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# 14. Take three readings & find the mean value. 15.

Repeat the same procedure to measure the diameter of one more object. Observations: 1) Smallest division on main scale = S = …………………. cm. 2) Total Number of divisions on the C.S. = N = ……………….. 2. The volume of the Steel ball V = 3) Least Count ( L.C.) of Micrometer Screw Gauge = S / N = …………cm. 4) Zero error Z = ± r x L.C. Observation Table:
Name of Object Obs. No. M.S.R. a cm. Circula r Scale Div b Circular Scale Reading b x L.C.= c cm Total Reading a + c cm Mean Diameter cm

Calculations: 1. The radius of the Steel ball R =

DB 2

= ………………..cm.

4 π R3 3

Results: 1. Mean diameter of Steel ball DB = …………………….. cm 2. Mean diameter of spoke Ds = ………………………cm 3. Volume of ball V = …………………..cm

1 Steel Ball 2 3 1 Spoke 2 3 Ds = Apparatus: DB = Title: Aim:

Experiment No. 1
Use of Vernier Calipers. To measure the length, Breadth and Height of a wooden block Vernier Calipers.

Vernier Calipers, Wooden block etc.

Diagram:

S..C. Hence find the least count of the vernier. Mean length L cm 5. For Length of wooden box.= c cm Total Reading a + c cm Mean breadth B cm 1 2 3 2). For height of wooden box . a cm Vernier div b Vernier scale Reading b x L. Note the smallest division on main scale and the total number of divisions on the vernier scale N. 3) Least Count ( L. 1 2 3 Observation Tables: 1). Note the position of Zero of vernier scale on the main scale (a). Calculate total reading for the length of the wooden block. Repeat the above procedure for breadth and height of the block. M.Obs. M.) of vernier calipers = S / N = ………………. 3. Observations: 1) Smallest division on main scale = S = ………………….= c cm Total Reading a + c cm . S. cm. 2. For breadth of wooden box. of divisions on vernier scale = N = ………………. 3). R. a cm Vernier div b Vernier scale Reading b x L. Obs. 2) No.C. 4. Procedure: 1.C.. No. Note the vernier division (b) that coincides with some division on main scale. Hold the woodwn box between the jaws of vernier calipers. R.cm. No. Take two more observations for the same body.

Note the total number of divisions (N) on the circular scale of micrometer screw.S.S. 4. then the zero error is negative.S.S. coincides with the reference line of M. 6. then the zero error is positive. M. No. Calculate the total reading.Obs.S. Close the jaws of micrometer screw lightly and note the C. divisions on the reference line (r div. objects of different diameters. cm. 9.. Diagram: 6..S. 8. division (b) which coincides with the reference line on M. 7. Experiment No.S. Precautions: 1) Just hold the object between the jaws of vernier calipers without pressing it too hard. If zero division of C. a cm Vernier div b Vernier scale Reading b x L. .C.C. Complete the parallelogram ABCD Measure the diagonal AC and determine the magnitude of R using the scale chosen. then there is no zero error. If zero division of C. Hence find the least count of micrometer screw gauge L.= c cm Total Reading a + c cm Mean height H cm Procedure: 1.. If zero division of C. Correct the total reading by adding or subtracting the zero error.S.S. 2. cm...S.Note the C.S. Breadth of the wooden block B = …………………. 2) Take readings at different positions of the body. coincides with the reference line on main scale.Hold the object whose diameter is to be measured between the jaws of micrometer screw with light pressure. Aim: To measure the diameter of objects using a Micrometer Screw Guage.. 2 Title: Use of Micrometer Screw Gauge. If zero division of C. If ‘r’ is the division of C. Note the smallest division (S) on the main scale of the micrometer screw. S.C. is ahead of zero on M.. This give the value of R by geometrical method. is behind the zero of on M. 5. coincides with the reference line of M. R. then there is error in the instrument. Appratus: Micrometer Screw Gauge. 10. = S / N. 11. 1 2 3 Results: Length of the wooden block L = …………………. 13. If ‘r’ is the division of C.). Height of the wooden block H = …………………. If the zero error is positive then subtract & if negative then add in the circular scale reading. 12. 3. Note the main scale division (a) seen on the main scale rod. then the zero error is negative. then the zero error is positive. does not coincide with the reference line on main scale.S. Calculate zero error (Z) as Z = ± r x L. cm.S..

