You are on page 1of 59


This chapter provides an analysis of the fisheries situation in the country, both past and present. In eight sections, such characterizations cover the biophysical, socioeconomic and institutional dimensions. Section 2.1 (Geographic Setting) describes the landscape in general and the spatial context of the water resource base (coastal/marine and inland waters) for fisheries highlighting the archipelagic nature of the Philippines. Section 2.2 (Fisheries Resources) covers the capture fisheries resources, aquaculture resources and critical fisheries habitats, such as estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, rivers, lakes and small islands. Section 2.3 (Economic Performance of the Fisheries Sector) includes macroeconomic performance of the fisheries sector in relation to the national economy. Section 2.4 (The Socioeconomic Setting) highlights, among others, the population trends, key demographic features, labor force, employment and income patterns. This is followed by Section 2.5 (The Institutional Environment) that provides a synopsis of the policy and regulatory framework, institutional arrangements and mechanisms, coordination across agencies and private sector participation. Section 2.6 (Fisheries Subsectors: Status and Trends) describes four concerns: capture fisheries, aquaculture, post harvest and markets. Section 2.7 (Key Development Challenges) characterizes these nine key issues and/or problems confronting the sector: (1) depleted fishery resources; (2) degraded fishery habitats; (3) intensified resource use competition and conflict; (4) unrealized full potential of aquaculture and commercial fisheries; (5) uncompetitive products; (6) post-harvest losses; (7) limited institutional capabilities; (8) inadequate/inconsistent fisheries policies; and (9) weak institutional partnerships. Section 2.8 (Key Development Opportunities) describes some positive conditions, such as the delineation of property rights, utilization of offshore exclusive economic zone (EEZ), aquaculture expansion, improved post harvest, export potential and natural resource pricing.

_______________________________________________________________________________________ Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan



Geographic Setting

The Philippines is an archipelago of more than 7,100 islands that are located in Southeast Asia between the latitudes of 4°05’N and 21°25’N and between the longitudes of 112°20’E and 127°00’E (Figure 2.1.a). It extends some 2,000 km in a south-north direction from the territorial limit off Borneo up to 150 km off Taiwan. The Philippines has a coastline of 17,460 km and a total land area of 300,000 km2. The larger islands are mostly mountainous with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands.

Figure 2.1.a. Map of the Philippines showing the limits of archipelagic waters, territorial waters, treaty limits (200 nautical miles EEZ) and Kalayaan Claim.

_____________________________________________________________________ 18
Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan


The territorial waters of the Philippines including EEZ total 2.2 million km2, of which 226,000 km2 are considered coastal while the rest are oceanic. The shelf area or the area within depths of 200 m (Figure 2.1.b) measures 184,600 km2.

Generalized bathymetry of Philippine waters

Shallow (<200 m) Intermediate (200 – 1,000 m) Deep (>1,000 m) Territorial limits

Figure 2.1.b. Generalized bathymetry of Philippine waters.

_____________________________________________________________________ 19
Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan


The climate of the Philippines is categorized as a tropical maritime climate, which is characterized by relatively high temperature, high humidity and abundant rainfall. Two major seasons occur: the rainy season from June to November, and the dry season from December to May. The dry season is further divided into the cool dry season from December to February and the hot dry season from March to May. The main weather systems that affect the country are the Southwest Monsoon, the Northeast Monsoon, the North Pacific Trade Winds and the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The Southwest Monsoon or the habagat blows from June to November, carrying moisture that produces the rainy season. The dry winds of the Northeast Monsoon or the amihan blow from December to May. During the transition between monsoons, the influence of the North Pacific Trade Winds is felt. On the other hand, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, a belt of low pressure formed where the Northeast Trade Winds meet the Southeast Trade Winds, oscillates throughout the country, bringing rains and thunderstorms. The Philippines lies at the world’s typhoon belt and is on average affected by 15 typhoons and struck by 5-6 tropical cyclones per year. Tropical cyclones typically advance in a northwesterly direction and often do not directly hit Mindanao. The eastern side of the country is influenced by the North Equatorial Current coming from the Pacific Ocean. Upon reaching the Philippines, the North Equatorial Current divides into a northward current flowing along eastern Luzon and Visayas and a southward current flowing along the eastern coast of Mindanao. The northward current exits the country as the Kuroshio Current and heads towards Taiwan and Japan. The southward current, known as the Mindanao Current, veers east to join the Equatorial Counter Current with a weaker branch flowing along the east coast of Mindanao. On the western side of the country, currents generated by seasonal monsoon winds are the dominant influence. 2.2 Fisheries Resources

Fisheries may be broadly categorized into capture fisheries and aquaculture. Capture fisheries involve catching or collecting fish and other aquatic animals from the natural environment while aquaculture is the husbandry or farming of aquatic plants and animals. Capture fisheries in the Philippines are divided into two subsectors: commercial or large-scale and municipal or small-scale. Legally, the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 defines municipal fishing as fishing without using vessels or with vessels of 3 GT or less and commercial fishing as fishing with vessels of more than 3 GT. In 2003, the aquaculture sector contributed 40% of the volume of fisheries production while the rest was split almost evenly between commercial and municipal fisheries subsectors (Figure 2.2.a). The fisheries resources that maintain capture fisheries and aquaculture include the exploited species as well as the habitats that support these species.

_____________________________________________________________________ 20
Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan



31% Commercial Municipal Aquaculture 29%

Figure 2.2.a. Percent contribution of fishery sectors to total volume of fish production, Philippines, 2003. Source: BAS (2005).

2.2.1 Capture Fisheries Resources Fish capture is conducted in marine or inland waters, such as lakes and rivers. Ninety-four percent of capture fisheries production is caught from marine waters while the rest is taken from inland waters. Figure 2.2.1.a and Table 2.2.1.a show the location of major fishing grounds of the country. Marine capture fisheries resources

Marine capture fisheries resources may be categorized into demersal and pelagic resources. Demersal resources reside near the bottom of the sea and consist of finfish and commercially important invertebrates, such as squids, shrimps and crabs. Pelagic resources consist of finfish that are found near the sea surface. Table lists the production of demersal species from 2001 to 2003. Demersal species comprise 16-18% of the total landings of marine capture fisheries while pelagic species account for the rest. At present, the most common demersal resources harvested are ponyfish, squids, threadfin bream and blue crab. About 21-29% of the demersal production consists of reef-associated species, or species that primarily reside in coral reefs (e.g., parrotfish) or frequently visit reefs (e.g., Cavalla). The majority of demersals, which are listed as nonreef demersals in Table, are mainly found in soft-bottom areas (sandy or muddy substrates).

_____________________________________________________________________ 21
Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan

Major fishing grounds in the Philippines.a for key to abbreviations and area of fishing grounds.1.a. See Table 2.CHAPTER 2 LaG Figure 2.2. _____________________________________________________________________ 22 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Source: BAS (2005).2.1.

Panay Gulf 6.00 2. Ragay Gulf 4. Tayabas Bay 3. Area and location of major fishing grounds in the Philippines.20 804.00 1. Jintotolo Channel 3.096.935. San Miguel Bay 9. Maqueda Channel Straits 1.064.811.00 619 412.00 3.00 2. Tañon Strait 4.00 3. Illana Bay 4.a. Fishing ground Seas 1. Lamon Bay 2.870.900.00 2.00 2.50 1.786. Mindoro Strait 3.24 2. Imuruan Bay 8.00 280 129 3. Leyte Gulf 5. South Sulu Sea 3.426. Source: BAS (2005).935.40 1. Burias Pass 2. Babuyan Channel 2. Butuan Bay Gulfs 1.024. Ticao Pass Abbreviation WSS SSS ESS SS BS SaS VS CS LB TB IlB MB SB IB ImB SMB TwB BuB MG DG RG LG PG LiG LaG AG AlG BC JC MC TaSt MSt TSt CSt ISt BP TP Area (km2) 29. Visayan Sea 8.393.90 1. Asid Gulf 9.8 3.00 1. Samar Sea 7.a.CHAPTER 2 Table 2.946.00 3. Lingayen Gulf 4. Tablas Strait 2. Manila Bay 5.75 Location Palawan Zamboanga del Sur/Sulu/Tawi-Tawi Zamboanga del Norte/Negros Aklan/Masbate/Romblon Bohol Samar/Masbate/Leyte Panay/Negros/Cebu/Masbate Cebu/Leyte/Bohol Quezon/Camarines Norte Quezon Lanao del Sur/Maguindanao Manila/Bataan/Cavite Zamboanga del Sur Misamis Occidental/Lanao del Norte Palawan Camarines Sur Tawi-Tawi Agusan del Norte Zamboanga del Sur/Maguindanao/Sultan Kudarat Davao del Sur/Davao del Norte/Davao Oriental Camarines Sur/Quezon Leyte Island/Samar Island Iloilo/Negros Occidental Pangasinan Albay/Camarines Sur/Catanduanes Masbate Albay Cagayan/Babuyan Island Capiz/Masbate Camarines Sur/Catanduanes Tablas Island/Mindoro Oriental Palawan/Mindoro Occidental Cebu/Negros Cebu/Bohol Iloilo/Guimaras Burias Island/Camarines Sur Ticao Island/Sorsogon _____________________________________________________________________ 23 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Sibugay Bay 6. Tawi-Tawi Bay 10.50 12.476. Bohol Sea 6. Moro Gulf 2.80 774 592.00 8. Camotes Sea Bays 1. West Sulu Sea 2.612.16 1.2.870. Cebu Strait 5.992. Davao Gulf 3.311.128.00 1. Iligan Bay 7.00 3. Lagonoy Gulf 8.724. see Figure 2.00 2.80 2.838. Iloilo Strait Passages 1.935.00 9. East Sulu Sea 4. Sibuyan Sea 5.4 516 12. Albay Gulf Channels 1. For a map of these fishing grounds.00 7.1.

7 24.7 216.7 3.365 13.630 13.724 6.915 13.3 28.308 17.498 10.1 14.8 33.2.423 28.048 33.746 395 13.433 7.169 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 24 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .9 4.581 14.841 53.809 8.202 1.0 4.440 11.424 12.148 37.1.CHAPTER 2 Table 2. Total 5.6 25.165 23.817 1. Common small pelagic species include roundscad (galunggong).964 27.339 12.992 1.4 224.946 15.514 33.5 0.1 8.772 6.8 10.596 8.664 214.2.6 4.612 49.257 32.080 29. banak) Porgies (pargo) Subtotal (nonreef species) Percentage of demersal production Percentage of capture fisheries production Reef-associated demersals Goatfish (saramulyete) Siganid (samaral) Cavalla (talakitok) Snapper (maya-maya) Grouper (lapu-lapu) Parrotfish (loro) Subtotal (reefassociated species) Percentage of demersal production Percentage of capture fisheries production Combined total (reefassociated and nonreef species) Percentage of capture fisheries production 38.441 620 20.2.9 11.408 28.1 324.383 11.444 7.456 5.772 10.0 Fishing for demersal resources is typically conducted at depths of 40 m or less.914 47. Indian sardines (tamban) and frigate tuna (tulingan) (Table 2.2 98.100 40.083 19.4 36.893 72.079 38.370 2.8 37.244 18. Sources: production figures from BAS (2005).565 81. 2002 Mun.061 231. 2003 Mun.336 6.098 1.860 5.106 91.735 26.9 4.593 12.8 4.4 3.907 1.291 20.079 70. Pelagic resources are further subdivided into small pelagics and large pelagics.0 26.159 16.8 65. Figure 2.1.344 6.299 19.020 13.839 13.0 7.258 71.262 947 2.753 13.9 3.787 20.178 16. Volume (t) of the top demersal species landed by commercial and municipal sectors from 2001 to 2003.371 11.031 1.088 24.142 11. Habitat classification based on Froese and Pauly (2006).651 21.996 36.450 7. Small pelagics account for about 56% of the total production of marine capture fisheries.1 65.233 4.697 31.6 69.0 302.2. Total Com.8 8.885 72.423 31.703 153.b).197 11.620 14.992 259 72.527 15.007 41.079 14.528 37.358 77. 2001 Com.954 2.179 2.177 6.313 15. 2004). Most small pelagic fisheries occur in water less than 200 m deep (Zaragoza et al.1.103 3.549 93.722 14.792 4.067 3.150 2.433 11. Nonreef demersals Slipmouth (sapsap) Squid (pusit) Threadfin bream (bisugo) Blue crab (alimasag) Acetes (alamang) Mullet (kapak.440 17.367 12.0 12.4 1.030 10.664 88.855 17.8 326.359 656 20.472 153.503 5.6 85.768 16.713 12.a shows the location of the traditional demersal fishing grounds in the country.0 14.8 11.2 4.7 101.634 12.797 47.285 27.2.981 13.1 13.405 141.587 5.816 50.472 6.890 2.087 13.053 9.913 7.194 3.642 5.453 24.132 3.749 47.4 Mun.8 226.4 7.666 16.509 23.037 234. Total Com.389 1.2.627 4.616 12.4 1.947 13.486 70.290 9.931 1.269 74.2 11.834 1.635 8.684 22.448 11.336 15.a.

a. Traditional demersal fishing grounds of the Philippines. Source: Armada (2004).1.CHAPTER 2 Figure 2.2. _____________________________________________________________________ 25 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .2.

679 153. The largest among these is the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares).989 376.0 44.4 8. the frigate tuna (Auxis thazard).0 234.1.0 277.678 20.741 60.279 34.486 6.127.571 38.856 8.268 846 5.7 38.091 16.110 30.902 8.128 6.326 42.7 254.675 299.358 32.640 35.5 kg and 14.235 7.605 10.841 59.659 130.9 19.037 14.576 6.772 86.447 28.0 kg.4 fisheries production Reef-associated small pelagics Big-eyed scad (matangbaka) Crevalle (salay-salay) Caesio (dalagang-bukid) Subtotal (reef-associated species) Percentage of small pelagic production Percentage of capture fisheries production Combined total (reefassociated and nonreef species) Percentage of capture fisheries production 36.243 37.879 100.2.898 11.3 2.515 6. _____________________________________________________________________ 26 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .111 14.547 62.070 26.2.653 12.319 622.741 60.433 22.719 100.596 11.655 3.051 64.1 61.638 6.973 3.975 40.6 286.177 969.832 424.750 326. though considered a large pelagic by some. Next largest is the Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) followed by the skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and the eastern little tuna (Euthynnus affinis).905 26.098 57.6 47.636 97.163 88. Total 622.1 310.162 152.221 77.9 55.047 53.897 24.792 2.630 51. attains a maximum length of only 65 cm and has a maximum published weight of 1.086 71.7 2001 Mun.771 5.846 12.868 284.371 111.0 16.266 12.3 1.062 59.501 9.889 14.1. Total Com.691 28.621 14.204 185.899 90.539 18.032 39.858 27.230 145.187 906. 34.760 5.6 20.CHAPTER 2 Table 2.786 39.915 702.708 39. which attains a maximum length of 239 cm (fork length) and has a maximum published weight of 200 kg.354 26.650 32.804 7.127 6.2.958 33.077 6.630 68.0 7.326 14.0 47.863 45.101 65.389 7.785 2.628 5.698 157.9 64.472 Percentage of small pelagic 59.9 100.058.657 8.8 32.271 70.083 22.8 4.5 3.654 36.8 80.503 176. In contrast.161 39.7 34.525 31.273 30.488 10.117 5.266 1.701 85.566 8.706 35.061 681.214 14.709 33. 108 cm and 100 cm.760 28.315 922.677 121.631 58. These species have respective maximum fork lengths of 240 cm.2.0 kg.818 20.321 92.191 50.6 3.6 production Percentage of capture 34.8 103.639 170. Sources: production figures from BAS (2005).893 17.980 40.358 5.7 4.c lists the production of the common large pelagics.2 3.687 61. 2003 Mun.120 37.7 35.075 179.7 55.806 28.0 39.152 12.262 16.044.5 Table 2.3 51.132 74.212 28.024 114.427 643.7 676.8 15. Nonreef small pelagics Roundscad (galunggong) Indian sardines (tamban) Frigate tuna (tulingan) Anchovies (dilis) Fimbriated sardines (tunsoy) Indian mackerel (alumahan) Flyingfish (bolador) Indo-Pacific mackerel (hasahasa) Round herring (tulis) Hairtail (balila) Subtotal (nonreef species) 250.935 31.7 6.095 60. 2002 Mun.389 25.174 40.060 15.7 kg (Froese and Pauly 2006).1 31.8 55.426 163.294 10.363 13. which account for 12-15% of the total production of the marine capture fisheries sector.8 43. and respective maximum published weights of 70. Habitat classification based on Froese and Pauly (2006). Com.4 367. Total Com.7 16.926 1.072 57.700 29.b Volume (t) of the top small pelagic species landed by commercial and municipal sectors from 2001 to 2003.502 7.

