CUTTING: Most care to be taken in cutting because it determines the garment shape and gross weight of a garment and
also it eases sewing. Cutting is always to be done in accordance with the wales direction of the fabric. If this not been followed, the garment will have more spirality resulting to the rejection of the garment as spirality is not acceptable. This is to be followed in manual cutting and lay cutting (open width lay or tubular lay). There are more chances for this spirality in lay cutting. When cutting the other parts of the garments like half moon patches, pockets, plackets and other patches, some markers may not care about this wales direction. They may mark them in any vacant places, in order to minimise the fabric wastage. But this should not be acceptable. The hems of bodies and sleeves are to be cut on course lines. Especially, when cutting the horizontal striped fabrics or horizontal lines printed fabrics, it is important to cut the hems along the lines. As the lines are to be matched on sides of front & back bodies and sides of sleeves, more care to be taken in cutting accordingly. Also the sleeves are to be balanced in cutting. It means each sleeves should be symmetrical in striped lines. This is very important. When cutting manually and by lay, the curves and curve edges are to be cut carefully. This will make sewing easy and will save sewing time too. If the curve edges are not being cut properly, the cut bits can not be used for sewing. Markings, numbering and bundling of the parts should be done with more care to avoid interchanging of these parts. Cutting program is to be based on the fabric program. As we had seen earlier, each fabric lot must have been made according to the final packing details of garments, in order to avoid shade variation. So cutting is also to be done in the same way according to the fabric program whether solid packing or assortment packing. In case of ‘S’ cutting, the markings will be done more closely to minimise fabric wastage. At the same time, the wales lines to be strictly maintained in cutting. Also when we do ‘S’ cutting on all over printed fabrics, the direction of print designs is to be strictly maintained. Each fabric lot may have many fabric rolls. Though they are in the same lot, each fabric roll will have slight difference in shades. So when cutting the fabrics, the body, sleeves and other parts of one garment are to be cut in the same roll as close as possible. No matter the fabric is in tubular form or open width form. This is importantly to be followed to avoid shade variation between parts in one garment.
Marker: It is a thin paper which contains all the necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments. It gives special instruction for cutting. It can be done both manually and computerized method. In Computerized method all information’s are stored in the pre – fashioned data file and an operator helps the computer to make the best choice. Marker width is taken according to the fabric width. Fabric spreading should be done by taking the guideline from marker length.
Some points that are considered before marker making: 1. Fabric width must be higher than marker width (⅓”) 2. Fabric length must be higher than marker length (1” + 1”) 3. When pattern pieces are laid down on the layer of fabric, the grain line should be parallel to the line of the warp in a woven fabric and wales in knit fabric where pattern pieces are laid across the layers, the line is kept parallel to weft/course. 4. All the pattern pieces of a garment should be along the same direction when laid down on an asymmetric fabric. 5. Length of cutting table should be considered. 6. Plan for garments production should also be considered.
Then fits the smaller pieces in the gap of the larger pieces. One should easily see the full length. Some problems of marker making are as follows: The nature of the fabric and desired shape and style of the garments. Constraints of marker making: The marker making is not so easy.
. After that the pattern shuffled in various directions to reduce the marker length. It also helps to increase marker efficiency. The marker starts with the large pattern pieces. The requirements of quality of cutting.Marker
For the efficient marker it is required to ensure the following things. The requirements of production planning. To know about the appropriate width. There are many problems behind this. Thus the fabric wastage is minimized and efficiency is increased.
Marker Planning with size pattern: In this method. b. on which the markers are placed. Computerized Method. Marker with minimized pattern: Full sized patterns are minimized 1/5 part by a pantograph and the patterns are made up of hard paper or plastic sheet. Manual Method: a. Manual Method 2. snaps are taken by camera. Marker is planned with small pattern pieces. The marker efficiency is measured by marker area and fabric area calculation.
1. The covered area of pattern in marker is measured by planimeter. The tables. It is suitable for minimizing the marker length. After making. Hard patterns are placed on paper on fabric and then all patterns are marked by turning different direction to minimize the fabric usages.
. are arranged in such a way so that they do not tilt. Vacuum system is arranged under the table for suction.Methods of Marker Making: 1. all patterns are in full dimension according to standard measurement.
Computerized Marker Making
. 2) Scanning system. In this method every components of the patterns are kept in the memory of the computer and grade rule is also mentioned. 1) Digitizing system. Computerized marker making method: This is the best method of marker making as it generally gives higher efficiency. Then the computer makes the marker by its pre fashioned programming technique. The information of patterns can be stored bye different manners. 2. Marker Photograph and miniature markers are stored.