5 Title: Coefficient of static friction Aim: To determine the coefficient of static friction µ s.X. Unknown weight R by calculation = ………………….7. plane mirror. string. Measure the distances between the legs as three sides a1. 2. Repeat the above procedure for another unknown weight. Note spherical reading. Hence find the average distance between the legs. a2 6h Apparatus: Observation Table: Obs No P gm wt Q gm wt R=diagonal AC gm wt R by calculation gm wt R by direct Measurement gm wt Formula: R = + h 2 where R = Radius of curvature of spherical surface a = Average distance between two legs of spherometer h = Sagitta of curved surface. 3. Spherometer. Unknown weight R by geometry = …………………. spirit level. gm wt. Diagram: Experiment No. Aim: To find radius of curvature of a spherical surface by using spherometer. 10. Apparatus: A horizontal plane. Experiment No. Also measuring ∠ BAD = θ. when the tip touches the tip of its image in the plane mirror. 8. Take the impressions of three legs of spherometer on paper. Repeat three times and hence find the mean total reading (X).C. ruler. a2. 3 Title: Use of Spherometer . Keep the spherical surface on the plane mirror. 6. ) of spherometer. gm wt. Procedure: 1. 9. ) 7. 4. 8. Find the least count ( L.S. and using formula calculate R. Find the total reading as T. pan etc. keep spherometer on the spherical surface so that all the legs are in contact with the spherical surface and the tip of the screw just touches the centre of the spherical surface.e. Note the circular scale division (b) which coincides with the surface of main scale. Note the division of main scale (a) which is just below the upper surface of C.Hence calculate the radius of curvature R of the spherical surface. 5. Repeat the above procedure three times & find the mean total reading (Y). known weights. 2. Find sagitta of spherical surface as h = Y . Repeat three times and find the mean spherical surface reading ( Y). 11. R. Wooden block. Θ Diagram: 1 2 3 4 5 Results: 1. = a x ( b x L. C. Spherical surface. a3. Keep the spherometer on the plane mirror and move its screw till the tip of the screw just touches the plane mirror i.

Magnitude of the force Q. Radius of curvature of spherical surface R = Result: The radius of curvature of spherical surface R = …………………. a +a +a ∴ a = 1 2 3 = ……………. of divisions on circular scale of spherometer = N = ……….. 4 .cm Precautions: Consider the bottom reading on main scale as zero.cm 3. This is the value of R by direct measurement.cm 3 2.R. Using plane mirror mark the directions of P & Q on the paper.. paper etc. b Ver. … 4.C. Adjust weights P & Q so that the system weights P. unknown weights. a cm Vernier div. a3 = ……………. Smallest division on main scale of spherometer = S = …………. A wooden board with two pulleys fixed on it. Fix a paper on it.x 2. The another string at Centre of the string. For this hold the plane mirror behind the strings on the paper and mark points on the paper when the string and its image in the plane mirror coincide. L. a1 = …………….cm. 4. Magnitude of the force P. a2 = …………….Observations: 1. C. Note the weight at the centre as R. of spherometer = S / N = ………………cm Observation Tables: Surface Obs.. to both the ends passing over the two pulleys and known weight R at the end of second string.cm.S. Experiment No. plane mirror. Sagitta of spherical surface = h = y . 3. In this way all readings are positive. Fix the board with pulleys in vertical position. To find the weight of a body using the Law of parallelogram of forces.cm. Pass a string over the two pulleys. Diagram:: 1 2 3 1 Spherical surface x= y = 2 3 Calculations: 1. Q and R are in equilibrium. Scale Reading b x L. Title: Aim: Law of parallelogram of forces. Attach known weight P & Q gm wt... No M. 2.= c cm Total Reading a + c cm Mean Diameter cm Sigatta y .x =h cm Apparatus: Formula: R = (P2 + Q2 + 2PQ Cos θ)½ Where R P Q Θ = = = = Magnitude of the resultant force R. known weights.. No.. Angle between P & Q. a2 6h + h 2 Procedure: 1. the middle as 1 cm =10 mm and the top as 2 cm = 20mm.

