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SYNERGETICS CORPORATION RE-ACT NOW STUDIO
IGLOO ARHITECTURE STUDIO BASAR ASTIL MACARIE O’LOONEY ARCHITECTS SOARE&YOKINA ARHITECTI ASOCIATI REPUBLIC OF ARCHITECTS POLARH DESIGN KVB ECONOMIC
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE URBAN ACTION AREA 1.1. Identification of the Urban Action Area and Justification of Choice 1.2. Historic Evolution of the Area 1.3. Analysis of the Built Environment and Urban Fabric 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 1.3.3. 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.5.1. 1.5.2. 1.5.3. 1.5.4. 1.5.5. 126.96.36.199. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206. 220.127.116.11. 1.6.1. 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124. 1.6.2. 1.6.3. 1.6.4. 1.6.5. 1.6.6. 1.6.7. 1.6.8. 1.6.9. Built Environment Urban Fabric Structure Urban Action Area Sub-areas Urban Fabric Structure Transport by Private Car Public Transport Walking Bicycle Use Population Living in the Urban Action Area Green Areas Crime Incidence in the IUDP Urban Action Area Social Perceptions and Benchmarks Related to the Urban Action Area Central Area Definiton Central Area Promotion Central Area Use Central Area-related Problems and Requirements Workforce Employee Distribution according to the Field of Activity Employee Distribution according to the Weight of the Activity Economic Activity Volume Economic Activity Profile Company Dynamics Economic Activity Density Industry-specific Economy Innovation, Research and Development Added Value and Productivity North / South Space Analysis 2
1.4. Analysis of Urban Transport
1.5. Demographic and Social Characteristics of the Urban Action Area
1.6. Economic Characteristics of the Urban Action Area and Comparison with the City
1.7. Public services
1.7.1. 1.7.2. 1.7.3. 1.7.4. 1.7.5. 1.7.6. 1.8.1. 1.8.2. 1.9.1. 1.9.2. 2.
Transport Infrastructure and Mobility Technical-Urban Infrastructure Cleanliness Health Education Culture Public Investment Dynamics Private Investment Dynamics Development Needs Identified by the Sociological Survey Development Needs Identified by the Diagnosis Analysis
1.8. Investment Dynamics in the Urban Action Area
1.9. Development Needs Identified in the Urban Action Area
1.10. Urban Action Area Development Potential URBAN ACTION AREA DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 2.1. Importance of a Strategic Local Development Vision 2.2. Objectives 2.2.1 European Objectives and Principles regarding the Improvement of the Living Environment in the Urban Area 2.2.2. Objectives of the Regional Operational Programme 2.2.3. Objectives for the Integrated Urban Development Plan for Bucharest – Centra Area 2.3. Development Priorities 2.4. Strategy for the Development of Tourism in the Central Area of Bucharest 3. ACTION PLAN 3.1 List of Projects and Estimated Budget for the Implementation of the Integrated Plan, according to Sources of Financing; Project Implementation Period 3.2 Urban Action Area Map including the Location of the Individual Projects within the Plan 3.3 Integrated Plan Implementation Management 4. 5. PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS FOR IUDP PREPARATION BENEFITS BROUGHT BY IUDP AND PROPOSED ACTIONS
ANNEXES Annex no. 1 – List of Individual Projects Annex no. 2 – Sub-areas Included in the Urban Action Area Annex no. 3 – Historic Analysis Sources Annex no. 4 – Stages of Evolution of the Central Area Sub-areas Annex no. 5 - Stages of Evolution of the Structuring Axes of the Central Area Annex no. 6 – Sociological Survey Methodology Annex no. 7 – Traffic Analysis for the Urban Action Plan Annex no. 8 – List of the Pledged Streets within the Urban Action Area Annex no. 9 – Investments in the Urban Action Area made by Bucharest Municipality
of the design briefs and of the feasibility studies. for the preparation of the Integrated Urban Development Plan for the Central Area of Bucharest City (IUDP). In this context.Context This project represents the first stage of the service contract MB no. the completion of the list of projects following the public consultation process. this document may be supplemented following the final public consultation process which will take place after the completion of the prefeasibility studies. Furthermore. The Integrated Urban Development Plan will be updated following the completion of the first three contractual stages. the information regarding the applicant will be updated following the approval of this work and of the next stages by the beneficiary. 4 . i.2010. 444 of 31.e.12.
for example. this strategy is not intended for this type of investments. contrary to the general European principles that promote social mixity. Within the first stage average underground and multi-storey car parks will be built. (iii) create an efficient circulation system. This IUDP includes actions aiming at achieving social cohesion. Furthermore. ensuring the necessary parking spaces and clearing the public areas for the works of subsequent rehabilitation. II. The recent social trends in Bucharest reflect an accentuation of the discrepancies between the different categories of population. The attainment of these objectives will result in the improvement of the quality of life of the people living in this area and also in the other areas of the city and in the enhancement of the attractiveness for investors and tourists. Bucharest shall not be developed as other parallel cities but it shall reflect the diverse and alive character of a European capital. A clear and captivating identity of the city will attract tourists and investors.. it is considered important to create a continuous and coherent network of concentric and radial bike lanes. They shall undergo an integrated and coherent process of urban renewal. 1. by creating different areas with different identities. which will generate flows of visitors on the pedestrian and bicycle paths and will lead to the renewal of the areas in the southern part of Dâmbovița. (vi) integrated urban regeneration of the areas having social-economic problems and (vi) ensure a diverse and safe social climate. enabling the support of the commercial and economic activities of the city. will develop a community and appurtenance feeling among the inhabitants of Bucharest City. segregated areas. (Re-)creation of a urban identity for the central area of Bucharest City. up to the Flower Market in RahovaUranus. The sustainable urban renewal of the problematic zones within the urban action area. (iv) renew the public space network. As presented in chapters 1. such as the creation of cultural centres for the community. Renewal of the areas with different historic and architectural specificity. creating a vibrant. having 5 .2. without considering the historic centre just as Lipscani area. because it will be performed in two stages. having not only circulation opportunities but also quality public areas. will create a positive brand. which constitute the central area of Bucharest City. Increased efficiency of the circulation system in the central area by prioritizing the sustainable and alternative means of circulation. European capital. dynamic and attractive central area for the City of Bucharest. the deconstruction of the city core and the social-economic imbalances generated by the insertion of the Civil Centre represent main problems of the central area of Bucharest City. 2. Given that large car parks lead to denser vehicle traffic in the central area. (v) sustainable development. The actions proposed in the Integrated Urban Development Plan aim at bringing to prominence and extensively using the eclectic character of the city. connected by routes mainly intended for pedestrians and bicyclists. (ii) reintegrate and restructure the urban fabric. A residential segregation process based on economic criteria takes place. An integrated network of pedestrian and bicycle circulation in a large area of the centre is proposed. The construction of this alternative route will not impair the traffic capacity and will not create parking problems in the area. The actions proposed within the Integrated Urban Development Plan reflect a set of priorities: 1. aiming at both rehabilitating the built-up land and the public spaces and strengthening the community and encouraging entrepreneurial activities. A route mainly intended for pedestrians and bicyclists will create a viable transport alternative. 4.6. The reconstruction of two bridges over Dâmbovița river. will reconnect the northern and southern parts of the historic centre. as regards the transport by bicycle. and the Integrated Urban Development Plan aims at reintegrating these landlocked. The specific objectives of the Integrated Urban Development Plan (IUDP) for the central area of Bucharest City consist of: (i) bring into prominence the eclectic character of Bucharest central area as an identifying mark of the city.5 and 1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. 3.
6] indicates that the urban action area has an important economic role for the city. The main problems resulting from the recent evolution of the area are the landlocking of certain sub-areas and connection cutting off once with the construction of the Civic Centre. conferring an individual image and identity of the city. distributed on all sub-areas of the action area are proposed. 1. The analysis of the urban fabric [chap. 1.6] analyses reflect the major differences between these sub-areas and the areas in the northern part of Dâmbovița river. 1. traffic. 3. based on the principle of unity in diversity. when new axes were marked out. IV. social and economic analyses. Furthermore. Please note that the list of actions proposed by IUDP will be completed by the Municipality of Bucharest City. Nevertheless. for certain high-complexity projects. 1. III. The urban. educational and leisure function for the entire population. The specificity of the central area of Bucharest City is its heterogeneous character: In this area there is a combination of spaces very different in terms of building typology and urban morphology.g. Urban interventions will be divided in stages so that the works do not create major impediments in the circulation and performance of the activity in the central area (e. 1. functional profile and extent of use. 2. Identification of the urban action plan [chap. the objectives and priorities of the urban area: historic. the commercial activity support potential on the streets with an important historic function is not exploited. a set of projects and related subprojects. Numerous pluridisciplinary analyses have been carried out in order to identify the needs. The economic analysis [chap. both private investments and commercial activities will be stimulated.3] indicated that the sub-areas in the southern part of Dâmboviţa river suffer from weak permeability and low local accessibility. 1. the potential is not fully exploited. promoting and bringing to prominence the diversity and heterogeneity of the central area and strengthening the space and functional relations between the areas. which limit their development potential. as compared to the prediction developed based on its potential. such as the reconfiguration of the major public spaces having significant design and connectivity problems. A solution for the space and social-economic disparities between the northern and southern parts of the central area of Bucharest represents one of the critical needs of the urban action area. affected however by the urban works in the XIX and XX centuries. The premises on which the aforementioned objectives and action plan are based.1. objectives and policies. by creating pedestrian paths generating a continuous flow of visitors and by establishing a development and identity direction for each of the areas. The studies in the field of urban marketing indicate that the condition of the buildings and public areas contributes to 6 . The essential premise is that the central area of Bucharest City requires a holistic approach. the potential regarding the foreign investments is neither exploited.social. In order to ensure the attainment of the aforementioned objectives. The urban action area and nine analysis sub-areas have been defined. On the other hand.2] indicates that the City of Bucharest experienced an organic growth. The social [chap. environmental. functional profile and extent of use and their status in the mental geography of Bucharest inhabitants. according to the existing urban priorities. Proposed projects.5] and economic [chap. car parks will be built before reconfiguring the public spaces currently occupied by parked cars). On the one hand. demographic and social-economic analyses carried out indicate the essential need to develop a plan approaching urban development in a balanced and sensitive manner. The analysis of the historic evolution [cap. such as the Parliament. Some projects are conditioned by land purchasing or by partnerships with different institutions. it is recommended to organise solution bids. demographical. By rehabilitating the infrastructure. historic function and last but not least the area image and status.1]. urban fabric accessibility and permeability. Bucharest City uses only a part of the brand potential. the development potential. its image lacking positive recognition at a European level. as regards both the level of social-economic needs and the level of the diverse space problematic of the central area. The methodology used is based on the urban morphology and typology of the buildings.
The city does not have sufficient parking lots in the central area. Antrepozite-Rahova-Uranus area [Depots-Rahova-Uranus area]). are used a lot under the European parameters. whilst by the Charter of Brussels of 2009. the decision to invest in such place. Following the analyses referred to above and following the identification of the area needs and potential.the creation of the general external perception on a city and it influences. The congestion has a negative impact on the travel times. on air pollution and parking lots. unexploited for the moment. Even if the street infrastructure is the same as it was in 1989. 7 . the number of cars in Bucharest is currently seven times higher than it was two centuries ago. such as bicycle riding. Curtea Veche [Old Princely Court]. Mănăstirea Antim area [Antim Monastery area]. 1. The analysis of the public investment dynamics in the area [chap. and the presence of Dâmbovița river.4] are indeed very important for Bucharest. the alternative means of transport recommended by the EU. Furthermore. Less than 2% of Bucharest inhabitants use bicycles as daily mean of transport. a set of strengths. sidewalks) currently have a deficient image and design and should be rehabilitated. which results in “parasite” parking lots. 4. which constitute a significant development potential for the city. the central area of Bucharest City needs high quality public spaces serving the community and strengthening the image of European metropolis. The City of Bucharest currently needs to improve its urban image in order to become an attraction pole in a European (even global) competition of cities.7] indicated that most investments made by Bucharest Municipality have been intended for the transport infrastructure. the objectives and priorities that generated the set of specific actions proposed for the urban action area have been defined. This includes the existence of a greatly varied architecture which may bring to prominence a brand of eclectic city. Centrul Istoric [Historic Centre]. have been identified. streets. At the same time. at its turn. the European cities undertook to reach a percentage of daily travels by bicycle of 15%. 1. The traffic-related problems [chap. the existence of cultural resources which may be rehabilitated and promoted (Pasajul Vilacrosse [Vilacrosse Passage]. Following the analyses carried out. Both green areas and other types of public areas (squares. yet unexploited.