681 9.977 99. grunter or tigerperch (ayungin. 6%). mud crabs (alimango. fishpens and fishcages) also utilize these resources.036 1.505 6.2 2002 Mun..806 4. Volume (t) of the top large pelagic species landed by commercial and municipal sectors from 2001 to 2003.1 Total 109. 7%). 19.870 6. fishponds.376 11.676 9. In the Philippines. 106. these water bodies can potentially support inland fishing. 6%).2 Inland fishing resources The country’s inland water resources include 200.743 7.473 27.c.1 Total 138.4 2003 Mun.g.CHAPTER 2 Table 2.592 36.0 Total 105. white shrimps (hipong puti.350 73.280 9. skipjack and eastern little tuna are highly migratory species that cross territorial boundaries of several nations. 31.790 231.4 Mun.409 12. Skipjack (gulyasan) Yellowfin tuna (tambakol) Eastern little tuna (katchorita) Spanish mackerel (tanigue) Total Percentage of capture fisheries production 80.601 77. Together these three lakes account for 74% of the country’s total area of lakes.429 175.400 ha) (BAS 2005). of which 57% by volume were finfish.700 ha) and Taal Lake (23.431 313.385 63. _____________________________________________________________________ 27 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .665 15.735 152. carp (carpa.051 26. 2004). catfish (kanduli. 2.219 4. followed by freshwater crabs (talangka.560 27.5 Com. The total finfish catch consisted of tilapia species (42% by volume). 26.000 ha of rivers. 6%) and giant freshwater shrimps (ulang.767 11. snakehead (dalag. the biggest lake is Laguna Lake (90. and other species.639 6.319 127. 8%). Most inland fishing occurs in lakes.242 39. Sources: production figures from BAS (2005). 7%). 10%).000 ha). 83.766 49.063 ha.292 metric tons (t) valued at PhP 3. although aquaculture activities (e. 37% were mollusks and 5% were crustaceans. 10%).718 34. 114. 6%). the total landings from inland fishing amounted to 133.000 ha of reservoirs.190 8.735 ha of brackishwater swamplands (BAS 2005).4 Yellowfin tuna.641 82.1.675 9.646 7. By far.030 253.2.811 2. Shrimps (hipon) dominated the crustacean catch at 66% by volume.085 225.58 billion.3 Com. Northwestern Luzon and Southern Luzon (Zaragoza et al.2. With a combined area of 496.000 ha of lakes.484 83. 24. goby (biya.482 13. although considerable tuna fisheries also exist in waters off Western Negros. followed by Lanao Lake (34.077 87.794 34. In 2003. 2001 Com.055 20. Ninety-five percent of the mollusks caught were snails (suso) (BAS 2005). 24.289 4.328 ha of freshwater swamplands and 139.240 38. tunas are caught mainly from the Sulu Sea. Moro Gulf and north Celebes Sea.

4 9.2.490 4. snappers.2.634 1.2 100. Seaweeds are farmed in shallow coastal waters that are protected from strong wave action. which are concentrated mainly in Regions III.200 441.1 0.276 2. less common forms of aquaculture include the culture of groupers.6 1.337 106. rabbitfish.996 34.0 Table 2.9 0.1 17.747 2. where tilapias are mostly cultured in freshwater fishcages. Milkfish is cultured mostly in brackishwater fishponds. milkfish and tilapia are the top three commodities produced by the country’s aquaculture sector.451. leads the country in tilapia production.809 2.399 35. Tilapia is produced mostly in freshwater fishponds and freshwater fishcages.4 2.348 1.042 13.510 13.570 11. IV and I.3 0.4 0.151 12.2 0.2.0 2003 (t) 988.2 Aquaculture Resources Aquaculture is conducted in freshwater.a.6 1. Species Seaweed Milkfish (bangus) Tilapia Tiger prawn (sugpo) Carp (carpa) Oyster (talaba) Mussel (tahong) Mud crab (alimango) Catfish (hito) White shrimp (hipong puti) Other species Total Total minus seaweeds 2001 (t) 785.1 0. This is followed by Region IV.0 0.608 1. brackishwater and marine waters. In marine waters.698 19. in the descending order of milkfish production and total area of brackishwater fishponds.163 1.505 135.1 0.525 1.513 4. Pompano.4 0.4 0.541 2. mostly consisting of oysters.2 100. eel.857 232.2. spadefish and ornamental aquarium fish. Source: BAS (2005). mainly due to seaweed production.5 8.3 1.1 0.2. VI.2. accounting for more than 90% of total aquaculture production (Table 2.2.1 0.493 18. aquaculture also includes mariculture or the farming of aquatic organisms.a lists other major species cultured besides seaweeds.8 3.2 100. mussels and seaweeds.0 17.568 19.108 432. Mariculture in marine waters registered the highest production figures.746 40. Seaweeds. Table 2.795 225. spiny lobsters. Fishcages and fishpens are employed in all three environments while fishponds are confined to freshwater and brackishwater areas.517 2.895 14.a.313 (%) 64.771 462. Cobia. pearl oysters.2.998 8. freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium).5 18.2.883 (%) 68.a). The top seaweed-producing regions are ARMM (producing about 40% of total volume).7 1.733 1. Next to seaweed-growing _____________________________________________________________________ 28 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .9 0. which produces most of its tilapia in freshwater fishponds. Table 2.888 246.343 (%) 67. milkfish and tilapia. Region IV-B (27%) and Region IX (10%). abalone.2.1 0.0 2002 (t) 894.2.336. catfish. In addition to the culture of the species in Table 2.2 2.CHAPTER 2 2.9 0.646 4.218.6 1.4 0.0 9. Aquaculture production (t) of major species from 2001 to 2003. mudfish. seabass.162 122.193 1. carp.b presents a summary of aquaculture production in 2003 by culture environment and region. Region III.

they are said to be the foundation of major fisheries (Primavera 2000).237.074 9 4 1.815 2.2. Source: BFAR (2003).860 33.531 ha.746 *Mariculture of oysters.2.282 810 518 314 295 31 128 94 641 602 1.768 295 31 149 94 641 605 14. Region Total production Fishpond CAR I II III IV-A IV-B V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII ARMM Total 3. mussels and seaweeds. The next important culture environment are the freshwater fishponds.077 4. Aquaculture production (t) by culture environment and region.529 19. In addition.200 635 47 7. 2.595 400.706 25.342 8.751 2.209 84.363 4. With a total area of 14.217 33.183 7.323 ha of brackishwater fishponds (both operational and nonoperational).2.403 147 74 1.886 7.202 33 3 10.590 319 302 170.658 15.376 69 37.936 3.955 12.612 474 19.341 518 5.647 169 104 62.913 14.646 8.090 3.494 2.074 3.3. evidence suggests that the biomass of several commercially important reef fish species may be doubled in the coral reefs used by such species as adult habitat. brackishwater fishponds are the second biggest contributor to aquaculture production. This may be due to the increased survival of juveniles resulting from abundant food and sheltering from predators provided by mangroves (Mumby et al.529 19.588 33.945 23.351 64.785 3.829 7.501 75.987 14. Though not conclusive.454 0 12 Fishpen 2. mangrove areas are nutrient and food-rich environments that support abundant marine life and function as nurseries for a variety of marine organisms. 2.658 3 5.611 29 1.570 1.097 3 414 7 1.814 807.063 921 80. these account for about 6% of the total area of fishponds (brackishwater and freshwater) yet contribute 22% to the combined output of all fishponds.441 120. Because mangroves function as nurseries and breeding grounds for fish and prawns.499 Fishcage Fishpen Mariculture* Total 0 0 17.710 101.180 59.256 60.635 15.524 5.2.268 12 19 23 1.123 8.999 31.885 5.454 249.763 101.068 80.227 Fresh water Fishpond 463 3.926 112. which form the foundation of complex food webs.751 2.382 11.688 33 35.010 22.556 61.375 Brackish water Fishcage Fishpen Total 474 0 25.706 18.524 4.687 118.065 16.180 11.782 397.725 18. Thus. algal beds and coral reefs are critical fisheries habitats because they perform vital ecological functions that sustain fisheries.180 61.258 8.255 150 165 71. The country has 239.702 397. particularly reef fish.836 2.811 785.791 75.725 39.180 11.343 33.841 1.255 23.594 5.406 11.123 8.381 814 5. if the reefs are connected to mangroves.989 Marine waters Total 2.805 37.3 Critical Fisheries Habitats Mangroves.467 635 16. The trees continuously shed leaves that decompose in the mud into soluble nutrients and organic detritus.061 2.663 823 6.368 103 76 22 11 53 37 1.945 23.876 1.179 7.b. _____________________________________________________________________ 29 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . they are sites of important fisheries.185 9 1.429 12.074 46.679 Fishcage 456 11.663 57.1 Mangroves Mangroves are communities of woody trees that can tolerate salt water and thrive in tidal muddy areas.454 259.829 7. seagrasses.482 2. 2004).663 57.875 5. Table 2.440 18.785 5.447 148.CHAPTER 2 areas.

In 1994. Among several identified factors causing seagrass degradation. tidal currents. They are typically found in the intertidal areas of bays.9%). nursery areas and feeding grounds to a variety of marine organisms. storm surges and typhoons (UNEP-WCMC 2006). There are no estimates of the total area of seagrass beds in the Philippines because the country’s extensive coastline has yet to be adequately assessed. Siganids or rabbitfish spawn in seagrass areas and are typically caught there. 2.2 Seagrasses Seagrasses are flowering plants that thrive in shallow marine waters. The diet of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and the dugong (Dugong dugon). anchored to bottom substrates by roots and horizontal stems called rhizomes. Seagrass leaves slow water movement.4%) and Northern Mindanao (16.000 ha of mangroves reported in 1918. They trap sediment and pollutants from the land. Southern Tagalog (24. Conversion to other uses.500 ha. gastropods. Other harvestable materials include wood for fishing poles. consists mainly of seagrass. particularly to fishponds.3. Mangroves also shield coastal areas from the damaging effects of waves. most of which was concentrated in Western Mindanao (44. mangroves provide ecological services. Like mangroves. lobsters. the total cover of mangroves in the country was estimated at 120.8%). which promotes settling of sediment. bivalves and other invertebrates are collected from mangroves. Seagrasses support fisheries by sheltering juvenile fish and prawns. based on estimates of biomass per square meter and shoot density (BFAR-NFRDI-PAWB 2005). The _____________________________________________________________________ 30 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . The present total cover of mangroves is less than a third of the 450. penaeid shrimps. seagrasses tend to spread extensively on sandy or muddy substrates. seagrasses help decrease turbidity and help minimize the sedimentation of nearby coral reefs. when mangroves were first assessed nationally. rivaling tropical rain forests in terms of variety of organisms contained and supported. seagrasses provide habitat. Most seagrass areas assessed so far are heavily stressed. 2.2. estuaries and coastal waters. In addition to providing harvestable resources. crabs. which are endangered species. while their roots and rhizomes stabilize sediment and hold these to the bottom.2.3 Coral reefs Coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse of ecosystems.3.CHAPTER 2 Fisheries exist in mangrove areas. firewood and charcoal making. is the main cause of mangrove loss (Primavera 2000 citing DENR 1996). among others (Primavera 2000). Thus. absorbing the latter and thus helping maintain water quality. Finfish. Although capable of attaching to hard substrates. their general overuse resulting from increasing human population is apparently the most significant factor (Fortes and Santos 2004).

2.68 17. Source: BAS (2006).32 Growth rates 2002-2003 2003-2004 5.30 6. as well as the aquarium or ornamental fish trade.83 16.18 113.30% and municipal fisheries with 12.03 Table 2. Coral reefs are a substantial resource base.427.85 15.13 119.36 33.74 26.32 5. Aquaculture was credited with a remarkable output gain of 17.CHAPTER 2 foundation of coral reefs are colonies of coral polyps.418. Value of production at constant prices.542. In addition to finfish.47 1. coral reefs contain commercially valuable seaweeds and invertebrates.30 37. which secretion of limestone slowly creates massive reefs over geologic time scales. who estimated that 15% of the country’s fish yield is derived from coral reefs. From 2003 to 2004.34 2004 48.45% growth recorded in 2004 (Table 2.487.289.866. At constant prices.681.329. Subsector Commercial Municipal Aquaculture 2002 16.258.972.a.2. are based on reef fisheries known for their lucrativeness and export earnings.199.b. 12.674.1 Fisheries Production in Terms of Value Fisheries production in terms of value has been growing from 2002 to 2004 (Table 2.90%.70 2.3.075. The biggest growth was posted by aquaculture.881.2.554.b).90 5. based on estimates of coral cover (Gomez et al.85 44.23 In millions (PhP) 2003 42. all subsectors of the fisheries recorded notable increases in gross receipts.3 Economic Performance of the Fisheries Sector more in 2004 because of higher production and prices obtained during the period.90 _____________________________________________________________________ 31 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .91 In millions (PhP) 2003 17. 2.60 14. which grossed 20. Production of commercial fisheries moved up by 1. Reef-associated species accounted for 12-13% of the total annual landings of the capture fisheries sector from 2001 to 2003 (Tables 2.3. The same could be said for commercial fisheries with 15. The live reef food fish trade.3.57 139.158.43 8.664.22 2004 17.000 km2 of coral reefs.43%.35 15.66 Growth rates 2002-2003 2003-2004 6. Source: BAS (2006).450.1.a and 2.86% and that of municipal fisheries by 2. sea cucumbers and sea urchins.1. Subsector Commercial Municipal Aquaculture Total 2002 39.88 35.91 40.1. such as mollusks. It has been estimated that over a million small-scale fishers in the Philippines derive their livelihood from coral reefs (UNEP-WCMC 2006).17 38.a). The country has 27.178. the fisheries sector exceeded the 2003 performance with the 9. 1994).1. This is comparable to the often-quoted figure provided by Carpenter (1977).90 45. Table 2. Value of production at current prices.03 20.3. based mainly on groupers.86 6. About 70% of the country’s reefs are in a poor state.660.12 28.b).32% growth in gross earnings.35 15.

