TRƯỜNG ĐẠI HỌC HÀ NỘI

ENGLISH DISCOVERIES ONLINE
ADVANCED WRITING SKILLS

Hà Nội tháng 12 năm 2007

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LỜI NÓI ĐẦU Ngày nay, việc ứng dụng công nghệ thông tin trong giảng dạy và học tập đang trở thành một xu hướng tất yếu của thời đại. Nhờ sự phát triển mạnh mẽ của cơ sở hạ tầng công nghệ thông tin ở nước ta, các trường đại học trong toàn quốc đã xây dựng các chương trình quản lý và hỗ trợ học tập giảng dạy hữu hiệu hơn, giúp giáo viên và sinh viên chia sẻ kinh nghiệm, thực tiễn tốt không chỉ trong nội bộ một trường mà còn giữa các trường với nhau, thậm chí với các trường ở nước ngoài. Sự phát triển của công nghệ thông tin tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho việc triển khai các chương trình học trực tuyến (e-learning), quyết tâm xây dựng một xã hội học tập (learning society) của các quốc gia và mong ước theo đuổi sự nghiệp học suốt đời (life-long learning) của từng cá nhân trong xã hội hiện đại. Việc ứng dụng máy tính và công nghệ thông tin trong học ngoai ngữ (CALL) đã trở thành một ngành nghiên cứu được giới học giả trên toàn thế giới quan tâm và đầu tư cả về chiều rộng và chiều sâu từ nhiều thập kỷ qua. Ngày nay, hình ảnh người thầy lên lớp sử dụng máy chiếu đa phương tiện (multi-media projector) thay cho bảng đen, máy tính thay cho máy cát-xét, trình chiếu powerpoint thay cho hand-out đã trở nên rất phổ biến ở hầu hết các thành phố lớn. Rất nhiều phần mềm, trang web học ngoại ngữ đã giúp giáo viên nâng cao chất lượng giảng dạy của mình, nhờ đó các bài giảng của họ sinh động hơn, thú vị hơn. Sinh viên thế hệ mới cũng nhờ đó trở nên chủ động hơn, năng động hơn trong quá trinh học tập. Bắt đầu từ năm học 2006-2007, Trường Đại học Hà Nội đã triển khai sử dụng Chương trình tiếng Anh trực tuyến English Discoveries Online (EDO) cho sinh viên tất cả các khối sinh viên không chính quy, và từ năm học này là sinh viên chính quy ngành tiếng Anh của toàn trường. Chương trình EDO đã góp phần giúp sinh viên các khối lớp có điều kiện trau dồi năng lực sử dụng ngôn ngữ mọi lúc mọi nơi một cách tiện lợi nhất. Ngoài quyết định đưa Chương trình EDO vào sử dụng, bộ sách bài tập đi kèm cũng đã được sử dụng nhằm tạo sự gắn kết giữa những gì sinh viên học trên lớp và những gì sinh viên học trên mạng theo nguyên tắc của phương pháp học tiên tiến “blended learning”. Nhằm tăng cường hơn nữa tính gắn kết giữa hai hình thức học trực tuyến trên mạng và trực tiếp với giáo viên trên lớp, Nhóm thực hiện Chương trình EDO đã có sáng kiến xây dựng các bộ giáo trình lồng ghép nội dung của hai hình thức học nói trên. Mục đích của hoạt động này là xây dựng một bộ giáo trình bổ trợ cho cả bốn kỹ năng Nghe, Nói, Đọc Viết để sử dụng trên lớp. Khi hoàn thành, các bộ giáo trình hỗ trợ sẽ được đưa vào sử dụng thử nghiệm ở các cơ sở đào tạo, sau đó sẽ được chỉnh sửa vào đưa vào sử dụng chính thức nhằm tạo ra một chương trình đào tạo tổng hợp, gắn kết toàn diện cho sinh viên các khối lớp không chính quy của trường. Đây cũng là cơ sở để Trường Đại học Hà Nội có được một giải pháp học ngoại ngữ tổng thể cung cấp cho các trường khác trong toàn quốc. Việc xây dựng giáo trình bổ trợ nói trên bao gồm các bước sau: Bước 1: nghiên cứu chi tiết nội dung của từng kỹ năng, từng bài học của Chương trình EDO. Bước 2: thống nhất phương pháp lồng ghép giữa EDO và các bộ giáo trình hiện đang sử dụng. Bước 3: thống nhất phương pháp thiết kế các bài tập sử dụng trong giáo trình hỗ trợ.

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Bước 3: tiến hành lồng ghép các nội dung giống nhau giữa EDO và các bộ giáo trình nói trên. Sau khi hoàn thiện, sẽ xây dựng được các bộ giáo trình hỗ trợ cho các trình độ sau: Trình độ sơ cấp (Elementary) dùng cho học phần 1 (lồng ghép với các trình độ Basic 2 và Basic 3 của Chương trình EDO) Trình độ trung cấp (Intermediate) dùng cho học phần 2 (lồng ghép với các trình Intermediate 1 và Intermediate 2 của Chương trình EDO) Trình độ trung cao cấp (Upper-Intermediate) dùng cho học phần 3 (lồng ghép với các trình Intermediate 3 và Advanced 1 của Chương trình EDO) Trình độ cao cấp (Advanced) dùng cho học phần 4 (lồng ghép với các trình Advanced 2 và Advanced 3 của Chương trình EDO)

Việc xây dựng các bộ giáo trình do nhóm các giáo viên trẻ của Khoa tiếng Anh và Khoa Đại cương thực hiện. Hy vọng khi hoàn thành và đưa vào sử dụng, những học liệu này sẽ phần nào tăng hiệu quả của việc dạy và học tiếng Anh ở các khối lớp không chính quy. Tuy nhiên trong quá trình tập hợp và thiết kế bài tập chắc chắn không tránh khỏi những khiếm khuyết. Chúng tôi rất mong nhận được ý kiến đóng góp ý kiến của giáo viên và sinh viên liên quan. Mọi đóng góp ý kiến xin gửi về địa chỉ thư điện tử edo@hanu.vn. Chúng tôi xin chân thành cảm ơn.

Nhóm tác giả

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Title Introduction to Essay Writing Writing Body Paragraphs Essay Organization Logical Essay Cause and Effect Essay Cause and Effect Structures Comparing and Contrasting Essay Comparison Structures Exemplification Essay Balanced Essay – Part 1 Balanced Essay – Part 2 Argumentative Essay – Part 1 Argumentative Essay – Part 2 Argumentative Essay – Part 3 Consolidation

Page 5 9 13 16 19 22 24 27 28 30 33 37 41 45 48

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UNIT 1 - INTRODUCTION TO ESSAY WRITING
1. What is an essay? An essay is a piece of writing several paragraphs long written about one topic. An essay is a composition organized around a thesis. The topic of an essay is too long and too complex to discuss in one paragraph. Therefore, you must divide the topic into several paragraphs, one for each major point.

2. The structure of an essay An essay has got three main parts An introductory paragraph (or Introduction) A body (at least one, but usually two or more paragraphs) A concluding paragraph

2.1. The Introductory paragraph consists of two parts: a few general statements setting the background of the topic and a thesis statement naming the specific topic and the controlling ideas or major subdivisions of the topic.

The purpose of the Introduction is to let the reader know a. the topic b. the aspect of the topic c. the stand taken by the writer

For example, the topic is:

Do children watch too much television nowadays?

You should let your reader know in the introduction whether your answer is Yes or No. The rest of the essay then provides support for your argument.

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The structure of the introduction follows a common pattern, with the first sentence making a general statement about the situation as follows: Television is so common that nowadays it is hard to imagine life without it.

The next sentence then narrows the topic down to the specific aspect you will deal with, acting as the thesis statement. For example: However, as many people have pointed out, most children spend too much time in front of television, and this is harmful.

Either that or the Introduction can be written as: Many people complain nowadays that children spend a great proportion of their lives watching television.

Then the second sentence, being the thesis statement, would present the opposite view, such as: This may be true in some cases, but it is not certainly common enough to be a serious problem.

2.2. The conclusion is a summary or review of the main points discussed in the body.

The conclusion needs not be long, can be as short as 1 sentence. is not merely a repetition of the main topic statement of the essay, or of your proposition statement in the introduction, since that is rather boring to read? It should contain some kind of a summary of the main argument or proposition of the essay.