Image/status 8 . high/low. . Altogether.Extent of use: at city/local level. refurbishment actions etc) . . degree of accessibility in the area. condition (wear level.Building typology: height. materials). Identification of the Urban Action Area and Justification of Choice In the context of the heterogeneous character of the central area of the city. from a historic or functional perspective. referred to as the zone of influence of the urban action area. . there have been identified nine sub-areas having distinct urban character but which.Historic role . jointly constitute the central area of Bucharest City (Figure 1). these sub-areas represent the Urban Action Area (UAA) of the Integrated Urban Development Plan proposed for the central area of the Capital.1. . Figure 1: Location of the urban action area and of the zone of influence within the city The methodology by which the urban action area and the nine sub-areas were defined was based on the following elements: . characteristics (style. represented by areas which are connected. characteristics of the street network. from a historic and functional point of view.Urban morphology: density.Functional profile: residential/commercial/industrial/administrative functions. to the central area. Please note that this IUDP impacts on a larger area.1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE URBAN ACTION AREA 1.
SUB-AREA 6 SUB-AREA 7 SUB-AREA 1 SUB-AREA 3 SUB-AREA 2 SUB-AREA 5 SUB-AREA 4 SUB-AREA 9 SUB-AREA 8 meters Figure 2: Urban action area and identified sub-areas 9 .
offices. cultural. residential. It is an area extensively used by the inhabitants of the entire city.Description of the Sub-Areas within the Urban Action Area Sub-area 1: Dense area. The functions are mixed. commercial. Parcul Cișmigiu (Cişmigiu Gardens). Within this sub-area there are certain public spaces relevant for the city: Piața Universității (University Square). Piața Palatului (Palace Square). mainly interwar block houses having a large diversity of functions and public interest buildings (ministries. services.administrative. high education institutions. hotels. theatres. Piața Revoluției (Revolution Square). dominated by rather high-rise buildings. SUB-AREA 6 SUB-AREA 1 SUB-AREA 2 Figure 3: Urban fabric of sub-area 1 10 . local institutions). Piața Romană (Roman Square). with high road and pedestrian traffic and a very good connection to the public transport network. prefecture. large boulevards.
which has become in the last years the scene of urban renewal processes. The ground-floor is occupied by commercial areas / cafés / clubs. Even if. in terms of morphology and typologies. The buildings mainly have two or three storeys and are mostly built in the second half of the XIX century (there are also several isolated examples of buildings prior to this period. from a historic point of view. to sub-area 2. It is also highly used at city level and the pedestrian traffic is intense. dense street network having narrow streets. this sub-area represents a part of the old commercial centre (medieval core). the commercial and public catering activities are less present as compared to the sub-area 2. being the single area in Bucharest with a pedestrian street network.SUB-AREA 2 Figure 4: Urban fabric of sub-area 2 Sub-area 3: Part of the medieval core. Sub-area 2: Generally described as the “Historic Centre”. the storeys being residential or vacant. Its rapid transformation. The resident population has a low social-economic level. this area is mainly used locally and its extent of use is low. Most of the buildings are deteriorated. it formed a whole together with sub-area 2 (representing together the commercial centre of pre-modern Bucharest). Consequently. continuous street frontages. this sub-area did not undergo any urban renewal process. led to the greatest density of restaurants and cafés in the Capital. a gentrification process appearing at the same time at a residential level. ones of the few still existing in Bucharest). The main morphological characteristic is the medieval. similar. it was separated from this sub-area by the NordSouth throughway (with a significant motor car traffic) and was not subject to the street rehabilitation conducted by the local authorities. from a deteriorated area into the main leisure area in Bucharest. SUB-AREA 3 Figure 5: Urban fabric of sub-area 3 11 . specific for the commercial centres in the extra-Carpathian area. The resident population has a modest social-economic level.
marked by a major discrepancy between the axis of Bulevardul Unirii (Union Boulevard) and the isolated enclaves of the old city. The general characteristic is given by rupture. The non-residential functions are grouped on Bulevardul Unirii (Union Boulevard). contrast. located behind them.Sub-area 4: This area describes the Civic Centre. the Court of Justice and National Library in the eastern part). SUB-AREA 5 Figure 7: Urban fabric of sub-area 5 12 . which in the past were connected The area typology consists of high buildings on the alignment of boulevards and of medium-rise houses. on the other hand there are landlocked areas. whilst the motor car traffic is extremely high. the sub-area consists of large surface urban islands. From a morphological point of view the monumental axis of Bulevardul Unirii (Union Boulevard) separates areas with an organic morphology. SUB-AREA 3 SUB-AREA 2 SUB-AREA 4 SUB-AREA 8 Figure 6: Urban fabric of sub-area 4 Sub-area 5: This area is dominated by Palatul Parlamentului (the Palace of the Parliament). extremely low used. From a morphological point of view. discontinuity. The extent of use is very unequal within the area: on the one hand there is the commercial area of Piaţa Unirii (Union Square). which acts as a hub of the city. extremely deteriorated. with many large areas. Pedestrian traffic is extremely low. which has a low commercial function and a number of administrative buildings (ministries in the western part of the area. In its vicinity there is Parcul Izvor (Spring Park).
8: These areas are mainly residential. SUB-AREA 6 SUB-AREA 1 Figure 8: Urban fabric of sub-area 6 13 . The area typology mainly consists of single-family dwellings. and in low-rise buildings with a low number of apartments. being locally used and having a low traffic even if crossed by circulated thoroughfares and with different functions. 7. The proximity to the active and intensively used areas confers to these areas the perception that they are included in the central area. The sub-area 8 includes the area of the Romanian Patriarchy which is used by the inhabitants of all parts of the city.Sub-areas 6.
SUB-AREA 7 Figure 9: Urban fabric of sub-area 7 SUB-AREA 4 SUB-AREA 8 Figure 10: Urban fabric of sub-area 8 14 .
The area is mainly used by the local inhabitants. generating accessibility problems. The street network is truncated by the construction of the Civic Centre and of Casa Poporului (People’s House). warehouses. The sub-area is characterized by a combination of residential functions (the population living in here having a modest social-economic profile) and industrial functions (factories. most of them being closed down) and an increasing number of leisure facilities. SUB-AREA 5 SUB-AREA 9 Figure 11: Urban fabric of sub-area 9 15 .Sub-area 9: Another area impacted by the urban disruptions.
administrative. low-rise buildings with a low number of apartments single-family wagon-type dwellings and industrial buildings (warehouses. dense street network. in the past connected large urban islands organic block houses. services. commercial.) segregates areas with an organic morphology. most of them from the second half of XIX century high-rise buildings on the alignment of B-dul Unirii (Union Blvd. residential leisure and residential functions residential at city level high in transition from low to high at city level high Area 3 low local low Area 4 commercial (Piața Unirii [Union Square]). narrow streets continuous street frontages medieval. inter-war dwellings and public interest buildings Area 2 mainly buildings groundfloor+2 floors. industrial low local / at city level (Romanian Patriarchy) local low low 16 .). low-rise dwellings extremely deteriorated behind the boulevard mixed functions: administrative. dense street network. most of them from the second half of XIX century mainly buildings consisting of groundfloor+2 floors. low-rise buildings with a low number of apartments single-family dwellings. low-rise buildings with a low number of apartments single-family dwellings. residential high at city level / enclaves with local use high/ enclaves with low use Area 5 Area 6 Area 7 organic Area 8 organic Area 9 organic. cultural. offices. accessibility problems because of the interventions carried out in the ‘80 Palatul Parlamentului (Palace of the Parliament) single-family dwellings. sheds.URBAN FABRIC SUMMARY TABLE: Area Urban morphology Building typology Functional profile Status/image (resulting from the sociological survey currently carried out) high Use (level) Extent of use Area 1 high density streets from the pre-modern street network crossed by E-W and N-S axes medieval. narrow streets continuous street frontages the monumental axis of B-dul Unirii (Union Blvd. factories) administrative residential high medium at city level local low low residential medium-high local low residential medium residential.
5). The development towards the noth. a fact which confirms the demarcation of the urban action area proposed by this document. 4 and 5. which are important in their relation to the center of Bucharest. such as North Railway Station area. commercial. as a coherent answer to the issues appeared following the division of the two parts as a result of the construction of the Civic Center. The insertion of the Civic Center in the 80s separated the sub-areas 8 and 9 from the rest of the urban area. given its heterogeneity: Historical analysis Analysis of the built environment Analysis of the street network. 2. 8 and 9 are largely residential. Biserica Domnească. focused on the following aspects: Urban structure. towards areas of influence functionally connected to the center. In terms of population’s perception. but they are closely related from a functional point of view to the other sub-areas and they are perceived as central parts of the city. the administrative centers (Curtea Domnească) and the spiritual centers of the city (Mitropolia. From a functional point of view. This analysis was performed on several levels. The urban interventions recommended by this integrated plan address the imbalance between the southern and northern half of the Capital city center. Piața Alba Iulia. Although there are no actual projects being proposed for these areas. the center consists mostly of sub-areas 1. the impact of the action from IUDP and of the integrated approach will have an impact of these areas as well. public transport and pedestrian flows Demographical and social features Economical features Dynamics of investments 17 .Each of the sub-areas has distinct features when compared to the neighbouring sub-areas with regards to several elements. turned sub-area 1 into the center of the city in the 19th century. 3 and 4 overlap the medieval center of Bucharest. permeability Analysis of the traffic. St. these sub-areas being thus prejudiced not only from a functional point of view but also due to the fact that they disapeared from the mental geography of the inhabitants as parts belonging to the city center. which comprise the majority of the administrative. Hala Traian. Parcul Carol area and the eastern area including Foișorul de Foc. George Churh). The related sub-areas 6. As a method statement for the analysis of the central area and in order to draft a strategy. in an attempt which would generate an integrated response for the whole central area. a multi-criteria analysis has been elaborated. From a historical point of view. 7. service and cultural functions. along Calea Victoriei ( Mogosoaia Bridge) and also along the new North-South and East-West axes. sub-areas 2. accesibility. the sociological survey revealed that a number of objectives located at the ends of the urban action area are considered by the population as belonging to the center (see chapter 1. concentrated in the commercial areas of Lipscaniei and Calea Mosilor and Piata Mare (now Piata Unirii). We underline the fact that the impact of the Integrated Urban Development Plan covers also areas outside the Urban Action Area. by a multidisciplinary team.
15th-17th century: Commercial center and princely residence. both from the perspective of the street network.Cetatea Dâmboviței. Before the first mentioning of the town in the charter issued by Vlad Țepeș in 1459.1. with a strategic role in the defence of Wallachia and Târgul Bucureștiului. For a comprehensive understanding of the urban action area and in order to provide urban solutions which would clearly reflect the needs and identity of the city. 18 . which can be approximately identified within the limits of sub-areas 2 and 3 from the urban action area. Such an analysis was elaborated based on historical records and plans. an analysis of the historical development is of utmost importance.2. the town of outskirts 18th century . (See Annex 3). a settlement for soldiers. of the built area. prints) as well as observation of those buildings seen as architectural landmarks which managed to survive until now. and from the perspective of the socio-economical features comes as the result of extensive historical processes. situated at the junction between the commercial road from Moldavia and Dâmbovița. paintings. one can reffer to Bucharest as a citadel and a seazonal commercial area.1821: Phanariot city New axes in the modern city (1890-1935) Bucharest within the Town Planning limits of 1935 Industrial areas in 1935 Construction areas/ reinstared areas during the communist regime (1947-1989) City’s development after 1989 Figure 12: Historical development of the urban action area witin Bucharest Two separate entities contributed to the formation of the medieval town . old representations (photographs. Historical development of the area The current configuration of the urban action area.
