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Arthur Schopenhauer

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Arthur Schopenhauer

Full name

Arthur Schopenhauer

Born

22 February 1788 Danzig (Gdańsk)

Died

21 September 1860(aged 72) Frankfurt

Era

19th century philosophy

Region

Western philosophy

School

Kantianism, idealism

Main interests Metaphysics, aesthetics,ethics, phenomenology,morality, psychology

Notable ideas Will, Fourfold root of reason,pessimism

Influenced by[show]

Influenced[show]

Signature

Schopenhauer's birthplace — house in, Gdańsk (Danzig), ul. Św. Ducha

Grave at Frankfurt Hauptfriedhof

Arthur Schopenhauer (22 February 1788 – 21 September 1860) was a German philosopher known for his pessimism and philosophical clarity. At age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation, On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which examined the four separate manifestations of reason in the phenomenal world. Schopenhauer's most influential work, The World as Will and Representation, claimed that the world is fundamentally what humans recognize in themselves as their will. His analysis of will led him to the conclusion

that emotional, physical, and sexual desires can never be fully satisfied. The corollary of this is an ultimately painful human condition. Consequently, he considered that a lifestyle of negating desires, similar to the ascetic teachings of Vedanta, Buddhismand the Church Fathers of early Christianity, was the only way to attain liberation.[2] Schopenhauer's metaphysical analysis of will, his views on human motivation and desire, and his aphoristic writing style influenced many well-known thinkers, including Friedrich Nietzsche,[3] Richard Wagner, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Albert Einstein,[4] Sigmund Freud, Otto Rank, Carl Gustav Jung, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, and Jorge Luis Borges.
Contents
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 

1 Life 2 Thought

o o o

2.1 Philosophy of the "Will" 2.2 Art and aesthetics 2.3 Ethics

 o o

2.3.1 Punishment

2.4 Psychology 2.5 Political and social thought

     o

2.5.1 Politics 2.5.2 Views on women 2.5.3 Heredity and eugenics 2.5.4 Animal welfare 2.5.5 Views on homosexuality and pederasty

2.6 Intellectual interests and affinities

  
3 Influences

2.6.1 Indology 2.6.2 Buddhism

o o  

3.1 Criticism of Kant 3.2 Criticism of Hegel

4 Influence 5 Selected bibliography

o

5.1 Online

the author of Aenesidemus. Schopenhauer left the family business in Hamburg to join her. from 1811 to 1812. In Berlin. Schopenhauer's family moved toHamburg. When the Kingdom of Prussia acquired the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth city of Danzig in 1793. Schopenhauer's father may have committed suicide.2 Bibliography 8 Further reading o o o  8. Schopenhauer as a youth . After one year.  6 See also 7 References o o  7. There he studied metaphysics and psychology under Gottlob Ernst Schulze. he had attended lectures by the prominent post-Kantian philosopherJohann Gottlieb Fichte and the theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher.1 Footnotes 7.2 Other books 8.[5] both descendants of wealthy German Patrician families. the son of Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer and Johanna Schopenhauer. He became a student at the University of Göttingen in 1809. who advised him to concentrate on Plato and Immanuel Kant. Schopenhauer's mother Johanna moved to Weimar.3 Articles 9 External links [edit]Life Arthur Schopenhauer was born in the city of Danzig (Gdańsk). then the centre ofGerman literature.[6] Shortly thereafter. to pursue her writing career.1 Biographies 8. In 1805.

In a fit of temper Arthur Schopenhauer told her that his work would be read long after the rubbish she wrote would have been totally forgotten. he gave university life a shot. he wrote on a copy of her death certificate. to grasp blindfolded into a sack hoping to find out an eel out of an assembly of snakes. There. only five students turned up to Schopenhauer's lectures. and "Marrying means. He was also disgusted by the ease with which Johanna Schopenhauer had forgotten his father's memory. with a servant. A late essay. expressed his resentment towards the work conducted in academies.[15][16] In 1831. alleging that Schopenhauer had pushed her. He discarded marriage plans. W." When he was forty-three years old. living alone except for a succession of pet poodles named Atman and Butz. in honor of his dead father. writing. Caroline Richter (called Medon). Therefore. he went to live with his mother. According to Schopenhauer's court testimony. Schopenhauer made payments to her for the next twenty years. Obit anus. and Arthur was not compatible with the vain. After he left it in disgust after seeing one of the masters lampooned. On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Schopenhauer became a lecturer at the University of Berlin. His mother informed him that the book was incomprehensible and it was unlikely that anyone would ever buy a copy. ceremonious ways of the salon. Schopenhauer fathered. Schopenhauer began his seminal work The World as Will and Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). Afterward. While in Berlin. his mother retired to Weimar.[11] Marquet alleged that the philosopher had assaulted and battered her after she refused to leave his doorway. the burden is lifted").[10] She asked for damages. He scheduled his lectures to coincide with those of the famous philosopher G. abit onus ("The old woman dies. and had a relationship with her for several years. Hegel. Her companion testified that she saw Marquet prostrate outside his apartment. He finished it in 1818 and published it the following year. In Dresden in 1819. "On University Philosophy". and Arthur Schopenhauer dedicated himself wholly to studies in the gymnasium of Gotha. "Marrying means to halve one's rights and double one's duties".[12] When she died. The numerous notes that he made during these years. Schopenhauer settled permanently in Frankfurt in 1833. were published posthumously under the title Senilia.[14] Schopenhauer had a notably strained relationship with his mother Johanna Schopenhauer. . he fell in love with nineteen-year old opera singer. whom Schopenhauer described as a "clumsy charlatan".[13] In 1821. however. where he remained for the next twenty-seven years. a cholera epidemic broke out in Berlin and Schopenhauer left the city. and he dropped out of academia. an illegitimate daughter who was born and died the same year.In 1814. F. Arthur Schopenhauer endured two long years of drudgery as a merchant. But by that time she had already opened her infamous salon. Schopenhauer was named as a defendant in an action at law initiated by a woman named Caroline Marquet. Because Marquet won the lawsuit. he wrote his first book. amongst others on aging. she deliberately annoyed him by raising her voice while standing right outside his door.[7][8] In 1820. After his father's death.[9] However. seventeen-year old Flora Weiss recorded rejecting him in her diary.