12 9.49 billion) to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) of PhP4. Weighted average of farmgate prices.4 Contribution of the Fisheries Sector to Foreign Exchange Earnings Since 1977.69 2004 67.86 billion) of GDP amounting to PhP1. Table 2.093 billion at constant prices (BFAR-FPED 2003).000 25.58 26. or -1. the sector’s contribution to GVA in the agricultural group (PhP158.66 -3.07 37. Subsector Commercial Municipal Aquaculture All subsectors Price/kg (PhP) 2002 2003 2004 38.000.59 6. these commodities account for about 82% of total fishery exports (Table 2. Source: BAS (2006).36 Growth rates 2002-2003 2003-2004 7.26 26. the fisheries sector contributed 2.45 2.46 25.3.000 15. Hong Imports Exports 30.3 billion at constant prices) was 22. The major destinations of Philippine fish and fishery products are Japan.3.000 20.CHAPTER 2 Subsector Total 2002 56. fishery and forestry group amounting to PhP632 billion at current prices. which means earnings from exports have exceeded payments for imports (Figure 2.a).3.000. seaweeds.58 13.000.5 billion) of the gross value added (GVA) in agriculture.2. Altogether. prices of aquaculture products were higher by an average of 2.3 billion at constant prices.2.084. foreign trade of fishery products has generated a surplus balance of trade. Meanwhile.996.3.1% (PhP44.000 _____________________________________________________________________ 5. Currently.85 42.3. or 4.54 42. As of the third quarter of 2004.25 In millions (PhP) 2003 61.a).3 Contribution of the Fisheries Sector to GDP and GVA In 2003.01 2. 2.59 38. shrimps and prawns. It accounted for 15.4. the top fishery exports of the Philippines are tuna.54%.293.85 38.2 Prices of Fish and Fishery Products Prices in the fisheries sector grew by 6.9% (PhP44.3%. These subsectors registered price increases of 13.000 10.a.54 9. Commercial and municipal fisheries recovered from 2003’s negative growth rates. octopus.9 billion) of the GVA of PhP214.a). the second largest share next to that of agricultural crops.2% (PhP95. respectively.23 Growth rates 2002-2003 2003-2004 - and crab and crab fat.19 -0.000 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan 65 6667 68 69 7071 72 7374 75 76 7778 79 8081 82 83 8485 86 8788 89 9091 92 93 9495 96 9798 99 00 0102 03 '000 Pes os 32 .359 billion at current prices.36 2.19% and 9.66%.1% (PhP95.01% in 2004 (Table 2.000. USA.

Table 2.430.076 Total 22.503 Seaweeds 3.3 6.0 6. Value of top exports of fish and fishery products.CHAPTER 2 Kong.3. fish processing and boat building generate additional employment.182. This is roughly about 12% of the entire agriculture.216 7.7 2. Source: BAS (2005).618 1. live 574.083 % 29.5 1.a.4 5.4 7.177.978 Squid and cuttlefish 437.460 Octopus 1.169 235.3 0. and about 5% of the country’s total labor force.3.664.9 11.500 Roundscad 325.6 11.478 Crab and crab fat 1.9 0.4 15.911.002 6. dried 284. Taiwan and Korea (BAS 2005).5 Contribution of the Fishing Industry to Income and Employment The fisheries sector provides employment to over 1 million people.6 Contribution of the Fisheries Sector to Nutrition In the diet of the average Filipino.3 100.723.9 1. Of this total. Source: FAOSTAT (2003).123.524. 22.3 10.4 6.052 Sea cucumber.4% to total protein intake and 56% to total animal protein intake.9 2.7 2. In 2001. which determines the intensity with which they utilize these resources.6 6.540.859 Ornamental fish.0 2003 Value 7.1 1.3. fishery and forestry sector labor force.194. 2.145 549.537) are fishfarmers engaged in aquaculture as reflected in Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (2002-2004) document.4 The Socioeconomic Setting Conditions in coastal and fishing communities strongly influence the degree of dependence of resource users on local resources.a. Figure 2.695. 9.3% to total food intake.759.949 Others 2. 2001 Value Tuna 5.988 1. live 320.707.2 23.427 447.1 27.8 14.4 1.8 kg/year (Espejo-Hermes 2004 citing FNRI/DOST 2003 and BAS 2002).428 Shrimps and prawns 6. fish contributes 12.7 1.361 168.0 2002 Value 7.953.333 3.3.701 2. Also.5 100.8 0.490.3 100.2% (74.9 15.921.2 1. This section describes the increasing _____________________________________________________________________ 33 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .5 27.642 348.0 2. Value of Philippine fish exports and imports.208 Note: value in PhP x 1.350.897 3.417 1.926 1. 2.000.005 471.4. the per capita consumption of fish was estimated at 26.951 4. % 25. ancillary activities such as fish marketing.238 26. Fish is the main source of animal protein among Filipinos.178 228.280 578.786 333.555.925 Grouper.130 204.4.433 27.3 0.760 % 27.1 1.287.

2. These include the availability of relatively flat land for settlements and agriculture. The concentration of human populations in coastal areas is expected to continue into the near future.4. By year 2020. and access to coastal and fishery resources. specifically by 57 and 31 persons/m2.a). _____________________________________________________________________ 34 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . the population density in coastal areas will be higher by 81 and 44 persons/m2 compared with the noncoastal density and the national average. respectively. In 2000. the population density in coastal areas was characteristically higher than the noncoastal population density and the national average.1 Population Density in Coastal Areas Human populations tend to concentrate in coastal areas for a variety of reasons. respectively (Table 2.4. access to maritime transportation that tends to spur trade and other economic activities.CHAPTER 2 population density in coastal areas and summarizes the facts about living conditions in municipal fishing households.1.

640 100. These indicators suggest the pervasiveness of poverty in fishing communities.279.306. increasing population density in coastal areas would translate to increasing pressure on harvestable fishery resources. 42.490.000 47. Population density in coastal areas.4.600 Population density (person/km ) 255 286 229 281 315 252 309 347 278 335 376 301 361 405 324 2. only 40% owned their lots .1% and nipa and wood for 34% .400 163.400 163.992.571. high proportion of nonmotorized boats and use of simple fishing gear are all consistent with low fishing incomes.only 20% availed of loans. of this 83% came from informal sources .000 136.the main fishing gears used were hook and line.housing type was nipa and bamboo for 41.498.100 53.510 92.299. Moreover. _____________________________________________________________________ 35 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .400 163. Source: ArcDev (2004).average household age was 41 years .CHAPTER 2 For capture fisheries.600 300.007. the average living conditions in municipal fisher households are as follows: .291.295. gillnet and beach seine (Siason 1999 citing PRIMEX-ANZDEC Report 1996).000 136.426 (1992) .440.210 49. Low educational attainment.a. however.600 2 2 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 76.022.600 300.those who own their houses constituted 82% of surveyed respondents. Parameter Population (persons) National Coastal areas Noncoastal areas Land area (km ) National Coastal areas Noncoastal areas National Coastal areas Noncoastal areas 300. The average income of fishing households listed above is way below the poverty threshold.000 136.735 39. it implies additional pressure on the critical fisheries habitats that sustain these resources.average annual household income was PhP25. Table 2.400 163.1.900 300.000 136.600 300.905 37.000 51.1 members .400 163.360 45.000 55.736.educational attainment was about 4-6 years of schooling .only 25% of the households were members of community organizations .490 41.2 Socioeconomic Households Characteristics of Municipal Fishers and Fishing Based on the data gathered from the 12 priority bays studied under the Fisheries Sector Program in the early 1990s.790 108.most owned their fishing boats but only 27% were motorized .830 84. use of simple housing materials.average household size was 5.000 136.

At the apex is the Philippine Constitution followed by national laws and international agreements.2 The Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997 The AFMA of 1997 provides the appropriate budgetary and logistical requirements for modernization of the country’s agricultural and fisheries base. The AFMA’s objectives are poverty alleviation.1 The Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 The Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 provides a comprehensive legal framework that governs the development.1. (4) National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act of 1992 (RA 7586). also through the agriculture and fisheries modernization programs of LGUs.5. The AFMA’s planning systems are through the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan (AFMP) at the national and LGU levels and the SAFDZ Plans. management and conservation of the country’s fisheries and aquatic resources. optimal utilization of existing resources. 2.1 Policy and Regulatory Framework The Philippine legal and policy framework is hierarchical. There are also legal issuances at the local level. food security. and international agreements at the global level. rational use of resources. The major Philippine laws that serve as the foundation for the current policy and regulatory framework for fisheries in the Philippines are the following: (1) Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 (Republic Act [RA] 8550). Its objectives are poverty alleviation. people empowerment and sustainable development. 2. food security.CHAPTER 2 2. (3) Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160). people empowerment. industrialization and full employment. Priorities of this national law include protection of fishery and aquatic resources. At the lowest rung are the ordinances by the local government units (LGUs). rational use of resources. and improving and rationalizing the domestic market. maintenance of ecological balance and quality of environment.1. social equity. It operates through Strategic Agricultural and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ) as identified by the Department of Agriculture (DA). (2) Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) of 1997 (RA 8435).5.5 The Institutional Environment 2. and (5) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System (Presidential Decree [PD] 1586) of 1978. Its priorities include sustained increases in production.5. driven by a marketoriented approach within a highly competitive economic environment. then administrative issuances to implement national laws. The AFMA _____________________________________________________________________ 36 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . considering as well the welfare of those involved in the sector. Another concern of this law is optimum production of goods. The code declares the state policy of achieving food security through a regulatory regime that provides mandates and guidelines for long-term sustainable use of resources. social equity. sustainable development and global competitiveness.

• Management.CHAPTER 2 mandates the creation of a network of smallholder cooperatives to engage in marketing activities. both laws did not have the benefit of policy integration. Table 2. social equity.5.5. fisheries are considered as a major source of food for the country’s growing population with the corresponding management urge to _____________________________________________________________________ 37 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .3.a lists the basic differences between the two laws based on a policy study undertaken by the Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP) (Batongbakal 2000). optimal utilization of existing resources and maintenance of ecological balance and quality of the environment Improving and rationalizing the domestic market • Poverty alleviation. Major concern AFMA • To provide the appropriate budgetary and logistical requirements for modernization of the country’s agricultural and fisheries base • Sustained increases in production. food security. rational use of resources. Although both laws deal with the fisheries sector and attempt to provide a policy framework for fisheries development. sustainable development and global competitiveness Increased income and wealth. industrialization and full employment • Optimum production of goods. they were largely the result of independent legislative initiatives. 2.a. Comparison of AFMA of 1997 and the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998. Unfortunately. On one hand. food security. social equity. Source: Batongbakal 2000. protection of fishery and aquatic resources. the Fisheries Code was enacted only a few months after AFMA came into effect.1. and expansion of productivity • Through SAFDZ as identified by DA • Through agriculture and fisheries modernization programs of LGUs • AFMP at national and LGU levels • SAFDZ Plans Fisheries Code • Proper management/husbanding of the country’s fisheries resources.3 The combined implications of the Fisheries Code and AFMA In 1998. the divergence of these two laws is a result of the traditional tug-ofwar in fisheries management between production and resource management concerns. driven by a market-oriented approach within a highly competitive economic environment • Poverty alleviation.1. Table 2.3. rational use of resources. delivery of goods and services. people empowerment and sustainable development • Better distribution of benefits from limited resources and long-term sustainability of such resources • Through LGUs and FARMCs for municipal waters • DA-BFAR for all fisheries and aquatic resources other than municipal waters • Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan • Municipal Fisheries Development Plans (MFDPs) • Comprehensive Post-harvest and Ancillary Industries Plan Priorities Objectives Expected benefits Operations Planning systems In essence. conservation.5. people empowerment.1.

however. human settlements and industrial expansion) of LGUs are also exercised through the preparation of comprehensive land use plans and the enactment of zoning ordinances (Section 20). Any progress made (particularly by LGUs) in meeting the objectives of one or the other law. bangus.). 2. On the other hand. overlapping responsibilities and potential conflicts in objectives.5. and the improvement and development of local distribution channels. etc. water and soil resources utilization and conservation projects. kawag-kawag.1. The resource management responsibilities (taking into consideration food production. In the process. the provision of extension and on-site research services and facilities related to agriculture and fishery activities. and the catching of fish using nets.g. Responsibilities devolved to LGUs included: the enforcement of fishery laws in municipal waters. traps and other gear. There are legitimate concerns over inconsistencies. the enforcement of environment and natural resources laws within the territory. for the entire country. eventually. will result in benefits for the municipality or city and. the code also provided for the devolution of the responsibility to provide a number of basic services from national government agencies (NGAs) to LGUs. Nevertheless.CHAPTER 2 maximize the socioeconomic benefits. both laws provide policy frameworks to improve fisheries productivity and production and/or to effectively manage the fisheries resources. mussel and other aquatic beds. the Local Government Code (LGC) of 1991 established LGU as the key manager of resources within its boundaries. Section 149 of LGC provides municipal governments with the authority to grant fishery privileges in municipal waters and to impose rentals.. _____________________________________________________________________ 38 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . it is widely recognized that fisheries resources are finite and that continued fishing at today’s intensive rate will result in a decline in fish production. fees and charges. the collection of fry (e. prawn.4 The Local Government Code Consistent with the government policy to promote local autonomy and decentralization. Fishery privileges include the erection of fish corrals and oyster.