related to textile production ( cloth). the hearth of the city aroud the Old Princely Court. compared to 14. then Calea Plevnei) and Mogoșoaiei Bridge (1692. the palace was reconstructed from stone. The current status of the Old Princely Court is the result of a series of earthquakes and fires which led to the ruin of the complex. next to Mitropolie (1657) and monasteries. Bucharest is an oriental type city both in terms of morphology and buildings. Târgoviștei Road ( 16th century. Many of the new buildings are designed by French and German architects. This provided among other things for the drainage of ponds. Starting with the 15th century. Stavropoleos (1724). During the same period. the current Victory Avenue ).000 in Belgrad in 1838). and ends up replacing Târgoviștei as capital of Wallachia. the most important political monument of the medieval Bucharest and its role for the identity of the city has to be emphasized. gains ground in the architecture and life of the city. and in terms of socio-economical life (Figure 13).Cetatea Dâmboviței becomes the summer residence of the court. 19 . later known as Podul Calicilor – Bridge of Greedies – and currently Calea Rahovei). undoubtedly. inspired from the French one. Among these. glass. paper and food. the establishment of a theatre and of an architecture service. the Old Princely Court undertakes numerous processes of development and reinstatement as a result of repeated damage. The first „Regulations for the city embellishment” is introduced by the Russian general Kisselef. The medieval Bucharest was made up of outskirts grouped around the numerous churches which were built between the 15th and 18th century. and the occidental model. The city expands a lot. the Old Princely Court Church was built. Bucharest is occupied by the Russian army.000 in Athen in 1836 and 13. seventy new churches are built. Between 1545 and 1554. Schitul Maicilor (1726 – one of the churches which were relocated and isolated behind the blocks of flats from the Civic Center during the 80s). From a city mostly dominated by churches and outskirts. such as Hanul Gabroveni (1740) and Hanul lui Manuc (1801-1804). with Târgul de Moși (Târgul din Afară). The other essential landmark of the medieval Bucharest consists of Ulița Târgului din Afară (currently Calea Moșilor). and which represented the structuring urban axes. Ulița Curții (the current French Street). During the phanariot period (1718-1821). after Istanbul (60. During the war between Russia and Turkey from 1806-1812. the majority of buildings belonging to that period are churches. such as Știrbey Palace on Mogoșoaiei Bridgs (1852). and in 1860 a census reveals that most houses in Bucharest are made of brick. The outskirts cover sub-areas 1. Bucharest becomes a city rich in public buldings. A great number of streets are paved in stone within the limits corresponding to sub-area 2. seiges and fires. being nowadays the oldest church in Bucharest. The first manufactures develop during this period. there are very few buildings which still exist from that period. the current Calea Griviței). the one made of wood having been replaces. thus the Englishman Benthan stated in 1785 that „fewer are the cities which have such a number of churches in such a small area”. Ulița Târgului din Lăuntru (the current Smârdan Street). which was connected to Ulița Șelarilor across Dâmbovița. Craiova and Mehedintilor Road ( 16th century. During these centuries a large part of the current street network of the central area was developed: Ulița Mare (1589. The Old Princely Court is. which brings a new cultural model. Piteștilor Road ( which became Podul de Pământ. which connected Târgul din Lăuntru. especially the French one. built in stone or brick. Bucharest becomes the capital city of Romania in 1861. The city develops and comprises at the end of the phanariot period the whole urban action area. one can mention Kretulescu church (1722). The fire from 1847 destroys over 1850 buildings. At the end of the phanariot period. Although the current street network has many common features with the one from the pre-modern city. including Antim Monastery (1715). During the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu. Nowadays. given the numerous earthquakes.000 inhabitants in 1830. parks. a large number of inns are being built. Bucharest emerges from the Ottoman influence and makes the first steps towards the Occident. the current Lipscani Street). with marble stairs and the court’s appartments were set. being by far the largest south-eastern European city. Amzei (1810). 4 and 7. as the base material used for construction was wood. Domnița Bălașa (1747-1751).
cultural buildings. 7 and 8 are built within this period mostly in French academic styles (Beaux-Arts) and the national reaction – neo-Romanian style. as capital city of a country which was double the size and population as compared to pre-war Romania. In 1921 the first General Urban Plan has been elaborated. often tall. and the interest area moves from sub-areas 2 and 3 in sub-area 1.avenues. Industrial areas such as Bragadiru Brewery and the public warehouses appear in sub-area 9. which determines the elaboration of a modernist built area (Figure 15). In such a context. A large number of the private houses from sub-areas 6. On the location of churces and inns. the reign of King Carol the 2nd is marked by plans and urban and architectural works. new parcellation on larger fields appear. Dâmbovița is improved and the landmarks change their relation with this natural element. grandious buildings following the occidental pattern appear. and are replaced by new ones. followed in 1935 by the first systematic Plan which describes the construction classes. North-South Axes continued cutting of Magheru și Bălcescu Avenues. the city center. The route of the new avenues (East West Axes – nowadays Elisabeta and Carol I Avenues and the North South Axes – nowadays Lascar Catargiu Avenue and parts of Balcescu and Bratianu Avenues. Ioanid park (1900) and Filipescu plotting (1912). Also. with urban scenic landscape compositions. such as Grammont parcelling (1893). dating back in the 1890s) breaks the traditional patter which leads to the extinction of certain landmarks (Figure 14). 20 . continues its development. replace the one or two level houses from sub-area 1. The new occidental city overtakes the historical traditional one. the first plotting and parcelling of land are made. Modernism becomes popular in architecture and a large number of houses of such style. around the junctions of the axes in Piața Universității. Certain landmarks vanish during the process. Towards the end of the 1930s. Bucharest between the two wars. In paralel. The narrow streets and bridges of the medieval city turn into streets and avenues. The experience of the town-garden is approached as it is considered to be „ closer to the Romanian lifestyle” (Cincinat Sfințescu).
21 .Figure 13: Bucharest’s Plan in 1846 (Major Borroczyn) – the urban action area before the systeming works of the 19th century.
Figure 14: Bucharest Plan from 1914 –Urban action area after the drawing of N-S and E-V axes during the 1890s
Figure 15: Bucharest Plan from 1938 (Col. Ulysse Samboteau / Prof. cartograper M.D.Moldoveanu) – Urban action area at the end of the interwar period
During the first decades of the communist era, the dynamics of the constructions and buildings in the urban action area drops dramatically in comparison with the interwar period. Except for the Palace Hall assembley (1960-1965) and of some „filling” buildings, which complete the hollows created by earthquakes and bombing during the Second World War (among which the Intercontinental Hotel - 1971 and the National Theatre – 1973), the street network and the built area remain unchanged in the central area. Due to the property regime changes, many of the buildings gradually degrade and do not benefit from the renovation programmes. The regime focused until the 80s on the construction of blocks of flats outside the urban action area. In 1984 the reshaping of the city center begins following Nicolae Ceausescu’s wish. The urban morphology is broken by certain brutal interventions, performed with the purpose of building a new Civic Center. 485 ha of the traditional city are demolisehd (the entire sub-area 5, most of sub-area 4 and parts of subareas 8 and 9). Uranus Hill is leveled, villas, inns, public buildings, churches, synagogues, monuments are destroyed. A new East-West axes, represented by Victory of Socialism Avenue (nowadays Unirii Avenue) is imposed on the previous street network, the connections are cut, parts of the old city remain landlocked between the new constructions of the Civic Center (Figure 16). Parts of the old Bucharest landmarks are kept within these enclaves, landmarks which are nowadays no longer an active part of the urban life. Due to their isolation, these areas lost their importance within the city, they lost the „exposure”, and became problem areas. The churces disappear from the urban picture, being hidden behind tall buildings at the edge of the new avenues. The architectural language changes: while modernism dominated the 1930s and 1960-1970, a postmodernism style is now used, a style inspired from the eclecticism of two interwar buildings from the Senate Sqare (United Nations Square), which become, for Nicolae Ceausescu, models for the new Civic Center. The year 1990 represents a breach in the history of Bucharest: following a decade (1980s) of demolitions and construction of a new center, the central area will not have during the following two decades any major urban investment, nevertheless, numerous demolitions of private houses and the architectural fillings will change the traditional character of the sub-areas which had not been affected by the works for the construction of the Civic Center. In 2011 the works at the North-South Diametral Road start, the first major infrastructure work, which is tangentially connected to the urban action area. The analysis of the historical development of the city reveals the image of an organic growth, affected by the urban plans of the 19th and 20th century, which draw new axes and erect new buildings. The main issues which Arealul lucrărilor urbanistice din anii 1980 appeared during the historical evolutions of the latest decades are enclavisation and reduction Figure 16: Reshaping of the central area by of the connections between the areas which have developed together, caused by the means of the construction works of the Civic construction of the Civic Center. Thus, sub-areas Center 4, 5, 8 and 9 undertook important changes, with socio-economical and spacial effects to be analysed in the following chapters. Details regarding the historical development of each subarea in particular are presented in Annex 4. Important traditional axes have been interrupted or blocked and suffered important dissolutions which are presented in Annex 5.
1.3. Analysis of the built environment and of the street network Socio-economical processes within the city are closely related to the urban spacial configuration. In order to identify the needs and the potential of development of urban action area both the built environment and the street network should be analyzed. The street network outlines both the identity and the image of the area, and the parameters of accessibility and connectivity which are essential not only for the performance of economic activities but also for the quality of life. 1.3.1. The built environment The urban action area comprises a heterogeneous built environment in terms of density, typology of the buildings, height and style (Figure 17): buildings with commercial ground floor and floors with different functions, 1-2 levels – 19th and 20th century, (rarely 18th): all sub-areas (except for sub-area 5) Single-family houses from the 19th and 20th century, 1-2 levels, Beaux-Arts, neoRomanian and Modernist styles: sub-areas 1 (rarely), 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9. Interwar ’blockhaus’ : sub-areas 1, 6, 7, 8 collective post-war housing estates, modernist style: sub-areas 1, 6, 7, 8 collective post-war housing estates, postmodernist style (Civic Center): sub-area 4 administrative / cultural / religious buildings: all sub-areas
LIMITS Bucharest’s Municipality administrative territory limit, according to the corrections mentioned in the sector reports (street limits are market based on the street plots) Bucharest’s Municipality administrative territory limit according to the Military Topographic Directorate Administrative territory limits for neighboring communes Bucharest Municipality built-in land limit, according to Project 132/1998 Neighboring communes built-in land limit Limit of the protected historical centre, according to GD 129 of 29 th August 1998 Protected area limit Archeological sites limits Baneasa Airport flight passage
FUNCTIONAL ZONIG Commercial and business centre area Area of municipal and dispersed supra-municipal public functions/Area of district and residential public functions Area of commercial activities, management, technical, professional, collective and personal services, restaurants, leisure, small production, households etc. Area of medium (P+3,4) and tall (P+4) collective households Area of small and individual collective households, built based on parceling (P-P+2) Area of small and individual collective households developed in time (PP+2) Area of semi-rural households Area with predominant industrial and storage functions Special destination area Major road structural frame/Road transport area Railway transport area Plane transport area Land permanently under water (canals, water courses and edges) Area of major technical infrastructure Communal town management area Cemetery area Area for nursery gardens, greenhouses and agro-industrial units Area for parks, gardens and public squares Area for specialized green spaces (Botanical Garden, Zoo) Sports and leisure area Forests in the built-up area/outside the built-up area Destructured areas, land under construction and non-productive land Areas of agricultural land in the built-up area
Figure 17: General Urban Plan – typology of the central area of Bucharest
The central area of Bucharest has a pronounced eclectic feature, with a variety of architectural styles. Most of them date mainly from the 19th and 20th century, including styles such as Beaux-Arts/ French academism, neo-Romanian, Moorish, modernist, Art Deco and postmodernist. Most of the area consists of protected areas due to heterogeneity of the built environment and the high degree of architectural value of the component areas. In fact, the urban action area contains 56 of the 97 protected built areas of the capital city
(Figure 18). The protected areas have special regulations regarding construction or changes. These protected areas should not be seen as an impediment to urban development, but rather as having a great potential for shaping the identity of the city, for the creation of the image of an European city of a great eclecticism and with a quality diverse architectural legacy. The studies of urban branding mention the quality of the built environment and the existence of an old and valuable architecture as key factors in creating a positive brand to attract tourists and investors alike. Therefore, the protected areas must be seen as a strength of urban action area, their traditional character needs to be emphasized through urban interventions and the lack of accessibility in some of these areas needs to be sorted out.