"ideas". compassion is the major motivator to moral expression. is what Kant called the "thing-in-itself. the Will is a metaphysical existence which controls not only the actions of individual. was the purest form of art because it was the one that depicted the will itself without it appearing as subject to the Principle of Sufficient Grounds. He died of heart failure on 21 September 1860. "Schopenhauer thought that music was the only art that did not merely copy ideas. time. and. dictating the actions of its members. will-less. According to Daniel Albright. timeless" (section 34) where the essence. intelligent agents. by extension. Music. illogical. Will. Schopenhauer. the idea that society consisted of a collective consciousness which moved in a distinct direction. [edit]Thought [edit]Philosophy of the "Will" A key focus of Schopenhauer was his investigation of individual motivation. directionless. but actually embodied the will itself." and craving cause suffering or pain. this pain because it stops one perceiving the world as mere presentation.[17] For Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer believed that humans were motivated by only their own basic desires. Malice and egoism are corrupt alternatives. therefore as an individual object. so was all human action in the world. for Schopenhauer. He was 72. A temporary way to escape this pain is through aesthetic contemplation (a method comparable to Zapffe's "Sublimation"). Hegel had popularized the concept of Zeitgeist. "Pure. To Schopenhauer. while sitting on his couch at home. human desiring. "willing. Before Schopenhauer. but ultimately all observable phenomena. Instead one no longer perceives the world as an object of perception (therefore as subject to the Principle of Sufficient Grounds.Schopenhauer had a robust constitution. or Wille zum Leben (Will to Live)." [edit]Art and aesthetics Main article: Arthur Schopenhauer's aesthetics For Schopenhauer. thus tries to depict the essence/pure ideas of the world. of the world are shown. Art is the practical consequence of this brief aesthetic contemplation as it attempts to depict one's immersion with the world. space and causality) from which one is separated. for Schopenhauer. rather one becomes one with that perception:"one can thus no longer separate the perceiver from the perception" (The World as Will and Presentation. compassion. section 34). which directed all of mankind.[clarification needed] . From this immersion with the world one no longer views oneself as an individual who suffers in the world due to one's individual will but rather becomes a "subject of cognition" to a perception that is. a reader of both Kant and Hegel."[18] [edit]Ethics Schopenhauer's moral theory proposed that of three primary moral incentives. but in 1860 his health began to deteriorate. Aesthetic contemplation allows one to escape. malice and egoism. albeit temporarily. human desire was futile. criticized their logical optimism and the belief that individual morality could be determined by society and reason.

unchangeable character. namely punishment. whenever we make a choice. It does so by placing "beside every possible motive for committing a wrong a more powerful motive for leaving it undone. For public security. and which we call the ground or reason. Object and purpose for the future distinguish punishment from revenge. Accordingly. cannot be improved. for revenge is motivated by what has happened. Schopenhauer claimed. his life. and thus of re–establishing public security. which is the principal object of the State. is disturbed by him. punishes criminals in order to prevent future crimes. They can only be influenced by strong motives that overpower criminal motives. "we assume as necessary that that decision was preceded by something from which it ensued. and hence by the past as such. The murderer. indeed it is abolished if the law remains unfulfilled. in the inescapable punishment. This distinguishes punishment from revenge. and thus it obtains for the law the power to deter…. or more accurately the motive." [20] A definite action inevitably results when a particular motive influences a person's given. Only in this way does it proclaim itself to be inevitable and infallible for every future case. must be the means of fulfilling the law. Such a thing is wickedness and cruelty. and then capital punishment ought to follow. "who is condemned to death according to the law must. even every animal. and punishment has this object only when it is inflicted in fulfillment of a law. If there is no free will. and with complete right."[24] Schopenhauer disagreed with those who would abolish capital punishment. his person.[edit]Punishment According to Schopenhauer." [21] …the law and its fulfillment. Schopenhauer declared that "real moral reform is not at all possible. Our actions are necessary and determined because "every human being. "capital punishment is therefore absolutely necessary." he asserted. the criminal code is as complete a register as possible of counter– motives to all criminal actions that can possibly be imagined…. and can have no other purpose than consolation for the suffering one has endured by the sight of the suffering one has caused in another."[23] . are directed essentially to the future. not to the past." wrote Schopenhauer. All retaliation for wrong by inflicting a pain without any object for the future is revenge." [19] Choices are not made freely. must carry out the action which alone is in accordance with his inborn and immutable character. and cannot be ethically justified. "Those who would like to abolish it should be given the answer: 'First remove murder from the world. …the object of punishment…is deterrence from crime….[21][22] Should capital punishment be legal? "For safeguarding the lives of citizens.' "[23] People. it is true. should crimes be punished? The State. after the motive has appeared. of the resultant action. but only determent from the deed…."[23] "The murderer. be now used as a mere means. according to Schopenhauer.

Previously.one ought rather to be surprised that a thing [sex] which plays throughout so important a part in human life has hitherto practically been disregarded by philosophers altogether. is more important than all other aims in man's life. to stay alive and to reproduce. but Schopenhauer addressed it and related concepts forthrightly: ..[28] [edit]Political [edit]Politics and social thought . but rather understood it to be an immensely powerful force lying unseen within man's psyche and dramatically shaping the world: The ultimate aim of all love affairs . and indeed all creatures.... Schopenhauer refused to conceive of love as either trifling or accidental. Schopenhauer declared that their teaching was corrupted by subsequent errors and therefore was in need of clarification..[25] Seneca. and therefore it is quite worthy of the profound seriousness with which everyone pursues it. [27] These ideas foreshadowed the discovery of evolution. Freud's concepts of the libido and the unconscious mind. Philosophers have not traditionally been impressed by the tribulations of sex. Pufendorf.[26] He gave a name to a force within man which he felt had invariably precedence over reason: the Will to Live or Will to Life (Wille zum Leben). defined as an inherent drive within human beings. What is decided by it is nothing less than the composition of the next generation .[21] [edit]Psychology Schopenhauer was perhaps even more influential in his treatment of man's psychology than he was in the realm of philosophy. and lies before us as raw and untreated material. and Anselm Feuerbach.He claimed that this doctrine was not original with him. and evolutionary psychology in general. Hobbes. it appeared in the writings of Plato..

In a life that spanned several revolutions in French and German government. he did indeed maintain his aloof position of "minding not the times but the eternities". available in English as two separate books. Ethics also occupies about one quarter of his central work. stupidity" and disparaged republicanism as "unnatural as it is unfavourable to the higher intellectual life and the arts and sciences. Schopenhauer described himself as a proponent of limited government. In occasional political comments in his Parerga and Paralipomena and Manuscript Remains. He also defended the independence of the legislative. an echo of his system of ethics (the latter being expressed in Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik. by a monarch.. Schopenhauer shared the view of Thomas Hobbes on the necessity of the state. he would "prefer to be ruled by a lion than one of [his] fellow rats" — i. and several times he writes proudly of how little attention he had paid "to political affairs of [his] day". by his own admission."[30] Schopenhauer.[29] He declared monarchy as "that which is natural to man" for "intelligence has always under a monarchical government a much better chance against its irreconcilable and ever-present foe. rather than a democrat. and a few continent-shaking wars. not a cosmological one). did not give much thought to politics. What was essential. He wrote many disparaging remarks about Germany and the . to check the destructive tendencies innate to our species. he thought.e. for the most part.Bust in Frankfurt am Main Schopenhauer's politics were. and of state action. and a monarch as an impartial element able to practice justice (in a practical and everyday sense. judicial and executive branches of power. The World as Will and Representation. On the Basis of Morality and On the Freedom of the Will). and so long as government was thus limited. was that the state should "leave each man free to work out his own salvation".