Thus.5.950 2. Cagayan Masinloc. Negros Occidental and Negros Oriental Panglao Island. wetland or marine”.a lists marine reserves and protected seascapes that have been proclaimed as protected areas under NIPAS as of 2003 as well as other examples of marine protected areas (MPAs).5 million ha comprise an initial list of proposed protected areas that are to be assessed for possible inclusion in the national system of protected areas (PAWB 2003). 209 sites with a total area of 2.5 The National Integrated Protected Areas System Act RA 7586 otherwise known as the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act of 1992 established a system for designating national parks and protected areas in order “to preserve genetic diversity.000 480 386 242.a because the sizes of their land and marine components are not distinguished.CHAPTER 2 2. but these have been omitted in Table 2. Among the categories of protected areas relevant to fisheries management are marine reserves and protected seascapes.5. TawiTawi Maitm. to ensure the sustainable use of resources therein. Source: PAWB (2003).792 32. Ana. they can contribute substantially to sustainable fisheries.1. Some MPAs under NIPAS.6. Table 2.1. Occidental Mindoro Sagay. Region 2 3 4B 6 7 7 9 12 MPA Palaui Island Marine Reserve Masinloc and Oyon Bays Marine Reserve Apo Reef National Park Sagay Marine Reserve Tanon Strait Protected Seascape Panglao Island Protected Seascape Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary Sarangani Bay Protected Seascape Location Sta. Negros Occidental Cebu. If these MPAs are effectively managed. there are 18 landscapes/seascapes that have been proclaimed under NIPAS as of 2003. Sites included in the systems are “outstanding remarkable areas and biologically important public lands that are habitats of rare and endangered species of plants and animals.5.967 215. but these municipal-level MPAs are much smaller (usually less than 100 ha) than MPAs under NIPAS. Maasim. Zambales Sablayan.” Under NIPAS. and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible. Kiamba. In general.a. Oyon. biogeographic zones and related ecosystems.415 7.5. MPAs under NIPAS have large sizes.6.5. Bohol Southwestern Sulu Sea.6 Environmental impact assessment and related laws _____________________________________________________________________ 39 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . In addition.1. Table 2. whether terrestrial.568 15.1. Sarangani Year proclaimed 1994 1993 1996 1999 1998 2003 1999 1996 Area (ha) 7. NIPAS complements the Fisheries Code with regard to MPA establishment and provides a mechanism for establishing large MPAs.5. The Fisheries Code also contains provisions for establishing MPAs (called “fish sanctuaries” and “fish refuges” under the code).1.

become part of the Philippine law. Under these laws. including the allocation of resources to aquaculture.2 Institutional Arrangements and Mechanisms The management of the fishery resources is distributed among many government agencies or instrumentalities.1. These international agreements are elaborated in Chapter 3’s Section 3.). the following sets of regulations complete the policy and regulatory framework for Philippine fisheries. 1995 FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The basic jurisdictional divisions are as follows: (1) municipal or city governments for “municipal waters” and resources within the territorial boundaries of these municipalities or cities. Second. 2.CHAPTER 2 Presidential Decree (PD) 1586 or the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System of 1978 and related laws can potentially influence fisheries management. These instruments. First. government-owned or controlled corporations and private companies are required to prepare an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for any project or activity that significantly affects the quality of the environment. outside municipal waters) fishing activities and public lands such as tidal _____________________________________________________________________ 40 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity. The detailed procedures for the handling of EIAs are outlined in various Department Administrative Orders (DAOs). This set of laws also stipulates that any project defined as environmentally critical or located in an environmentally critical area is required to prepare an EIS to be reviewed by the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).1. etc.7 From national laws to issue and site-specific regulations Under the umbrella of these national laws and their implementing rules and regulations. there are DAOs issued by the different departments/national government agencies (e.5.g.g.5.8 International treaties and agreements There are several international treaties and agreements that have also bearing on the policy and regulatory framework for Philippine fisheries. The requirements for EIAs and Environmental Compliance Certificates (ECCs) were also subsequently incorporated in the Fisheries Code of 1998. both at the national and local government levels. there are municipal ordinances issued by the municipality or city government. DA. 2. DENR.. The key international agreements include the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. once ratified by the Senate.1 (Development Philosophy). 1992 Action Agenda for Sustainable Development (Earth Summit) and 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. there are Fisheries Administrative Orders (FAOs) issued by DA through BFAR. Third.5. 2. government agencies.. (2) DA-BFAR for commercial (e.

At the municipal or city level.e.g. in consultation with BFAR. assist in the enforcement of fishery laws.2.5. coral reef conservation. make recommendations for municipal fishery ordinances. cross-municipalities and national. management and development functions over fisheries resources. roads.). rules and regulations in municipal waters. Recognizing that local governments would benefit from consultation with and the involvement of fisherfolk and their organizations. cold storage. regulating the capture of certain species and/or sizes of fish. to the municipal governments. Relative to fisheries and aquaculture. Options available to local governments include. establish license fees for fishing in municipal waters. the FARMCs are expected to assist in the development of MFDP for submission to the Municipal Development Council. markets. banning or restricting the use of certain fishing methods. among others. as well as fisherfolks. maintain a registry of municipal fisherfolks. which are not included within the protected areas as defined under the NIPAS Act. municipality/city. These are elaborated in the following sections. lakes. techniques or gears..g. such as mangrove swamp forest reserves under the NIPAS Act). Membership in these councils includes representatives of government agencies and institutions. closed seasons. The LGUs and the NGAs are encouraged by the Fisheries Code to consult and coordinate with FARMCs as they carry out their regulatory. through Protected Area Management Boards (PAMBs). rules and regulations and municipal ordinances. for areas under the category of protected landscapes and seascapes (e. the following: authority to grant fishing privileges or license fishing operations in municipal waters. 2.). Regulatory. delivery of services and undertaking programs and projects. livelihood opportunities and general well-being of their residents. special ordinances declaring special demarcated fisheries areas. LGUs have the following responsibilities: enact a municipal ordinance delineating the boundaries of municipal waters and providing rules and regulations for licensing and permits. enact. management and development mechanisms are operationalized through ordinances.CHAPTER 2 swamps.1 Local government units Municipal waters under the Fisheries Code include streams. _____________________________________________________________________ 41 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Local governments’ interest in properly developing and managing fisheries resources is driven by the fact that these resources contribute directly and significantly to food production. infrastructure and facilities (e. marshes and foreshore land and ponds. land/water use planning and zoning. establishment and maintenance of MPAs. fishworkers and other stakeholders. inland bodies of water and tidal waters within the municipality. mangrove reforestation. The code encourages the formation of such councils at several levels – barangay. and (3) DENR for shoreline and foreshore areas and. the Fisheries Code provides for the creation of Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Councils (FARMCs). credit. and agriculture and fishery extension services and livelihood training. whenever necessary.. mangroves. fish sanctuaries and refuges. etc. habitat conservation and restoration (i. etc.. These also include marine waters up to 15 km from the municipality’s coastline. and enforce fishery laws. and provide advice. environmentally critical areas and sanctuaries.

The list of responsibilities of the LGU agriculturist and even of the environment and natural resources officer. one or more municipalities share a bay. gulf. need to relate to all municipal or city governments they serve. private sector and fisherfolk associations. These IFARMCs have functions similar to the functions of municipal FARMCs. as well as aquaculture. IFARMCs. it also can serve to increase the complexities and difficulties of management efforts.CHAPTER 2 The standard organizational structure of local governments provides for the appointment of an “agriculturist” as a mandatory position for provincial governments and an optional position for municipal and city governments. He or she is also expected to develop plans and strategies and. Nevertheless. the management of common water bodies and their fisheries resources needs to be shared among the affected municipalities or cities. 2. to implement these. The sharing of these fisheries resources provides opportunities for collective action and the sharing of effort. who is assumed to be responsible for fisheries in the absence of any other staff position. the fisheries officers and the development officers of the relevant municipalities and/or cities are expected to serve on IFARMCs together with the representatives of NGOs. The Fisheries Code expects municipalities and cities to prepare MFDPs as part of the overall municipal development plan. the Fisheries Code envisions the formation of Integrated Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management Councils (IFARMCs) as the venues for closer collaboration between and among local governments in the management of shared resources. however. In such cases. river and/or dam. There is an apparent gap between the organizational structure envisioned by the Fisheries Code and the organizational support that the municipal government is expected to provide as gleaned from LGC of 1991. LGC declares it optional for municipalities or cities to maintain the position of an agriculturist. lake.2. however.” Municipal or city governments are encouraged to group themselves and coordinate with each other to achieve the objectives of fishery resources management. In the context of these responsibilities. In fact. resources and costs among LGUs. However. The Fisheries Code states that the management of contiguous fishery resources “shall be done in an integrated manner. and shall not be based on political subdivisions of municipal waters in order to facilitate their management as single resource systems. the term “agriculture” includes traditional agricultural crops. The chairpersons of the Committees on Agriculture/Fisheries.5.2 Inter-LGU mechanisms Very often. upon approval by the governor or mayor. _____________________________________________________________________ 42 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . does not explicitly include responsibilities for capture fisheries and marine ecosystems. The agriculturist shall be responsible for the Office for Agricultural Services and is expected to formulate measures for the approval of the provincial and municipal/city councils and to provide technical assistance and support to the governor or mayor.

conservation. conservation and protection of the fishery resources. issue licenses for the operation of commercial fishing vessels. The Fisheries Code of 1998 reconstituted BFAR as a line agency and specified its functions as follows: • Policy and enforcement a. c. formulate rules and regulations for conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks. regulation. management.3 Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources The BFAR is the country’s premier fisheries management agency. regulation. establish a corps of specialists in collaboration with the Department of National Defense and the Department of Foreign Affairs for the efficient monitoring. development. monitor and review fishing agreements between Filipinos and foreigners. and settle conflicts on resource use.5. prepare and implement a Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan. recommend measures for the protection/enhancement of the fishery industries. except those within municipal waters. e. formulate rules and regulations for the conservation and management. d. develop value-added fisheries products for domestic consumption and export. conservation and protection of fishery resources. b. provide extensive development support services in all aspects of fisheries production. enforce all laws. protection. d. advise and coordinate with LGUs on the maintenance of proper sanitation and hygienic practices in fish markets and fish landing areas. BFAR will coordinate with and assist LGUs. FARMCs and other concerned agencies in undertaking the functions specified earlier. utilization and disposition of all fisheries and aquatic resources of the country. processing and marketing.2. coordinate with LGUs and other concerned agencies for the establishment of productivity-enhancing and market development programs in fishing communities.CHAPTER 2 2. control and surveillance (MCS) of fishing activities within Philippine waters. • • Regulation of commercial fishing a. b. issue identification cards to fishworkers engaged in commercial fishing. and e. provide advisory services and technical assistance on the improvement of quality of fish from the time it is caught. f. and g. b. c. BFAR has jurisdiction over management. except in municipal waters. _____________________________________________________________________ 43 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Industry development a. and c. On municipal waters. In coordination/cooperation with other NGAs. formulate and enforce all rules and regulations. assist LGUs in developing their technical capability in the development.

Capture Fisheries Technology Division. The BFAR is also responsible for regulating and monitoring the import and export of all fish and fishery products. and c. National Marine Fisheries Development Center and National Seaweeds Technology Center. The regional offices also supervise the operations of the Provincial Fisheries Offices. field testing of technologies. maintains and operates seven Regional Fishermen's Training Centers. National Integrated Fisheries Technology Development Center. • Research a. National Inland Fisheries Technology Center. The centers transfer relevant and appropriate technology to improve present practices and increase individual productivity and income. more specifically. through its regional offices. The BFAR is responsible for issuing licenses for commercial fishing (fishing activities outside municipal waters) as well as for issuing Fishpond Lease Agreements for public lands suitable for aquaculture. National Freshwater Fisheries Technology Center. fishery organizations/ cooperatives. of smallscale fisherfolks/organizations/cooperatives. Fisheries Industry Development Support Division. These national technology centers include the: Fisheries Biological Station Complex.CHAPTER 2 • Industry monitoring a. FARMCs. These centers aim to develop and upgrade individual skills and competencies of technical fisheries staff of LGUs and other agencies involved in fisheries implementation and. demonstration and training/seminars in support of policy formulation and project implementation on fisheries development and conservation in coordination with concerned agencies and organizations. training and extension services. Each of the training centers is also expected to establish and operate feasible sectoral fishery projects to serve as support/demonstration _____________________________________________________________________ 44 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . extension services. Mindanao Freshwater Fisheries Technology Center. b. Fisheries Policy and Economics Division. formulate and implement a Comprehensive Fishery Research and Development Program. BFAR maintains regional offices in all the administrative regions of the country. The ten divisions of the bureau include the: Fisheries Resources Management Division. implement an inspection system for import and export of fishery/aquatic products and fish processing establishments. LGUs. coordinate efforts relating to fishery production undertaken by primary fishery producers. centers and regional offices. These regional offices have functions such as MCS. Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Division. It has the following organizational subdivisions: divisions. National Brackishwater Fisheries Technology Center. The BFAR also has eight national technology centers which are operated and maintained for activities related to technology generation. Administrative Division and Finance Division. Legal Division. Aside from the divisions and the national technology centers. establish and maintain a Comprehensive Fishery Information System. Fisheries Regulatory and Quarantine Division. Fisheries Post Harvest Technology Division. The BFAR.

The Agriculture Training Institute provides leadership in formulation of the national agriculture and fisheries extension agenda. primary and secondary-processed agriculture and fishery products. as well as develops the agriculture and fisheries R&D information system. For post-harvest services and infrastructure. Within the DENR are several natural resource management bureaus. The Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance Division takes care of Agribusiness and Marketing Assistance Service.5. Two key units are involved for information-related concerns: Bureau of Agricultural Statistics for data on agriculture and fisheries research. It has also attached agencies.2. Public Investment Program Division. as well as formulate the agriculture and fishery infrastructure plan. The Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards is responsible for setting and implementing standards for fresh. and Program Monitoring and Evaluation Division are responsible for DA’s planning service. the Forest Management Bureau and the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB). Research and Development in Agriculture and Fisheries. 2. conservation and development on national and local levels. These are briefly described below.5. in marketing ventures and in the conduct of market analysis. 2. The Fisheries Code created within DA the position of Undersecretary for Fisheries and Aquatic Resources for the primary purpose of attending to the needs of the fishing industry. A number of divisions/bureaus within DA have responsibilities that also cover the fisheries sector.5 Department of Environment and Natural Resources The DENR administers environmental management. Its areas of responsibility that are relevant to fisheries management include the management of foreshore and shoreline areas. _____________________________________________________________________ 45 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .2. It provides direct assistance to the private sector. These divisions handle AFMA-related planning activities. as indicated in AFMA. and Agricultural and Fisheries Information Service for dissemination of agriculture and fisheries production market information. as well as protected areas. including concerned people’s organizations and nongovernment organizations (NGOs).4 Department of Agriculture The DA takes charge of the overall planning and policymaking in the agriculture and fisheries sector at the national level. as well as oversees the National Extension System in Agriculture and Fisheries. such as the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB). the Bureau of Post Harvest Research and Extension takes the lead.CHAPTER 2 facilities in target fishing communities for replication as source of fisherfolk's income or alternative livelihood. The Planning and Budget Division. The Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR) serves as the secretariat for research and development (R&D) of the Council on Extension.

A PAMB is a multisectoral body formed to manage an MPA established under the NIPAS Act. DENR’s CMMO was established to coordinate and integrate all coastal management activities. marketing. Among the organizational units within DENR that are concerned with fisheries are the PAMBs and the Coastal and Marine Management Office (CMMO). 2. which are found in the 13 administrative regions of the country. although some provincial governments and municipalities also run their own PENROs and CENROs. and education and training. particularly in the areas of law enforcement. especially in policy review and formulation. In fact. including the registration of shipping vessels. credit provision. These PENROs and CENROs fall within the DENR apparatus. Other agencies that provide law enforcement support include the Philippine Navy and the Philippine Coast Guard (PCG). fishing vessel registration and safety. the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Offices (PENROs) within each province and the Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENROs) within the municipalities. In the past. In 1998. coordination and integration of development and implementation of coastal programs and projects.CHAPTER 2 such as the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority and the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA). The MARINA is responsible for the promotion and development of the maritime industry. Fishing vessel registration and safety is administered by the Department of Transportation and Communication with attached agencies such as the PCG and the Maritime Industry Authority (MARINA). shipping and maritime safety. Parallel CMMO-type units are now organized at the regional and community (CENRO) levels to respond to the technical needs of LGUs in their efforts to implement coastal resource management programs and projects. In 2002. the implementing rules and regulations of the Fisheries Code require BFAR to establish an Environmental Unit to coordinate with concerned agencies in assisting project proponents to prepare and submit the required EIS. Government lending institutions such as the Land Bank and the Quedancor provide credit for fisheries ventures.6 Other government agencies There are a host of other government agencies involved in various facets of fisheries management. The Philippine National Police–Maritime Group is the main agency that enforces fisheries and coastal management laws. Local stakeholders and interest groups are represented in PAMB. research and development. infrastructure administration and development. The policies formulated by DENR and its bureaus are implemented by DENR Regional Offices. It also regulates. MARINA was responsible for issuing commercial fishing licenses – a responsibility that was transferred to BFAR when the Fisheries Code was enacted in 1998. with the bulk supporting aquaculture in _____________________________________________________________________ 46 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . and establishment and maintenance of a coastal and marine information management system. in collaboration with PCG.2. the Fisheries Code required all fisheries-related projects that have an impact on the environment to prepare an EIS and obtain an ECC from DENR. which are distinct from their counterparts under DENR.5.