Figure 13: Protected built areas approved by HCGMB no. 279/2000
All sub-areas contain protected built areas (with the notable exception of sub-area 5, where the Palace of Parliament has replaced the whole old built area). If the protected areas in sub-areas 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 (center and north of Splaiul Independentei and Calea Calarasilor) form a continuous area, easily accessible by the visitors, the remaining protected areas are isolated by the Civic Center infrastructure. In particular protected areas 64, 75, 76, 80, 89 and 90, all belonging to sub-area 4 are segregated as they are hided behind blocks of flats. In order to achieve their potential to shape an attractive identity and image for the city, these areas must be reinstated in the city. Distribution of the protected areas in the subareas of the urban action area:
Sub-area 1 : 4 6 16 23 28 34 42 81 Sub-area 2 : 26 27 1 8 22 30 36 25 64 75 76 80 86 89 90 b 2 6 10 12 16 23 28 29 35 43 44 94 97 Magheru Brătianu Elisabeta Kogălniceanu Calea Victoriei Știrbei Vodă Amzei Pitar Moș Brezoianu Parcul Cișmigiu Lipscani Stavropoleos Calea Moșilor Hristo-Botev Mântuleasa Colței Negustori Mărășești Parcelarea Mamulari Strehaia Biserica Mihai Vodă - Sapienței Radu Vodă Antim Crișului Bucur Brătianu Calea Griviței Elisabeta Kogălniceanu Calea Dorobanți Lascăr Catargiu Calea Victoriei Știrbei Vodă Amzei Nicolae Iorga Bibicescu Cobălcescu Temișana Caderea Bastiliei Occidentului
Sub-area 7 :
5 13 17 18 20 21 31 32 33 34 39 40 41 70
Sub-area 3 :
Carol Dacia C.A. Rosetti - Maria Rosetti - Popa Petre Vasile Lascar Batiștei Jean-Louis Calderon - Polonă Caimatei Vasile Conta Thomas Masaryk Pitar Moș Armenească Icoanei Silvestru Parcelarea Parcul Ioanid Regina Maria 11 Iunie Mărășești Parcelarea Inter (Filaret) Parcelarea Învoirii Parcelarea Tacu Intrarea Viilor Parcelarea Oțelul Roșu Dealul Mitropoliei Parcul Carol Principatele Unite Parcelarea Gramont Regina Maria
Sub-area 8 :
Sub-area 4 :
9 11 25 63 66 67 68 69 79 82 87 88 9
Sub-area 9 :
Sub-area 6 :
Carol I Boulevard. Buzești street. Accessibility/Hierarchy of routes high low Figure 19: Global accessibility in the central part of Bucharest 29 . where the mass transportation networks can also be found. the relevance for the economic operations and the quality of life of the inhabitants. the high accessibility streets have been emphasized at the level of the entire city .1. They are many times crowded streets. Dacia Boulevard. Magheru/Bălcescu Boulevard. ensuring movement flows which may be attracted from the entire city. Moșilor street. It is noticed that the boundaries of the proposed urban action area as well as of the subareas described are represented by streets with a high overall accessibility. Following the analysis of the overall accessibility (figure 19). The manner of connecting the street network determines the capacity of using such. These axes are meant to accommodate functions of major interest because they do not depend on occasional passers-by. Bratianu Boulevard. Berzei street. especially vehicle traffic flows. I. The analysis of the urban texture can be carried out at the scale of the entire city. The urban action area The positioning within the context of the city network has a powerful impact upon the use of the space. Regina Maria Boulevard.2.C. Universities. Victoriei street.2. shopping centres).3. they are based on the need of the users to visit them (important institutions.Regina Elisabeta Boulevard.1.3. Unirii Boulevard. Structure of the urban texture 1. Lascăr Catargiu Boulevard. Some of these streets go across the subareas. determining those important axes which attract flows.
The high accessibility poles are very strongly connected to the existence of the local services and trading points. and also to a constant pedestrian movement. I.C. Based on the analysis of the accessibility and local connectivity (15 minutes walk). because they have the potential of attracting the pedestrian flows and trading activities together with the services which are dependent on such. Unirii Square.Brătianu Boulevard and by axes of local importance such as Brezoianu street and George Coșbuc street. being segregated in certain situations by boundary areas. important axes at a global level: Victoriei street (partially).200 metres. such as Unirii Boulevard and Libertăţii Boulevard (figure 20). the equivalent of a 5-15 minutes walk) in order to underline those spaces which have the potential of becoming or which already operate as local centres. Buzești street. with proximity. high accessibility areas can be noticed. being represented by the Historic Centre. These areas are very important for the further development of the local economy. Dacia Boulevard. In this case. it is essential to approach the public domain in the sense of giving priority to the existing and potential pedestrian flows.The analysis of the urban texture can be carried out at a local scale (400-1. Accessibility/Hierarchy of routes high low Figure 140: Local accessibility in the central area of Bucharest 30 . The areas play the role of local centres. Carol Boulevard. trading activities and services. Universităţii Square. Vasile Lascăr street. based on a constant pedestrian flow.
The historic centre. consisting of large urban islands. Universității Square or the South segment of Victoriei street. An increased permeability facilitates the pedestrian movement and maximizes the area of exposure of the business points. they have the capacity of creating interest centres. The demolition of the bridges which crossed Dâmbovița river . The analysis of the urban permeability takes into account the sizes of the urban islands which have the capacity of influencing the use of the urban texture. which facilitates the pedestrian flows and by default the trading and the leisure related activities (figure 21). In the subareas 4. 6 and 7 seem to be well structured due to their organic development in time. 2.When certain urban area benefit from a good accessibility both at global level and at local level. the urban operations for building the Civic Centre have generated a texture with a reduced permeability.Mihai Vodă bridge and the bridge which connected the old trading centre 31 . 3. 5 and 9. the other subareas have been affected by the interventions carried out in the 1980s. for example. the easier it is for the pedestrian to use a certain area. a direct consequence of the various stages and manners in which this area has developed over time. If the subareas 1. is such an area with an increased level of permeability. which generated a destructured urban texture. Figure 21: Permeability of the urban texture in the centre of Bucharest The major part of the urban islands in the urban action area is of medium size. especially at a pedestrian level. the studied area has a heterogeneous character. From the point of view of the structure of the urban texture. with a mixed audience and various activities such as the Historic Centre. The smaller the size of the urban island.
the urban action area is surrounded by areas which are mostly impermeable especially towards the South and the West. This situation is enhanced by the existing industrial areas such as Rahova-Uranus and the large boulevards such as Unirii Boulevard or Splaiul Independenței. the development of large urban islands around the Palace of the Parliament and the Romanian Academy as well as the erection of the wall around the Palace of the Parliament generated a reduced permeability of the urban texture. 32 . having thus a negative influence over the continuity of the routes in the central area.(Smârdan street) to Rahovei street -. Moreover.
except for the space in the area of the Palace 33 . There is a high degree of global accessibility and local accessibility which is reflected in the dynamic business texture in the area.1. Subareas Subarea 1 Accessibility/ high low Figure 22: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 1 Figure caption: Accesibilitate – accessibility Ridicata – high Redusa – low Subarea 1 is crossed by the major traffic routes in Bucharest. The important tourist attractions such as the National Museum of Art (the former Royal Palace). The crossroads in Romană Square and Universității Square benefit from a high level of accessibility. represented by Regina Elisabeta and Carol I Boulevards. the Romanian Atheneum. Bălcescu and Brătianu (and its older version.2. The permeability is high in the most part of the area.3. The two squares are representative for the citizens of Bucharest as reference points in the city and used as meeting and socializing places.2. the National Theatre or Cișmigiu Park benefit from a high/medium accessibility level at global level but also from a local perspective. a fact which ensures that they are frequently visited. respectively North-South axis. Victoriei street) and the East-West axis. represented by the following boulevards: Magheru.
Failure to carry out the rehabilitation/modernization works of the public areas Opportunities . Strong points .Hall (Sala Palatului). 34 .The unfriendly pedestrian environment limits the achievement of the potential of frequently visited area.Increased permeability Weak points .Business and leisure activities are encouraged by the accessibility and permeability of the area Threats . The underground stations and the mass transportation stops ensure an important flow which brings the pedestrian in the area.High global and local accessibility .
respectively Blv.Subarea 2 Accessibility/ high low Figure 23: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 2 Figure caption: Accesibilitate – accessibility Ridicata – high Redusa . but an increased accessibility is noticed regarding the peripheral routes of such.The accessibility and the permeability of 35 . Strong points .low The area has a medium/low degree of accessibility at a global level. thus encouraging the increase in the trading texture.C. I. Doamnei street. Brătianu.Increased global accessibility of the Opportunities . The tourist attractions in the historic centre. The recently rehabilitated streets offer a public space dedicated to the pedestrians. which supports the economic development. The permeability is good and ensures that access of the pedestrians in the area. Victoriei street. the pedestrian areas correlated with a proper permeability and a medium accessibility ensure the dynamic nature in the sense of using the space for economic purposes.
boundaries of the area . the potential for using the area is not capitalized upon in an equal manner the urban texture encourage the pedestrian flows and the business activities Threats .The delay in the interventions and the lack of a coherent long and medium term strategy 36 .Some streets have a reduced local accessibility.Increased permeability which encourages the pedestrian traffic Weak points .
C. Corneliu Coposu and I. Strong points . At a local level. 37 . which is vibrant and dynamic.I.The increased global accessibility of the boundaries of the subarea . Mântuleasa street. The boundary of the area features dynamic economic/business operations. although the inner part of the subarea has a low level of accessibility.Reduced global accessibility inside the subarea Opportunities .Proximity to the subarea 2 and increased local accessibility might support the regeneration of the area Threats .C. Brătianu Boulevards) ensure an increased accessibility at global level. The permeability of the subarea varies from increased values in the West to lower values in the East.The increased permeability of the western part of the subarea Weak points .Subarea 3 Accessibility/ high low Figure 24: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 3 The peripheral routes (Carol Boulevard. from subarea 3. Brătianu boulevard operates as a barrier which separates the subarea 2. the streets Armand Călinescu and Hristo Botev boulevards have a high level of accessibility. whose potential has not yet been exploited.Increased local accessibility .
The local accessibility is decreased. The sidewalk adjacent to the Dâmbovița river bank is empty and completely ignored both by the pedestrians and the bicyclists.The global accessibility is increased in Unirii Square Weak points . which lowers the pedestrian flows. only the separated areas between the blocks from Splaiul Independenței to Unirii Square have an increased permeability. The separated areas have a reduced accessibility. except for Unirii Square. and it is reduced towards Constituţiei Square.Subarea 4 Accessibility/ high low Figure 25: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 4 The global accessibility is increased in the area of Unirii Square. From the point of view of permeability.Reduced global accessibility in the western part . especially East of Unirii Square Opportunities . 38 . the other parts of the area featuring a reduced permeability.The subarea may use the increased level of global accessibility in order to underline its role of city hub Threats . The high vehicle traffic flow on Splaiul Independenței separates the area of Dâmbovița Quay corresponding to the Palace of Justice in the same radical manner in which the river course separates Sfinții Apostoli street from Smârdan-Șelari streets.Reduced permeability. especially East of Unirii Square. due to the small size and the increased vehicle traffic nearby. Strong points .The poorly connected areas and the separated areas are characterized by risks regarding the safety of the citizens.
On the boundaries of the area.High global accessibility Opportunities . the accessibility is higher. The pedestrian traffic is also discouraged by the much reduced permeability. the urban islands being by far the largest in the urban action area. Carrying out new connections shall lead to the development of a better structured and efficient urban texture Weak points Threats .The subarea has the risk of remaining an isolated permeability.Subarea 5 Accessibility/ high low Figure 26: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 5 Although Izvor Boulevard and 13 September Boulevard have an increased global accessibility. Strong points . but is of limited interest for the pedestrian traffic and does not support intense commercial operations. the subarea is defined by a reduced local accessibility. The subarea is actually made up of two urban islands – Izvor Park and the park of the Palace of the Parliament. The area is crossed by the vehicle traffic which connects the various parts of the capital.Reduced local accessibility and . an area with a reduced space and an obstacle for the pedestrian flows in the potential for pedestrian use and street centre of the city trading operations 39 .
the subarea does not have the same potential for generating pedestrian flows and business operations like subareas 1. Victoriei. yet it does not have the problems which occur in subareas 4 or 5. the accessibility is medium. 2 or 3. in which the urban islands are larger on average. At local level. Strong points . From the point of view of permeability. Berzei and Buzești streets.The level of the accessibility and permeability does not support the same pedestrian flows and business operations like other subareas.High global accessibility Opportunities .Subarea 6 Accessibility/ high low Figure 27: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 6 The subarea is well connected at global level featuring arteries with an increased global accessibility such as Lascăr Catargiu.Reduced permeability in the northern . Consequently.The lower permeability does not support part business operations at the level of other central subareas 40 . The area between Calea Victoriei (Victoriei street) and Calea Griviței (Griviței street) is emphasized. Iancu de Hunedoara. Dacia Boulevards. the area is heterogenous. but it establishes the identity of central residential area Weak points Threats .
the urban islands are of smaller size. From the point of view of their permeability. Subarea 7 is not crossed by routes of global importance. but an increased local accessibility.Increased local accessibility . ensuring towards its boundaries a proper connectivity with the rest of the city. the area has the risk of not achieving its potential of central area 41 .Reduced global accessibility .The global connectivity being more reduced. having the (yet unachieved) potential of supporting pedestrian flows and business operations. especially towards the South.The South part may support pedestrian . but it is enclosed by such.Contact with arteries having an increased flows and business operations global accessibility . Strong points Opportunities . this area has a lower global accessibility.Subarea 7 Accessibility/ high low Figure 28: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 7 Unlike subarea 6.Increased permeability Weak points Threats .
but it is affected by the fact that it is surrounded by impermeable areas.The subarea is surrounded by impermeable areas Opportunities . does not benefit from a proper connectivity with the city and the rest of the subarea.Reduced accessibility of the Patriarchate . Strong points .Medium permeability Weak points . The subarea has an average permeability.The presence of impermeable areas towards the boundaries of the area renders the traffic flows more difficult 42 . both on a global and a local level. which might support pedestrian flows and business operations.The subarea may support pedestrian flows and business operations Threats .Subarea 8 Accessibility/ high low Figure 29: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 8 The subarea has an average accessibility. A reduced accessibility can be noticed for the Patriarchate which. although it is an objective of national interest.