full text). from Friedrich Nietzsche to nineteenthcentury feminists. exhibiting an Indianinfluenced ethics reflecting the Aryan-Vedic theme of spiritual "self-conquest. however: that "women are decidedly more sober in their judgment than [men] are" and are more sympathetic to the suffering of others. the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than the rest and has. which in their many forms were brought about by the climate. and opposed Schiller's poem in honor of women. and even with many dark peoples. the religion of the Jews is entirely immanent and furnishes nothing but a mere war-cry in the struggle with other nations. therefore. evidently immigrated. "For a German it is even good to have somewhat lengthy words in his mouth. "Würde der Frauen" ("Dignity of Women").Germans.[36] Schopenhauer's biological analysis of the difference between the sexes. He claimed that "woman is by nature meant to obey".[33] Schopenhauer additionally maintained a marked metaphysical and political anti-Judaism.[34] [edit]Views on women In Schopenhauer's 1851[35] essay "Of Women" ("Über die Weiber". and they give him time to reflect. A typical example is. The essay does give two compliments." This he saw as opposed to what he held to be the ignorant drive toward earthly utopianism and superficiality of a worldly Jewish spirit: While all other religions endeavor to explain to the people by symbols the metaphysical significance of life. for he thinks slowly.[37] . the Incas. and their separate roles in the struggle for survival and reproduction. the Brahmans. and there gradually became white. Schopenhauer's controversial writings have influenced many. and supported the abolitionist movement in the United States. are found exclusively among the white races. had to develop all their intellectual powers and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need. apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians. he expressed his opposition to what he called "Teutonico-Christian stupidity" on female affairs. was fervently anti-slavery. want and misery. He describes the treatment of "[our] innocent black brothers whom force and injustice have delivered into [the slave-master's] devilish clutches" as "belonging to the blackest pages of mankind's criminal record". and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. Schopenhauer argued that Christianity constituted a revolt against the materialistic basis of Judaism. for example.[32] Despite this. he was adamantly against differing treatment of races. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention because those tribes that emigrated early to the north. anticipates some of the claims that were later ventured by sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists. This they had to do in order to make up for the parsimony of nature and out of it all came their high civilization."[31] Schopenhauer attributed civilizational primacy to the northern "white races" due to their sensitivity and creativity (except for the Egyptians and Hindus whom he saw as equal): The highest civilization and culture.

and procure men.After the elderly Schopenhauer sat for a sculpture portrait by Elisabet Ney. For Schopenhauer the ―final aim of all love intrigues. and base things sire base" (IV. impulse. for all girls of intellect and understanding. If we could castrate all scoundrels and stick all stupid geese in a convent. energy. it is the closest word we have that can signify both the real essence of all external things and also our own direct. power.‖ This view of the importance for the species of whom we choose to love was reflected in his views on eugenics or good breeding. a genuine nobility. for him. Here Schopenhauer wrote: With our knowledge of the complete unalterability both of character and of mental faculties. "Cowards father cowards. The word "will" designated. Keith AnsellPearson) have suggested that Schopenhauer's advocacy of anti-egalitarianism and eugenics influenced the neo-aristocratic philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. he told Richard Wagner's friend Malwida von Meysenbug. 4. 2) to reinforce his hereditarian argument. Schopenhauer was very concerned about the welfare of animals. are phenomenal manifestations of Will. For him. we are led to the view that a real and thorough improvement of the human race might be reached not so much from outside as from within. which is here at stake.[39] Mechanistically. and give men of noble character a whole harem. [42] Analysts (e. inner experience.. iv. 29) and Shakespeare's line fromCymbeline. I believe that if a woman succeeds in withdrawing from the mass. not so much by theory and instruction as rather by the path of generation. all animals. What it all turns upon is nothing less than the composition of the next generation. Plato had something of the kind in mind when. "I have not yet spoken my last word about women. He quotes Horace's saying. This proposal constitutes my Utopia and my Platonic Republic". I would say: the only solution to the problem is the despotism of the wise and noble members of a genuine aristocracy. including humans. "From the brave and good are the brave descended" (Odes. force. achieved by mating the most magnanimous men with the cleverest and most gifted women. and indeed thorough men. who initially considered Schopenhauer his mentor. be they comic or tragic. and personal character through one's father. or rather raising herself above the mass.[41] In another context. then humans .g. he explained his plan for increasing and improving his warrior caste. Schopenhauer believed that a person inherits his level of intellect through his mother. Schopenhauer reiterated his antidemocratic-eugenic thesis: "If you want Utopian plans. and desire. Since everything is basically Will. but that of the human race to come.… It is not the weal or woe of any one individual. in the fifth book of his Republic. she grows ceaselessly and more than a man.[40] This belief in heritability of traits informed Schopenhauer's view of love – placing it at the highest level of importance. is really of more importance than all other ends in human life. [citation needed] [edit]Animal welfare As a consequence of his philosophy."[38] [edit]Heredity and eugenics Schopenhauer believed that personality and intellect were inherited. then a generation would soon arise which would produce a better age than that of Pericles.

and it may be confidently asserted that he.and animals are fundamentally the same and can recognize themselves in each other. for they are very disconcerted by the ever-increasing publicization of my philosophy which they so carefully concealed.[47] To reinforce his points. who are our fellow sufferers. in terms of spiritual ethics."[53] Shrewdly anticipating the interpretive distortion on the part of the popular mind of his attempted scientific explanation of pederasty as a personal advocacy of a phenomenon Schopenhauer otherwise describes.. Concerning this. as an "objectionable aberration". Schopenhauer added an appendix to his chapter on the "Metaphysics of Sexual Love". he claimed that a good person would have sympathy for animals. In the third. Compassion for animals is intimately associated with goodness of character. Schopenhauer even went so far as to protest against the use of the pronoun "it" in reference to animals because it led to the treatment of them as though they were inanimate things. He also wrote that homosexuality did have the benefit of preventing ill-begotten children. he praised the establishment.. and also the Animals' Friends Society in Philadelphia.[49] He was very attached to his succession of pet poodles.[46] In 1841. Schopenhauer sarcastically concludes the appendix with the statement that "by expounding these paradoxical ideas.[51][52] [edit]Views on homosexuality and pederasty Schopenhauer was also one of the first philosophers since the days of Greek philosophy to address the subject of male homosexuality. as a means for preventing greater evils. it must in fact serve these very aims. Schopenhauer criticized Spinoza's[50] belief that animals are to be used as a mere means for the satisfaction of humans. he stated. the vice we are considering appears to work directly against the aims and ends of nature. cannot be a good man. I wanted to grant to the professors of philosophy a small favour. Universal compassion is the only guarantee of morality. expanded edition of The World as Will and Representation (1856).[43] For this reason. who is cruel to living creatures. Schopenhauer referred to anecdotal reports of the look in the eyes of a monkey who had been shot[48] and also the grief of a baby elephant whose mother had been killed by a hunter. although only indirectly. "."[54] [edit]Intellectual [edit]Indology interests and affinities . I have done so by giving them the opportunity of slandering me by saying that I defend and commendpederasty. of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. in London.[44] Nothing leads more definitely to a recognition of the identity of the essential nature in animal and human phenomena than a study of zoology and anatomy. and that in a matter that is all important and of the greatest concern to her.[45] The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity.