It is a good idea to include a comment on the implications of your conclusion.

For example, if the topic is: Children’s viewing of television should be controlled.

You may conclude and then give a comment like:

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Therefore, it is important to limit the amount of television that children watch otherwise they will suffer educationally and socially as they grow up.

Or, Therefore, if children’s television viewing is sensibly supervised it will allow them to enjoy certain programs as well as to develop the skills that they need.

3. Controlled writing Practice A: Writing the introductory paragraph Below are four introductory paragraphs that might begin the essay title given? All of the paragraphs have been written by native English speakers. Read the paragraphs carefully and decide which one you think is the best introduction and why. Discuss with other students to see if you agree.

Essay title: “Discuss the present-day problems facing secondary education in your country’’ a. There are, of course, two sectors of secondary education in England and Wales: the private sector and the state sector. This essay will be concerned only with the latter since it is by far the larger and is faced with many more problems. These can be traced to two important sources: a rapidly changing society and a chronic lack of resources.

b. Secondary education in England is, if not in a mess, in a state of crisis. It faces problems of organization, partly due to a sharp decrease in the number of pupils and partly due to the strict selection criteria. It faces problems connected with curriculum development and the reappraisal of the examination system in the attempt to prepare pupils for the modern world. Finally, it faces problems as a result of government under-funding and often due to a bad press image, a lack of public confidence. c. The present structure of state secondary education in England and Wales can be traced back to the Education Act of 1944 which established the school divisions of grammar, technical, and secondary modern. It was as a reaction to the divisive effects of this tripartite system that comprehensive education was introduced in the 1960s. Under the

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present system all pupils proceed from primary to one kind of secondary school without the need for an examination. In what follows, an attempt will be made to show that most of the present-day problems of secondary education stem from an inadequate provision that was made for the changeover to comprehensive education. ‘Inadequate provision’ will be shown to relate to the preparation of teachers and the supply and type of school buildings and educational materials.

d. This essay will examine problems facing secondary education in Britain today. It will examine the background to the problems, starting with the 1944 Education Act, which established universal free primary and secondary education. It will then look at problems associated with comprehensive schools. After this, it will examine the concept of the National Curriculum, the extended responsibilities and powers of school governors, the local management of schools and the principle of schools opting out from local authority control. Finally, there will be an analysis of the relationship between central government and local education authorities and a discussion of the problems relating to the financing of schools.

Practice B: Writing the concluding paragraph

Exercise 1: Study the introduction and conclusion for an essay on the advantages and disadvantages of living in the twentieth century. Is the concluding paragraph a summary of the main points of the essay or is it a paraphrase of the thesis statement? Is there a final message for the reader?

Introduction
A person born in the twentieth century has seen a lot of changes take place in almost all areas of human life. Some people are excited by the challenges that these changes offer; others long to return to the simpler, less automated life style of the past. Living in the twentieth century has certain advantages, such as a higher standard of living, but it also has some disadvantages, such as a polluted environment, the depersonalization of human relationships, and the weakening of spiritual values.

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Conclusion
In conclusion, although the twentieth century has indeed given us a lot of advantages by making us richer, healthier, and freer to enjoy our lives, it has, in my opinion, not made us wiser. The twentieth century has also made our Earth dirtier, our people less humane, and our spiritual lives poorer. We should continue to enjoy the benefits of technological advancements because they free us to pursue our interests and goals. However, we must make a concerted effort to preserve our natural environment for future generations. Moreover, we should take the time now to make our lives more meaningful in an increasingly impersonal, mechanized world.

Task 4: Free writing Write concluding statements for the following essay topics a. Most subjects can be learned more effectively from a computer than from a classroom teacher. What do you think about the statement? b. Good health is more important than any other aspect of life. Discuss. c. “Computers have improved the quality of our lives”. Explain why it can be true to say that. d. Television does more harm than good according to many critics. Do you agree?

UNIT 2 – WRITING BODY PARAGRAPHS
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Writing the body paragraphs The body of an essay consists of several paragraphs, each of which develops a subdivision of the topic, so the number of paragraphs in the body will correspond to the number of subdivisions.

In other words, the body of an essay discusses the subdivided topics, one by one. It contains as many paragraphs as necessary to explain the controlling ideas in the thesis statement.

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Example: Topic: Computers have provided great benefits to modern society. Discuss.

Three subdivided topics can be as below: a. storing and retrieval of information (e.g. business, libraries) b. calculations (e.g. business, accounting, science, engineering) c. word processing (students, secretaries)

The first paragraph of the body would be about (a). A topic sentence could be: The most important use of computers is in the storing of information which can be retrieved quickly and easily when it is needed. For example, in any kind of business ...

The next paragraph introduces the point about calculations (b). A topic sentence could be: Another very common use of computers is to make quick and accurate calculations. This is especially true in the fields of science and engineering, where…

The last paragraph of the body investigates the word processing feature of computers (c). A topic sentence might be written as: Last but no least, computers can be used for word processing, which is really useful for those who work with textual documents …

In short, the body usually consists of several paragraphs, each with a topic sentence, which is normally the 1st sentence in the paragraph, and which is followed by supporting detail or examples.

Task 3: Controlled writing Exercise 1: Add the nouns, noun phrases, and pronoun phrases in the brackets below to the incomplete sentences to complete an essay on the topic below. The first one has been done as an example.

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Topic: Discuss the causes and some effects of widespread drug use by young people in modern day society. Make any recommendations you feel are necessary to help fight youth drug abuse.
Example: a. is - nowadays in -.

(a serious problem/ many cultures/ youth drug abuse) Youth drug abuse is a serious problem nowadays in many cultures

b. Not only is – on the rise, but – are experimenting with -, (alcohol and tobacco/ children as young as 10 years old/ illegal dug use) ................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................

c. - are unclear, but – blame -, (certain sociologists/ the examples set by their elders/ the reasons for this behaviour) ................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................

d. - are, in effect, telling – that it is acceptable to abuse – with-. (drugs/ their children/ their bodies/ parents who drink and smoke to excess) ................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................

e. Consequently, - may have – even if – are against -. (children/ their parents/ their use/ a similar view towards illegal drugs) ................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................

f. In addition, - can only confuse – who are also taught at – that – is wrong (children/ drug abuse/ school/ drug use shown on television and in films) ................................................................................................................................................ ......................................................................................................................

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Exercise 2: The sentences below constitute the second and third paragraphs of the body, and the conclusion of an essay. They are in the correct order but you must decide where the paragraphs begin and end.

g. The pressure on young people to perform well at school in order to compete for jobs is a possible cause of the problem. h. Many believe they cannot live up to their parents’ expectations and feel a sense of hopelessness. i. Also, the widespread availability of drugs means teenagers are faced with the temptation to experiment. j. Drugs are used as a means of expressing dissatisfaction with the pressures they face in society. k. The effects of drug abuse are well known. l. Many young people’s talents are wasted and addiction to hard drugs can cost a user his or her life. m. Furthermore, those who drink and drive may be involved in fatal road accidents. n. The cost to society is great, and enormous amounts of money are spent on convicting drug dealers and on education programs. o. To conclude, I recommend that the only sensible way to solve this problem is to educate young people about the dangers of drug use, and to take steps to reduce the pressure of competition placed upon them.

Task 4: Free writing Write the body section for one of the following essay topics 1. It is said that the best way to learn a language is to learn it in the country where it is spoken”. Do you agree with the statement? 2. Which would you choose among wealth, good health and happiness and why? 3. Computers can be seen as a double-edge sword. Can you explain why it is said that?

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UNIT 3 – ESSAY ORGANIZATION
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Patterns of essay organization An essay can be organized following one of the four patterns below: Chronological order Logical order Cause and Effect Comparison and Contrast

Chronological order is order by time. It is used to describe historical events, write biographies, explain physical, chemical, biological, and mechanical processes as well as give directions or instructions. In a chronological process essay, the main steps in the process are the topics of the paragraphs.

The following model essay describes a chronological process. Analyze the organization: 1. Underline the thesis statement twice. 2. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph. 3. Underline the passive verb form. 4. Circle the transition signals.