Working patterns are placed on the scanning glass and then marker is made in a selected size.
. Digitizing System: In this process patterns are placed in the digitizing board.1. Here the following things are done.
2. The mouse called digitizing mouse. Scanning system: This is special type of machine like photocopier. Grade rule is used for making other sizes. Every portion of the components is send to the memory of the computer by clicking special mouse around the pieces.
.Computerized method is method is of two types: 1. Interactive method: It is a common process. here the operators plan markers by interacting directly with the system through a computer screen. They are dragged and draped to the predetermined place by data pen or tablet. All the pattern pieces are displayed in the miniature form at the top of the screen. Automatic marker making: In this process computer itself the different pattern pieces and thus marker is made by defining the placement of the components. 2.
3 – 4 carbon papers are needed for it. 2. This paper transfer a blue line on to the back of the master as it is drawn. the master marker is drawn on paper with a layer special hectograph paper underneath it. duplicate pattern are made on under pages. 4.8 marker can be duplicated at a time.Methods of drawing and duplicating marker: Multiple copies of the paper marker are usually needed in for huge production. It is messy process but many accurate copies can be done easily. These copies can either be made when marker plan is first drawn or marker planner can reproduce the markers when needed by various methods. The printed version can be achieved by plotter machine attached to the computer. Carbon duplicating method: In this method 6 . Photographic method:
. When patterns are drawn on it and exposed to light to different shade.
1. The master is then used to make one copy at a time by spirit duplicating machine. Computerized marker: When marker planning is finished. it is stored in the memory of computer and at any time computer can display the marker. 3. When marking is done on the upper page by pen or pencil. marker is made. Therefore. several copies are done. 5. Double sided carbon papers are placed between two markers. Spirit duplicating method: In spirit duplicating method. Photograph or light sensitive paper method: A specially made light sensitive paper is used for this technique.
In this process photograph is taken to copy the market.
Marker Duplicating Machine
. Thus any time reproduction of marker is possible by following the position of the patterns form the snap.
The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the marker plan. 3. the more possibility to get more efficiency. Such as a big component can be divided into two parts.Marker Efficiency: It is a very important step of Apparel Manufacturing Process.
. the number of markers. sincerity. 4. Marker Length: Higher the marker length. Pattern Engineering: Marker efficiency can be increased by changing the pattern according to the rule. trial and technological knowledge. honesty. The more. Marker planner: Marker efficiency depends on experience. The following formula is used to measure the efficiency: Area of the pattern in the marker plan Marker Efficiency= Total area of the marker plan %
Profit. It can also help to increase the production of cutting room. the more is the possibility to get higher efficiency. 2. This will help to save the fabric wastages. Size of garments: The more the number of the pattern sizes are included.
Factors related to marker efficiency: 1. higher the efficiency.
Marker Width: The more the fabric width. Marker making method: We can generally markers by two methods. Computerized marker is more efficient when it is done interactively with the planner so marker efficiency varies from method to method.
. 6. 7. Style of garments: There are some garments which have only large patterns such as overcoat. They are manual and computerized. Marker efficiency is good in those types of fabrics. marker efficiency will be less for asymmetrical fabrics. However. Fabric Characteristics: Symmetrical fabrics are those which are similar to all directions. Sometimes a skilled operator can make more efficient marker than computer. this is easier to plan or make marker which will increase the efficiency. It there is less number of small components the marker will be less efficient.5. 8.
Inspection Procedure: Determine the amount to inspect 10%). we inspect 10% of the rolls we receive and evaluate them based on a four-point system. Sometimes you may have to turn the light off to see how a flaw will affect the appearance of a garment. dye spots. color smear. Also make sure to check the end of the role. Normally. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. Stop the inspection process every 50 yards and use the strip to check for any shading problems. soiled yarns. (The fabric must be checked at a slow rate in order to effectively find flaws). or shading. Put the rolls on the inspection machine or other viewing device. · Cut off a 6 inch piece across the width off the end of the roll.· Major dye or printing defects are out of register. · Inspect for visual defects with the light on at a speed slow enough to find the defects. This way.In the industry we see they use Gerber Plotter for Marker printing and they use CAD for Marker Making
Fabric Inspection: The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. · Select the rolls to inspect. machine stop. Mark the right and left side of the strip. missing yarns. end out. and wrong yarn. holes. we can avoid fabric related quality problems before it is put into production Major Defects: Major woven fabric defects include but are not limited to slubs.