The Upanishads was a great source of inspiration to Schopenhauer.[56] Schopenhauer was first introduced to the 1802 Latin Upanishad translation through Friedrich Majer. Schopenhauer had another important cross-pollination with Indian Thought in Dresden. whose Mahavakya. unlike Schopenhauer.Schopenhauer read the Latin translation of the Upanishads which had been translated by French writer Anquetil du Perron from the Persian translation of Prince Dara Shikoh entitled Sirre-Akbar ("The Great Secret").it can be skillful. Majer was a follower of Herder. In Schopenhauer's philosophy. Tat Tvam Asi is mentioned throughout The World as Will and Representation.[61] For Schopenhauer. while greed and lust are always unskillful. and writing about them he said: It is the most satisfying and elevating reading (with the exception of the original text) which is possible in the world. it has been the solace of my life and will be the solace of my death. This was through his neighbor of two years. Sansfranski maintains that between 1815 and 1817. and considered them to contain superhuman conceptions. Krause had also mastered Sanskrit. and an early Indologist. unskillful. or neutral. and that the extinction of desire leads to liberation. He was so impressed by their philosophy that he called them "the production of the highest human wisdom".[60] In Buddhism. They met during the winter of 1813-1814 in Weimar at the home of Schopenhauer’s mother according to the biographer Sanfranski. however. and the two developed a professional relationship. and he invariably studied it before sleeping at night. It was from Krause that Schopenhauer learned meditation and received the closest thing to expert advice concerning Indian thought.[58] [edit]Buddhism Schopenhauer noted a correspondence between his doctrines and the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. Karl Christian Friedrich Krause. Will had ontological primacy over the intellect. in the case of Schopenhauer’s work. and predicted that the philosophy and knowledge of the Upanishads would become the cherished faith of the West. until the summer of 1814.[59] Similarities centered on the principles that life involves suffering. however.[55] It is well known that the book Oupnekhat (Upanishad) always lay open on his table. Thus three of the four "truths of the Buddha" correspond to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the will. in other words. Krause was then a minor and rather unorthodox philosopher who attempted to mix his own ideas with that of ancient Indian wisdom. was the significance of the Chandogya Upanishad. Schopenhauer felt this was similar to notions of purushartha or goals of life in Vedanta Hinduism. that suffering is caused by desire (tanha). desire is understood to be prior to thought. He called the opening up of Sanskrit literature "the greatest gift of our century". desire is ethically variable .[57] Most noticeable. denial of the will is attained by either: . Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of the Indic texts.

or demonstrated through indubitable conclusions. but only the "extinguishing" (the literal meaning of nirvana) of the flames of greed. [67] Also note: This actual world of what is knowable. However. remains both the material and the limit of our consideration.[66] Buddhist philosopher Nishitani Keiji. through him. attracted Richard Wagner. and as such has no articles of faith. and delusion that assail a person's character. In any case.. [70] [edit]Influences . "It was Buddhism that inspired the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer. personal experience of an extremely great suffering that leads to loss of the will to live.[64] In contradistinction to Godwin's claim that Buddhism inspired Schopenhauer. They are included in a recent case study that traces Schopenhauer's interest in Buddhism and documents its influence.[citation needed] While Schopenhauer's philosophy may sound rather mystical in such a summary. for this numbers far more followers than any other. to free themselves from JudeoChristian fetters".[63] This Orientalism reflected the struggle of the German Romantics. and. hatred. the philosopher himself made the following statement in his discussion of religions: [65] If I wished to take the results of my philosophy as the standard of truth. Proof of early interest and influence appears in Schopenhauer's 1815/16 notes (transcribed and translated by Urs App) about Buddhism. For up till 1818. Buddhist nirvana is not equivalent to the condition that Schopenhauer described as denial of the will. And this agreement must be yet the more pleasing to me.) stated. inasmuch as in my philosophizing I have certainly not been under its influence [emphasis added]. there was to be found in Europe only a very few accounts of Buddhism. sought to distance Buddhism from Schopenhauer. or  knowledge of the essential nature of life in the world through observation of the suffering of other people. in which we are and which is in us.[62] Occult historian Joscelyn Godwin (1945. I should have to concede to Buddhism pre-eminence over the others. is a science. accordingly. it must be a pleasure to me to see my doctrine in such close agreement with a religion that the majority of men on earth hold as their own. hismethodology was resolutely empirical. in the words of Leon Poliakov. in it nothing can be assumed as existing except what is either positively given empirically..[69] Scholars have started to revise earlier views about Schopenhauer's discovery of Buddhism. however.[68] The argument that Buddhism affected Schopenhauer’s philosophy more than any other Dharmic faith loses more credence when viewed in light of the fact that Schopenhauer did not begin a serious study of Buddhism until after the publication of The World as Will and Representation in 1818. rather than speculative or transcendental: Philosophy . Nirvana is not the extinguishing of the person as some Western scholars have thought. when my work appeared.

the reality that is the foundation of our sensory and mental representations of an external world. if then the reader. on the other hand. Noumena do not cause phenomena. if it did not sound conceited. has received his initiation in primeval Indian wisdom. and René Descartes. Schopenhauer departed from Kant in his description of the relationship between the phenomenon and the noumenon. In Kantian terms. David Hume. may be deduced as a necessary result from the fundamental thoughts which I have to enunciate.[75] Schopenhauer's identification of the Kantian noumenon (i. much less disagreeable. According to Kant.Schopenhauer said he was influenced by the Upanishads. Schopenhauer. the actually existing entity) with what he termed "will" deserves some explanation.[73] He summarised the influence of the Upanishads thus: "It has been the solace of my life. believed phenomena and noumena to be two different sides of the same coin. namely that which we can most directly experience. It will not sound to him strange. for I might. was the basis for Schopenhauer's concept of the will. or thing-in-itself. Some commentators suggest that Schopenhauer claimed that the noumenon.e.[citation needed] [edit]Criticism of Kant Main article: Schopenhauer's criticism of the Kantian philosophy See also: On the Basis of Morality and Schopenhauer's criticism of Kant's schemata Schopenhauer accepted Kant's double-aspect of the universe — the phenomenal (world of experience) and the noumenal (the true world. though those deductions themselves are by no means to be found there. he appreciated the teachings of the Buddha and even called himself a "Buddhist".[74] Jean-Jacques Rousseau.. those sensory and mental representations are mere phenomena. but rather phenomena are simply the way by which our minds perceive the noumena. References to Eastern philosophy and religion appear frequently in Schopenhauer's writing. Baruch Spinoza. Matthias Claudius. he will be prepared in the very best way for hearing what I have to tell him. things-inthemselves ground the phenomenal representations in our minds. and received it with an open heart. Other commentators suggest that Schopenhauer considered will to be only a subset of the "thing-in-itself" class. George Berkeley. as to many others. contend that every one of the detached statements which constitute the Upanishads. I say. according to the Principle of . he writes in The World as Will and Representation: If the reader has also received the benefit of the Vedas. John Locke. the access to which by means of the Upanishads is in my eyes the greatest privilege which this still young century (1818) may claim before all previous centuries. Concerning the Upanishads and Vedas.[71] He said[72] that his philosophy could not have been conceived before these teachings were available. it will be the solace of my death!" Among Schopenhauer's other influences were: Shakespeare. Immanuel Kant and Plato. the "Thing in Itself". The noumenon was what Kant called the Ding an Sich. As noted above. independent of experience).