How a solar hot water system works A solar hot water system collects and converts solar radiation into usable energy for the purpose of heating water. The use of solar radiation for heating water is an inexpensive and environmentally responsible substitute for heating by gas or electricity. The main parts of a solar hot water system are a collector, a hot water storage tank, and a distribution system. The main steps in the process of heating water by using the sun's rays are (1) trapping the sun's energy, (2) heating and storing the hot water, and (3) dispensing the water at points of use. The first step is to capture solar radiation. That is, the sun's energy must be absorbed by a solar heat collector, which is usually built on a south-facing roof. The collector has a glass plate and a 13

metal absorber plate. Next to the absorber plate are cooper tubes, which are filled with transfer fluid. The process of trapping the sun's radiation is as follows. As the sun shines through the glass plate, its thermal energy is absorbed by the copper absorber plate. This heat is conducted from the plate to the tubes. The heat from the tubes is then conducted to the fluid flowing through them. After trapping heat from the sun, the second step is to transfer this heat to water which is stored in an insulated tank. The hot fluid from the collector is circulated by a pump through copper coils inside the tank. The heat is conducted by the coils to the water. Dispensing the hot water is the final step in the process. The water flows from the outlet valve through pipes to faucets throughout the house. In summary, the process of collecting and converting solar energy for us in solar hot water system involves three steps. First, collectors absorb the sun's energy, which is then transferred to fluid in copper tubes. These tubes run from the collector to a tank, where the water is heated and stored. Finally, the hot water is distributed through pipes to wherever it is needed.

Answer these writing technique questions 1. What are the steps in the process of heating water by solar energy? Are the steps listed both in the introduction and the conclusion? 2. Which step has several sub-steps? 3. Which topic sentence begins with a between-paragraph transition?

Organization In order to write a process essay, you must have a clear understanding of the operations involved in each step and be able to explain them in a logical order. Following is a general outline to write a well-organized process essay.

I. Introduction A. Give a definition of the process Explain why the process is formed, by whom it is performed, and in what way it is performed. B. List the equipment, supplies needed in the process. C. List the main steps of the process in the order they are performed.

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II. Body A. Write a topic sentence to introduce the first step. 1. Define the step and state its purpose 2. Describe the apparatus or equipment used. 3. Divide the main step into as many sub-steps as necessary. 4. Explain the action in as many details as necessary B. For all subsequent steps, follow the same procedure. III. Conclusion Summarize the essay by restating what the steps of the process are, what the purpose is, how it operates, and why it is important. In other words, the conclusion repeats the information given in the body.

The thesis statement for a chronological essay names the process and indicates that it involves a series of steps: • The desalinization of water is a complex process.

It may even names the main steps in the process: • The main steps in the process of heating water by using the sun's rays are (1) trapping the sun's energy, (2) heating and storing the hot water, and (3) dispensing the water at points of use.

It should also indicate chronological order: • My life can be divided into three main time periods: childhood, primary school years, and high school years.

Task 3: Controlled writing Write a thesis statement for the following topics: 1. How the educational system in your country works. 2. How to obtain a driver's license.

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3. The process of courtship and marriage in your country.

UNIT 4 – LOGICAL ESSAY
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Logical division Logical division is a form of essay organization that is sued to group related items according to some shared qualities. Logical division can be useful in planning a paper because a broad subject can be subdivided into several categories or groups that will narrow the topics for discussion.

Study the model essay below which discusses some of the influences of Native Americans on modern American culture.

STEP 1: Locate and underline the thesis statement twice. How many sub-topics does it list? STEP 2: Locate the main sentence in the concluding paragraph and underline it twice. Is it a paraphrase of the thesis statement or a summary of the main points? STEP 3: Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph once, and circle all of the transition signals. STEP 4: Notice the transition expressions between paragraphs. Do all of the paragraphs contain one?

Native American Influences on Modern American Culture When the first European began to settle the North American continent, they encountered a completely new culture: the Native American tribes of North America. Native Americans, who had a highly developed culture in many respects, must have been as curious about the strange European manners and customs as were the Europeans about Native Americans. As always happens when two cultures come into contact, there was a cultural exchange. Native Americans adopted some of the Europeans’ ways, and the Europeans adopted some of their ways. As a result, Native Americans have made many valuable contributions to American culture, particularly in the areas of language, art, food, and government.

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First of all, Native Americans left a permanent imprint on the English language. The early settlers borrowed words from several different Native American languages to name the new places and new objects that they had found in their new land. All across the country, one can find cities, towns, rivers, and states with Native American names. For example, the states of Delaware, Iowa, Illinois, and Alabama are named after Native American tribes, as are the cities of Chicago, Miami, and Spokane. In addition to place names, English has adopted many everyday words from various Native American languages. The words chipmunk, moose, raccoon, skunk, moccasin, and potato are just a few examples. Although the vocabulary of English is the area that shows the most Native American influence, it is not the only area of American culture that was changed by contact with Native Americans. Art is another area showing the mark of Native American contact. Wool rugs woven by women of the Navajo tribe in Arizona and New Mexico are highly valued works of art in the United States. Also, Native American jewelry made from silver and turquoise is very popular and very expensive. Especially in the western and southwestern regions of the United States, native crafts such as pottery, handcrafted leather products, and beadwork can be found in many homes. Indeed, native art and handcrafts have become a treasured part of American culture. In addition to language and art, agriculture is another area in which Native Americans had a great and lasting influence. Being skilled farmers, the Native Americans of North America taught the newcomers many things about farming techniques and crops. Every American schoolchild has heard the story of how Native Americans taught the first settlers to place a dead fish in a planting hole to provide fertilizer for the growing plant. Furthermore, they taught the settlers irrigation methods and crop rotation. In addition, many of the foods we eat today were introduced to the Europeans by Native Americans. For example, potatoes, corn, chocolate, and peanuts were unknown in Europe. Finally, it may surprise some people to learn that Americans are also indebted to one tribe for our form of government. The Iroquois, who were an extremely large tribe with many branches and sub-branches (called “nations”), had developed a highly sophisticated system of government to keep the various branches of the tribe from fighting one another. Five of the nations had joined together in a confederation called “The League of the Iroquois.” Under the League, each nation was autonomous in running its own internal affairs, but the nations acted as a unit when dealing with outsiders. The League kept the Iroquois from fighting among themselves and was also

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valuable in diplomatic relations with other tribes. When the thirteen American colonies were considering what kind of government to establish after they won their independence from Britain, someone suggested that they use a system similar to the League of the Iroquois. Under this system, each colony or future state would be autonomous in managing its own affairs but would join forces with the other states to deal with matters that concerned them all. This is exactly what happened. As a result, the present form of government of the United States can be traced directly back to a Native American model. In conclusion, we can easily see from these few examples the extent of Native American influence on our language, our art forms, our eating habits, and our government. Modern Americans are truly indebted to Native Americans for their contributions to their culture. Hopefully, the cultural exchange will one day prove to be equally positive for them.

Task 3: Controlled writing

- Make an outline of the essay above as detailed as possible.

- Copy the words, phrases or clauses that serve as links between the six paragraphs of the model essay.

Between 1 and 2: ________________________________________ Between 2 and 3: ________________________________________ Between 3 and 4: ________________________________________ Between 4 and 5: ________________________________________ Between 5 and 6: ________________________________________

Task 4: Homework - Write an essay in which you explain the influence of one culture on another. Follow these steps to success: 1. Write your thesis statement at the top of your paper. 2. Brainstorm by listing all the influences that come to your mind. language

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food clothing music family customs business methods 3. Go through the list and choose three or four significant influences 4. Brainstorm ideas to support each influence. 5. Write an outline 6. Write your first rough draft 7. Revise your rough draft before producing a final draft

- Write a small essay of around 250 words on one of the following topics: 1. What is the importance of computer in our modern life? 2. How necessary is it for Vietnam to integrate internationally?

UNIT 5 – CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY
Task 1: Check homework Task 2: Cause and effect essay A cause and effect essay discusses the reasons for something and the results.

There are basically two main ways to organize a cause and effect essay: "block" organization and "chain" organization. In block organization you first discuss all the causes as a block, and then you discuss all the effects together as a block. In chain organization, you discuss a first cause and its effects, a second cause and its effect, and a third cause and its effect, in a chain.