The LGUs manage small ports and landing sites. however. To modernize Philippine fisheries. lies with various government agencies.CHAPTER 2 fishponds. The Department of Public Works and Highways executes the development of fishports and related infrastructure while the Philippine Ports Authority and the Philippine Fisheries Development Authority (PFDA) operate and manage the larger ports and related infrastructure. This plan shall be the consolidation of all the infrastructure plans submitted by the various units within DA and LGUs. The Fisheries Code of 1998 established the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI) to function as the main DA unit for the conduct and coordination of fishery research and development in the country. such as fishports and fish landing facilities. With regard to marketing of fisheries products. The PCAMRD organized the National Aquatic Resources Research and Development System (NARRDS) to assist in the monitoring of R&D on aquatic resources. development and extension (RD&E) institutions and agencies in the Philippines. post harvest and marketing) in fisheries networks were conceptualized after a series of workshops and consultations with various stakeholders. is vital to the management of the country’s fisheries. Southern Luzon. The NARRDS is organized into four national centers based on research themes and five zonal centers that cluster member-organizations in Northern Luzon. market matching services) for investments in fisheries production and ancillary industries. Local governments sometimes provide microcredit for small fisheries projects. particularly on emerging aquaculture technologies and status of fishery resources. The DTI also provides opportunities for the promotion of fishery products through domestic and international trade fairs and exhibits. has the responsibility to formulate the agriculture and fishery infrastructure plan and to monitor its implementation. The NARRDS consists of state universities and colleges and regional units of DA and DENR with R&D functions. rural banks and thrift banks. the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and its Board of Investments provide support and incentives (networking. The Bureau of Agricultural Research. Other formal credit institutions include private commercial banks. aquaculture and fisheries. private development banks. _____________________________________________________________________ 47 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . The DA. R&D. Several institutions are involved in fisheries R&D. programs and R&D projects on aquatic resources including fisheries. DA-BAR embarked on an initiative of fostering partnerships and collaboration among the various fisheries research. Visayas. also within DA. the Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development (PCAMRD) formulates and evaluates strategies. These activities also gave birth to the National Integrated RD&E Agenda and Program for each of the three fisheries networks. Northern Mindanao and Southern Mindanao. The responsibility for developing and operating fisheries infrastructure. enterprise development. investment incentives. complements the research activities of NFRDI. savings and loan associations. These institutions provide credit mainly to commercial fisheries and large aquaculture enterprises. Within the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Three RD&E networks (capture fisheries.

Unfortunately. and other agencies. DepEd. Accordingly. PCAMRD and the academe in the governing board of the NFRDI. DOST. the Commission on Higher Education (CHED).3 Coordination across Agencies Collaboration and coordination across the many government bodies and agencies involved in fisheries have been accomplished through various modalities. and plans of the various agencies are not integrated enough to encourage more effective coordination. the Fisheries Code tasks BFAR with establishing an MCS System for Philippine Seas in collaboration with LGUs and other government agencies (e. members of the Cabinet Committee on Marine and Ocean Affairs). These include nonpermanent mechanisms. To promote information sharing. such as the joint implementation of projects and programs. _____________________________________________________________________ 48 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . AFMA created the Council on Extension. the inherent advantages of collaboration and coordination among agencies are widely recognized. To link research with extension. the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and the Department of Education (DepEd) supervise tertiary-level education (bachelors degree and higher). TESDA. the state universities and colleges. 2. technical and skills courses (such as the three-year diploma course in fisheries) and secondary-level education (fisheries high schools).5. coordination is often wanting. The code also specifies that NFRDI become part of the National Research and Development Network of DOST.g. insufficient financial and human resources devoted to coordination and a general failure to recognize the burden and needs of the coordination activity.CHAPTER 2 In the area of formal education and training in fisheries. AFMA calls on DA to establish the National Information Network to progressively interlink its information networks with networks maintained by DENR. In law enforcement. Research and Development in Agriculture and Fisheries with representation from several government agencies involved in RD&E services. respectively. Reasons for limited institutional collaboration include: overlapping functions and mandates increase the need for coordination while decreasing the effectivity of coordination efforts. and the state universities and colleges are called upon to jointly formulate the National Integrated Human Resources Development Plan in Agriculture and Fisheries. BFAR. the code calls for the representation of DA. In the area of fisheries research. CHED.. DTI. While the record of success of these various initiatives has been mixed. as well as the formation of multi-agency task forces and technical working groups. the AFMA and the Fisheries Code contain provisions that attempt to institutionalize such collaborative mechanisms. To integrate disparate efforts in human resource development. in spite of all the mechanisms in place for interagency coordination and collaboration.

operation of a MCS system in municipal waters. as well as their implementing rules and regulations. municipal fisherfolk associations and cooperatives. mechanisms for inclusion or exclusion of fisherfolk from outside the municipality. and establishment of mariculture (fishcages. In recent years. The Fisheries Code establishes FARMCs as the primary mechanism for participation by the private sector in fisheries management. and lack of recognition by government agencies. The government has also been encouraging communities to become more involved in area-specific resource management. effective partnerships can only be built on effective organizations – on the side of the government. as well as on the side of the private sector. poor leadership.4 Private Sector Participation Aside from an emphasis on interagency collaboration and coordination. 2. municipal and commercial fisherfolks. ineffective governance. declaration of a closed season for fishing in specific areas. they are private-sector institutions that are willing to partner with government for the benefit of their members and/or for the fisheries sector in general. fishworkers and processors. FARMCs are to be formally consulted for the following: establishment of fishery refuges and sanctuaries. the private sector. There also are a number of private sector institutions/organizations involved in fisheries. declaration within municipal waters of fishery reserves for special use. as specified in the code. Unfortunately.CHAPTER 2 2. government agencies and NGOs have exerted efforts to organize communities.5. license fees for municipal fishers. These include the following nonprofit organizations: NGOs. highlight the need for consultative processes with the various stakeholders of the fisheries sector. and industry associations. fishpens. The FARMCs. Each of these organizations has its own special situations and specific challenges that have significant impact on its effectiveness and ability to carry out its respective missions. government agencies have begun to appreciate the benefits to government that could result from effective partnerships with such associations and organizations.) zones. The challenges to these organizations are many and can include: lack of financial and other resources. While all these organizations have specific mandates and purposes. difficulties in increasing memberships. etc. poor membership contributions to the organization. are composed not only of representatives of government agencies but also of NGOs. farmer associations and cooperatives. enactment of municipal fisheries ordinances. poor planning and implementation systems. For this reason. professional associations and societies. establishing catch ceilings in municipal waters. commercial fishing associations. both the AFMA and the Fisheries Code.6 Fisheries Subsectors: Status and Trends _____________________________________________________________________ 49 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Under the code.

6 3 % C o m m e rc ia l 7 .1.0 0 0 8 6 . Next. A q u a c u ltu r e 2 5 8 .6. Afterwards. the section presents a host of subjects under the post-harvest domain.a and Figure 2.1. there were 1. From 1970 to 1980.a. This drastic increase.6.1. focusing on factors that determine the overall amount and intensity of fishing conducted by these two subsectors. their production trends and their combined impacts on particular fishery resource groups – demersals.3 8 % M unic ip a l 1 . pelagics and invertebrates – are simultaneously examined.9 9 % Figure 2. Number of persons employed in the municipal fisheries.781. markets for fish and fishery products are described.4 8 0 1 2 . as well as fishing and gathering less mobile aquatic animals without using boats.1.8 0 0 0 .6. 2. commercial fisheries and aquaculture subsectors. 2.CHAPTER 2 This section provides a close examination of the main producing subsectors of fisheries. including landing sites. accounting for 87% of those employed in capture fisheries and aquaculture (Figure capture fisheries and aquaculture. ice plants and cold storage facilities. fish processing and post-harvest losses.1 Municipal fisheries Population of municipal fishers Municipal fisheries include capture operations using nonmotorized and motorized boats that weigh 3 GT or less. In 2002.a) (NSO 2002). Source: NSO (2002).1. Finally.6. the total number of municipal fishers more than doubled.1. namely. The changing population of municipal fishers through four decades is shown in Table 2. which was much _____________________________________________________________________ 50 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .b.1 Capture Fisheries This section begins by separately examining municipal and commercial fisheries.1.1.7 8 1 .000 municipal fishers.

453 963.6%.339 1995 675. (2000) and NSO (2002).666 904.1.6. fishing became an attractive source of livelihood.6. Table 2. 1970-2002. which was more than twice the number in 1990.714 138. Number of municipal fishers.480 fishfarmers.442 102.384 294.200 1. while the population of municipal fishers declined. (2000).282 296.a. Apparently. Source: Tietze et al. large numbers of municipal fishers sought employment in the commercial fisheries and aquaculture subsectors (Tietze et al. Population trend of municipal fishers. Major island group Luzon Visayas Mindanao Total Number of municipal fishers 1970 158.004 1990 377. After 1995.1.CHAPTER 2 higher than the rate of population growth. By 1995.786 399. 2000). indicating that many had exited the municipal fisheries sector. drawing labor away from other sectors.600 1.78 million fishers _____________________________________________________________________ 51 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Source: Tietze et al. 1970–1995.942 1980 350. the population of municipal fishers dropped by 29. the commercial fisheries subsector was employing 56. 2. From 1990 to 1995.400 1.b.1.000 800 600 400 200 0 1970 1980 Year 1990 2000 Figure 2.9%. meant that in rural areas.800 1. From 1990 to 1995. commercial fisheries and aquaculture expanded. in the first half of the 1990s.715 fishers while the aquaculture subsector had 258.000 No. of municipal fishers (‘000) 1.1.not reported.056 257.502 291. the population of municipal fishers apparently shot up to 1.677 Note: . In the next decade. the increase in municipal fishers continued but at a much decelerated rate of 6.

2). doubling from 388. Guimaras Strait. large Danish seiners (super hulbot). cover pot and crab hook (NSO 2002). The mediumscale type includes liftnet boats (basnig). In 1980. Cuyo Pass.9 horsepower. Small-scale boats have outriggers and motors that are generally second-hand diesel engines imported from Japan and converted for marine use. the population of municipal fishers from 1970 to the present has been generally — but not continuously — increasing. In 2002. municipal fishers respond to changing opportunities within and outside their subsector. In 2002. representing a threefold increase from 110. Visayan Sea. Commercial fishers may be classified into those that operate mainly in Philippine waters.a in Section 2. of which 83. 2.2 Commercial fisheries Fishing grounds of commercial fisheries The Fisheries Code defines commercial fishing as fishing with the use of vessels weighing more than 3 GT. Municipal fishing boats are either motorized or nonmotorized.CHAPTER 2 in 2002.45 million units. and those that can operate beyond our territorial limits. using vessels of 20.1%) have engines with 5. The number of motorized boats in 2002 was 351.b and Table 2. using vessels of more than 150 GT.700. An example of the latter is the country’s distant-water fishing fleet.1–20 GT. the number of municipal fishing boats stood at 777. Municipal fishing vessels and gears By law.5% of the municipal fishing fleet.0% have outriggers (NSO 2002). Like most economic agents. the percentage of motorized boats had increased to 45. Davao Gulf. and (3) large-scale. Thus. Commercial fishing vessels The Fisheries Code classifies commercial fisheries based on vessel tonnage as follows: (1) small-scale.19 million units. which conducts purse seine operations in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Thus. followed by the gill net with 1. Bohol Sea.000 units.600 motorized boats in 1980 (NSO 2002).2. municipal fishing operators use fishing boats weighing 3 GT or less. Within the country. using vessels of 3. East Sulu Sea. some of which engage _____________________________________________________________________ 52 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .1. the most common fishing gear used by municipal fishers was the hook and line with 9.2. The majority of motorized boats (40. medium trawlers and old monohulls fitted with outriggers. Manila Bay and Lingayen Gulf (Barut 1996) (see Figure 2.1-150 GT. the ten most important commercial fishing grounds are Moro Gulf. Other common gears included the cast net.6.1%. South Sulu Sea. By 2002. (2) medium-scale. the sharp increase in municipal fishing boats from 1980 to 2002 has been accompanied by accelerated motorization.0-9.200 in 1980 or in just two decades. motorized boats comprised 28.

1999.09 293.86 85.385. their landings at the Navotas Fish Port may come from Celebes Sea.6.6.740.6.2.1 4..1.1 6. mainly engage in purse seining.1 100 Note: NCR means National Capital Region.6 0. although a considerable number of boats in the 19.6 3.3 0. _____________________________________________________________________ 53 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .4 1.4 11. Number and gross tonnage of commercial fishing vessels (catcher and accessory boat) by region.27 22. Large-scale commercial boats. Source: BFAR-FPED (2003).857. Source: NSO (2002).0 GT range (mediumscale) was added to the fleet.860 boats (Table 2.0 0.2.2 2.1.38 4.509.10 45.6 8. as well as boats weighing three GT or less but are used for commercial operations.1.1 1.0 0.6. 2.601 Percentage 37.85 25.94 1.832.a.5 3.1.59 1.1 0.674.4 17. Table 2.053. The rest of the regions have less than 10% of the commercial fishing boats. Most of the additional boats were small-scale commercial fishing boats (3-20 GT).893.2 15.b) including both registered and unregistered boats.2.CHAPTER 2 in ring net or baby purse seine operations.86 181. there was a three-fold increase in the total number of commercial fishing boats from 1980 to 2002.2. Sulu Sea or other areas of the country (Aguilar 2004). As Table 2.94 270.b cannot be compared with the figures in Table 2.080. Table 2.4 10.66 1. followed by Regions VI and IX.6.281.215. percent of total gross tonnage is greater than percent of total number).b.39 2.7 0.81 1. The National Capital Region is home to the most number of commercial fishing vessels.7 0.5 0.2.2. the entire fleet of the commercial sector consisted of 10.a. Large commercial vessels fish all over the archipelago.e.8 0.9 1.1. Table 2.2 100.67 3. which are mostly bought second-hand from Japan.2 0.99 717. Region NCR I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII ARMM Total Number 1.a shows the distribution of registered commercial fishing boats by region.0 Gross tonnage 158.6 9.00 Percentage 58. Number of commercial fishing vessels by tonnage categories in 1980 and 2002.351 113 64 40 221 160 404 94 124 392 43 555 7 26 7 3.b indicates. which tend to be larger than vessels based in other regions (i. Boats were added to all size categories. Region XI has the next highest number of commercial fishing vessels.6. such as mackerels and roundscads.8 1.2. Thus. ARMM means Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao In 2002. Most of these catchers are after tuna or seasonal pelagic fish.4 0. USA and Taiwan.4 1.4 0.