we know even before reflection that it shares some of an object's properties. or kidneys." what he is saying is that we participate in the reality of an otherwise unachievable world outside the mind through will. we know – without thinking – that the world can stimulate us. heart. Yet. not the master. We understand that a watermelon cannot successfully occupy the same space as an oncoming truck. these organs have an agenda which the conscious mind did not choose. Schopenhauer claimed that sensation and understanding are separate and distinct abilities. similar to other physical objects only known as phenomena. the same way other objects known only through our named senses do. who claimed that causality could not be observed empirically. we would obtain similar results – we know this even if we do not understand the physics involved. we know that if we tried to repeat the experiment with our own body. We suffer fear. sensibility and understanding. needs. He asserted that mere sense impressions. one physical object we know more intimately than we know any object of sense perception: our own body. through will. Kant's philosophy was formulated as a response to the radical philosophical skepticism of David Hume. There is.. though this organ is as needful as lungs. We know that our consciousness inhabits a physical body."[76] Schopenhauer disagreed. We cannot prove that our mental picture of an outside world corresponds with a reality by reasoning. Though we seldom think of our body as a physical object. objects being given by the former [sensibility] and thought by the latter [understanding]. if not through logic. Schopenhauer's second major departure from Kant's epistemology concerns the body. Yet our consciousness is not commensurate with our body. Schopenhauer begins by arguing that Kant's demarcation between external objects.. for Schopenhauer. or desire: these states arise involuntarily. On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. . and through will. a leaf borne along in a stream of prereflective and largely unconscious emotion. they arise prior to reflection. they arise even when the conscious mind would prefer to hold them at bay. of these and other organs. Kant wrote: "… [T]here are two stems of human knowledge . The rational mind is. namely. We usually are not aware of the breathing of our lungs or the beating of our heart unless somehow our attention is called to them. When Schopenhauer identifies the noumenon with the desires. In his criticism of Kant. The conscious mind is the servant. and impulses in us that we name "will. We know our human bodies have boundaries and occupy space. Our kidneys command our attention on their schedule rather than one we choose. knowable only as phenomena. Most of us possess the power of voluntary motion. for Kant. It is for this reason that Schopenhauer identifies the noumenon with what we call our will.Sufficient Reason. Our ability to control either is limited. That stream is will. an object is known through each of them. we can participate in the underlying reality beyond mere phenomena. Few of us have any idea what our liver is doing right now. and the Thing in Itself of noumenon. contains a significant omission. and over which it has limited power. This is explained more fully in Schopenhauer's doctoral thesis. in fact.

I should be no less right. I should be quite right. He suggested his works were filled with "castles of abstraction" [80] that sounded impressive but ultimately had no content. and that the remainder of things only resemble them. thoughtless.Kant used the word [Idea] wrongly as well as illegitimately. Schopenhauer said that Kant's mistake regarding perception resulted in all of the obscurity and difficult confusion that is exhibited in the Transcendental Analytic section of his critique. Further..] scribbled nonsense quite unlike any mortal before him. Schopenhauer quotes Laërtius verbatim in an explanatory footnote. most senseless. so to speak. In reference to Plato’s Ideas. In The World as Will and Representation Schopenhauer explicitly stated: .. According to Schopenhauer. and. would qualify as an inmate for Bedlam. and exist as their copies. and greatly their inferior in point of talent --.[79] In his Foreword to the first edition of his work Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik. if I were to say that this summus philosophus [.. as patterns or prototypes. Schopenhauer departed from Kant in how he interpreted the Platonic ideas. Instead Schopenhauer relied upon the Neoplatonist interpretation of the biographer Diogenes Laërtius from Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers. and. although Plato had already taken possession of it. that it is a pseudophilosophy paralyzing all mental powers. ad istarum similitudinem consistencia. cetera his esse similia.not objects. objects are intuitively perceived by understanding and are discursively thought by reason (Kant had claimed that (1) the understanding thinks objects through concepts and that (2) reason seeks the unconditioned or ultimate answer to "why?"). to be followed by the man who is quite unworthy even of them. by the most outrageous misuse of language. without feeling as if he were in a madhouse.[78] At first Fichte and Schelling shine as the heroes of this epoch. Schopenhauer suggested that he had shown Hegel to have fallen prey to the Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy. are given by sensibility. (Plato teaches that the Ideas exist in nature. putting in its place the hollowest. and used it most appropriately. Schopenhauer thought that Hegel used deliberately impressive but ultimately vacuous verbiage. Lastly. the so-calledPhenomenology of the Mind.I mean the stupid and clumsy charlatan Hegel. The following quotations are typical: If I were to say that the so-called philosophy of this fellow Hegel is a colossal piece of mystification which will yet provide posterity with an inexhaustible theme for laughter at our times. 12) Plato ideas in natura velut exemplaria dixit subsistere.. so that whoever could read his most eulogized work. as is confirmed by its success. most stupefying verbiage. He . stifling all real thinking. Diogenes Laërtius (III.)[77] [edit]Criticism of Hegel Schopenhauer expressed his dislike for the philosophy of his contemporary Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel many times in his published works.

His popularity peaked in the early twentieth century. dedicating to him his essay Schopenhauer als Erzieher[83] one of his Untimely Meditations. especially during the Modernist era. though more so in the arts (especially literature and music) and psychology than in philosophy. theRight Hegelians interpreted Hegel as viewing the Prussian state of his day as perfect and the goal of all history up until then.[80] For instance.[81] [edit]Influence Caricature of Schopenhauer byWilhelm Busch (1832–1908). despite his penchant for philosophy and metaphysics in particular. he abandoned epistemological idealism for Gottlob Frege's conceptual realism. was because Schopenhauer had already written it for him.[84] As a teenager.[85] [edit]Selected bibliography . Jorge Luis Borges remarked that the reason he had never attempted to write a systematic account of his world view. Nevertheless. His theory is also being explored by some modern philosophers as a precursor to evolutionary theoryand modern evolutionary psychology.also thought that his glorification of church and state were designed for personal advantage and had little to do with the search for philosophical truth. However. Ludwig Wittgenstein had been strongly influenced by Schopenhauer's epistemological idealism.[82] Friedrich Nietzsche owed the awakening of his philosophical interest to reading The World as Will and Representation and admitted that he was one of the few philosophers that he respected. and waned somewhat thereafter. Schopenhauer has had a massive influence upon later thinkers. a number of recent publications have reinterpreted and modernised the study of Schopenhauer. after his study of the philosophy of mathematics.

vol 2 1844     Vol. Vol 1. ISBN 978-0-8446-2885-1 Everyman Paperback combined abridged edition (290 p. Clarendon Press. by ISBN:     Vol 1 and 2. Payne. ISBN 9780-19-924221-4  Essays and Aphorisms. English Translation by E. selected and translated by R J Hollingdale. 1816 ISBN 978-085496-988-3  The World as Will and Representation (alternatively translated in English as The World as Will and Idea. 1813  On Vision and Colors (Über das Sehn und die Farben). 1851. ISBN 978-0-19-924220-7. Vol 2. original German is Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung). ISBN 978-0-19-824635-0. Vol 2.. ISBN 978-0-19-824634-3. Oxford. Vol 1. ISBN 978-0-85496-539-7 . ISBN [TBD]. Berg Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0-486-21761-1 Vol. Volume II. Vol 1. 1818/1819. Vol 2. Manuscript Remains. ISBN 978-0-19-519813-3.  2001 Paperback. 1 Dover edition 1966. ISBN 978-0-19-824527-8. 1840 Parerga und Paralipomena. 1836 ISBN 978-0-85496999-9  On the Freedom of the Will (Über die Freiheit des menschlichen Willens). 1974. 1839 ISBN 978-0-631-14552-3   On the Basis of Morality (Über die Grundlage der Moral). F. On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (Über die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde). 1974/1980 Paperback. 2 Dover edition 1966. Penguin Classics. 2 Volumes:  Printings:  1974 Hardcover. 1970.) ISBN 978-0460-87505-9  On the Will in Nature (Über den Willen in der Natur). with Introduction by R J Hollingdale. being excerpts from Volume 2 of Parerga und Paralipomena. J. ISBN 978-0-486-21762-8 Peter Smith Publisher hardcover set 1969. Paperback 1973: ISBN 978-0-14-044227-4 (9780140442274)  Arthur Schopenhauer.