The type of cause and effect organization you choose depends on your topic. A chain pattern is usually easier if the causes and effects are closely interrelated or with smaller topics. With larger topics and when there is no direct cause and effect relationship, the block style is usually easier. Some topics require a combination of a block and chain organization as in the model essay on Women's Liberation below.

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In block organization, there is often a short paragraph that separates the causes from the effects. This is called a transition paragraph. Its function is to conclude the first part of the essay and introduce the second part when your topic is long and complex.

Analyze the organization of the model essay by following these steps: 1. Underline the thesis statement twice and the topic sentences once. 2. Does the thesis statement list both causes and effects? 3. In which paragraph does the discussion change from causes to effects? 4. Circle all the cause and effect structure words in the essay. 5. Does the conclusion review both causes and effects, or just causes?

Women’s Liberation Since the middle of this century, women around the world have been seeking greater independence and recognition. No longer content with their traditional roles as housewives and mothers, women have joined together to create the so-called “women’s liberation movement”. While the forces behind this international movement vary from culture to culture and from individual to individual, the basic causes in the United States can be traced to three events: the development of effective birth-control methods, the invention of labor-saving devices for the home and the advent of World War II. The first cause of the liberation of women was the development of effective birth-control methods, freeing women from the endless cycle of child bearing and rearing. As a result of having a choice as to when and if to bear children, women acquired the freedom and the time to pursue interests outside of the home. Because of the development of birth control, women could delay having children or avoid having them together; consequently, women had the opportunity to acquire an education and pursue a career. Another event was the development of mechanized labor-saving devices for the home, resulting in more leisure time and freedom for women. For example, fifty years ago, a housewife spent an average of twelve to fourteen hours a day doing housework. Due to the invention of machines such as vacuum cleaners, washing machines and dishwashers, a housewife can now take care of her daily housework in about five hours.

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The final event that, at least in the United States, gave impetus to the liberation of women was World War II. During the war, most men were serving in the military. Consequently, women had to fill the vacancies in the labor force. Women by the thousands went to work in factories and then took over businesses for their absent husbands. This was a great change for the majority of American women, for they discovered that they could weld airplanes and manages businesses as well as change diapers and bake cookies. These three events planted the seeds of great change in society, and the effects of this change are being felt at all levels: in the family, in business, and in government. One of the biggest effects of the greater independence of women is being felt in the home. The traditional husband-wife relationship is undergoing a radical transformation. Because so many women are working, men are learning to share the household tasks of cooking, cleaning, and even caring for children. In some families, there has been a complete reversal of the traditional roles: the husband stays home, while the wife earns the family’s income. It should be pointed out, however, that this is the exception, not the rule. In most families in the United States, the husband still earns most of the money, and the wife still does most of the housework. The effects of women’s liberation are being felt not only in the home but also on the job. More and more women are working, and they are demanding equal salaries and equally responsible positions. It is not uncommon for a woman to be the president of a corporation these days. Many businesses encourage women to advance to high management positions, and every year, the nation’s schools produce more women doctors, lawyers, and accountants. Politics and government are still other areas that are feeling the effects of the women’s movement. Although the United States doesn’t appear ready to accept a woman president, as some countries of the world have, women are being elected to public office in increasing numbers. The United States currently has several women governors, which is the highest office in a state. A few years ago, this would have been unthinkable. In conclusion, women in the United States are acquiring greater independence, which is causing sweeping changes in society – at home, at work, and in politics. While men may not be happy with these, they should always remember that it was they, the men, who created the conditions leading to the liberation of women: men made war, male scientists developed birth control, and businessmen earned a lot of money selling vacuum cleaners and dishwashers.

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Task 3: Controlled writing

- Make an outline of the essay above as detailed as possible. - Circle all the words, phrases or clauses that serve as links between the paragraphs of the model essay and analyse their functions.

Task 4: Homework - Rewrite the essay using the chain organization.

UNIT 6 – CAUSE AND EFFECT STRUCTURES
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Cause and Effect Structure Words

Sentence Connectors

Clauses Connectors Coordinators Subordinators

Others

To introduce a cause or reason

1) for

2) because since as

3) to result from 4) due to because of 5) the result of the effect of the consequences of 6) as a result of as a consequence of

To

introduce

an 7) as a result as a consequence therefore thus consequently hence

8) so

9) to result in to cause to have an effect on to affect 10) the cause of the reason for

effect or result

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Examples: Cause structure words 1. In 1986, the government raised the speed limit again on some highways, for most people were ignoring the 55 MPH limit.

2. In 1986, the government raised the speed limit again on some highways because/ since/ as most people were ignoring the 55 MPH limit.

3. The raising of the speed limit again on some highways resulted from/ was the result of the general public’s disregard for the 55 MPH limit.

Task 3: Practice Choose one of the topics that follow to write an essay that discusses it in terms of cause and effect. Follow these steps to success: 1. Write your thesis statement at the top of your paper. 2. Brainstorm for ideas to support causes and effects. 3. Write an outline from your brainstorming activity. 4. Write your first rough draft

Topic suggestions Pollution Inflation Stress Increasing life expectancy Rising divorce rate

Task 4: Homework Produce a complete essay from what you have prepared above.

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UNIT 7 – COMPARING AND CONTRASTING ESSAY
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Comparison and contrast essay A comparison and contrast essay is a form of writing that is frequently used in college work and in business and the professions as well. When you make a comparison, you show how certain aspects of one item are similar to the same aspects of another item in the same general class.

The two major techniques to write a good comparison and contrast essay are: 1. Appropriate use of comparison and contrast structure words. 2. Logical organization of t he points of comparison and contrast.

There are two ways to organize a comparison and contrast essay, either by block organization or point-by-point organization. In block organization, you discuss all the similarities in one block and all the differences in another block. In point-by-point organization, you make a sentence-bysentence comparison of the features in any order that seems appropriate for the topic.

Analyze the following comparison and contrast essay about the cultures of Japan and the United States. 1. Underline the thesis statement twice and the topic sentences once. 2. Circle all the structure words for comparison/ contrast. 3. Analyze the organization: Which paragraph discusses similarities? Which paragraphs discuss the differences? Is there a transition between the two parts? What is the purpose of the conclusion?

Japan and the United States

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The culture of a country is an integral part of its society. Basically, culture is reflected in a country's language, literature, art, music and dance. However, culture also includes the patterned ways in which people conduct themselves in their relationships with others. Japan and the United States are two highly industrialized nations in the world. Although their cultures have a few similarities, there are greater differences between these nations of the East and West. First of all, Japan and the United States have several similarities. The United States is a democracy and so is Japan. The United States' Constitution is its supreme law, just as the Japanese Constitution is in Japan. Also, Japan's Diet is similar to the U.S. Congress. In addition, both Japan and the United States have made a mutually enriching exchange of cuisine. There are Japanese restaurants in America, where diners can enjoy food like sashimi, tempura, and noodles. Similarly, Japanese enjoy American fast foods like McDonald's hamburgers and French fries, Kentucky fried chicken, and Mrs. Fields' cookies. Finally, the Western sport of baseball is popular not only in the United States but also in Japan. Baseball heroes are important to Japanese spectators, jus as they are to American fans. Despite these similarities, the United States and Japan have some very significant cultural differences. One important difference is the people. Japan is a homogeneous society of one nationality and a few underrepresented minority groups like Chinese and Koreans. As a result, all areas of government and society In contrast, although the United States is a country with European roots originally, its liberal policy has resulted in its becoming a heterogeneous society of many nationalities-Europeans, Africans, Asians, Hispanics. They are represented in all facets of American society, including business, education, and politics. Another difference is in the two countries' use of transportation. Japan and the United States have modern transportation systems which use the latest technology. However, the means of transportation used in Japan is different from that in the United States. The majority of Japanese use an efficient network of public transportation for pleasure and for traveling. Thus, the train and subway systems are extremely overcrowded during peak hours. By comparison, Americans rely less on public transportation and prefer to drive their own cars or to ride in carpools. Although the average Japanese family owns one car, the typical American family owns at least two cars or more, depending on the number of children of legal driving age. Finally, a common sight in Japanese cities is neatly dressed women on motorized scooters riding on busy streets to

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do their shopping. Bicycles are also a very popular form of daily transportation. In contrast, Americans usually do their errands by car and ride their bikes mostly for exercise or pleasure. The final and most important difference is that in modern Japan, traditional customs are still largely observed. In fact, surprisingly, many young people still prefer arranged marriage. By comparison, young Americans seek their own marriage partners. In addition, married Japanese couples have more clearly defined roles than their American counterparts. A Japanese wife has greater control over the household and family decisions than an American wife. The strong role of a Japanese wife is understandable since the husband is a very busy man. His loyalty is first to his workplace, and he must expend all of his energy and waking time to his career. Thus, he may not arrive home until late at night, so his wife must discipline the children and make important decisions to keep the household running smoothly. On the other hand, an American couple, who more or less maintain a 50/50 relationship, generally have a more democratic approach and make decisions together. It is clear that although there are some important similarities between Japan and the United States, there are significant differences as well. The extent to which Japan has accepted some aspects of Western culture reveals the country's desire to absorb new customs. Indeed, the cultural exchanges of Japan and the United States have benefited both nations dramatically and will continue to do so in the future.