Threats . Weak points . the area being isolated and secluded due to the destructuring of the urban texture during the construction of the Civic Centre. inherited from the pre-Communist texture. From the point of view of permeability.The area may remain segregated and isolated if no action is taken to change the urban texture 43 .By reconnecting the subarea to the centre of the city. the increased permeability of the urban texture may support pedestrian flows and business operations.Area surrounded by impermeable areas Opportunities .Reduced permeability caused by the existence of the extended industrial areas .Increased permeability of the urban texture remaining after the construction works of the Civic Centre. Strong points .Subarea 9 Accessibility/ high low Figure 30: Global and local accessibility and permeability in subarea 9 Except for the Regina Maria Boulevard. the arteries in subarea 9 show a reduced global and local accessibility.Reduced global and local accessibility . there are problems due to the existence of large urban islands which accommodated industrial operations in the past and also due to the fact that the area is surrounded by impermeable areas. although the area also has urban islands of small size.
Subarea 2 has the highest density of monuments. The structure of the urban texture In the urban action area a high number of objectives of public interest can be found.1. In a similar way. In a city with small possibilities of carrying out sports activities outdoors. subarea 9 does not have objectives of public interest. especially in the subareas 1 and 6.3. such as auditoriums.3. more spaces. Source: Information taken from the urban database of the City Hall of Bucharest Figure 151: Objectives of public interest in the urban action area 44 . A series of such objectives of public utility do not capitalize on the space in the benefit of the community. By contrast. libraries and similar buildings could be used more for the benefit of the community by opening them for local activities and initiatives. the sports fields of the education establishments remain most of the times closed after class hours although they could be used by the community.
out of which 22% represent travels to and from locations in the administrative area of Bucharest. 582. out of which 90% represent travels to and from locations in the administrative area of Bucharest. 1. and 78% represent travels between locations in Bucharest and outside areas. Pollution and Human Health time: The pollution caused by the big number of cars in traffic will affect the human health. According to the estimations of the Transportation Master Plan.000). The data collected to carry out The Transportation Master Plan highlight the following structure of car mobility: The total number of travels by car on the roads of Bucharest is an average of 910. Also. The saturation degree (the demand/capacity ratio) of the main arteries (the northsouth axis.2 million cars. The volume of traffic on the boulevards leading to the city centre can reach 50. and 10% represent travels between locations in Bucharest and outside areas. the traffic congestion will reach a very high level between 2013 and 2027. compared to 180.300 hours for taxies. The number of hours spent in traffic amounts 220.700 hours for freight transport vehicles and 854. 18. The quantity of emissions generated by the monitored traffic is shown both for traffic arteries and for areas/neighbourhoods as well. The presented estimations are made for cars and taxis. The congestion points are located in the major intersections along the inner traffic ring.157 freight transport vehicles.8 dB and daily emissions as follows: 2 tonnes of NOx.2 tonnes of unburned hydrocarbons/particles. on both directions of traffic. the congestions that appeared in traffic affect negatively the performance of the surface public transportation. the daily average is of 99. the east-west axis. thus blocking the main street network of Bucharest.621 per day. where it has no separate traffic line. the urban central ring) is over 70%.400 vehicles/km for cars. Total number of travels by taxi is an average of 90. The total average daily volume of the monitored traffic is of 7. which causes long travel time.132. Analysis of Urban Transport 1. high fuel consumption and high polluting emissions. The effects on human health are harmful.681 per business day. The congestion has a negative impact on the travel time. 31.800 hours for public transportation means.000 hours for cars. in the central area and along the north-south axis.4. In the event no projects or development measures are implemented.700 vehicles/km for taxies. 357 tonnes of SO 2 and 1.000 cars per day.1. 1.113 tonnes of CO2. Because of the problems mentioned above.100 vehicles/km for freight transport vehicles and 13. the monitored traffic in Bucharest generates an average noise level of 62. the average daily travel speed of the vehicles in Bucharest is about 30 km/h. and 30% represent travels to and from locations outside Bucharest.664.052.1. Car Transport.300 passengers/km for public transport.4. Transport by Personal Car Although road infrastructure is the same as in 1989. air pollution and the parking spaces. With regard to freight transport. 10 tonnes of CO. out of which 70% represent travels to and from locations in the administrative area of Bucharest. the number of cars in Bucharest is seven times higher today than two decades ago (1. in 45 . and the average travel speed of the surface public transportation means is estimated at 16km/h.
SO2. The largest impact occurs in built-up areas with traffic congested roads. benzene. CO. Air pollution: ● the accumulations exceeding the maximum concentration allowed for NO2. in time. depending on the carboxyhemoglobin percentage with an increase in morbidity by CNS and cardio-vascular disorders ● the accumulations above the maximum allowed Pb concentration can cause. significant increase in mortality and morbidity by respiratory and cardio-vascular affections ● accumulations above the maximum allowed CO concentration can lead to disorders caused by hypoxia or anoxia. Pb) are provided in real time – including to the public – and come from the 8 automatic stations. in case of damage of tanks with irritant pollutants). 46 . Lead emissions came mainly from combustions in the manufacturing industry. from treatment and waste disposal. which prevent the dispersion. there was no exceedance of the alert threshold in any of the monitoring stations. PM10. This is due to increased pulse and blood pressure.5. blood disorders (anaemia). The air pollutant concentrations are higher in traffic areas surrounded by compact tall buildings. to the different levels of pollution sources as well as to a unequal distribution of these sources. The Noise In the analyzed area. The images 32 and 33 indicate the analyzed area as a concentration pole for CO and PM10 emissions. neuropsychiatric disorders. In the analyzed area. due to the emissions. Analyzing the noise map in the central area (image 34) we can notice that the noise level in the large boulevards area is of 70-80 dB(A). mainly due to road traffic. dust emissions came mainly from road traffic and combustions in the manufacturing industry. The data on the air quality in Bucharest (the measured pollutants being: SO 2. especially in children. it comes from the interaction of the tires with the road surface. and in areas where the traffic speeds are running over 60 km/h. the annual concentration exceeded the limit allowed in all monitoring stations. O3. an average calculated for 8 hours). cardio-vascular disorders (high blood pressure). Recent studies have shown that the risk of heart and circulatory diseases is significantly increased by a traffic noise level of 65-70 dB (A) or higher. Noise pollution: creates discomfort and it has become disturbing and even harmful on certain traffic arteries of Bucharest. the main source of noise is the road traffic (estimated to be the cause of approximately 70% of the noise pollution). spread throughout the city. The noise from road traffic in urban areas where speeds are generally below 60 km/h comes mainly from engines and exhaust facilities. Mihai Bravu and Drumul Taberei stations. respectively the existence of many sources. PM2. the annual average Pb concentrations were below the limit. NOx. CO2 emissions didn’t exceed the limit values (10 mg/m³. The digestion is also slowed down and the muscle tone is increased. affecting the breathing ways and eyes – acute bronchitis exacerbation. The Air Environmental Factor The air pollution in Bucharest has a specific character. which are clear symptoms of stress. kidney disorders. where the dispersion of pollutants is difficult. The emissions in Bucharest in 2010 were as follows: SO2 emissions came mainly from the CET (combustions in the energy industry) and road traffic. benzene emissions didn’t exceed the allowed limit values. VOC emissions came mainly from road traffic and from use of solvents and other products. the air pollution sources come mainly from the road traffic. PM10 can cause: acute poisoning (which appear only accidently in case of industrial damages. The traffic noise is a disturbing phenomenon. which has an important effect on people living or working near intense traffic arteries. NO2 emissions exceeded the limit value at Military Circle (in the urban action area).
even considering a sustained road construction Infrastructure costs Loss of productive rural land by building houses out of town. which are accessible by car Social Loss of dynamic. human character of the streets Weakening of community Isolation in the urban projects away from the rest of the city Access problems for people without cars/people with disabilities of 47 .The costs of using the cars for urban communities: Environment Smog Large emissions greenhouse gases Noise Economic External costs out of accidents. pollution Congestion costs.
Source: Intergraph – processing information from the urban database Image 16: The CO emissions map Source: Intergraph .processing information from the urban database Image 17: The PM10 emissions map Source: Enviro – Noise Map in Bucharest 2010 Image 18: The noise map for the central area of Bucharest 48 .
The map of the parking spaces in the urban action area 49 .
Unirii Square may reach 50. Image 19: Example of parking on the roadside and on the sidewalk in the city centre In order to examine in detail the road traffic and the impact on the traffic produced in the main streets and intersections by the IUDP projects. The drivers tend to park very close to their final destination. based on the update of the transport demand and traffic flows for 2011. The conclusions on the forecast of demand for private transport and public transport for the year 2016. The distance between the main streets in the centre area (the inner traffic ring) is about 1 km on the eastwest axis and 2-3 km on the north-south axis. being mainly divided into two concentric traffic rings (central and peripheral). which leads to the "parasite" parking spaces (on the roadside). in this chapter will be summarized: The analysis of traffic and public transport performance for the basic year 2011. we can distinguish the following main components: The update of the Bucharest transport model for the morning . for the morning .Another problem related to the transportation by private car is the excessive parking in the central area. The city does not have enough parking spaces in the central area. the traffic is stopped during manoeuvres.AM and afternoon – PM rush hours. The analysis of the traffic and public transport performance for the basic year 2011 Bucharest's road network has a radial and circular distribution and has a total length of about 1. The volume of traffic on the nine boulevards that converge from the inner ring to the city centre . and the analysis of traffic and public transport performance for the basic year. Some cars are parked perpendicular to the street. Since the traffic study is attached in full in Appendix 7. When a car enters or exits a parking place. and the vehicles are parked for long periods of time (the average is over 7 hours). for the basic year 2011. a traffic study was prepared for the urban action area. on 50 . for the IUDP scenarios. The street parking reduces the efficiency of traffic and it can sometimes be an obstacle to the passing cars and pedestrians. The forecast of demand for private transport and public transport for 2016 and the estimate of car traffic flows and passengers flows for the public transport for the year 2016.AM and afternoon – PM rush hours. Within the traffic study for IUDP – central area.900 km.000 cars per day. for the IUDP scenarios.
it was necessary to detail the road network. covering 240 intersections (it works adaptively on the main thoroughfares only) and by one-way traffic system implemented in the central area. intersections. The traffic light cycles in the main intersections of the Urban Action Area (UAA) were taken into account as well. zoning. connectors and public transport station network for Bucharest transport model 2007 . zoning. The traffic management in the city is currently performed by using the traffic light system. the parking places available in the area were taken into account. the traffic reviewed in 2011 was considered.transport model for Bucharest and the movement directions considered for the adjustment of OD matrix 2011 Image 21: Details of road network. in order to adjust the origin-destination (OD) matrices for morning . for this purpose. public transport stations and connector networks. 2011 51 . Also.AM and PM rush hours The structure of the street network and zoning . The congestion points are located in the major intersections along the inner traffic ring in the central area and on the north-south axis. For the detailed analysis of the urban action area. connectors and directions of travel for the adjustment of OD matrices – Bucharest transport model for AM and PM rush hours. The Images 36 and 37 show how this particularization was made.AM and afternoon – PM rush hours (based on the transport model in the Master Transport Plan 2007). specifying the movement direction. connectors and public transport stations Transport model for Bucharest 2007 – rush hours Image 20: The structure of road network.both directions of traffic. Street network.