(bilingual) [The Art of Being Right]   Studies in Pessimism . Reprinted by Cornell University Library Digital Collections   [edit]See Facsimile edition of Schopenhauer's manuscripts in SchopenhauerSource Essays of Schopenhauer also  Antinatalism.audiobook from LibriVox. Two essays:   Internet Archive. The World as Will and Idea at Internet Archive:     Volume I. Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. Volume II. Translated by Mrs. Karl Hillebrand (1903). or not to be Wooden iron . Recht zu behalten). On the fourfold root of the principle of sufficient reason and On the will in nature. a position advocated by Schopenhauer that one would be better off not having been born        [edit]References [edit]Footnotes Asceticism God in Buddhism Mortal coil Nihilism Sir William Jones To be.  The Art Of Controversy (Die Kunst.[edit]Online   Works by Arthur Schopenhauer at Project Gutenberg Illustrated version of the "Art of Being Right" and links to logic and sophisms used by the stratagems. Volume III.

2. Ch. This awareness of the lack of free will keeps me from taking myself and my fellow men too seriously as acting and deciding individuals. Ch. and from losing my temper. ^ Albert Einstein in Mein Glaubensbekenntnis (August 1932): "I do not believe in free will. 48 (Dover page 616). ^ Schopenhauer. "There was in the father's life some dark and vague source of fear which later made him hurl himself to his death from the attic of his house in Hamburg. Vol. Eric F. People".com.] On the Freedom of the Will. actual words were: "You can do what you will. Schopenhauer's words: 'Man can do what he wants." 7." 3. ^ "Arthur Schopenhauer". ^ Schopenhauer. Curtis. 6. II. 8.[Der Mensch kann wohl tun. pp.Chronology. 5. but he cannot will what he wants. ^ "A Schopenhauer Timeline". On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason 10. 4. Retrieved 2010-03-12." [Du kannst tun was du willst: aber du kannst in jedem gegebenen Augenblick deines Lebens nur ein Bestimmtes wollen und schlechterdings nichts anderes als dieses eine. Reocities. Kirjasto. this tendency is the highest point to which everything strives upwards. Retrieved 2010-03-12. was er will]' accompany me in all situations throughout my life and reconcile me with the actions of others.fi.1. aber er kann nicht wollen. London: The Independent. Retrieved 2008-09-05.sci. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 7. "The ascetic tendency is certainly unmistakable ingenuine and original Christianity. ^ The World as Will and Representation. . ^ Addressed in: Cate. Bertrand (1945). but in any given moment of your life you can will only one definite thing and absolutely nothing other than that one thing. Page 1. Retrieved 2010-03-12." Schopenhauer's clearer. xxx. was er will. even if they are rather painful to me. 2002-09-03. Arthur. 9. ^ "John Gray: Forget everything you know — Profiles. Payne (1999). 2. ISBN 978-0-52157766-3. as it was developed in the writings of the Church Fathers from the kernel of the New Testament. Friedrich Nietzsche. J. ^ Addressed in: Russell. ^ Safranski (1990) page 12. Arthur. Author's preface to "On The Fourfold Root of the Principle of sufficient reason. Günter Zöller.

20. the Will to Live. Ewald Osers (1991-0901). 22. 42–43. ^ The World as Will and Representation. namely. ^ "The reality is what Schopenhauer calls the Will. I." Plato. Rüdiger Safranski. nor others who see him being punished. Retrieved 2010-03-12. ISBN 978-0-19-823723-5. ^ Safranski (1990). pp. 14. so I let them slide." 15. Lyon. 1 August 1949. 25. II." In the year 1831. Scribner's. "But an examination of his life reveals a yearning for marriage frustrated by a train of rejections. ^ On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. 24. ^ "Schopenhauer:". Retrieved 2010-03-12. Flora’s diary records this event as follows: ―I didn’t want the grapes because old Schopenhauer had touched them. § 49. 1955 18. Ch.edu. 16. ^ "The Leuven Philosophy Newsletter".‖ Apparently. § 62. Vol. 2004. and because people believe in the freedom of the will. I. Modernism and Music. ISBN 9780674792760. ^ Daniel Albright. so that neither the wrongdoer himself. At a boat party in Germany he made his advance by offering her a bunch of grapes. 17. 13. The World as Will and Representation. Vol. ^ Rudiger Safranski. ^ a b c The World as Will and Representation.org. The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. . 271– 2. Chapter 19 13. p. New York. Courseweb. because the punishments inflicted by authorities and educators appear as acts of retribution. Bryan (1997). ^ "Full text of "Selected Essays Of Schopenhauer"". Vol. ^ "…he who attempts to punish in accordance with reason does not retaliate on account of the past wrong (for he could not undo something which has been done) but for the sake of the future. will do wrong again." Letter to Richard C. she was underwhelmed. reflected Schopenhauer's concerns when he wrote: "The feeling of justice thus arises out of two errors. Schopenhauer fell in love with a girl named Flora Weiss. in his The Origin of Moral Sensation. 12. § 43. § 62. page 39. George Santayana. footnote 34 19. Archive. ^ On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. ^ a b c Schopenhauer. ^ Paul Rée.11.stthomas. pp." 23. The Letters of George Santayana. quite gently into the water. 21. ^ Magee. Oxford: Clarendon Press. XLVII. Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