5 7.2 30.427 1. of boats 1.19. The hook and line group of fishing gear.6 20. of boats 1.0 or less 3.860 Percentage 11.CHAPTER 2 Vessel tonnage (GT) 3.1.4 13. Among the latter are the trawl net and bag net..99.0 49.8 1.5.4 21.0% of the total number of gears in 1980.1 .025 1.0 > 499.0 Not reported Total 1980 No. all types of gears – except bag net – increased in number.957 1. as there was a large number of gears reported in the “others” category in 2003.032 338 316 175 7. of boats 179 1.652 699 1.3 4. is the second most dominant gear.7 5.1 .6 16.204 3. seems to suggest an overall tendency for gear types in the sector to shift towards the hook and line group and the gill net. which accounted for 10.1 27.1 .e. which also accounted for a large portion of the overall increase in gear numbers.49.411 Percentag e 5.0 5. Purse seine/ring net ranks third. _____________________________________________________________________ 54 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .1 13.1 2002 No.211 1.1 .6.1 . However. The decline in the relative importance (i. which represent a greater than 20-fold increase from 1980 (Table 2. handline and troll line (Munprasit et al.044 559 728 460 239 200 2 3.194 Commercial fishing gear NSO records as of August 2003 disclosed a total of 146.3 Increase in no.9 0.492 577 516 177 255 10. percentage of total) of these two gears. The gill net.0 99.2.c). as well as other gears in 2003. was the dominant gear in both periods and also accounted for most of the increase.0 9. All other gears accounted for less than 1% of the total in 2003.3 13. respectively.0 19.001 2.2 thousand fishing gear units used by commercial fishing operators.9. Over the 23-year period.1 .6 2.0 5.499. which includes the longline. this tendency cannot be ascertained. 1995).6% and 15.

701 3.6 3.CHAPTER 2 Table 2. Offshore or deep-sea FADs consist of four types.2. the ratio of which is 1:1. Philippines.9 10. Its use has thus reduced fuel costs and enhanced fish aggregation resulting in increased fish production.5 15. steel buoy.031 135 61 154 65 742 38. Source: NSO (2003).2 or 1: 5 (de Jesus 1996).0 1980 Number 2.4 0.883 22.6 15. Fishing gear Hook and line/longline/ troll line/pole and line Gill net Purse seine/ring net Trawl net Bag net Beach seine Muro-ami/drive-in net Push net Round haul seine Others Not reported Total 6. Notable developments in commercial fishing technology The application of the fish aggregating device (FAD) – locally called payaw – as an accessory to commercial fishing gear. namely: bamboo.5 10. Such include innovative fishing methods.6.2 34.879 100. particularly for tuna and tuna-like species.c. as well as larger and improved vessels that can fish for longer periods at distant fishing grounds. combination of bamboo and steel buoy. of units added 52.8 Percentage 2003* Number 54.1 0.622 11.880 * As of 31 August 2003.2 0. the anchor line also depends on depth. and galvanized drum. The country’s commercial fisheries subsector has also benefited from advances in fishing technology.6 0.962 175 -280 518 405 190 275 49.0 Percentage No.228 22. especially in purse seine fisheries (de Jesus 1996).0 2.9 2.064 729 1. These floating FADs are anchored with concrete weights. _____________________________________________________________________ 55 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .5 15.3 0.458 1.5 0.9 100. has minimized fish scouting.0 0.1.213 37.2 0. Progress in electronics and computer technology has also transformed the efficiency of commercial fishing.026 904 751 653 466 344 340 50. Number of fishing gear (by type) used by commercial fishing operators.523 146. the number of which depends on the depth (1-5 drums). 1980 and 2003.5 2.6 7.655 243 1.

500 3. Commercial production then essentially remained constant at the level of about 500. although commercial production was increasing.000 2.a shows the trend in the annual production of the municipal and commercial fisheries alongside the aquaculture production trend. Municipal landings increased from 1965 to its peak in 1983 at about 1.6.6. Source: BFAR (2005). then increased slowly from about 400.000 t annually until 1985.000 t in 1969 to about 500. Commercial 4. commercial fisheries production matched municipal fisheries production from 1965 to 1968.CHAPTER 2 2.1.000 500 0 Municipal Aquaculture Total 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 Figure 2.000 t in 1973. it can be discerned that capture fisheries production leveled off at the beginning of the 1990s.1.a. From 1991 to 1995. after which it leveled off at 0. which was followed by a steadily increasing annual production. municipal production was simultaneously decreasing.6. _____________________________________________________________________ 56 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . 1965-2003.500 1.9 million t to 1.000 1.2 million t.1. The year 1995 also marked the point at which commercial fisheries production caught up with municipal fisheries production.3. commercial production essentially matched municipal production at more or less 1 million t annually. From 1995 to 2003. On the other hand.500 '000 t 2.3 Capture fisheries resources: exploitation status Production levels and trends in municipal and commercial fisheries Figure 2.3.000 3. This would reach a “plateau” a decade later in 1995.2 million t annually. Overall. Fisheries production by subsector.

Meanwhile. Today. most of which (62-65%) are landed by commercial fishing operators (see Table 2. The change in species composition indicates that fishing has come to the point where it is changing fundamental characteristics of the marine ecosystem.2. maximum sustainable yield (MSY) was reached in the mid-1970s (BFAR-NFRDI-PAWB 2005). The decline in demersal biomass has been accompanied by a shift in species composition. demersal fish species comprise 16% of capture fisheries production. Manila Bay and San Miguel Bay. commercial fisheries production experienced the same about a decade later in 1995. demersal fishing became more efficient with technological advances. Annual rent dissipation in the small pelagic fisheries has been estimated at US$290 million (Silvestre et al. including the relative decline of larger-sized and commercially valuable species and the increase in shrimps and squids among the catch (BFARNFRDI-PAWB 2005). Demersal biomass levels are today estimated to be only 10-30% of the levels in the late 1940s.c. such as Lingayen Gulf. Status of demersal resources At present. annual demersal production has continuously declined relative to total capture fisheries production (BFAR-NFRDI-PAWB 2005). in Section 1. as well as the number and power of boats described earlier. 69-72% are landed by municipal fishers while the rest are caught by commercial fishers (see Table 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 57 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . Annual rent dissipation as a result of overfishing has been estimated at US$130 million (Silvestre et al. 1986). the level of fishing effort was already twice the magnitude necessary to harvest MSY (Barut et al. the biomass of small pelagics is only 17% of the levels in the early 1950s (Zaragosa 2004). 1986). combined to increased aggregate fishing pressure.2. particularly in major trawlable areas. Status of small pelagic resources About 56% of the present production of capture fisheries is composed of small pelagic species. Demersal stocks in almost all trawlable areas of the country are depleted. This conclusion is supported by the observation that since the 1960s. Of these. By the 1980s.2). in Section 2. The increase in number of fishers. This conclusion is based on a review of various trawl surveys conducted throughout the country. such as the highopening trawl (BFAR-NFRDI-PAWB 2005).2). When viewed against the generally increasing numbers of fishers in the municipal sector and the dramatic increases in number of boats in both subsectors during the same periods. The country’s demersal stocks were overfished as early as the 1970s (Silvestre and Pauly 1987).b.CHAPTER 2 Municipal fisheries production reached its peak in 1985. In addition. For small pelagic stocks. 2004) while the average catch rate during the same period was only 1/6 of the rate in the 1950s. the more or less constant outputs imply progressively declining catch rates in both subsectors. which result in the decline of demersal stocks.

1. comprise 12-15% of the annual production of capture fisheries (see Table 2. 82% is accounted for by the top producing regions.2.b). namely. aquaculture production equaled the production of municipal and commercial fisheries (i. in Section 2.6. aquaculture out-produced both subsectors of capture fisheries. decline in the catches of tunas has been observed.a).2 Aquaculture 2.CHAPTER 2 Status of large pelagic resources Large pelagics.6.a also shows production trend of the aquaculture subsector from 1965 to 2003.. which altogether account for 77% of seaweed production in the Philippines (Table 2.1. concern has been raised about the prevalent practice of catching of juvenile tunas in payaw (Babaran 2004). Nevertheless. Tilapia production is concentrated in Regions III and IV.2. seaweeds. milkfish and tilapia are the main products being farmed by the aquaculture subsector. Also. With regard to milkfish production. studying their populations is difficult.e. The top seaweedproducing regions are the ARMM. Region IV-B and Region IX. the continued rise of overall fisheries production from the 1990s to the present is the result of continued increases in annual aquaculture production.6.2. I.a in Section 2.2.1. which are mostly landed by the commercial fishing operators (6874%). Thus. which produce 78% of total production (Table 2. aquaculture production continued rising.6. _____________________________________________________________________ 58 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .1.2. and no definitive statements can be made about their biological status. IV and VII (Table 2.c).1 Aquaculture production Figure 2. While capture fisheries production reached a plateau in 1991 and thereafter remained more or less constant.3.2.1.c.2). Regions III. Because most large pelagic species are highly migratory. Thereafter.6. Aquaculture production has been rising almost continuously since 1976. VI. the three subsectors had more or less equal production in 1995). In 1995.2. As shown in Table 2.

60 39.a.1.50 263.458.00 101.30 8. Region NCR I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII ARMM Total Total 2.90 75.90 1.3 1.00 1.178.00 27.40 9.1 1.30 18.002.05 1.243.539. Source: BFAR (2003).44 0.145.68 534.876.663.00 67. Seaweed production (t) by culture environment and region in 2003.992.516.445.CHAPTER 2 Table 2.00 1.70 3. Milkfish production by culture environment and region in 2003.190.20 4.62 401.00 7.70 19.30 11.00 201.1.70 2.00 3.164.c.913. Source: BFAR (2003).24 12.914.40 32.811.977.270.70 7.3 10.20 Fishpond Fresh water Fishcage Fishpen 2.940.9 7.722.344.144.10 4.55 Brackish water Fishpond 411.553.00 988.00 1.90 193.4 2.946.10 6.00 103.164.0 3.402.917.599.00 397.10 15.40 6.b.00 56.6.6. Tilapia production by culture environment and region in 2003.331.9 0.60 1.504.2 100.00 20.28 10.10 22.70 0.268.60 3.20 8.0 Table 2.45 12.18 Percentage 0.00 28.722.92 1.80 296.890.06 9.90 59.30 246.888.00 735.913.406.178.60 Marine Fishcage Fishpen Table 2.10 2.524.00 2.00 11.00 Fishcage Fishpen 7.742.00 1.40 9.00 59.00 1.995. Source: BFAR (2003).337.480.013.200.66 1.607.70 3.40 6.50 1. Region II IV-A IV-B V VI VII VIII IX X XI XIII ARMM Total Production (t) 484 29.14 636. _____________________________________________________________________ 59 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .70 55.70 30.70 2.821.2.90 1.499.74 359.2.00 414.40 4.6 1.651.05 2.7 40.083.00 13.0 26.50 18.50 63.70 6.702.673.40 48.738.40 17.00 4.368.306.658.096.40 7.3 4.

2. The table identifies cultured species which production could be boosted by the application of technology.164.50 9.17 148.20 249.2.50 50.40 Fishpen Fishcag e 2.056.20 11.80 186.191.50 28.74 9.00 5.00 244.2 Status of culture technologies With regard to major farmed species.40 445.2.96 136. already into genetic manipulation Hatchery SRT.30 8.20 424.81 1.00 22.716.574.00 4.90 300.51 Fishcage Fishpen Fishpond Fresh water Fishcage 398.30 715.301.10 134.40 3.001.50 101.178. mostly small-scale.00 46.20 2.6.995.90 42.70 81. mossambicus Developed.90 64.445.50 0.50 1.16 31.30 459. The extent of commercialization is also indicated.959.80 68. whether existing in other countries or obtainable through R&D.60 453.10 0.2.90 2.00 36.27 127. Table 2.10 7.375.00 5.52 615.84 899.00 36.20 317.a.26 2.2.40 1.037.CHAPTER 2 Brackish water Region NCR CAR I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII ARMM Total Total Fishpond 460. source of seed stock and growout method.49 5.063.80 99.243.80 5.50 68.a summarizes the status of their culture technologies in terms of availability of hatchery. Table 2.00 7.50 21.90 33.168.50 9.90 631.82 103.90 115.89 77.70 183.20 512.169.00 331.706.00 4.885. This may be pursued through government assistance for further commercialization or other means.366.57 59.77 378. Status of culture technology and extent of commercialization of major farmed species. GMT.30 62.00 58.610.50 15.50 37.10 135.50 3.30 1. GIFT.30 671.40 16.60 4.10 2.114.743. Species Fish Milkfish · Chanos chanos Hatchery Source of seed stock Mainly wildcaught plus hatchery Growout Extent commercialized Developed Extensive to intensive Brackishwater ponds Freshwater pens/cages Marine pens/cages Deepwater cages Extensive to intensive Freshwater ponds Brackishwater ponds Freshwater pens/cages Concrete tank systems Extensive to semi-intensive Freshwater ponds/cages/pens Growout industry highly developed but as of 1998 only one commercial hatchery Commercial feeds readily available Tilapia · Oreochromis niloticus · O. saline hybrids Hatchery Both hatchery and growout industry highly developed Commercial feeds readily available Limited and not widespread Few private hatcheries mostly government Limited.76 3.959. but Carps · Cyprinus carpio · Aristichthys nobilis · others Catfish Developed Developed Hatchery Semi-intensive _____________________________________________________________________ 60 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan .6.