7. gm wt. 7 and measure r for two more times. 5. Plot a graph of P versus W1 (wt on the block) to get weight of the block from the graph.. Place the concave mirror on a horizontal surface. Draw the lines showing directions of P & Q meet at point A on paper. This can be achieved by moving the pin in the upward or downward direction. Repeat the adjustment described in step No. Adjust the position of the pin such that there is no parallax between the new position of the pin and its image (Fig. 3. Observation Table: Wt on Block W1 gm wt Wt in Scale pan P gm wt Mean I II P Obs No Total Load W=W0+W1 gm wt Total Effort P=P0+P µ s = P W Mean µ s 1 2 3 4 Observation Table: Sr. Formula: Result: The R. Level the horizontal plane by using a spirit level. 2. pass it over the pulley and attach a scale pan to it. Keep the wooden block on the horizontal surface. Measure the distance R between the pin and pole of the mirror. 4. of given liquid = n = ……………………. 4. Observations: 1. Measure the distance r between the pin and the pole of the mirror. 3 and measure R for two more times. I. 3. gm wt. 2.. Note mean effort required to move the block (P). so that AB and AD represent the magnitudes of P and Q respectively. 9. Distance 1 2 R r i ii iii Avarage Value Unit cm cm Graphs: 1. (Fig. Observe the image of the pin from a suitable distance along the axis. . 6. Adjust the position of the pin such that there is no parallax between the pin and its image. With suitable scale mark the points B & D along the lines. Weight of the empty scale pan = P0 = ………………. 2. Refractive Index of a liquid = n = Procedure: 1. Weight of the wooden block = W0 = ………………. Plot a graph of P versus W & find the slope. Repeat the adjustment as described in step No. Tie a string tp the wooden block. Repeat for five different loads (W1) by changing weights on the block and find the corresponding efforts (F) to just move the block in each case.5. Now pour a small quantity of the liquid on the reflecting surface of the concave mirror. Take two observations for the same load W. 1) and r is the vertical distance between the pin and pole of the concave mirror when the liquid is present. Find mean coefficient to static friction. 8. Procedure: 1. R r where R is the vertical distance between the pin and the pole of the concave mirror without liquid. Adjust the pulley so that the string is perfectly horizontal and take care to see that the scale pan hangs freely without touching the table. Find weight of wooden block (W0) and weight of empty scale pan (P 0). Keep suitable weights in the scale pan so that the block just starts moving. 2). Hold an index pin horizontally above the concave mirror with the help of retort stand. No. The tip of the pin should be on the axis of the mirror. 2..

3. Increase D by 10 cm. by observation = by graph = Obs. d = Distance between the two positions of lens. Calculations: Procedure: ( D + d )( D − d ) 4D Result: Focal length of a given convex lens = F = ……. Place a convex lens in between the object and screen. Mark the two positions of lens. gm. cm. µ 2. convex lens. Apparatus: Diagram: Formula: F = ( D + d )( D − d ) 4D where F = Focal length of the convex lens. 6 Title: Aim: Determination of focal length of a convex lens. Measure the distance between those two positions of lens as d. Measure it in cm. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 D cm D cm D+d cm D–d cm 4D cm F cm 3. F = . 4. 2. Determine approximate focal length of a convex lens by using the distant object method. Observations: Approximate focal length of convex lens = ……………cm.P Slope = µ s P Slope = µ s 0 Results: 1. Repeat this procedure for five values of D.. There are two positions of lens when we get once magnified and once diminished image on the screen. Experiment No. µ s s W W0 0 W1 1. To determine focal length of a convex lens by the displacement method. D = Distance between the screen & object. screen. wt. scale etc. Weight of the block by graph W0 = ……………. Illuminated object. Keep the distance D between illuminated object and screen more than 4 f.

Fix two pins P & Q on the straight line PQ. 2 Experiment No. To determine unknown resistance of the coil of a wire by using Ohm’s law. pin and scale. liquid. Remove the prism. Apparatus: Prism. Looking into the face AB fix two more pins R & S so that reflected images P & Q and R & S appear to be in the same straight line. Observation Table: Experiment No. Fix the paper on the drawing board with the help of drawing pins. Remove the prism & pins. 8 Title: Aim: To determine unknown resistance by Ohm’s law. ammeter A. Don’t change the distance D for the same set of readings. Mark the outline of the prism ABC. Place the prism in its position. Pins. 3. Aim: To determine angle of prism. rheostat. Now fix two pins W & X on the straight line WX. connecting wires etc.Precautions: 1. Angle of prism. Experiment No. See that the images formed on the screen are sharp. 1 2 3 4 2A º Mean 2A º Angle of Prism A º A small electric bulb or a coiled wire. wooden board etc. Mark the base BC by inclined lines. after removing them and the prism. Ray Diagram: Procedure: 1. Mark the positions of the pins.I. Paper. Looking into the face AC fix two more pins Y & Z such that the refracted images of W & X and the pins Y & Z appear to be in the same straight line. voltmeter V. an accumulator. 4. retort stand.) of liquid by a concave mirror. No. 7 Title: Aim: Refractive Index (R. Draw two lines PQ and WX parallel to each other and perpendicular to BC. Place the prism.10 Title: Prism I. 2. Drawing pins. Apparatus: Diagram: Fig. Concave mirror. To determine the refractive index of a liquid using a concave mirror. Place the prism. Plug key. 1 Fig. Circuit Diagram: . Apparatus: Obs. 2. Mark the positions of the pins.