envy. 324 B. E. love." Safranski pg. Page 35. Schopenhauer. 47 30. 39. ^ s:Government (Schopenhauer) 31. ^ Parerga and Paralipomena. Payne. 1989 37. ^ Parerga and Paralipomena. Parerga and Paralipomena. Penguin Books-Great Ideas 41. J. 29. Accordingly. 863. Volume II. Ch. p. ^ Julian Young (23 June 2005). ^ The World as Will and Representation. Page 348. Vol. 1970. Psychology Press." Sec. [dead link] 36. fear. 345. 42. ed. ^ Schopenhauer."Protagoras". Section 92 33.J. ^ "Nearly a century before Freud. Retrieved 23 December 2011. grief. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Supplements to the Fourth Book of "The World as Will and Representation. ISBN 978-0-48621762-8. 527. in Schopenhauer there is. Volume I. p. 38. 12 32. New York: Dover Publications. R. Rev. ISBN 978-0-415-33346-7. ^ "Fragments for the history of philosophy". the animal has all the emotions of humans. Arthur (1969). p. an explicit philosophy of the unconscious and of the body. Page 338 The World as Will and Representation/Supplements to the Fourth Book 27. . Vol. Arthur.. Vol. ^ On the Suffering of the World. ^ Schopenhauer. ^ The World as Will and Representation. Hollingdale. Chapter 24. trans. (1970)." Plato. 154 43. and so on. Page 340 The World as Will and Representation/Supplements to the Fourth Book 28. II.Ga. 26. ^ Payne. anger.. it [the Will] does not depend on the perfection of the organism. ^ Essays and Aphorisms. 5 34.. The World as Will and Representation. for the first time. "On Ethics. 519 40. Supplements to the Fourth Book of "The World as Will and Representation. Ch. p. ^ Feminism and the Limits of Equality PA Cain . ^ "?". Plato wrote that punishment should "be an example to other men not to offend. ^ "Unlike the intellect. 242. but is essentially the same in all animals as that which is known to us so intimately. ^ Safranski (1990). 35. 2. "Laws". Book IX. The World as Will and Representation. strong desire. hatred. 2. such as joy. Arthur. L. ^ Schopenhauer. II. F. Middlesex: London.

while hunting in India." 44. ^ Spinoza. ibid." .in conjunction with Pantheism.ISBN 978-978-1-85973-330-1.. ^ On the basis of morality. who. as mere things for our use. 2. § 19. Prop. but to preserve or destroy according to its various capacities. he came toward the sportsmen with the clearest and liveliest evidence of inconsolable grief." On the basis of morality. a regard for our advantage does not call on us to preserve. ^ "His contempt for animals." The World as Will and Representation. Richard (2000).. who had spent the night with its dead mother. Note I. p. 49. 51. "Physiology and Pathology. 233. Ethics. had shot a monkey. 46. 48. and felt as if he had committed a murder. treating them in a way which best suits us. 57. all the other elephants had fled from the neighborhood except a young one. § 19. and the like…. "whatsoever there be in nature beside man. § 19. The next morning he went to look for the dead animal. ^ "I recall having read of an Englishman who. and put his tiny trunk round them in order to appeal to them for help. IV. 47. The effect of this artifice is quite revolting. ^ "…in English all animals are of the neuter gender and so are represented by the pronoun 'it. ^ Ryder. and to adapt to our use as best we may. for their nature is not like ours. that we may not consult our own advantage and use them as we please." On the Will in Nature. especially in the case of primates. Animal Revolution: Changing Attitudes Towards Speciesism. Chapter 50. monkeys. 50. Harris says he was then filled with real remorse for what he had done. Philosophical Writings.. is at the same time absurd and abominable. p. ^ Schopenhauer. Oxford: Berg Publishers. Pt. such as dogs. he could not forget the look which the dying animal gave him. 26.: "Still I do not deny that beasts feel: what I deny is.. Vol. Also.' just as if they were inanimate things. § 19 45."On the basis of morality.The great difference between human and animal rests solely on the intellect's degrees of perfection. and since then had never again fired at monkeys. a female." On the basis of morality. ^ "[Sir William Harris] describes how he shot his first elephant. Appendix. Forgetting all fear. ISBN 978-0-8264-0729-0. XXXVII... London: Continuum." This is the exact opposite of Schopenhauer's doctrine. are declared by him to be without rights. Arthur (1994)..

566. 28 f. University of Hawaii Press. ^ John J. whereby it is plain that the law against the slaughtering of animals is founded rather on vain superstition and womanish pity than on sound reason. Routledge. ^ Clarke. Symbolism. 2006. Purohit Bhagavan. ^ Schopenhauer 1969. men have far greater rights over beasts than beasts have over men. Christopher. 61. Hackett Publishing Company. 60. Note 1. ^ Christopher McCoy. But I also affirm that we may consult our own advantage and use them as we please." Ethics. Adventures Unlimited Press. 3-4 58. ^ Abelson. p. 56. 53. page 38. whose nature is different from our own. Holder. "Western Indologists: A Study in Motives". as everyone's right is defined by his virtue. ^ Christopher McCoy. Dover 54. 54-56 59. Ltd. 255-278. Retrieved 2009-05-09. treating them in the way which best suits us. p. or power. ^ David Burton. and their emotions are naturally different from human emotions. 63. 1996.. p." Ashgate Publishing. Nay. John James (1997). 9780932813350 . Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy. "Buddhism. or things. 62. but not with beasts. ISBN 978-0-93281335-0. Retrieved on: 12 April 2008. 57. Knowledge and Liberation: A Philosophical Study. The rational quest of what is useful to us further teaches us the necessity of associating ourselves with our fellow-men.52. p. pp. ^ Godwin. page 22. Prop. Schopenhauer and Buddhism. ^ Dutt. Oriental enlightenment. Peter (April 1993). J: Arktos: The Polar Myth in Science. we have the same rights in respect to them as they have in respect to us. Early Buddhist Discourses. Philosophy East and West Volume 43."The World as Will and Representation: Volume Two". 567 55. ^ Janaway. 68. page xx. ^ "Such are the matters which I engage to prove in Prop. Still I affirm that beasts feel. Part 4. ISBN 978-0-415-13376-0. He wrote that only those who were too old or too young to reproduce strong. and Nazi Survival. ^ Schopenhauer 1969. Number 2. xviii of this Part. 2004. for their nature is not like ours. 37. healthy children would resort to pederasty (Schopenhauer considered pederasty to be in itself a vice).

A 15 77. 2009. There is a remarkable correspondence. This study provides an overview of the actual discovery of Buddhism by Schopenhauer. 69. ^ Bryan Magee. 255. Master's thesis.64. trans. 1990. 200 (April 2010) (PDF. H Amsterdam. I. E. 68. p. between some of the central Schopenhauerian doctrines and Buddhism: notably in the views that empirical existence is suffering. 8. Thou Art That: Schopenhauer's Philosophy and the Chandogya Upanishad.. Schopenhauer's early notes on Buddhism reproduced in Appendix). 75. 2. The Philosophy of Schopenhauer.Philosophy East & West. vol. ^ Parerga & Paralipomena. Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy. The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. Ch. modern Western philosopher of any note to attempt any integration of his work with Eastern ways of thinking. p. Payne. Dauer. 17 67. 14-15. Christopher. ^ World as Will and Representation. 44:2 p. vol. These three 'truths of the Buddha' are mirrored closely in the essential structure of the doctrine of the will (On this. p. xiii 74. Retrieved on: 18 August 2007.F. Payne. 164 p. ^ Critique of Pure Reason. that suffering originates in desires. Oxford University Press. Urs Arthur Schopenhauer and China. 66. 273. Janaway. ^ Arktos. 265.J. ^ Magee. p. Bryan (1977). p. p. Christopher Patrick. Schopenhauer as Transmitter of Buddhist Ideas. Vol. That he was the first is surely true.F. A Schopenhauer . 71. 28 f. and that salvation can be attained by the extinction of desires.J."Philosophy East & West. ^ The World as Will and Representation’’. 3 70. Misunderstanding Schopenhauer. Peter (1993). James Madison University: 10-13. ISBN 978-0-19-823723-5. 106. trans. ^ Christopher McCoy. ^ The World as Will and Representation Preface to the first edition. ^ "Schopenhauer is often said to be the first. "Schopenhauer and Buddhism. E. 72. see Dorothea W. University of London.. pp. 1993 73. ^ Abelsen. ^ McCoy. 316-21). but the claim that he was influencedby Indian thought needs some qualification. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr. at least in broad terms. Institute of Germanic Studies. P Abelsen. 65. 38. . or indeed the only. I. ^ Schopenhauer and Buddhism. Note also the discussion by Bryan Magee.7 Mb PDF. ^ App. ISBN 978-0-85457-148-2 76.

. Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir. Daniel (2004) Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources. The book argues against free will.78. 1998. ISBN 978-0375-50028-2. 2009). ^ a b "Philosophy: Pseudophilosophy". Thomas Mann editor. were airing the question of what the further content of world history could possibly be." Safranski. 1939 [edit]Further reading [edit]Biographies . in complete unsmiling seriousness. Bryan. and states that humans have much more in common with animals than is commonly admitted in the West. 1958. 21. page 6 [edit]Bibliography  Albright.. Norman. now that in the Hegelian philosophy the world spirit had reached the goal. 35. the Hegelians who. ^ Malcolm. Oxford University Press. Chapters 20. Random House.  Hannan. Barbara. 83. ^ On the Basis of Morality. ^ ". ^ Magee 1997. Schopenhauer is praised for his attitude towards animals. 80.  Safranski. p. and for having addressed the brutality of much of human life. 81. OUP. University of Chicago Press.ISBN 978-0-674-79275-3. ^ On the Basis of Morality.org. Orientalia. 82. orig. Harvard University Press. Confessions of a Philosopher.. The Riddle of the World: A Reconsideration of Schopenhauer's Philosophy (Oxford. pp. Longmans Green & Co. 79. 256. Rüdiger (1990) Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. ^ In the book Straw Dogs. Retrieved 2010-03-12. ^ Schopenhauer as Educator 84. Carl Hanser Verlag (1987)  The Living Thoughts of Schopenhauer.  Magee.ISBN 978-0-226-01267-4. p. 413 85. 15–16. p. John Gray upheld Schopenhauer as one of the few philosophers who has dedicated himself to studying Eastern philosophy as well as Western philosophy. German Schopenhauer und Die wilden Jahre der Philosophie. the knowledge of itself.

Hamlyn. Contains extensive appendixes which include transcriptions and English translations of Schopenhauer's early notes about Buddhism and Indian philosophy. Sino-Platonic Papers Nr.   --------.W. Clair Shores..). Schopenhauer (Bermann-Fischer. 1926) Walther Schneider. (Reinhardt. (Reclam. 1970). Schopenhauer: A Biography. Cambridge University Press. Eduard Grisebach. Arthur Schopenhauer . 1890. Schopenhauer und die wilden Jahre der Philosophie . Mich. repr.  Rüdiger Safranski. 1985) Rüdiger Safranski. München 1987. 1938). The Metaphysics of Will. Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy. 1946)   D. ISBN 978-3-44614490-3.eine Biographie. Schopenhauer. 1937).Damm.   Thomas Mann. Oates & Washbourne. Arthur Schopenhauer . 2010. Arthur Schopenhauer.  William Wallace.  Atwell. The Human Character.  Frederick Copleston. revised as Schopenhauers Leben. Schopenhauer . 1893). 1912) Heinrich Hasse. trans. philosopher of pessimism (Burns. pocket edition Fischer: ISBN 978-3-596-14299-6. David. 1876). 8.F.Geschichte seines Lebens (Berlin: Hofmann. Arthur Schopenhauer (Heidelberg: Winter. rev. Ewald Osers (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.: Scholarly Press. Arthur Schopenhauer . Schopenhauer. ISBN 978-0-521-82598-6 . hard cover Carl Hanser Verlag.    O. Cartwright. Arthur Schopenhauer and China.. St.7 Mb PDF. Schopenhauer on the Character of the World.  Kuno Fischer. 1876.Eine Biographie. 200 (April 2010) (PDF. 1932).  Helen Zimmern. ed. John. 1898).His Life and His Philosophy (London: Longmans. Life of Arthur Schopenhauer (London: Scott. Schopenhauer . 1938) Arthur Hübscher.Ein Lebensbild (Leipzig: Brockhaus. 164 p. Urs. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1980. Schopenhauer. 1989) [edit]Other books  App. Werke und Lehre (Heidelberg: Winter.Eine Biographie (Vienna: BermannFischer. Green. London: Allen & Unwin.

"Schopenhauer and the Empirical Critique of Idealism in the History of Ideas. "Tagebuch eines Ehrgeizigen: Arthur Schopenhauers Studienjahre in Berlin. Religion and Morality . Arthur Schopenhauer. JSTOR 1399616." (See p. Copleston." Galileian Library. Frederick. 1975. ISBN 978-0-19-823722-8  Mannion.    Moges. 2006. 388) links Find more about Arthur Schopenhauer on Wikipedia's sister projects: Images and media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource  Works by Arthur Schopenhauer at Project Gutenberg . Peter (1993). Sangharakshita.  [edit]External Oxenford's "Iconoclasm in German Philosophy. doi:10. Philosophy East and West 43 (2): 255–78. Camilo. 2006. . Schopenhauer: Philosopher of Pessimism. "Schopenhauer's Philosophy. "Schopenhauer and aesthetic appreciation. reprint 1997)." Avinus Magazin (in German).2307/1399616. PMID 8005756. Brook. Andrew (1994). Helen. Oxford University Press." Young. ISBN 978-0-19-825003-6  Magee. Self and World in Schopenhauer's Philosophy. "Schopenhauer. his Life and Philosophy. Gerard. 1946 (reprinted London: Search Press.The Humble Path to Ethics". 2003.  Mazard. Ashgate Press. London. 2004. Eisel. "Schopenhauer and Buddhism". 314pp  Zimmern.1876 [edit]Articles  Abelson. 2005. Janaway. Schopenhauer: A Very Short introduction. Bryan. and Co. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 75: 101–18. "Schopenhauer and Freud".  Jiménez. New Critical Thinking in Philosophy Series. Christopher. The Philosophy of Schopenhauer. Longman.)   --------. 2003. Oxford University Press (1988. Awet." On Schopenhauer's (debated) place in the history of European philosophy and his relation to his predecessors. Christopher.

1998. "Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860).  Works by Schopenhauer in audio format from LibriVox Arthur Schopenhauer entry by Robert Wicks in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy  Ross. on Schopenhauer's life and work.       Schopenhauersource: Reproductions of Schopenhauer's manuscripts Kant's philosophy as rectified by Schopenhauer Timeline of German Philosophers A Quick Introduction to Schopenhauer Arthur Schopenhauer at Find a Grave [show] V  T  E Arthur Schopenhauer [show]  V  T  E Metaphysics [show]  V  T  E Ethics [show]  V  T .. and on his dim view of academia." Two short essays. Kelley L.

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