The most important problem of the 3rd and 4th technical category streets is the inadequate and unregulated parking along the arteries. This includes the number of lanes for each direction of travel. They provide the transit traffic and the city public transport. technical category of the street. Image 22: Illegal parking. fact that decreases considerably the traffic capacity (Images 38-40). occupying a part of the driveway. The conclusions of the study on the street network are the following: The road network in the UAA and in the area of influence of IUDP is characterized by the presence of thoroughfares and connecting roads.A study of the existing street network in the UAA was conducted in order to define the attributes of the streets from the transport model. The study area is served by a series of collector streets (of 3rd technical category) or of local use (of 4th technical category). occupying a part of the driveway and of the sidewalk 52 . at the intersection with Arthur Verona Street Image 23: Cars parked on Episcopiei Street. the traffic is regulated by one-way signs. The thoroughfares and collector streets are traffic routes that cover the largest region of the study. street parking. with major traffic flows. connecting the larger areas of the village. bus/tram lanes or priority. speed limits. on Pitar Moș Street. Here. number and direction of their ways.
3% 27. at the AM and PM rush hours.083 21. the considered traffic capacities were the real ones. The transport demand analysis was based on the origin-destination (OD) matrices’ adjustment for public and private transport. the values being about 50-100% higher than the number of travels by car.761 Percentage of the total number of travels for the afternoon rush hours 34.9% 42.443 16. The method applied is detailed in the Annex. Table 1: The transit in the urban action area Type of transit Generated/attracted travels by private transport . The Images 41 and 42 below show the transit of cars. at the AM and PM rush hours.5% Afternoon rush hour PM 87. taxis and pick-up trucks. as shown in the table below. taking into account the traffic flows noticed in 2011. In the traffic model. expressed in number of passengers per hour. it remains only one traffic lane. generated and attracted by each area.148 234. The Images 43 and 44 below show the public transport transit generated and attracted by each area.7% 72.AM.181 Percentage of the total number of travels for the morning rush hours 27. This aspect is also reflected by the total number of travels by car and public transport in Bucharest. expressed in standard vehicles (cars) per hour.PM.5% 72.4% 57.total OD matrix (at the entire city level) Generated/attracted travels by public transport – total OD matrix (at the entire city level) Generated/attracted travels by private transport – in the central area Generated/attracted travels by public transport – in the central area Morning rush hour AM 90.6% 53 . and it generates a greater number of travels than it attracts in the afternoon rush hour . in the morning rush hour . at rush hours.1% 65. in order to take into account the limitations of the driveway due to the vehicles parked.559 168.228 28. It can be noticed that the UAA attracts a greater number of travels by public transport than it generates. the pedestrian traffic is obstructed. by parking the vehicles on sidewalks.421 43. Also.Image 24: Cars parked on Clemenceau Street Due to the arranged parking spaces or to the illegal parking on the driveway space.
AM morning rush hour General and attracted travels by car and taxi Afternoon rush hour – PM. PM afternoon rush hour 54 .General and attracted travels by car and taxi Morning rush hour – AM. final adjustment 2011 Image 26: Generated and attracted travels by car – Bucharest transport model 2011. final adjustment 2011 The central area of Bucharest Image 25: Generated and attracted travels by car – Bucharest transport model 2011.
General and attracted travels by public transport Morning rush hour – AM. PM afternoon rush hour 55 . final adjustment 2011 Image 28: Generated and attracted travels by public transport – Bucharest transport model 2011. final adjustment 2011 The central area of Bucharest Image 27: Generated and attracted travels by public transport – Bucharest transport model 2011. AM morning rush hour General and attracted travels by public transport Afternoon rush hour – PM.
The level of service is a quantitative estimate of the operational traffic conditions.9 % of the total number of travels generated at the morning rush hour. generates in average: 6. It can be noticed that the service levels in the central area are mostly in C and D categories. at the entire municipality level. at the entire municipality level. For the volume/capacity reports greater than 90%. 39. at some point. duration of movement. corresponding to the IUDP study area. visibility distance and design speed. At the AM morning rush hour.7 % of the total number of travels generated at the afternoon rush hour. traffic comfort and safety. at the entire municipality level. at the entire municipality level. while the percentage of private car travels represent 29% -34%. representing 6.7 % of the total number of travels generated at the morning rush hour at the entire municipality level. There are some areas (Victoria Square. there are 6 levels of service.4 % of the total number of travels generated at the morning rush hour at the entire municipality level. of the road or the considered road sector. which were listed above. representing 11. At the entire city level. generates in average: 10. corresponding to the IUDP study area. we can notice that the public transport travels are predominant. the flow-speed relationship for the respective road category. The traffic capacity is the maximum number of vehicles that can pass in a time unit through a road section. leading to a dramatic drop in traffic capacity.8 % of the total number of travels generated at the morning rush hour at the entire municipality level.Analyzing the transit. The level of service is characterized by the following: Characteristic elements Ensured conditions for the traffic flow A Free flow B Steady flow C Steady flow Level of service D Almost unsteady flow E Unsteady flow F Forced flow 56 . the city centre. representing 11. respectively the level of service.417 travels by public transport. representing 12. in conjunction with the traffic intensity determine the conditions for the road traffic. Lascăr Catargiu) where the movement capabilities are low. the length and traffic characteristics of road sector. 4. the public transport represents 66% -71% of the travels.176 travels by car. 24. representing 1.133 travels by public transport.5 % of the total number of travels generated at the afternoon rush hour. the city centre. expressed by the speed. The traffic capacity is expressed in the hourly flow of standard vehicles (cars). 4.6 % of the total number of travels generated at the afternoon rush hour. the traffic queues grow very fast (there is an exponential growth).994 travels by car. and it attracts in average: 10. on a lane and it depends mainly on the following factors: the geometry of the road. representing 14. representing 2. representing 16. The factors influencing the traffic capacity.234 travels by car.048 travels by public transport. At the PM afternoon rush hour.245 travels by car. the relief conditions. marked with letters from A to F. and it attracts in average: 10. The volume/capacity ratios (traffic flows/traffic capacity) represent the proportion of the estimated traffic flows and the traffic capacity of each street.6 % of the total number of travels generated at the afternoon rush hour. In practice. at the entire municipality level.344 travels by public transport.
due to the traffic Almost full Partial limited by the traffic Good Medium High.Service flows Low 420 (standard vehicle/hour) Speeds High corresponding to maximum service flows Drivers’ freedom manoeuvre Movement comfort Full Very good Medium 750 High 1200 of High. basic year 2011 57 . Medium Low with many speeds with restrictions. with Capacity considerable 2800 fluctuations 1800 Medium. in % Adjustment for the basic year 2011 – morning rush hour AM Transport model for Bucharest Image 29: Volume/capacity ratio. but on certain areas they are limited. large due to the fluctuations traffic Little. AM morning rush hour. Almost limited by inexistent the traffic Sufficient Insufficient Under capacity Very low Inexistent Traffic congestion Volume/Capacity ratio.
PM afternoon rush hour. in % Adjustment for the basic year 2011 – afternoon rush jour PM IUDP area Transport model for Bucharest Image 30: Volume/capacity ratio. basic year 2011 58 .Volume/Capacity Ratio.
Passengers flow for the public transport. expressed in passengers/hour. in passengers/hour Adjustment for the basic year 2011 – morning rush hour AM Transport model for Bucharest Image 31: Public transport traffic flows. expressed in passengers/hour. AM morning rush hour. basic year 2011 59 . PM afternoon rush hour. basic year 2011 Passengers flow for the public transport. in passengers/hour Adjustment for the basic year 2011 – afternoon rush hour PM IUDP area Transport model for Bucharest Image 32: Public transport traffic flows.
60 . Because of the higher traffic flows in the South . which.North direction (Unirii Square . via Romană Square. The analysis of traffic data shows a decrease of the average traffic speed from 37 km/h on Lascar Catargiu Boulevard to 11 km/h at Universtăţii Square. median ring and the ring road of Bucharest. ana (km/h) Image 33: The average speed on Victoriei Image 34: The average speed on Unirii Square Square. VITEZA MEDIEDECIRCULATIE(KM/H) 40 35 AVERAGE TRAFFIC SPEED (KM/H) 25 AVERAGE TRAFFIC SPEED (KM/H) VITEZA MEDIEDECIRCULATIE(KM/H) Viteza medie (m) 25 20 15 10 5 0 490 1045 P Rom ta.Unirii Square).Victoriei Square) than the North .Romană Square – University Square – . Taking advantage of the one-way roads.Romană Square – Unirii Square Victoriei Square VITEZA MEDIEDECIRCULATIE(KM/H) AVERAGE TRAFFIC SPEED(KM/H) 35 30 Viteza medie (m) Average speed (m) 25 20 15 10 5 0 805 1450 1885 2150 2690 Distante cumulate (km/h) Cumulated distances (km/h) AM PM Calera Victoriei / Ion intersectia Calea Victoriei / Ion Cam pineanu Campineanu crossing Image 35: The average speed Calea Victoriei (from Victoriei Square to Splaiul Independenței) From the basic scenario analysis (year 2011). the average speed is higher on Calea Victoriei than on the parallel route. and the passenger flows by public transport at rush hours. the average traffic speed is lower in the South – North direction. Another problem that occurs both in the central area and the rest of Bucharest is the lack of parking spaces. Moreover. the drivers tend to park very close to their final destination. ana Viteza medie (m) Average speed (m) 30 AM PM Ave rag e spe ed (m) 20 15 AM 10 5 0 PM 2387 2598 Universitate 3123 Distante cumulate (km/h) Cumulated 525 736 Universitate 2078 2633 3123 distances (km/h) Distante cumulate (km/h) Cumulated distances P Rom ta. which should support commercial.Universității Square . under the current growth rate of the car fleet. we can draw the following conclusions: The central area is experiencing high traffic flows. will lead to permanent traffic jams in the future. cultural and leisure activities. the level of service in intersections at rush hours. The streets and boulevards in the centre must serve as far as possible the local traffic only.Unirii Square. Victoriei Square . the volume/capacity ratio at rush hours.South direction (Victoriei Square .The Appendix presents the results of traffic flows expressed in vehicles/hour at rush hours. the essential characteristics of a European city centre. It is therefore necessary to provide alternatives to the north-south traffic through the internal ring.
The attenuation of the transit traffic in the central area. the transit traffic makes a pressure on the capacity of movement. but the public transport connections. establishing tariffs for public transport. at both AM and PM rush hours (see Appendix 7). such as new tram network connections. To be noted that the new Uranus Boulevard brings an important traffic flow from/to Victoriei Square and the construction of this boulevard will determine a speed decrease on Elisabeta Boulevard. There should be an integrated medium-sized parking space system (under 500 places). The levels of service and the traffic flow/capacity reports remain unchanged. Studies are needed on the improvement of the public transport connections in the centre. should be encouraged in the whole city. The volume/capacity reports for 2016 (with and without project) are expected to be over 70%. Institutional and organizational measures: Development of the metropolitan area. 61 . Other measures are also needed: Review of transport policy in Bucharest by: regulating the access of personal cars in the central area. The central area is an urban magnet. fact that creates a general discomfort. Many European cities focus on a new transport policy where no private cars. Development of fast connections between Bucharest and the surrounding localities. The influences on the traffic capacity will be mostly at local level by variations in the average traffic speed. Conclusions on the forecast for private and public transport demand for 2016 We estimate that the transport demand will be higher in 2016 than in the basic year 2011. The works on the new subway lines must become a priority. The presence in the centre area of a large number of public institutions. Victoriei Square – Ion Câmpineanu Street. efficient and comfortable public transport will be more attractive than the use of private car. where the level of service in the major traffic lights points is unsatisfactory. A fast. regulating the ad-hoc parking in the central area and the establishment of parking fees to discourage maintaining vehicles in the central area for long periods of time. and the vehicles are parked for long periods of time. both for private transport and public transport. establishing routes with dedicated lanes for the public transport and taxis.756). For the morning rush hour is further expected a triple number of passengers with private cars (an average of 12. cycling and pedestrians are favoured. including the dedicated pedestrian sidewalk areas. cultural institutions and leisure sites leads to overcrowding and excessive use of streets as parking space. which should be connected to major public transport nodes and to the artery network with priority for pedestrians and cyclists. The traffic model anticipates that the traffic flows will be redistributed for the private transport due to the implementation of several major projects for Bucharest. The implementation of the IUDP projects has no significant influence on the traffic in the main thoroughfares of the capital’s city centre. The public transport is not sufficiently developed and prioritized. The speed is expected to increase by 3-5 km/h on Calea Victoriei. compared to public transport (an average of 4. Solving the acute problems which the central area is facing cannot be achieved by infrastructure projects only. with negative influences on the traffic flow. concomitant with the public transport development.597) in the studied area. which could provide savings to users. One of the identified critical points is in Victoriei Square. The transit traffic overlaps the traffic flows having the central area as origin or destination.