Writing technique questions 1. On how many points are the two cultures compared and contrasted? What are they? Where are they named? 2. In which paragraph(s) are the similarities discussed? In which paragraph(s) are the differences discussed? 3. What is the function of the third paragraph? 4. Is the organization of this essay similar to cause and effect block style organization discussed in the last section?

Task 3: Controlled writing

- Make an outline of the essay above as detailed as possible.

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- Circle all the words, phrases or clauses that serve as links between the paragraphs of the model essay and analyse their functions.

Task 4: Homework - Rewrite the essay using the point-by-point organization.

UNIT 8 – COMPARISON STRUCTURES
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Comparison structure words Sentence connectors Clause connectors Subordinators 1) similarly likewise also too 2) as just as Coordinators 3) and 4) like just like 5) similar to the same as 6) not only … but also both … and 7) to compare to to compare with Others

Examples: 1. Human workers can detect malfunctions in machinery; similarly/ likewise, a robot can be programmed to detect equipment malfunctions. 2. Robots can detect malfunctions in machinery just as human workers can. 3. Robots, like human workers, can detect malfunctions in machinery.

Task 3: Practice

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Choose one of the topics that follow to write an essay that discusses it in terms of cause and effect. Follow these steps to success: 1. Write your thesis statement at the top of your paper. 2. Brainstorm for ideas to support causes and effects. 3. Write an outline from your brainstorming activity. 4. Write your first rough draft

Topic suggestions

Public vs private schools Living at home Vs living away from home Child raising practices previously and now Computers Vs humans Robots Vs human workers

Task 4: Homework Produce a complete essay from what you have prepared above.

UNIT 9 – EXAMPLIFICATION ESSAY
Task 1: The example essay An example essay is an essay giving examples to illustrate a thesis.

The examples and details in an example essay are organized according to time, familiarity, and importance.

Developmental paragraphs in an example essay must be connected so that they flow smoothly.

There are two ways to connect the paragraphs in an essay: with transitional expressions and with the repetition of key words and phrases.

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1. Transitions to introduce examples: In the first developmental paragraph, there are such phrases as: Take, for example, this topic. One example of a person who is kind is my neighbour. One thing that bothers me much is air pollution. In the second developmental paragraph, the examples can be introduced in a variety of ways: Another example of a dedicated teacher is Mrs. Hahn. An additional example is Mr. Jones. Another thing in the agenda is the safety issue. In an example paragraph that introduces the most important or most significant example, its importance is indicated in the beginning of the paragraph: The most important example of a helpful person is my advisor. A final example of a good teacher is Ms. Toohey. The most significant example of air pollution is provided by Los Angeles.

2. Repetition of key words and phrases: The standard transitional expressions are useful for making paragraphs connect logically; however, these phrases used all of the time can become very mechanical and repetitious.

Task 2: PRACTICE Study the following set of paragraphs. Assume that it contains the next two paragraphs after an introduction. Change the beginning of the second paragraph in each set so that it contains a key word linking it to the previous paragraph.

One of the things I do to improve my English is to watch television. This is no doubt one of the most popular techniques that all foreign students use. I find that the situation comedies and detective shows help me improve my listening skills the most because the actors speak very rapidly. Documentaries and news programs help me build my vocabulary because they contain material that interests me. All of the shows help me improve my speaking skills because I

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consciously try to imitate the way the actors speak, especially the news casters because they enunciate each word so well. I work the crossword puzzles in the daily newspaper. Sometimes I can figure out a word if several of the letters are in it, and sometimes I have to ask somebody. If I cannot finish the puzzle, I keep it until the solution appears in the next edition of the newspaper. Then I look up the words I did not know and write them down. I have learned dozens of new vocabulary words this way, and by doing the puzzles every day, I have found that many of the words reappear, thus reinforcing my knowledge of the new words.

Task 3: HOMEWORK Write an introduction, another developmental paragraph and a conclusion. Be sure to make transitions between paragraphs smooth and to give good, specific examples.

UNIT 10 – BALANCED ESSAY – PART 1
Task 1: The Dialectic (Balanced essay) The dialectic essay examines an issue that has two or more theses. The purpose of the dialectic essay is to determine the most acceptable and appropriate solution by a comprehensive examination of the issue.

In writing a dialectic (balanced) essay, • • • • • We need to express our opinion or views. We often look at what other people have already said on the same subject or we look at other ideas. We probably look at the advantages and disadvantages of a particular idea or proposal or action. We look at the arguments for (or in favour) and against. Then we try to evaluate the different opinions, comparing and contrasting, and eventually give our own opinion or views.

The Introduction must include:

- an opening general statement 30

- a clear contention or thesis statement

The Body must include at least two supporting arguments and two opposing arguments.

The Conclusion should state clearly whether the advantages outweigh the disadvantages or vice versa.

Task 2: Study the essay outline below and make it a balanced one.

Essay Outline The advantages and disadvantages of living in the twentieth century

I. Living in the twentieth century offers certain advantages, such as a higher standard of living, but it also has some disadvantages, such as a polluted environment, the depersonalization of human relationships, and the weakening of spiritual values.

II. The biggest advantage of living in the twentieth century is the high standard of living we enjoy. A. More money for less hard work 1. More office workers than manual laborers. 2. Higher salaries. 3. Increased government services a. Social security b. Unemployment benefits c. Disability insurance B. Longer life expectancy 1. Better medical care a. More hospitals, doctors, nurses b. Advances in medical technology 2. Improved nutrition 3. More leisure time

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C. Modern conveniences 1. Communication a. telephones b. Radio and television 2. Labor-saving machines in the home a. Dishwashers b. Washing machines/ dryers c. Vacuum cleaners 3. Faster transportation III. One of the main disadvantages of living in the twentieth century is that we are living in an increasingly polluted environment. A. Air pollution 1. Smog 2. Nuclear fallout B. Water pollution 1. Chemical wastes from factories a. Dead fish b. Contaminated drinking water supplies 2. Raw sewage from cities 3. Oil spills from ships

IV. A second disadvantage of living in the twentieth century is the depersonalization of human relationships. A. People and machines 1. Automated vending machines, banks, etc. 2. Tape recorded telephone answering 3. Computerized dating services B. People and numbers 1. Social security numbers 2. Credit card numbers

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V. The final disadvantage of living in the twentieth century is the weakening of spiritual values. A. Materialistic culture B. Faith in science instead of in religion

VI. Conclusion

Task 3: HOMEWORK Develop the outline into a complete balanced essay.

UNIT 11 – BALANCED ESSAY – PART 2
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Read the text below about the controversy over surgeons performing cosmetic surgery on adolescents, and then prepare an outline discussing the arguments for and against allowing adolescents to have cosmetic surgery.

Note: Cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery are different. Plastic surgery is used to correct defects incurred as a result of birth or accident while cosmetic surgery is designed to beautify one’s physical appearance.

Herald Sun Wednesday, December 17, 2003 By Mark Dunn Up to 40 Australian teenagers a year, some only 14, are having liposuction. One 17-year-old has just completed a $20,000 operation “refining the whole figure” after her mother backed the radical surgery. Dr. Darryl Hodgkinson said dozens of Melbourne adolescents have had liposuction and cosmetic surgery at his Sydney clinic for problems including fat bottoms, bellies, and thighs. “We get a number from mid to late teens, children from 14 onwards,” he said.