. yarn variation. color out.
The number of lay depends on the thickness of the fabric and the height of the knife. During spreading number of the plies should be not more than three hundreds. The maximum width of the cutting marker. constrained by the usable width of the fabric.
Types of Spreading: There are two types of spreading:
. The cutting marker paper is laid in the top of the fabric layers.Spreading: Spreading means the smooth laying out of the fabric in superimposed layers of specific length.
Objects of Spreading: To place the number of plies of fabric to the length of the marker plan correctly aligned as to the length and width and without tension. Flat spreading 2.1.
Methods of fabric spreading: 1. To cut garment in bulk and saving in fabric the use of multi garments marker plans and the saving in cutting time per garment that result from cutting many plies at the same time. Manual method.
Mechanical method a. Spreading truck with the help of operator. By hook c.
. Full automatic
1. Manual method a. Semiautomatic b. By hand: Fabric roll is spreaded on the table by two laborers according to the length & width of marker. a. Sometimes it is done by entering a rod which is made by wood or metal in the centre of paper tube which is present in the centre of the fabric roll. By hand b.2.
The hooks are placed 20 – 25 cm one after another with the same row.Fabric spreading by h
b. the top of the table is set again. By hook: In this process the top of the table on which the fabric is spreaded is set at 10” angle perpendicularly. Due to this method of spreading there is a tension created along with the width of fabric lay. The fabric lay is spreaded by matching the check of fabric which is useful. The hooks are displaced and the marker is spreaded on the fabric lay. So that it is uniform to spread & the tension along with the length of fabric is depend on the skill of laborers. Then the truck Is operated by hand from one end to the other end of the table & with the same time the fabric is open out from the fabric
c. The hook which placed on the upper face of the table is 15cm long and the other end of selvedge is draped on its weight. After completing the spreading of fabric. Spreading truck with the help of operator: There is a spreading truck on the one end of the spreading table in which the fabric roll is placed.
Mechanical method: a. Generally.
. there are two rail lines in two sides of the top of table and the spreading truck is operated easily & uniformly by its wheel. Fabric roll is set in a predetermined place of the machine. Auto fabric tensioning device. Spreading machine is run from one side to the other side of table by using electrical & mechanical motion and fabric is spreaded to make lay. Advantages of semiautomatic spreading: The maximum fabric width which can be handled is normally 2m although extra wide machines are capable of handling up to 3m. Auto ply cutting device. Auto plies counting arrangements. Sometimes spreading truck is kept in one end of the table & fabric is spreaded from one end of the table to the other end by two laborers from two ends of the table. Auto catcher to hold the ends of the ply.
2. Semiautomatic: Spreading machine is run on the rails which are placed at two side of fabric spreading table surface and operated by motor.roll and the fabric is spreaded according to the length & width. Auto fabric leveling device.
Disadvantages of semi-automatic machine: More time required. A platform is provided on which operator stands. so that any defect is identified by this sensor and also the spreading head is stopped and the defective fabric is cut by himself. Auto loading. There are so many advantages of this machine to make fabric lay because this machine is operated by controlling with the help of robot and micro processor. After completing spreading will stop automatically and give a signal By using robotic system. Fabric fault detector. unloading device. b. There is a on the spreading head. Photo electric guide for selvedge alignment. Full automatic: This is the improvement of semiautomatic machine. when spreading of each roll is finished then it will automatically give a signal. Advantages of automatic spreading: Machine can be set before the desired amount of plies spreading. Any kind of fabric can not be spreaded. There is no sensor in the spreading head. It is automatically spliced and start new fabric spreading where the last fabric roll has finished. High labor cost. It can not be possible to make desired spreading technique by this machine.
2. Correct ply direction and lay stability 6. Alignment of fabric ply. Easy Separation of the cut lay intro bundles. Fabric must be flat 4. Matching checks and stripes. Correct ply tension 3. Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting. Any kind of fabric can be spreaded by this machine and any kind of lay can be made. Skilful operator is needed to operate the machine.
. Less labor cost. so that capital investment is high. Disadvantages of automatic spreading: Very expensive. 7. Less time needed for fabric spreading. 8.
Requirements of fabric spreading: 1. Elimination of fabric flaws 5.
Fabric Cutting: The definition of cutting is very complex. Marker outline is used to cut the fabric. can not be rectified. Fabric cutting is very important as if something is cut in wrong way.
. In garments industries fabric is cut from lay and spreading with accuracy and properly which is termed as fabric cutting.