The data show that a few over a quarter of Bucharest inhabitants mainly use their personal car when going through the town. a figure which has dropped to 20% in 2011 (Image 52). Most respondents to the survey said they used one or two transportation means. Public Transport Regarding the public transport. and 16% are travels between locations in Bucharest and outside areas. there is a daily average of 2. the public transport is used by most people. The arisen traffic congestions adversely affect the performance of surface public transport. out of which 84% are from and to locations in the administrative area of Bucharest. The people who own a car but use the surface public transport exclusively are less than people who don’t own a car. it is not known how many of the 29% who don’t use the public transport chose not to use it due to their preference over car. which may indicate a high level of efficiency in the organization of public transport network. where it has no separate traffic lane. In order to invest in a sustainable and attractive transport.“The social mapping of Bucharest”.4. bicycle or walking. Instead.1.514. 2011 Image 36: The transportation mean most used by the inhabitants of Bucharest.2. 62 . the subway appears as the most popular alternative to the car. Almost half of those who own a car use both the surface public transport and the subway.637 personal travels. Public transport users Subway and RATB RATB Personal car Sub way Comp any car Other N/A I don’t know/I don’t answer Source: SNSPA . The sociological studies conducted in 2010 and 2011 by SNSPA indicated important data in order to understand the mobility of Bucharest’s inhabitants. which proves that it is the main alternative to the car. Only 39% of people who have a car use the car to travel to work/elsewhere. or due to the lack of convenient transport links. The subway has identical rates. Yet.
as there are several private transportation companies) generally older population of rural and urban centres in the metropolitan area and a group of people who use the car . They can be divided into a group mainly using common transport (public or private. by three main subway lines (stations: Unirii Square 1 and 2. Rosetti Square . The urban action area is generally well served by the public transport. Unirii Square . trams and trolley lines.“The social mapping of Bucharest”. The lack of convenient public transport links to the metropolitan area creates a greater pressure on the road traffic coming from this area. Izvor. Calea Plevnei). Victoriei Square 1 and 2) and a large number of bus. bus.How many transportation means do you use when going to job/school? 1 transportation mean 2 transportations mean 3 transportations mean Not applicable I don’t know/I don’t answer Source: SNSPA . and intermodal terminus stations (Sf. 63 .generally the population of the new real estate developments around Bucharest. University. Sala Palatului.buses and trolleybuses. travel through Bucharest. trolley stations (Sf. Magheru Boulevard.buses and trams. There are a number of terminus tram stations in this area (Sf. Vineri Square . Izvor). Romană Square. Voievozi Square) and bus stations (Romană Square. to their turn. which. Gheorghe Square. therefore the residents of the neighbouring area of the capital were not included in the study. trolleybus).tram. 2011 Image 37: The number of transportation means used by Bucharest’s inhabitants The sociological study was conducted on a representative sample of Bucharest’s population.
Source: Regia Autonomă de Transport București Image 38: The public transport network in the centre of Bucharest 64 .
5 and 9 (Image 56): Public transport connection Unirii Square . There are also areas in the sub-areas 1 and 7 which are not close to the stations served by public transport lines as the spaces around Calea Victoriei or Maria Rosetti Street. 65 . Connection for trams over Unirii Square. Source: processing information from the urban database – the City Hall of Bucharest Image 39: The public transport stations in the urban action area Analyzing the current public transport network. when the lines serving the area and using Uranus Street were cancelled. with stations on Libertății Boulevard.There are areas poorly served by the public transport in the urban action area. 4. with stations on Unirii Boulevard.Hașdeu. Uranus Street. with stations on Calea Rahovei. Connection between Chirigiu Square and 13 Septembrie . we can notice the lack of necessary connections in the subareas no. which should thus connect the tram network on the NE-SW direction. Public transport connection Regina Maria Square . Subarea 9 has not been crossed by transportation means since the demolition communist times.Izvor.Constituției Square.
II. 2 CURRENT PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Current tram line Current bus line Current trolleybus line III. LACK OF CONNECTIONS
Image 40: The lack of necessary connections in the public transport network in the urban action area 1.4.3. Walking Walking is the oldest form of human mobility and it is now again in the light, as the pedestrian mobility in a city is considered a priority. The desire to better understand how the inhabitants of Bucharest move in the central area led to the comprehensive analysis of pedestrian flows in 14 areas in the city centre. The methodology was to initial establish "observation points" in each of the places from which it was intended to collect information, the passengers being counted for 5 minutes per hour, for an eight-hour period, in each observation point. These data were extrapolated to reach an hourly average which may be consistent and comparable in terms of statistics. The representations below mention the counts’ results:
Hourly average pedestrian flow
Amzei - Verona
Calea Victoriei - Sala Palatului
Hourly average pedestrian flow
S tr. o Tud r A rg i hez
o Nic r.
i ste ati
lae li p Fi cu es
S tr. o Tud r A rg i hez
S tr. Io
n C am
S tr .T ud
olae l. Nic B du
er ic a
B alc esc u
emiei Str. Acad
B dul gin . Re
abeta a E lis
.Io S tr
om a S tr.T
iei Str. Academ
B dul. . B ratia Ion C
g Cara iu
S oa tr.D ei mn
Hourly average pedestrian flow
Hystorical Centre - Lipsanos
Brătianu (Cocor) – old Calea Moșilor
Unirii Square – Hystorical Center (Hanul lui Manuc)
Unirii Square (South-West)
Șuțu – 1. Unirii – 1. the crossing with Tache Ionescu Street.392 persons/hour Magheru Boulevard.200 70 .728 persons/hour Universității Square – sidewalk in front of the Faculty of Geology – 1. Romană.280 persons/hour Bridge over Dâmbovița.356 persons/hour Universitate Subway entrance . 1.660 persons/hour Unirii Square sidewalk (SW) – 3.Hourly average pedestrian flow Izvor Flower Market .272 persons Brătianu Boulvard – exit of Sf.Colțea – 1.. Elisabeta Blvd.320 persons/hour Universitate Subway entrance . Areas with low pedestrian traffic: Armenească. Piața Revoluției.Uranus Image 41: Pedestrian flows in points of the urban action area The pedestrian flow analysis indicates the fact that the analyzed areas are different in terms of pedestrian traffic: Areas with the highest pedestrian traffic: Universitate.144 persons/hour Romană Square (columns) – 2. Unirii Area with high pedestrian traffic: Centrul Vechi. Brătianu Areas with pedestrian traffic: Izvor. Magheru Blvd. Gheorghe – Lipscani passage – 1.200 Brătianu Boulevard – between Cocor and Unirii – 1.200 Universității Square – Book Street sidewalk – 1.TNB – 1.512 persons/hour Izvor – 1.260 persons/hour Bălcescu Boulevard – near the University artesian well – 1. Uranus – Flower Market Among the most intense traffic areas of the City Center we can name: Unirii Boulevard crossing – 3.248 persons/hour Universitate Subway entrance . Sala Palatului.328 persons/hour Magheru Boulevard (columns) – 2.
approximately 50% of the registered pedestrians are adults.children (under 16 years) 71 .272 pedestrians per hour at the National Theatre exit. T . A possible cause is the unfriendly character of pedestrian spaces (narrow sidewalks with cracked asphalt). 66% of pedestrians are young. Image 42: Distribution by age of the pedestrians registered B – old people (over 65 years). reaching only 120 pedestrians per hour in front of the National Museum of Art and 240 pedestrians per hour in front of the Hilton Hotel. being intensively used by adults as well. between Biserica Amzei Street and Tache Ionescu Street and 708 pedestrians per hour on the east side. in contrast with its traditional role of promenade street. the difference being statistically significant. the young people represent 51%. where they represent 9% of the pedestrians. Armenească area (27% young people) and the Cocor Store – Calea Mosilor (25% young people).320 pedestrians per hour at the Şuţu Palace exit. Calea Victoriei.292 pedestrians per hour in the columns area) and at the exits of the University subway (1. C . due to the connections with the leisure streets (west) and the connections with the tram lines end at Sf. except Uranus . similar to Șelari . They decrease in the north of the National Military Circle.Splaiul Independenței crossing). are much lower and reach a similar level to the minimum levels in Magheru Boulevard only in the "historical centre" (720 pedestrians per hour in front of Zlătari Church). The difference between southern and northern parts of Universității Square can thus be explained by the public transport organization as well. In Hanul lui Manuc area. but Lipscani .Amzei-Verona area they represent 48%. in the front of the Scala Cinema. These data indicate that the pedestrian activity in Calea Victoriei is not among the highest in the city centre. similar to Smârdan-Lipscani crossing) or in Romană Square (between Căderea Bastiliei Street and Dacia Boulevard – 1. Some areas are frequented by young people under the average in the areas studied (statistically significant difference) such as Calea Victoriei . By comparison with Magheru and Bălcescu Boulevards.young (16-30 years). 49% are young people.080 persons/hour. whose stations are absent on the eastern side of the northern axis from Universității Square to Romană Square. There are areas frequented by young people (16-30 years) more than the average of the studied areas.Following the analysis of the pedestrian flows on the North-South axis. with a minimum of 444 pedestrians per hour recorded on the western side. The streets in the Pilot Area of the Historical Center have high flows of pedestrian traffic in Magheru Boulevard (the crossing with Batiștei Street . A – adults (30-65 years).080 pedestrians per hour on the east side). in the north of the Romană Square. Gheorghe Square (east). The flows decrease between Romană Square and Universității Square. and in Magheru . in the south area of the market. immediately in the south part of Romană Square (2.260 pedestrians at the Colțea exit). Thus. The pedestrian flows on the historical alternative of the axis. 1.Flower Market area. it was noticed that the largest flows were in the north end of Magheru Boulevard. Regarding children. In terms of distribution by age groups. they remain at the average of 3%. it can be concluded that the absence of public transport in Calea Victoriei might be a cause for the lack of important pedestrian flows.996 persons/hour.Hilton (27% young people). decreasing to the north. the flows remain high on both sides (about 960 pedestrians per hour on the west side and 1.800 pedestrians per hour at the University subway exit. South to Universității Square. 1. 1.Smirdan area do not record greater youth flows than the average.
Uranus. Colțea Pedestrian flows increasing in the evening: Romană South. Unirii Square SW. Ion Ghica-Șuțu In contrast to the area between Brătianu and Victoriei Boulevard which is used throughout the day. Lipscani. Universitate-Edgar Quinet. Constant flows throughout the day: Sala Palatului. the pedestrian mobility respects the average evolution model presented in Image 59. Batiștei. Hanul Manuc. The agreement for this type of restriction is correlated with the intention to delimiting a space in the centre of Bucharest. having a cultural and commercial character rather than a transit one. Izvor.Total 10:30-11:30 12:00-13:00 15:00-16:00 08:00-09:00 09:00-10:00 13:00-14:00 16:30-17:30 Image 43: Numeric evolution. Would you agree the enforcement of speed limits for cars and public transport in the central area of Bucharest? Yes Yes No No Don’t answer/Don’t know 17:30-18:30 18:30-19:30 72 . Amzei-Verona. Teatrul Național. Armenească. University artesian wells Pedestrian flows decreasing in the evening: Brezoianu. Romană North. The study conducted in Izvor area reveals a lack of connections over Dâmboviţa towards the northeast where pedestrian flows are moving. Hilton. after they must make a detour at Izvor Bridge. 75% of the interviewed people in the sociological investigation agree with the enforcement of speed limits for road traffic in the centre of Bucharest (Image 60). we can draw a conclusion: the low pedestrian flows in Armenească area and the relatively low pedestrian flows in Elisabeta-Brezoianu and the old Calea Moșilor do not correspond to the high local accessibility of these areas. by hours and age groups of the pedestrians In certain areas. resulting that the pedestrian route design should be analyzed to identify obstacles. Cocor. Cercul Militar Național. there are areas with potential such as Elisabeta Boulevard-Victoriei-Brezoianu and the historical centre area in the east of Brătianu which face a decrease in terms of pedestrian use in the evening. indicating the need for reactivation operations for these areas. In terms of correlation of the pedestrian flow study with the local accessibility.