Brackishwater ponds Extensive to semi. merguiensis · Metapenaeus ensis Mud crab · Scylla serrata · Scylla oceanica Giant freshwater prawn · Macrobrachium rosenbergii Lobsters · Panulirus spp.intensive Growth limited by low price and high production cost. asinina One company in Cebu growing Taiwan species Widespread small-scale cultures Red tide. nets Floating lines May be grown in net cages Brackishwater pond Fixed bottom line May be grown in net cages Brackishwater pond Highly developed industry n. Cuttings: ex wild or farm stock Mainly in Cebu and some farming in Batangas province _____________________________________________________________________ 61 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . · Family Scyllaridae Mollusks Oysters · Crassostrea iredalei · Saccostrea spp. Hatchery C. gariepinus Mudfish or snakehead · Ophicephalus striatus Gourami · Osphronemus gouramy Seabass · Lates calcarifer Grouper · Epinephelus spp. Cuttings: ex wild or farm stock Widespread but limited n. · Kappaphycus alvarezii Agarophytes · Gracilaria spp.CHAPTER 2 Species · Clarias batrachus · C. · Gracilariopsis balinae Chorophyceae · Caulerpa lentillifera Developed but not financially viable Wild-caught R&D stage under verification Government hatchery only Wild-caught Hatchery None Wild-caught Marine pens Fattening R&D Natural spatfall R&D Natural spatfall R&D for H. mainly as secondary species Limited market No commercial hatchery Natural spawns Developed Hatchery R&D stage Wild-caught Rabbitfish · Siganus guttatus · Siganus vermiculatus Spadefish · Scatophagus argos Crustaceans Jumbo tiger shrimp · Penaeus monodon Developed but not commercialized Wild-caught Freshwater fishpond Extensive to semi. asinina Hatchery Stakes Lines suspended from fixed racks or floating rafts Stakes Raft Buoy and long line R&D stage for H.a.a. macrocephalus still under R&D Developed but not yet commercial Source of seed stock Growout Freshwater ponds Some pens and cages Freshwater ponds Some cages Extensive Extent commercialized more widespread than carps Wild-caught Very limited. a constraint Practiced in all areas with spawning stock Suffers form periodic red tide Not developed for H. no steady Marine pens/cages market demand for fingerlings No work done even at R&D Developed Wild-caught Brackishwater ponds Marine pens/cages Extensive to intensive Polyculture with milkfish Brackishwater ponds Extensive Polyculture with milkfish Brackishwater ponds Extensive to semi-intensive Brackishwater ponds Extensive Freshwater ponds Limited development Hatchery Intensive farms in process of consolidation after production setbacks Growth limited by seasonality of wild fry and high cost of fry produced in hatcheries Growth limited by uncertainty of seed stock supply Growout technology in dissemination stage Other penaeids · P.intensive Growout limited only by supply of fingerlings Brackishwater ponds Marine cages Commercial feed available 1998 Brackishwater ponds Limited development. asinina Seedling bank in R&D stage Cuttings: ex wild or farm stock Fixed bottom line. (ex Taiwan) Seaweeds Carageenophytes · Eucheuma spp. Green mussel · Perna viridis Abalone · Haliotis asinina · Haliotis sp. indicus · P.

responding to market forces alone. Without mariculture parks.1. mariculture operators. handling about 14% percent of the total commercial landings.6.2. The Navotas Fish Port remains as the country’s premier fish landing center. the government regulates the number and sizes of cages.CHAPTER 2 2.1 Landing sites Fish catches all over the Philippines are typically landed in private. 22% in PFDA-managed major fishports. the Aquaculture Department of the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center and the BFAR have been promoting the establishment of mariculture parks or zones for the management of mariculture activities.3 Post Harvest 2. will tend to establish cages anywhere without regard for the overall sustainability of their industry.a indicates how commercial landings were distributed among various types of landing sites throughout the country in 2003.6.3 Mariculture mariculture parks: an integrated approach to sustainable Recently. In this manner.6. which are established by the location of the mooring buoys. traditional or government-owned landing centers. Table 2.3.6. In a mariculture park. as well as the distances between cages. 20% in private landing facilities and the remaining 2% in ports managed by LGUs. The government-owned landing centers are fishports managed either by PFDA or by LGUs or jointly managed by both. About 56% of the commercial catch was landed in traditional landing sites.3. _____________________________________________________________________ 62 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . 2. stocking densities can be regulated based on the carrying capacity of an area.

472 246.676 79. is partly due to the fact that there are only seven other major fishport complexes in the country besides the Navotas Fish Port.e. The Navotas Fish Port Complex has the most number of piers and market halls.063 5.626 42.862 620.834 771 10.067 78.955 Traditional 3.819 3.257 21.226 221.783 42.676 79. Source: BFAR-FPED (2003).391 80.a. These are the fishport complexes in Lucena.619 (from 1995 to 2004) and 11 (from 2001 to 2004). only 70 LM long.348 17.155 PFDA 149.528 12.862 1. Region NCR I II III IV-A IV-B V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII ARMM Total Private 10.418 Total 153.CHAPTER 2 Table 2. the number of municipal fishports is seemingly increasing. Region IV (i. although it is still not enough to meet the needs of the subsector.137 16. although it is observed that most municipal fishers still utilize the traditional landing sites. The government-owned major fishport complexes provide landing quays and market halls for fish traders and handlers.015 114.143 46. Commercial fish production (t) by region and type of landing center. although the Davao and the General Santos Fish Port Complexes reported arrivals of foreign fishing vessels of a total of 7.554 133 123.1. respectively. As of 2004.3. General Santos City and Sual.067 88. The capacities of the harbor and market facilities of the eight major fishport complexes considerably vary. Regions IV-A and IV-B combined) has the highest number of these PFDA- _____________________________________________________________________ 63 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . i.108 LGU 19.698 2. Iloilo.157 10.245 4. there were only 47 PFDA-constructed municipal fishports located in 11 regions in the Philippines.6.128 41.015 211.109..411 3.085 84.851 6.366 16.291 58.271 6. The major fishport complexes provide landing quays mainly to local fishing vessels.336 37. These major fishports basically cater to the commercial fisheries subsector.636 The tendency in the subsector to unload most catches in traditional landing sites.728 58.019 11.953 39. The catch from the municipal fisheries subsector is typically unloaded in the traditional landing sites or in municipal fishports. In terms of regional distribution. The Sual Fish Port Complex has the smallest landing quay.463 52.415 179. However.019 11.001 4.143 46.303 4. where the handling practices cannot be efficiently controlled. Camaligan.128 31. Davao.e. Zamboanga. Data on the unloading in these sites are inadequate.936 120. followed by the General Santos City Fish Port Complex..

Aurora) of these facilities were reportedly operational. The most common preservation technique in landing sites is still the reduction of temperature via chilling or the use of crushed ice.g. 43 of such facilities are owned by the government. several fish processing methods are employed to reduce spoilage and produce quality.2 Ice plants and cold storage facilities The commercial fisheries subsector has access to the refrigeration facilities of the major fishport complexes.3.g. etc. However. For the municipal fisheries subsector. freezing and cold storage facilities that considerably vary in number and capacities.3 Fish processing methods In the Philippines. ice in other forms. such as flaked. The choice of the medium to be used depends on their availability and affordability. There are other chilling media available in the Philippines (e.64%) ports. the access of municipal fishers to these facilities might be limited by their buying capacity.CHAPTER 2 constructed municipal fishports (10 ports or 21. 2. only 11 remained operational as of December 2004. Nine are presently on lease to some private groups/individuals. These techniques typically involve any of the following: (1) temperature control via the use of either low temperature (i. 6 (or 12... and (4) combination of different processing methodologies to produce value-added fishery products. which have ice making. seawater ice and slushed ice).77%) and 5 (or 10.e. a few avail of the refrigeration facilities at the major fishport complexes and other government-owned ice plants/ice making facilities. followed by Regions V.3. chilling and freezing) or high temperature (i. only 11 of these remained operational in 2004. _____________________________________________________________________ 64 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . boiling and smoking). with 7 (or 14. safe and competitive fish and fishery products. there are 23 government-owned ice making facilities that are being managed by LGUs all over the country. only 2 (both located in Casiguran and Dingalan. In addition to those ice making facilities under LGUs.. (2) reduction of moisture (i. (3) other processing methodologies (e. procure ice from private ice plants/ice making facilities.. surimi processing. Although there is also a significant number of privately owned ice making and ice storage facilities in almost all of the regions in the Philippines. drying. thermal processing. however. in December 2004. seaweed processing. The aquaculture subsector primarily uses the eight major fishports in the country for the auctioning of aquaculture produce in the domestic market. while 2 operational facilities are now being managed by ARMM. With regard to ice storage facilities available to municipal fishers. the majority of the fishers have limited access to even simple ice making/plant facilities. 2. VI and III. mincing.). However. marinating/pickling. However. respectively. refrigerated/chilled seawater. Most. salting.28%). there are 27 government-owned ice making facilities all over the country..89%). tube and blocks. To date.e. smoking and fermentation).e. Among aquaculture operators.6.6.

salting. Indeed.) remain unaccounted. Products processed are fish species that are caught in large quantities during certain seasons. The other FPEs that operate as backyard activities and use traditional fish processing methodologies (e. canned or frozen products. Siganids sometimes also undergo de-boning before drying. According to DTI. 2. As of 2004.5 Post-harvest losses Approximately 25-40% of the total fish production in the Philippines is lost from the distribution chain. Japan and other Asian countries.4 Fish processing establishments Data on fish processing establishments (FPE) in the Philippines are scanty and generally limited to those that are registered. Although some of these fish processors produce good fishery products. drying. such as sardines. Europe. on the other hand. only 294 FPEs had licenses to operate (LTO) from BFAD (BFAR 2005). there have been a number of shipments that were rejected or detained due to failure to comply with standards of the importing nations.CHAPTER 2 Overall. Only two fishport complexes (Camaligan and Iloilo Fish Port Complexes) provide processing areas to entrepreneurs.g. strive to meet the demands and specifications of the export market. but roundscads are also smoked. or disposed of as live food (Abella and Baltazar 1995). dried. mackerels/roundscads and anchovies.6.e. salted. siganids. most of those who dry and smoke fish are the wives of municipal fishers. Most of these big players have their own processing plants. approximately 70% of the total fish consumption in the country is in fresh or chilled forms. anchovies and siganid fry are processed into fish sauce known locally as ginamos and padas. more particularly in the coastal communities. The big players in the industry. infestation of _____________________________________________________________________ 65 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . generally rely on traditional knowledge in processing fish and other aquatic resources. such as discards and by-catch in fishing vessels and spoiled/inedible fish in landing facilities.3. smoked. Fish processors. fermented and pickled). While many succeed in exporting to the USA.3. while the remaining 30% is processed into either cured (i. (2) nutritional losses or the decrease in the amount of nutrients a human body derives from eating fish that has lost its nutritional value.. quality control can be problematic. the majority of which are the big players in the industry. usually of excess fish. smoking. if not the fishers themselves. fermentation. More recently. Fish traders also engage in drying and smoking. 2. All are dried. and (3) losses in value due to spoilage of wet fish. the big majority of processors in the country are small-scale operators. Most backyard processors do not have permits and are thus not regulated or regularly inspected by the authorities. respectively.. Besides drying and smoking.6. milkfish (bangus) has been deboned and marinated and sold in plastic and styrofoam packs. etc. This is attributed to one or all of the following reasons: (1) actual physical or material losses.

4 Markets In general. For municipal fishers. In terms of packaging fish and fishery products. poor packaging and labeling of fishery products still predominates. This includes the use of banana leaves. Post-harvest handling must occur in aquaculture facilities. old newspapers and thin plastic bags for retail packaging of fishery products. in commercial and municipal fishing vessels. the problem is exacerbated by their inability to buy ice for their catch. as amended by RA 7394) that governs all consumer products sold in the Philippines. In the distribution of fishery products in the local market. In fact. despite the implementation of the Labeling Act of the Philippines (RA 3740. 20% of Philippine fish production is exported while 80% is consumed locally. In terms of storage and distribution of the processed products. Of the latter. 2. only 40% of the freezers and 28% of the cold storage facilities that are government-owned remained operational in 2004. sales appeal and shelf-stability. 64% is sold fresh. and in FPEs. Proper postharvest handling practices. as well as the use of wooden trays and boxes for storage. the limited access of fish handlers to refrigeration facilities on fishing vessels and in landing sites is a major factor contributing to reduced fish quality. even some local supermarket chains do not handle the products well. most fishers have to rely on private ice plants/ice making facilities. Commonwealth Act No. In particular. in major and municipal fishports and other landing sites. inferior packaging leads to problems that are related to quality. traditional packaging of fishery products still prevails. Although relatively cheap. the governmentowned cold storage facilities are not sufficient to meet the demands of the industry. weight loss and inferior finished products. Although the government provides refrigeration facilities in major fishports and some municipal fishports. _____________________________________________________________________ 66 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . most of these facilities are nonoperational. 8% is dried and 8% is processed. especially the frozen products. 46. therefore.6. safety. are prerequisites to maintaining fish quality. particularly for products sold in the wet market. For fishery products in retail supermarkets. For the commercial fisheries subsector. transport and marketing of fishery products in wholesale quantities.CHAPTER 2 dried and smoked fish.

who sometimes bring the fish to bigger markets in major towns within a province.). 2. The lender requires the borrower to sell the fish exclusively to the lender..CHAPTER 2 2. The municipal fishers’ fish products are usually marketed locally within a few hours. High-value products. but loan repayment is made daily in the form of fish produce at reduced price terms. This is especially true when fishers are hired help and do not own the boats and gears. as payment for debt that fishers incur during the lean seasons. such as mud crab and sea cucumber. The larger and higher quality fish are sold to wholesalers. Fishers borrow for capital investments and operating expenses. mostly in retail quantities. Smaller fish are sold to village retailers or marketed directly to consumers. In such cases. There are middlepersons who buy fish from fishers. The majority of the products of municipal fishers are sold by retailers at the village-level market (talipapa) or at the town center’s wet market. Some fishing corporations have their own fish canneries and therefore transport their catches directly to these canneries (e. No interest is charged. Marketing costs are low. Prices at source are not.6. although a 5-10%/kilo markup exists between sales to retailers and sales to consumers at the village level. Thus. 2. Frequently. smoked or fermented products. etc. the return to the fisher is as low as 15% of the landed price. Ayala Seafoods Corporation and Universal Canning Corporation. Markups at each stage of the marketing chain may range from a low of 10% up to a high of 50%.6. farm-gate prices are generally less than half of retail prices. however. catches that have been landed in private and traditional landing sites are transported to major fishports for auctioning. always identical with prices received by fishers. the catch of the municipal fishers directly goes to big entrepreneurs of the area. They then either sell these products in the local wet market or process them into dried. directly in traditional landing sites.1 Markets for municipal catches In the domestic market.2 Markets for commercial catches Most commercial catches are landed and traded in wholesale qualities at traditional landing centers.6. fish is traditionally sold both in retail and wholesale trading centers.3 Markets for aquaculture produce _____________________________________________________________________ 67 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . In some cases. The majority of catches from the municipal fisheries subsector is marketed.4.4. fish are sold by women in villages.4. In some areas.g. A system where the buyer provides capital for fishing for priority in fish landings – an arrangement called suki – is common among fishers. are brought to city markets like Metro Manila.

