o jornalista journalist a estudante a artista a colega a dentista a jornalista

Sunday

lemon

passion

girl cat -female Brazilian - female teacher singer judge actress empress dwarf boss spinster

student artist colleague dentist journalist child - female person - female individual -female

Sometimes the article stays the same whether it refers to male or female: a criança child – male a criança a pessoa person – male a pessoa o indivíduo individual – male o indivíduo There are also pairs of words to denote male and female: o cavalo o pai o homem horse father man a égua a mãe a mulher

mare mother woman

Some nouns referring to animals have a fixed form and gender regardless of the animal’s sex: a formiga ant a baleia whale o mosquito mosquito Some nouns change their meaning according to the article: o cabeça boss, the leader o capital money, assets o rádio radio

a cabeça a capital a rádio

head (part of the body) capital of a city radio station

Greetings

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Bem vs Bom
 Bem means well. E.g.: Tudo bem? (All well?) It does not vary according to the noun they refer to.  Bom is means good. E.g.: Tudo bom? (All good?) It varies according to gender (masculine/feminine) and number (singular/plural) of the noun they refer to. (See chart below.) variation in gender masculine bom singular variation in number plural Este chocolate é bom. (This chocolate is good.) bons Estes chocolates são bons. (These chocolates are good.) feminine boa Esta cerveja é boa. (This beer is good.) boas Estas cervejas são boas. (These beers are good.)

 There is not much difference if you ask ‘Tudo bem?’ or ‘Tudo bom?’ – Brazilians will alternate between them. ‘Tudo bem?’ is slightly more common than ‘Tudo bom?’.

Greetings

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