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“It’s infrequent in my practice. Especially, when you have a transition from year 11 to 12 or certainly from Year 12 to university, many have chunked up from their study years.” Many of his adolescent patients were genetically exposed to weight problems. Parental consent and a psychological appraisal were required. Dr. Hodgkinson said about 140 doctors in Melbourne and Sydney performed about 400 liposuctions and cosmetic operation a week. Up to 10 per cent of those were for adolescents. Patients as young as 14 usually required breast reductions, surgery that gave them greater social acceptance among their school peers. Dr. Hodgkinson had just completed a $20,000 job ‘refining the whole figure’ of a 17-year-old girl whose mother fully supported the operation because she herself had suffered weight problems. Dr. Hodgkinson said his Cosmetic Surgery Clinic at Double bay was recognized as specialist adolescent service, and up to 20 percent of his patients were from interstate including Victoria. Melbourne cosmetic surgeon Bruce Fox said he told most teens asking for liposuction they should change their lifestyle or wait until they were adults. But sometimes fat deposits would not diminish through diet or exercise and liposuction on teens was appropriate. This week he had performed liposuction on 15 and 16-years-old sisters whose mother had liposuction years ago. The teens had a combination of thigh, buttock and knee fat reductions because the problems could not be fully addressed by diet and exercise, he said. Other instances included a boy, 12, who had breast reduction to correct a hormonal imbalance. Such surgery could change an adolescent’s life from someone subjected to taunts to a teen with greater confidence and social acceptance. “Liposuction is one option, but I would say it is the last option,” he said. But Dr. Mervyncass, of Caufield’s center of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery said there was no place for liposuction on teenagers. “It’s poor medicine … almost invariably, the children are also children of people who are also overweight,” he said. Melbourne cosmetic dermatologist Dr. Michael Rich also disagreed with adolescent liposuction. “Liposuction is not suitable for children; it is not a weight-reducing procedure,” he said. “What they need is more exercise. Encourage them to walk. This is an Xbox generation; kids used to ride their bikes.” Dr. Rich has conducted liposuction on two adolescents. Both times it was to remove abnormal fat deposit-one on a patient’s back and one for a young male’s breasts.

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Cosmetic surgeries offering liposuction are a growing business in Australia, where 50 per cent the population is overweight and one in five children is either overweight or obese. The Australian Medical Association’s spokesman on eating behaviour and weight management, Dr. Rick Kausman, said he was concerned to learn that minors were having liposuction. He said 50 per cent of weight problems were related to over-eating and under-exercising, and 50 per cent were related to a genetic predisposition to being overweight. Dr Kausman said that the psychology of food, the reasons why people overate, was also important. “Many people are eating a lot more than their bodies call for,” he said. “There is no quick fix here, and liposuction for teens is something that surprises and concerns me.”

I find it outrageous that adults are opposed to teenagers having cosmetic surgery. They clearly don’t understand the pressures that young people have nowadays to look good. If having cosmetic surgery means that a kid is not going to be teased or feels more accepted by his or her peers, then surely it should be allowed. J. Jones Balwyyn, VIC

While I am not opposed to children having plastic surgery to fix deformities caused at birth or by unfortunate accident, I am certainly opposed to them having cosmetic surgery to enhance their looks for vanity’s sake or to improve self-confidence. Surely, there are more positive means through which young people can develop self-confidence. Afterall, the women’s movement spent years encouraging girls to love themselves not for their appearance but for their abilities and strengths in other areas. Angry Female Cheltenham, VIC

Someone should tell those young people requesting cosmetic surgery that self-confidence is about loving oneself, flaws and all. Someone should remind these young people that there is no such thing as physical perfection before they become addicted to trying to achieve it. Proud and Imperfect West Sunshine, VIC

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When I was 15, I wanted to leave school and become a hairdresser. I am now 33 and am working as a civil engineer. Thank goodness that my parents did not allow it. Young people are not always wise enough to make wise decisions. Helen Tomkins Richmond

When I was 20 I had a breast enlargement because I had always been teased about being relatively flat-chested. Since then I have been in and out of hospital due to the complications caused by the original surgery. I now wish that I had bought myself a pish-up bra instead! Miriam Tower Toorak

Young people today know their own minds far more than young people years ago. They are far more mature and informed and should therefore be allowed to make decisions concerning their own bodies, even cosmetic surgery. Susan Miller Northcote, VIC

Arguments for

Arguments against

Task 3: HOMEWORK Develop the outline into a complete balanced essay.

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UNIT 12 – ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY – PART 1
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Argumentative Essay (Argument or Argumentation or Rhetorical) A rhetorical essay acknowledges and eliminates points that oppose the essay’s hypothesis. Unlike the dialectic essay, which gives equal consideration to both sides of an issue, a rhetorical essay clearly supports one side of an issue. The opposing sides are acknowledged but then countered with opposing arguments that strengthen the essay’s hypothesis. The rhetoric is used to support the bias inherent in the thesis.

Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. A rhetorical paper must convince the reader of the validity of your thesis. You must convince the reader that your perspective on an issue is the right one. An effective rhetorical paper provides convincing arguments in favor of your perspective and it eliminates any potential arguments that go against your perspective. The goal of a rhetorical essay is to have the reader utterly convinced of the rightness of your thesis.
Writing process

1. The Introduction must include: An opening general statement

- A clear contention or thesis statement
2. The Body must

- develop an argument, support each statement with appropriate evidence. - include three arguments and one counterargument.
3. The Conclusion should

- begin with a special concluding phrase: (In general, To sum up, To conclude, In
conclusion, It may be concluded that …)

- restate the contention/ thesis statement.

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- make recommendations or suggestions or to give advice and offer solutions if you are
asked to do so Task 3: Argument Recognition

Study the four following essay tasks. 1. Although abuses of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a guaranteed minimum income in a democratic society. Discuss. 2. The government is ultimately responsible for making the streets safe. Stronger gun laws should be in force to protect all citizens. How far do you agree or disagree with this statement? 3. The only way to reduce the rising number of road accidents is for a total ban on drinking while driving. Do you agree or disagree? Make other recommendations. 4. Most Australians believe they enjoy and have the right to say or write whatever you wish in society?

The 21 arguments below belong to four essays written as answers to those tasks. Complete the following table by deciding:

a. to which essay each argument belongs b. if each argument is for or against the essay topic question.

Essay 1 For Against For

Essay 2 Against

Essay 3 For Against For

Essay 4 Against

1. Crime is on the increase in cities, and the percentage of robberies in which arms are used is rising, too.

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2. Not all those people who receive social welfare payments are able or capable of earning a wage. They have a right to an income, too. 3. A reduction in gun ownership would occur only if there were enough police to enforce the stronger laws. 4. A democracy can only be strong and healthy if it allows people with radical opinions to say what they wish. Words never hurt anyone. 5. Why only ban alcohol? There are many other drugs which impair one’s ability to drive. The complete ban of only one substance makes no sense. 6. Guns kill. Since we cannot prohibit their manufacture we must have effective, that is stronger gun laws. 7. We are not free to do whatever else we like, so why should we believe we have the right to free speech? 8. People should look after themselves. Welfare increases dependency on others and destroys dignity. 9. Almost anyone can buy a gun if they can provide proof of the need to own one. It is too easy to buy a gun. 10. Tests prove that most car accidents as a result of speeding. Drivers still speed even when they have not been drinking alcohol. Targeting alcohol does not stop people speeding. 11. The only way to prevent crime is to reduce the need for crime, that is, to reduce poverty. Gun ownership makes no difference. 12. The only persons against a total ban are the manufacturers of alcoholic drinks and pub owners. Unfortunately, these two groups are politically influential and wealthy. Most others support it. 13. The best way to make a better world is to prevent certain people from expressing their opinions. This means censoring what they say so that others do not become influenced. 14. Crime increases if people have no means of support. It is cheaper to pay welfare than police the streets. 15. In countries where it is illegal to drink and drive, the road death toll is far less than in countries which allow alcohol in the bloodstream while driving. 16. If you have no job, you should not expect the government to help you. It is your family’s responsibility.