Those who are engaged in on-site bidding are middlepersons and fish exporters. The national average per capita consumption further declined to 27 kg in 2001. Section 34 of the Fisheries Code of 1998 stipulates that at least 10% of _____________________________________________________________________ 68 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . where fishing is a major industry. which was lower than the national average because the region has access to other protein foods and the retail prices of fish there are often higher. purchasing power and consumer preferences. etc.. deboned milkfish. safe and globally competitive products. most of the produce is either auctioned on site or transported to major fishports for auctioning.4. Aklan’s Boneless Bangus. fish vendors in the local wet markets and small fish processors. Hence. Although these countries still remain as the top major destination.. etc. Japan and USA are the traditional export markets for Philippine fish and fishery products. most of their aquaculture produce directly goes to their processing plants. had the highest per capita consumption of 49 kg. The Visayan provinces. etc. 2.g.6. development of new fishery products or improvement of existing ones is only part of the overall strategy. including canned/bottled fish.). fermented and marinated/pickled. In 1999. are also influenced by the availability of substitutes.). salted. geographical variations in the consumption of fish and fishery products are determined by proximity to supply source (due to inadequacy of transport facilities).6. Since the world market demands high-quality. Compliance with existing regulations in the export market is necessary to stay competitive in the export market. smoked. Metro Manila had a per capita consumption of 34 kg. Meanwhile. 2. crab fat. 2.6.g.7 Government support for marketing systems The AFMA mandates the creation of a network of smallholder cooperatives called “National Marketing Umbrella” to engage in marketing activities. These.) are sold in wet markets throughout the country.5 Local consumption Within the country. in turn.6. dried.. 2. which was attributed by BFAR to faster population growth relative to production growth.4.6 Export markets In terms of export. bidding in fishports is typically done by middlepersons. Alson’s Aquaculture Corporation. and specialty products (e.CHAPTER 2 In the aquaculture subsector. pasteurized fishpaste.4.4.4 Markets for processed fishery products Traditional processed fish products (e. In addition. Some products are sold in supermarkets. it is still necessary to tap other markets and create a niche for some of our fish and fishery products.g. Some aquaculture farms have their own processing facilities (e.

market roads. unsustainable management of fisheries means: (1) our fishery resources are depleted. fishports. In specific terms. but far from where fisherfolk communities are found. Hence.. we pull together the facts about these challenges and elucidate their interconnections. These ports charge high fees and require quota supply from fishers in exchange for landing rights. Figure 2. Problems in infrastructure support include the concentration of fishing ports in urban areas where there is potential for investment and growth.7. Post-harvest losses _____________________________________________________________________ 69 uctures Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan l of rcial ther rs Limited coordination among concerned agencies/stakeholders Low priority given to fisheries Weak regulatory/enforcement measures Weak information dissemination Limited research and development Reduced contribution to economy Weak institutional partnerships • Poor product quality • High production costs • Weak marketing strategies Uncompetitive products . despite a long history of attempts. In this section. there was an ice supply program led by the private sector which built about 36 ice and cold storage facilities. (4) we have yet to fully exploit the full potential of our aquaculture and commercial fishing grounds. and that the most effective way to address them is to implement a carefully planned and integrated program. More specifically. (5) our fishery products are not competitive.7 Key Development Challenges The previous sections offered glimpses of the many challenges facing the country’s fisheries sector. The main cause of the above problems — or what prevents us from resolving them — is our inadequate management systems and structures.a schematically illustrates the major issues confronting Philippine fisheries. the municipal fishers cannot readily access these ports. all these problems can be traced to an institutional system that is not yet fully effective. Philippine fisheries have yet to be sustainably managed.g. (2) our fishery habitats are degraded. and (6) we consistently endure post-harvest losses.) • Lack of technological know-how Figure 2. In addition. (3) we see intensified resource use competition and conflict. more resource use conflicts. Key challenges confronting Philippine fisheries.CHAPTER 2 government loans to the fisheries sector be allotted to post-harvest and marketing projects.a. Unsustainable management results in greater poverty.7. Given such prohibitive fees. Since the 1990s. • Limited facilities (e. etc. harvest facilities. If the problem of Philippine fisheries can be summarized in a single statement. 2. the government has provided funding for the construction of more than 200 fish landing ports through its national municipal fishing ports program and the Fisheries Sector Program of the early 1990s. the Ginintuang Masaganang Ani Program for 20022004 aims to improve production-marketing systems in the fisheries sector so that it becomes “more efficient and effective”. We will show that these challenges are intricately linked. We examine these problems below. it can be stated that. and reduced contributions of the fisheries sector to the economy.

Catch rates reported in reefs throughout the country are among the lowest in the world. Despite the directive in the Fisheries Code calling for a shift from open to limited access through licensing. a fisher is motivated to fish as much as possible because the fish that he or she does not catch will most likely be caught by someone else. such as the disappearance of larger-sized demersal species.000 ha. which in 1918 was estimated at 450. 2. Under open access. Conversion of mangroves into other uses. indicating that fewer individuals get the chance to grow to adult sizes. we have yet to implement a nationwide licensing in the municipal fisheries. The biomass of small pelagics today is only 17% of the levels in the early 1950s. However. Among the consequences of intensified competition is the proliferation of destructive and illegal _____________________________________________________________________ 70 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . among other things. In the case of seagrasses. have begun to occur. Consequently. scientific evidence suggests that the fishing pressure on these resources is likewise excessive. Moreover. Destructive fishing practices and pollution likewise contribute to habitat degradation.CHAPTER 2 2. Overfishing of both demersal and small pelagic resources probably started in the 1970s.7. reduced litter fall. practically anyone who wishes to fish may fish when and where they choose. particularly into brackishwater fishponds.7. 2. For tunas. as indicated by low shoot density and biomass per square meter. biomass levels are down to 10-30% of levels in the late 1940s. as evidenced by low live coral cover. has wiped out two-thirds of the country’s mangroves.1 Depleted Fishery Resources The amount of fishing pressure exerted on Philippine capture fishery resources is simply more than what the resources can sustain. In addition. about 95% of the remaining mangroves are secondary growths with thinner canopies. in the case of demersal resources.7. In the case of large pelagics. In this situation. most seagrass areas that have been surveyed thus far are stressed. Open access to our fishery resources is the main reason for their severe depletion. juveniles now comprise a large portion of the typical catch. the race to harvest them intensifies. reduced food and consequently a diminished capacity to function as fish nurseries.2 Degraded Fishery Habitats The Philippines’ critical fisheries habitats are degraded and their ability to sustain fisheries and provide ecological services is impaired. their abundance is difficult to ascertain because they are highly migratory. Such unregulated competition ensures that overall fishing pressure eventually becomes excessive. in particular. Siltation and destructive fishing have rendered 70% of the country’s reefs in poor condition. changes in species composition.3 Intensified Resource Use Competition and Conflict As resources dwindle.

500 ha.4 Unrealized Potential of Aquaculture and Commercial Fisheries In the aquaculture subsector. 2. have high production costs and are hampered by poor marketing strategies. With regard to commercial fishing. In such cases. No serious attempt has been made to explore the largely untapped EEZ waters. LGUs and local communities. a number of species are being cultured with less than adequate technology. The potential areas available for aquaculture expansion are nearly 285.g.7. some products are of poor quality. conflict is the inevitable result.7. Among other things.7. The management agencies are hampered by the lack of financial resources. market roads and dry/cold-storage facilities) and limited technological know-how contribute to post-harvest losses. some culture activities are dependent on the wild for seed stocks because hatcheries are nonexistent. Intensified competition leads to resource use conflicts. Where commercial fishers operate within the vicinity of municipal fishers. Such losses can be attributed to one or a combination of physical. Philippine fishery products are not known for being competitive.7.7 Limited Institutional Capabilities The responsibility to manage fisheries is shared by NGAs.. as well as inadequate human resources. Lack of infrastructure facilities (e.6 Post-harvest Losses Approximately 25-40% of the country’s total fish production is lost due to discards and improper post-harvest handling. 2. production could be significantly increased if a hatchery could provide a stable supply of seed stock. Competition is aggravated by ineffective implementation of fisheries zonation scheme. Fishers turn to such practices in desperation or in a bid to outcatch the competition.CHAPTER 2 fishing practices. Yet these groups have serious capability limitations that prevent them from fulfilling their responsibilities. Within _____________________________________________________________________ 71 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . most operations are conducted in the country’s shelf area or within depths of 200 m. For example. fishports. nutritional or value losses. Among the potential areas are the offshore areas of Palawan and the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Eco-region. Some of the shipments of the country’s fishery products have been rejected by the importing nations because they failed to meet the required safety standards. About one-third of the harvested products are spoiled before they reach their market destinations. 2.5 Uncompetitive Products In the export market. 2. especially between those who use gears of highly unequal fishing power. such as divers and recreationists. There are also conflicts between fishers and other users of the fishery resources. Conflicts also occur among municipal fishers using different gears.

improve postharvest practices and systems. the collaboration is quite loose. These include the vast water resources for increasing production. 2.7. and extract substantive resource rents through policies based on natural resource pricing. trade policies on import liberalization are putting the small-scale fishers at a disadvantage given the importation of cheap fishery products. There are opportunities to delineate property rights to gradually replace the open access regime. sustainably expand aquaculture and mariculture. municipal fisheries are an open access subsector. resulting in weak enforcement of fisheries rules and regulations. and the strong domestic market. such as USA and China. which allows yearround fish culture. Practically anyone may fish without limit and with little government interference.CHAPTER 2 the agriculture sector. either horizontally or vertically. utilize EEZ. Yet more often. There are likewise international conventions/commitments that may have an adverse impact on the fisheries sector. Establishing _____________________________________________________________________ 72 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . 2.1 Delineation of Property Rights Traditionally. The result of this free-for-all regime is the overexploitation of capture fisheries. the tropical condition. For example. AFMA promotes the full industrialization of the fisheries sector. Weak partnerships are also seen between management agencies and institutions involved with R&Ds. 2. tap export potentials. while the Fisheries Code pursues food security essentially through management and conservation of fishery resources.8 Inadequate/Inconsistent Fisheries Policies Fisheries management is also hampered by inadequate and inconsistent policies. Key opportunities are briefly described below. increasing demand for fish and fish products from primary markets. 2. national enforcement agencies (PNP Maritime Group and Philippine Navy) should ideally work closely with the local law enforcement units. For example. Inadequate policies include cases in which some national policies and local regulations are promulgated with limited scientific basis. there is often limited use in management of relevant technical information. Hence. low priority has always been given to fisheries when compared to crops and livestock components. we must not lose sight of existing opportunities or positive conditions in the sector.7. For example.8 Key Development Opportunities While the challenges confronting fisheries are daunting.8.9 Weak Institutional Partnerships Weak institutional partnerships result in limited coordination among concerned agencies and stakeholders.

The LGUs now have to appropriate these rights to fishers and users in a socially equitable and environmentally sustainable manner. _____________________________________________________________________ 73 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . the Fisheries Code provides for the granting to municipal fishers. Furthermore. The provisions in the Fisheries Code of granting fishery rights to local organizations provide a general basis to delineate property rights at the municipal level. especially in municipal fisheries. there may be deep-sea resources in these areas that could support viable commercial fisheries. organizations and cooperatives have priority in receiving fishery rights granted by LGUs and in exploiting demarcated fishery areas in their communities. is a step towards controlling and rationalizing access to fishery resources. To do this. This means that there are more than 2 million km2 within the Philippine EEZ that essentially remain unexplored and unexploited. In the distribution of rights. 2. resident fishers.600 km2 in total.CHAPTER 2 appropriate property rights. LGUs must require proposals from organizations wanting to manage resources to include an EIA. mariculture and fish farming.2 Utilization of Offshore Exclusive Economic Zone Philippine fisheries essentially remain concentrated in the country’s shelf area.8. which measures 184. When long-term rights of fishers and other users to marine resources are well defined and secure. organizations and cooperatives of demarcated fishery areas for fish capture. Conceivably. they will tend to exploit them in a more sustainable manner. Candidate sites include the offshore hard bottoms around Palawan. southern Sulu Sea and central part of the Pacific coast. which will serve as an important basis in the granting of fishery rights. This is because they are assured that the ultimate benefits of their practices and activities will accrue to them. In addition. LGUs must put utmost importance on the ability of organizations to sustainably manage municipal fisheries resources.

8. Some quarter of a million hectares may be developed for aquaculture expansion.3 Aquaculture Expansion After capture fisheries production peaked in the early 1990s and essentially remained unchanged in subsequent years.8. the culture technologies for some species (e. seed stock from the wild). Also. Foreign investments have come in to develop processing plants because of low labor costs.. The culture of such species could be expanded by applying technologies existing elsewhere or by developing them through R&D. Many are involved in specific aspects of fisheries post-harvest activities including small-scale processing.g.2 billion and is growing at an annual rate of 4% (FAO 2002). Growing international trade provides great opportunity for the Philippine fisheries exports. The majority of commodities produced through aquaculture undergo auction procedures. grouper) are still in the stages of infancy (e. these are underutilized because of the reduced landed harvest by fishers due to stocks depletion. the pressure on existing supplies of wild fish will be reduced. the post-harvest losses in fisheries are substantial and lowering these to a minimum will do a lot to improve productivity.4 Improved Post Harvest The post harvest sector contributes significantly to the economy and to the livelihood of coastal communities. the aquaculture subsector picked up the slack. even if it is not their major livelihood. ice plants. In some places where facilities are available. Global fish trade in 2000 was reported to be US$55. Aquaculture has been producing increasingly larger annual volumes to meet the growing demand for fish. Yet. 2. As earlier described. However. 2. marketing and trading. As earlier mentioned. freezers and cold storages are lacking in many areas. For the fisheries sector to fully develop. there is still room for expansion.g. either on-site (farms) or at major trading centers (ports or the _____________________________________________________________________ 74 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . some less-known species are presently being cultured essentially by innovators in isolated endeavors.8. though aquaculture production has been impressive. no hatchery. several coastal regions do not have regional ports and many coastal municipalities do not have even simple ports. With proper support.5 Export Potential Export earnings from fish and fisheries products constitute a major part of foreign exchange earnings. the Philippine trade of fishery products is continuously undergoing a shift from merely exporting raw materials (for importing countries to process) to trading high-value live fish or value-added products. additional port and post-harvest facilities are necessary. In addition. By expanding aquaculture. As in most developing countries. The available data on fisheries facilities indicate that the country has a large number of ports and most of these are operating..CHAPTER 2 2. the culture of these less-known species could be commercialized.

negotiable permits and other market-based instruments – to encourage compliance to environmental standards and promote sustainable management practices in aquaculture. Such may eventually reduce overfishing without sacrificing production. the annual boat license fee is only PhP1. consistent with government resource management policies. This is because correct resource pricing. For a 250 GT motorized boat. The current license fee rates in the commercial fisheries are very low and were set many years ago. the annual application fee is minimal (ranging from PhP400 to PhP2.000 which was set way back in 1983.CHAPTER 2 local consignacion).6 Natural Resource Pricing The commercial fisheries and aquaculture are the two subsectors where resource rents are potentially high. there are generated revenues from extraction of rents from users. user fees. for instance. and where correct resource pricing could be exercised. Section 48 of the code stipulates that DA should formulate incentives and disincentives – such as effluent fees.8. have competitive export potential. their activities will produce higher outputs at lower effort levels. Hence. In addition. largely done through the imposition of accurate fees that reflect resource rents. the situation is similar. environmental. or above normal profits. In addition to economic and environmental gains of correct pricing. Access to common fishing resources for private profit should be priced to give a reasonable rate of return to the community. particularly seaweeds. The annual rental fee per hectare of fishponds is only PhP50 since 1979. _____________________________________________________________________ 75 Comprehensive National Fisheries Industry Development Plan . The goal of sustainable development in the fisheries sector can be pursued through the use of market-based instruments. 2. For instance. The Fisheries Code recognizes the importance of market-based instruments as tools in environmental management. The correct pricing of fishery resources by the national government is a useful tool for attaining a more sustainable form of development in fisheries. social and cultural costs and benefits.000) which was determined back in 1993. In the aquaculture subsector. Many aquaculture products. will force users to be more efficient.000 since 1993. while the annual application fee is PhP1. as well as short and long-term economic. Charges for access to fishery resources should reflect the community interest. The rental rates for using government-owned fishponds are minimal and were set decades ago.