2. Manually operated power knife:
. Clean Edge. Infused Edge. 3. 4. Manual. 2. a. Support of the lay
Methods of Fabric Cutting: There are mainly three methods of cutting are as follows: 1. Consistency in cutting 5.Requirements of cutting: 1. Procession of cut. Hand operated scissor.
. c. But it needs more time to cut the fabric and contains high cost. d. For these reasons there is limited use of hand operated scissor. Knife b. d. It can be cut the fabric accurately proper caring. It is the first and oldest method of fabric cutting. b. Features of Hand operated scissor: a. Band knife. Die cutting e.a. This is used for cutting one or two plies of fabric. Straight knife b. e. Drill 3. Computerized: a. f. Separate systems are available to cut the fabric from left to right or right to left. Plasma torch
1. Most of the fabrics can be cut by scissor. c. Notcher f. Water knife d. Laser c.
Could be used to cut for higher depth of fabric. Blade could be sharpened by attached grinding facilities. Blade height 10 to 33 cm.5 cm
.5 cm to 4. c. Sharp and heavy corners can be cut. d. Features of Straight knife: a. f. Blade stroke 2.Hand Operated Scissors
2. Possible to cut pattern pieces directly from the fabric lays. High cutting speed. b. e. g.
Garments components can be directly separated from fabric lays.h. Fabric can be cut from any angle. Production speed is very good as up to 10 heights can be cut at a time. f. Comparatively cheap and can be transferred easily from one place to another.
. Special attachment such as sew edge or serrated edge can be provided for heavy fabric such as canvas or denim. Higher lay of height can be cut very easily c. b. d. e.
Fabric Cutting with Straight Knife
Advantages of straight knife: a. Round corners can be cut more precisely then even round knife.
Disadvantages of straight knife: a.
Features of Notcher Cutting Machine: a. Sometimes accident may happen. Useful to cut small notch to the fabric. There is need to cut notch in the edge of some components. It is most useful to make consistency in notching. c. b. b. Sometimes deflection may occur due to the weight of the motor. c. It is a special type of cutting machine and used in special case. when lay height is too high.
Advantages of notcher cutting machine a. It is special type of cutting machine and used in special case. b. The invention of notcher machine was done to make notch and a special guide to make consistency in notching. Knife deflection is high in risk. The notch can be made in U shape or V-shape. This notch can be made by straight knife or other cutting knife machine but the consistency of cutting of notch is depending on the skill of operator. As a result when sewn is done it is easy to join parts by matching according to the place of parts.
c. Sometimes it is needed to mark on the end of components of dresses especially for setting pocket.
3. Time loss. For this reason drill machine is used. Features of computer control knife cutting: a. b.
. This method provide the most accurate possible cutting at high speed. Sharpness is also very high and blade is made of stainless steel. Thermoplastic fibre cannot cut by this machine. The use of this machine is limited. This machine contains a motor base plate. Only used to make notch to the fabric. b. Marker is not necessary to put over the fabric lays during cutting. b. Also this machine is for marking on the middle of the components of dresses. c.
Features of drills cutting machine: a. d. dart and so on. drill and spirit level.Disadvantage of notcher cutting machine: a. Cutting knife is oval shaped and very hard.
CAD system includes: a) Pattern Making b) Pattern Grading c) Marker Making
Short details about the machines: a. b) Auto cutter.
CAM system includes: a) Auto spreader.
. Cutting knife itself moves according to the direction of computer memory.d. This machine is CAM system machine and works through CAD system. Table is covered with nylon bristles which are flexible enough to permit penetration and movement of knife blade which supported only at top. Cutting table is perforated. e.
Cutting head is placed in a beam which is set width wise of the table and cutting head moves length wise of the beam according to the direction of computer head. a. Very fast cutting operation. b. No need of marker. c. j. Suitable for very large scale production d. Sorting cutted pieces according to size and for each size individual bundle. Intensity of accident is low.
. Cutting defects are less than others. Less labor cost. A sheet of air light polyethylene covers the top of the lay which assists the creation of a vacuum and allows significant compression of the lays.c. f. e. Fabric can be cut 6-8 times than manual method. The sorting and bundling is done by this way.
Advantages of computer control knife cutting: a. e. g. A controlled cabinet houses the computer and the electric components are required to drive the cutter and motor. d. h. Speed of cutting can be controlled. Very active cutting by computer controlled system. Cutting knife can be driven at any direction. i.
Sorting and bundling of Cutted goods: It is a very important process to sort out the cutted parts.
. During Sorting and bundling some information also place on the cutted goods.This sorting and bundling is done to avoid size mistake.