For this use rack & pinion arrangement. 4. V Slope = R Results: I 1. Place the beaker on the table. For Glass Slab: Real Depth Apparent Depth Water = R A 1. coin or pin. Diagram: . R from graph = slope = ………………Ω . 2. Now you are viewing the refracted image I of the object O. Note the microscope reading Y cm (Y > X). Beaker. 4. Change the rheostat in equal steps and record the ammeter and voltmeter readings. Current Potential drop Unknown Resistance R I amp V volts Ω . Graph: Plot a graph of potential drop V (Y-axis) against current I (X-axis). Determine the L. 3. Adjust the rheostat such that small measurable current passes through the circuit. I. Unknown resistance R = ……………. of the vernier scale on a travelling microscope. Apparatus: Travelling microscope. 2. Raise the microscope further till the saw dust is in focus. Don’t isturb the Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 adjustment throughout the experiment. Ω . glass slab. Note the reading on the microscope X cm. 3.C. Keep the microscope in vertical position. I = Electric current and R = Unknown resistance. Measure the potential difference in Volts with the voltmeter across the unknown resistance. Measure the current passing through the circuit as indicated by the ammeter. No.I. Focus the microscope on the same mark by moving the microscope upwards. Note the microscope reading X cm. Adjust the eyepiece so that the cross-wires are easily seen. For Liquid: 1. water. Place a glass slab on the mark. [ R = V / I] Mean R Ω. Aim: To determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using a travelling microscope. Adjust the microscope till the object is in focus. Focus the microscope on the mark you have made. 2. 5. Sprinkle some saw dust on the surface of the glass slab. Experiment No. 2.) of glass and liquid. 5. The graph is a straight line in accordance with Ohm’s law. Mark a dot or a line or a cross on it. Note the microscope reading Z cm (Z>Y). ∴ R = Formula: Procedure: 1. saw dust. Observation Table: Glass R.Formula: V = IR where V I V = Potential drop across the unknown resistance. Connect the apparatus as shown in the circuit diagram. of glass or water = Procedure: 1. Fix a small piece of paper below the microscope. 9 Title: Refractive Index (R. Drop a pin or a coin in it which serves as the object.

I. Aim: To determine angle of deviation & refractive index of prism. Raise the microscope till the coin is in focus. Join SR & YZ and produce them to intersect at D. 3. Smallest division on main scale = S = …………. Sprinkle some saw dust on the surface of water.. = Real Depth Apparent Depth Obs.I. of travelling microscope = S / N = ………………cm Observation Table: Calculation: Result: R. º. R. Find the mean value of 2A & hence find A. 1 Glass 2 1 Water 2 1. of Water = …………………. Paper. Raise the microscope till the saw dust is in focus. Note the microscope reading Y cm (Y>X). 6. of divisions on vernier scale = N = ………. Measure angle SDZ which is 2A. Apparatus: Ray Diagram: .I of Glass = ………………… 2. Angle of Deviation. Total No. Experiment No.cm 2. Pour some water (2-4 cm in height) in the beaker. Note the microscope reading Z cm (Z>Y).X) cm Apparent Depth (Z – Y) cm 5.11 Title: Prism II.... Take four readings of 2A .2. wooden board etc. … 3. R. Prism. Pins. No. Microscope reading when focus on Object Image Saw Dust X cm Y cm Z cm Real Depth (Z . C. L. Drawing pins. Observations: 1. Result: Angle of prism = A = ……….

55º and 60º and so on. Remove the prism. Mark its base BC by inclined lines. ( From Expt. Result: (i = e) Formula: i Refractive index of the material of prism = n = ………………… Graph: δ δm . Fix Obs. 50º. 4. 6. Now 45 looking through 50 the face AC fix two 55 more pins R & S such 60 that the refracted images of P & Q and the pins R & S appear to be in the same straight line. No. 45º.. 40º.n =  A + δm  Sin   2   A Sin  2 Procedure: Observation Table: Given : Angle of prism = A = ………. RS is the emergent ray. Remove the prism and pins. Measure the angle between these two rays which is angle of deviation δ.I. Calculate R. 3. 35 2. No. Repeat this for 35º. Angle of incidence Angle of deviation two pins P & Q on the i deg. Draw a normal to the face AB at E. Join SR and produce it to meet at O. of prism by prism formula. 5. Place the prism in its 40 position. PQ is the incident ray. 10) 1. Keep the prism on the paper and draw its outline ABC. Plot the graph of δ against i. Mark the position of the pins. At E draw another line SR making an angle i = 30º with the normal. nearly a midpoint of AB. º. line PQ. δ deg. hence find δm.