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17. People who oppose free speech are only afraid that what they believe may not be the truth. Many great ideas of the past were first banned from being heard.
18. Since speeding is the leading cause of accidents, and alcohol makes people less careful and more likely to speed, it makes sense to totally ban drinking while driving. 19. Banning people from saying what they wish only makes them try harder to be heard.

20. It would be better if guns were not manufactured. However, they are needed in the military, on the farm and for sporting purposes. Stronger laws have little or no effect, since criminals can always buy guns. 21. People who pay taxes all their working lives have the right to an income if they lose their jobs, especially if it is not their own fault.

Task 4: HOMEWORK Study the following essay topic.
‘Although abuses of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a guaranteed minimum income in a democratic society.’ Discuss.

Complete the plan below with ideas of your own.

Possible Plan
TOPIC: INTRO: (at least 40 words) Social welfare payments = there are abuses of the system BUT: my opinion = > YES, essential for two main reasons: REASONS: 1. Many who require welfare. 2. …………………………… BODY: Paragraph 1: (YES + WHY) REASON 1: ……………………………………………… (at least 60 words) Argument 1: ……………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………. Example(s) (?): …………………………………………………………… Argument 2: ………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………….. Example(s) (?): ……………………………………………………………. Paragraph 2: (YES + WHY) REASON 2: ………………………………………………..

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(at least 60 words)

Argument 1: ……………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………

Example(s):

……………………………………………………………… Argument 2: ………………………………………………..

Example(s) Paragraph 3: NO (at least 60 words)

……………………………………………………………… REASON 1: ……………………………………………….. Refutation: ……………………………………………….. REASON 2: ……………………………………………….. Refutation: ………………………………………………

CONCLUSION: (YES + SUMMARY) = > what is proved: …………………………….. (at least 30 words) Summary point: …………………………………………………….

UNIT 13 – ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY – PART 2
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Check the sample essay below against the outline that has been completed as homework. Pay attention to the underlined words and phrases. ‘Although abuses of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a guaranteed minimum income in a democratic society.’ Discuss.

Social Welfare System

Social welfare system is an essential element of an advanced society. There might be abuses but it is not the fault of the system. It should be seen that welfare payments are necessary because many people in the society need welfare payments, many others have the right to them and without such a system, crime would increase.

Firstly, it should be noted that in our society there are many people who really need the help of welfare payments since they are unable to earn a wage to support their life. They might be single

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mothers, the disabled or the sick. Others may not be old enough to work – orphans for instance. In short, welfare payments are the necessity of certain people in our society.

Another group of people who have the right to welfare payments are the old-aged pensioners. They have been working all their life and have paid taxes to the government. The unemployed also have that right because they also pay taxes while they are working, and now that they have no jobs, they should be helped. In other words, people like the retired and the unemployed are entitled to the social welfare system.

It should be remembered as well that without welfare payments, crime would increase seriously when people have no means of support. It is widely known that poverty can lead to social evils. Also, fighting crime is more expensive than paying welfare because a policeman’s wage might be 5 times higher than a person’s unemployment benefit. It is obvious that the existence of the social welfare payment system can serve as a positive factor in fighting crimes.

This point, nonetheless, is not shared / agreed / accepted by everybody. Certain members in the society may hold the view that welfare payments make people become dependent. This may be true, but in the case of the unemployed, the relief payments are only temporary. Welfare critics also believe that it is the person’s family’s responsibility to provide support. However, it would be too expensive to provide complete help for a disabled person for his whole life.

To conclude, it is vital to understand the necessity of social welfare in a modern democratic society. Without welfare payments the poor can never live a better life. It is the duty of a government to take care of every citizen to ensure people an equal life.

Task 3: Read the argumentative essay below and answer the questions that follow:
PROFICIENCY EXAMINATIONS – WHO NEEDS THEM?

At the United States universities to pass the English proficiency examination everyone has to be able to write a 50-word essay in fifty minutes with no more than two “major” errors and five “minor” errors.

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While most native speakers of English manage to do this after two or three semesters of English, nonnative speakers have a much more difficult time. While international students may have more original ideas than native speakers, they may fail for superficial grammatical errors. This seems very unfair to me. It seems clear that international students should be considered special cases, and therefore the composition proficiency requirements as now stated should not apply.

The case of international students at an American university is indeed special. First, most international students are using English as their second language. When it comes to writing a composition, international students using a second language usually require more time than native speakers. They must spend part of their precious fifty minutes looking up new words, checking over grammatical constructions, looking everywhere for a missing third-person S, and rephrasing tricky idioms. Furthermore, the composition proficiency exam is biased against international students. It counts grammatical errors, which often have nothing to do with meaning. Often international students have very good ideas and concentrate on expressing them. Then they fail the test maybe because they use an “ing” participle instead of an infinitive while for most American speakers of English, the complements after verbs are automatic and they do not have to take time to think about them at all. Even if the native speakers do not have very good ideas, they can still pass the test because they do not make any grammatical errors. Therefore, it appears to me that international students should not be judged so severely on grammatical mistakes, but should be judged more on the quality of their ideas.

My opponents might argue that international students need the level of English proficiency indicated by the exam to get through their major courses. They fear that international students will fail their math, science, history, and psychology courses if they can not write compositions. This is simply not true. First, it is estimated that about 75 percent of international students are majoring in math and science. In these classes, professors do problems on the board or demonstrations in the laboratory. Virtually no English composition skills are necessary. What about history and psychology courses which normally require a certain amount of writing skills? Here, too, I can easily show that the proficiency level demanded on the test is not needed. Most introductory courses in history and psychology are mass lecture courses in which multiple choice tests are given. As long as international students can read the textbooks and tape record the lectures, they are likely to pass these courses with no more writing than a circle around the correct letter. It, hence, is obvious that the level of proficiency

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that the composition test requires is simply not necessary for most international students to pass courses in an American university.

Perhaps one might argue that the proficiency requirements are not necessary for American students, either. However, this view is not reasonable. First, the point of writing compositions is to express yourself well in language. Since English is the first language for most Americans, they will surely need to have this skill in their native language. And because most native speakers rarely study composition thoroughly in high school, they really need to have a thorough study of it at the college level. On the other hand, many international students have studied the skill in their own language quite thoroughly in high school. If they pass high school, they can already express themselves well in their first language. So, further practice in composition is unnecessary. Furthermore, American students might need to write well in English for their future careers but most international students will not need good English writing skill for their careers when they go back home.

It is clear then that the case of international students at American universities is special. English is their second language and this fact should be taken into consideration when the English Department reads the final proficiency tests. In addition, since the level of proficiency required on the test is not required for most students to pass their major courses, I would propose that the standard used to judge international student papers be relaxed. After all, if students can show that they can pass their major courses, why should the university block their way with superficial but often insurmountable barriers?

Answer the following questions about the text. 1. What is the issue discussed by the writer? 2. What is the thesis statement? 3. What is the major premise of paragraph 2? 4. Where does the refutation begin in the essay? 5. What is the first point that the writer refutes? 6. What is the second point to be refuted by the writer? 7. Is the argument convincing? 8. Does the conclusion logically follow?

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Task 4: HOMEWORK. Make an outline of the essay, following examples you learnt in unit 12

UNIT 14 – ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY – PART 3
Task 1: Check homework

Task 2: Read the argumentative essay below and answer the questions that follow

SCIENCE: WHO NEEDS IT?

At our school all students are required to take a minimum of six courses in the natural sciences: three in the biological sciences and three in the physical sciences, regardless of the students’ major. Students majoring in the humanities often have to struggle to get through these demanding courses and their grade-point averages usually suffer as a result. It has been suggested that the requirements be modified, reducing the number of natural science courses required so that students can take more courses directly related to their majors. As a humanities major, I admit this would make college life a lot easier for me, but I still oppose the measure because natural science courses provide us with a crucial part of our education.

Students majoring in the humanities usually object to taking such science courses because they claim the courses are irrelevant to their majors. It’s true that physics, chemistry, biology, and the like may not have a direct application to most careers in the humanities, but this objection ignores one of the key issues of a university education. A university is not simply a training facility; it is an institution of higher learning where students are educated, not merely trained. Even the term university implies that it’s a place to obtain a general knowledge base; a university education means the students have been educated in many subjects. Since part of our universal knowledge is science, it is and logically should be a part of the university curriculum.

Humanities students might accept this argument and agree that they should take some natural science, but not as many courses as are now required. They might suggest a one-semester course 45

in biological science and a one-semester course in physical science, along with perhaps one semester of math for non-majors. This, they argue, would expose them sufficiently to the universe of science. If the point of a university education were merely to expose students to a variety of subjects, then I might agree. But a university education implies more than exposure. After all, people can be exposed to subjects by watching television. Again, the purpose of going to a university is to get an education. What does that mean? It means more than just training and exposure; it means that students should learn enough to become critical thinkers in the various disciplines. It means that they should gain enough understanding of the sciences, humanities, social sciences, and the arts to be able to discuss issues in these areas intelligently and to be able to question other people’s views rather than just accept what people tell them.

One or two semesters of general science cannot sufficiently educate students in this field. What one learns in natural science courses is more than mere factual information. One learns to think critically, to approach problems logically, to use reasoning. And this takes time. It takes work. It takes studying different areas of science and applying the general principles in laboratory situations.

Developing a critical ability in science is important because in addition to providing the students with a universe of knowledge, an understanding of science is vital in our highly technological society. We are all confronted with issues involving nuclear waste, chemical pollutants, medical advances, exploration in space, and so forth. In order to make intelligent decision, people need to have an understanding of these issues that goes beyond mere “exposure”.

Finally, it should be seen that science courses do have relevance to the humanities, and this is through the critical thinking approach of the scientific method. It is an approach that demands the researcher obtain support for his or her hypotheses. Courses in the humanities demand critical thinking as well. Students of literature must support their interpretations with “evidence” from the literary work; art majors must test their ideas – or hypotheses – by experimenting and drawing conclusions.

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In short, science courses provide us with not only knowledge that is crucial for intelligent functioning in our society, but also with the opportunity to develop our critical, logical reasoning skills. Although these courses are difficult for the non-science majors, they are well worth the effort. The knowledge and thinking skills gained from these courses make us less vulnerable to charlatans and politicians as we more intelligently and critically evaluate the propositions offered to us. Answer the following questions about the text. 9. What is the issue discussed by the writer? 10. What is the thesis statement? 11. What is the major premise of the essay? 12. Where does the refutation begin in the essay? 13. What is the first point that the writer refutes? 14. Is the argument convincing? 15. Does the conclusion logically follow? 16. Does the writer concede any points? 17. Make an outline of the essay.

Task 3: Choose one of the following topics. 1. The technology of cloning should be banned due to its greatly hazardous nature and immorality. Do you agree? 2. Some people claim that universities should educate people with wide general knowledge so that they can discuss big issues from an informed viewpoint. Others hold that universities should simply train students to do the jobs that the society requires. Do you agree or disagree? 3. In some countries young people are encouraged to spend a year after finishing high school and starting the university either traveling or doing some work. Do you agree or disagree with that? 4. Many activists around the world protest against the process of globalization, citing its negative effects on the developing economies. What do you think?

Follow these steps to success:

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1. Write your thesis statement at the top of your paper. 2. Brainstorm for ideas to support causes and effects. 3. Write an outline from your brainstorming activity. 4. Write your first rough draft

Task 4: Homework Produce a complete essay from what you have prepared above.

UNIT 15 – CONSOLIDATION
The Writing Process Now let's complete the writing process you began at the beginning of the essay writing process. Follow these steps in order to write good a good.

STEP 1:

Prepare to get ideas. This is the step you completed at the beginning of the

writing process.

STEP 2: • • • • •

Organize the Ideas. Prepare an outline using the block method of organization.

Rearrange the information from the chart into a block of similarities and a block of differences. Decide on the number of paragraphs of comparison and the number of paragraphs of contrast. Decide which "block" to put first: similarities or differences. Add specific facts, examples, or quotations for each point. Write a thesis statement and a concluding sentence.

STEP 3:

Write the rough draft. Write ROUGH DRAFT at the top of your paper. Write a rough draft from your outline. Use a variety of comparison and contrast structure words and phrase.

STEP 4:

Edit your rough draft. Follow the editing procedure you used in previous unit

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EDITING CHECKLIST

Writer’s questions

Peer editors’ answers and comments Format

1. Is the format correct?

Check the title, indenting, margins, and double spacing Organization

2. Does the essay have an introduction, a body, and a conclusion?

How many paragraphs does the essay have? How many paragraphs are in the body?

Introduction

3. Do the general statements

How many general statements are there? Is this a funnel introduction? yes no

• give background information? • attract the reader's attention?

4. Does the thesis statement state the topics that will be compared and contrasted?

Does it stimulate your interest in the topic? Copy the thesis statement here:

Body 5. Does the essay use "block" organization?

if comparison and contrast essay

Which is discussed first, similarities or 6. Does each body paragraph have … • • • differences? How many paragraphs discuss similarities? a clearly stated topic sentence with a main (controlling) idea? good development with sufficient supporting ideas? are there transitions between paragraphs? List one supporting detail from each Write the main idea for each body paragraph How many paragraphs discuss differences?

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paragraph

List the transitions between each body paragraph:

Conclusion

Does the conclusion make a judgment or is it neutral?

7. Does the conclusion … If there is a judgment, is the judgment • • summarize the main points? give final comments? supported by the facts presented in the essay?

Grammar and mechanics 8. Are commas used where necessary? 9. Are verbs used appropriately? Check each verb for the appropriate tense. Circle any that you have questions about. Sentence Structure 10. Do all sentences contain at least one subject and one verb and express a complete thought? 11. Does the essay contain a variety of sentence types? What sentence type does this write use the most often? simple, compound or complex? Underline any sentences that you have doubts about Circle any comma errors. Add missing comma,

STEP 5:

Write the second draft. Write the second essay to hand in to your instructor.

STEP 6:

Write the Final Draft. After your instructor returns your paper, write a neat final copy to hand in for final evaluation.

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Overall Review 1. Kinds Of Sentences

SIMPLE SENTENCES = one independent clause: subject + verb subject + verb + complement

Spring has arrived! The flowers are blooming. The sun is shining brightly. People are walking and jogging in the park.

COMPOUND SENTENCES = two independent clauses The sun is shining, and there are no clouds in the sky. The sun is shining; there are no clouds in the sky. The sun is shining; furthermore, there are no clouds in the sky.

COMPLEX SENTENCES = one independent clause + one (or more) dependent clauses Rollerblading is great fun when you skate with a group of people. Although rollerblading with the group is fun, you have to skate fast to keep up. Alex broke his arm because he fell when he skated too fast.

2. Connectors

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS for and nor but or yet (=FANBOY)

PAIRED CONJUNCTIONS both ... and not only ... but also

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neither nor

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS

Time

reasons

comparison

after as soon as before since until when whenever while

as because since

just as

contrast although

purpose in order that so that

even though whereas while

condition Place where wherever as if even if if unless

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

Person that who whom whose

Thing that which whose

Place where Time when

SENTENCE CONNECTORS and PREPOSITIONS

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Additional Idea also besides finally furthermore in addition moreover (Prepositions) besides ... in addition to ...

Opposite Idea / contrast however in contrast on the other hand

Similarity / Comparison also likewise similarly

(Prepositions) despite ... in spite of ... unlike ... example for example for instance

(Prepositions) similar to ... like...

Effect or Result as a result consequently therefore thus

OTHERTRANSITION EXPRESSIONS

Opinions According to ….. In my opinion, In my view, I think / believe / feel (that) ... Conclusions All in all, For these reasons, ... In brief, ... Indeed, ... In other words, In short, ... Time Order First, First of all, Second, Next, Spatial Order above the across from the In the end, ...

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After that, ... Afterward, Later, ... Finally, Meanwhile, Then ... Now ... At the beginning of the ... Before the ... After the ... During the ... On the day of the ...

around the outside of the at the top of the below the behind the beside the between the close to the in the in (the) back (of) the in (the) front (of) the in the center (of the) inside (of) the near the next to the on one side of the on the other side of the

Order of Importance The first and most important reason is... The last and most important reason is ...

on the left (right) opposite the to the left (right) of the under the

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