2011 Image 44: The extent to which the Bucharest’s inhabitants agree the enforcement of speed limits for the traffic in the central area 83% of Bucharest’s inhabitants share the idea of a strictly pedestrian area in the Capital (image 61). The respondents mention Unirii area and the great boulevards (Magheru.Source: SNSPA . To what extent would you agree the arrangement of pedestrian spaces in the central area of Bucharest? To a very great extent To a great extent To a little extent To a very little extent I don’t answer/I don’t know Image 45: The extent to which the Bucharest’s inhabitants agree the arrangement of pedestrian spaces in the central area of Bucharest Name an area/boulevard/street in the city center where you would like a pedestrian space be arranged Historical Center Romană Square Magheru Boulevard The Cișmigiu Park City Center I don’t know/I don’t answer More than 80 locations were named. the promenade areas are designed to enable artistic. From social point of view. Calea Victoriei) as areas that could become pedestrian areas.“The social mapping of Bucharest”. in addition to the already popular Historical Center (image 62). each of them representing less than 1% Image 46: Areas with acceptance potential for becoming pedestrian area 73 . cultural and social events. which express the life of a city and offer identity.
characterized by inappropriate design. first of all because of unfriendly traffic conditions. does not create traffic jams. occupied by obstacles In parallel with pedestrian flow analysis. This can be considered a pilot study for an analysis of cycling flows. often hostile. while. contributes to improving population health through prevention of coronary diseases. However. through the Brussels Charter in 2009. to be achieved for the entire city. The bicycle is not a popular mean of transportation in Bucharest. European cities have developed general bicycle networks on which a large number of cyclists travel daily. without signalling and traffic light.1. on which were noted only cycling flows exceeding 5 cyclists during the day (Figure 64). with a very small width.4. a cyclist flow analysis was performed during a business day (July 2011). because the use of bicycles entails the following advantages: represents the most efficient transportation solution in terms of energy consumption and CO2. however. unhindered. the existing network can be used as a catalyst to set up a new continuous and coherent network. Bucharest. often occupied by parked cars or pedestrians. with many obstacles for bicycle users (figure 63). the European cities committed to bring the percentage of daily trips by bicycle to 15%. including possible origin-destination queries to study the flows connected at the level of 74 . The network is discontinuous. This analysis was carried out in areas marked on the attached map. Use of bicycles The study conducted by SNSPA in Bucharest in 2010 highlighted the fact that less than 2% of respondents use the bicycle as daily mean of transportation. not maintained. has a less extensive network. Figure47: Lanes dedicated to cyclists.1.
the more significant flows are recorded on arteries / in points where there are large surfaces dedicated to cycling circulation. in order to encourage this form of sustainable mobility (Figure 65). The main conclusion of this study is that.Bucharest. except more intense circulation of cyclists conducted on the north-south axis. such as in the park at Piaţa Unirii or on Bulevardul Unirii. Figure 48: Bicycle flows in selected areas in the urban action area (bicycles/h) "shared space" on the road 75 . This supports the initiatives to create lanes dedicated to cyclists.
develop an initial thematic map.without signalling and without traffic lights .lack of maintenance .encouraging novice cyclists and those who re-discover cycling after many years.lack of planning of budgets and maintenance works for the lanes. which contravenes to any modern and intelligent urban transportation strategy.incoherence . which helped to raise awareness of bicycles/cyclists as road traffic participants .without protective physical separation . or used by pedestrians just as abusively . .very often occupied abusively by parked cars.on the sidewalk "shared space" Source: blogs dedicated to urban cycling Figure 49: Examples of layout of bicycle lanes SWOT Analysis of the existing cycling network Strengths .intensive exposure for bicycle icons.analysis of possible continuous and coherent networks that can be made to continue the existing network .very poor quality of the work: expensive materials used on an inappropriate surface Opportunities .very small width .continued placement of the lanes on the sidewalks. which contains all the necessary resources to encourage citizens to use bicycles as an alternative means of travel Threats . children and retired persons Weaknesses .initiating discussions on specific infrastructure themes . which will entail a perception of lack of purpose of the investment 76 .discontinuity .a first step in introducing the notion of bicycle specific infrastructure in Romania .
Uranus also reduce the permeability of the urban tissue .the intense traffic flows represent obstacles for pedestrians (Splaiul Independenței. Weaknesses .SWOT Analysis of accessibility. Bulevardul Regina Elisabeta. permeability and transport in the urban action zone Strengths .the concerns related to the security of the Palace of the Parliament reduce the possibility of certain urban operat ions in Sub-zone 5.impermeable spaces surround the south-west of the urban action area .boulevards and streets with high global accessibility in the city (Calea Victoriei.construction of bridges over Dâmboviţa will help reconnect the destructured urban tissue Threats . Bulevardul Magheru.high permeability of the sub-urban fabric in the sub-zones located north of Piaţa Unirii Opportunities . Bule vardul Carol I. Calea Victoriei) 77 . Splaiul Independenţei) .industrial areas such as Rahova .prioritizing public transport and alternative routes mainly for pedestrians and cyclists will decrease the level of congestion . Bulevardul Libertăţii) is a barrier zone which distinguishes and separates certain areas .the limited number of bridges over Dâmboviţa reduce accessibility .the increase of the number of cars and traffic in the central area .the lack of action in the respect of modifying the current trends will lead to city blocking .The Civic Centre developed during the 80's (Bulevardul Unirii.
Population1 The demographic profile of the urban action zone of action is the result of the typology of low buildings often present.5. Unirii.913 inhabitants/km2. and significant areas of unused land).844 persons (4. Table 2 shows that the values below the average Bucharest density (8. the ascending method was used.5.1. that the central area is less populated.938 inhabitants per square km) are found in sub-zone 4 (Parcul Izvor and Palatul Parlamentului). For sub-zone 7. (An area in which the population of large housing complexes along the major boulevards defined within the sub-zone will be excluded from the analysis. 78 . while they account for 49% of the ZAU PIDU. The average density in ZAU PIDU is of 9. amounting to 61% of the population of ZAU PIDU. starting from relative information of the resident units (data on population by number.2). where collective housing buildings are located (Calea Victoriei. 1 When drawing up this chapter. The stable population recorded by the General Directorate for Persons Records of Bucharest in July 2011 for the urban action zone is of 87. Bd. the integrated plan has a greater impact.52% of the total stable population registered in Bucharest). the density of stable population is higher that the Bucharest average. Sub-zone 7 has the highest population density. but still above the Bucharest average. sub-zone 5 (Bulevardul Unirii . which dominates the central area of Bucharest (as opposed to the collective housing complexes in the outskirts neighbourhoods). not only for the population of the urban action zone. The most populated sub-zones are north (1. Demographic and social characteristics of the urban action zone 1. 13 Septembrie). Therefore. thus restricted. by approximately 20% lower than the one calculated for the entire sub-zone 7. Data were processed in geographic information system using Intergraph ® platforms 2 There is the perception. it resulted an average population density of 10. of the concentration of collective housing complexes along grand boulevards and of the complex functional role of the centre. The average density of population in ZAU PIDU is higher than the the average for the entire city. but it is important to note that the role of central zone determines the use of the perimeter under study by much of the population of Bucharest.Magheru. sometimes even the professional environment. Bd. By reference to the entire urban action zone.Piaţa Unirii) and sub-zone 9 (where there are former industrial areas. 6 and 7). which groups a large number of functions. Figure 69 suggests concentrations of population along the major boulevards.276 inhabitants per square kilometre. age and sex for each postal address in the ZAU PIDU).1.
27 0.92 1.977 20.135 10.309 11.721 10.39 0.84 1.207 9.47 Number of inhabitants (July 2011) 15.595 17.90 1.050 10.079 87.860 7.779 8.510 7.844 Average density per km2 11.36 0.736 13.331 2.12 9.Repartition of population on sub-zones Sub-zona 1 Sub-zona 2 Sub-zona 3 Sub-zona 4 Sub-zona 5 Sub-zona 6 Sub-zona 7 Sub-zona 8 Sub-zona 9 Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest Figure50: Distribution of the population by sub-zones in the ZAU PIDU (July 2011) Table 2: Density of stable population in ZAU PIDU (July 2011) Zone Sub-zone 1 Sub-zone 2 Sub-zone 3 Sub-zone 4 Sub-zone 5 Sub-zone 6 Sub-zone 7 Sub-zone 8 Sub-zone 9 Total ZAU PIDU Surface of the zone (km2) 1.276 79 .097 6.19 0.807 9.766 5.50 1.
processing of INSSE data Figure 51: Population density in Bucharest Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest (July 2011) Figure 52: Population density in ZAU PIDU Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest 80 .Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest low density high density Source: Intergraph .
318 6.5% 25.8% 6.036 235 121 114 90 46 44 327 162 166 496 239 257 594 267 328 202 74 127 percentage of population 100.2% 1.1% 5.8% 4.1% 4.3% 10.924 12.9% 3.875 27.200 5.022 percentage of population 100.2% 54.679 48.4% 2.0% 45.8% 8.5% 12.310 20.0% 46.4% 19.4% 17.9% 10.4% 31.819 1.2% 12.5% Bucharest Number of persons (thousands) 1.844 39.7% 7.Figure 53: Population concentration in the PIDU Urban Action Zone (July 2011) Table 3: Distribution of population by sex and age groups in ZAU PIDU (July 2011) ZAU PIDU Age group/Sex Total Male Female 0-14 years Male Female 15-20 years Male Female 20-29 years Male Female 30-44 years Male Female 45-69 years Male Female 70 and more Male Female Number of persons 87.7% 53.262 17.6% 1.376 10.510 5.1% 6.8% 14.9% 12.4% 3.834 4.6% Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest 3 All the studies in the European countries suggest that prices of properties are higher in areas where there is a higher percentage of 81 .6% 12.0% 5.944 908 1.6% 13.2% 5.439 9.8% 10.3% 13.564 10.165 8.514 4.3% 8.296 11.3% 12.320 2.9% 6.443 1.6% 2.7% 16.2% 30.3% 16.0% 23.662 15.
2% are males and 54.see Figures 71-74.1%) . compared to 10. below 82 . Percentage public green spaces. meaning that an active person in ZAU PIDU maintains several inactive persons by reference to the whole city. More than half of the population of ZAU PIDU (51.1%. The demographic dependency ratio is 533.3%. compared to 12. From the total population of ZAU PIDU.3 ‰. The youth dependency ratio represents the ratio between people aged 0-14 years and adults aged between 15-64 years and has a value of 153.9 ‰ for the whole city. confirming the higher life expectancy (75 years compared to 68 years for men).8 ‰ in Bucharest.7% of the total population in ZAU.4% in the entire municipality) and a lower proportion of children (10.6 ‰ for ZAU PIDU. while the corresponding percentage in Bucharest is of 40. the urban action zone has a higher proportion of elderly population than other parts of the city (the population of more than 70 years represents 19. Analyzing gender distribution in each age class.6% higher in the ZAU PIDU than the average of the city. The demographic dependency ratio (indicator characterizing the population's activity potential and measures the pressure of the inactive population . we observe that older female population is larger. The percentage of female population is 1.5%) is aged of more than 45 years.4%-meaning that a number of 82 men correspond to 100 women). of working age population (15-64 years) is 66.000 people aged 15-64 correspond to approximately 574 young (0-14 years) and elderly (65 and over) people. This indicator has a value of 163.Repartition of population on groups of ages Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest Figure54: Distribution of population by age groups (July 2011) From the point of view of age groups. This means that 1.9%.young and elder . 45.on the active population .adult population) has a value of 573.8% are females (the masculinity ratio is of 82.
the Bucharest average.processing of Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest 83 .processing of INSSE data Figure55: Density of children population (0-14 years) in Bucharest Source: Processing of data provided by the Directorate General for Persons Records of the Municipality of Bucharest Figure56: Concentration of children population (0-14 years) in ZAU PIDU (July 2011) Source: Intergraph INSSE data . Source: Intergraph .
A rate of 43.data collection (inventory) of the functions of buildings . 8 and 9. subject to expertise are concentrated in the central area of Bucharest (Figure 76).1% of the population resides in individual dwellings and 56. both individual dwellings and collective housing complexes. 7. Inhabiting of the urban action zone The housing stock of ZAU PIDU comprises approximately 6. predominantly in sub-zones 6.9% of the population lives in collective dwellings. Most of the buildings affected by seismic risks.2. 84 . The individual dwellings are mostly in sub-zones 6.5. ● Individual dwellings ● Collective dwellings ● 1 level ●●●●● 8 levels and more Source: Synergetics .Figure57: Density of population aged of more Figure58: Concentration of population aged than 70 years in Bucharest over 70 years in ZAU PIDU (July 2011) 1.200 buildings. 7.July 2011 Figure59: Distribution of population by type of dwelling (July 2011) Many of the collective housing complexes have exceeded the period of length of service. 2 and 8. The situation of building consolidation requires special attention.
but for which major structural damages are expected when a design earthquake occurs RsIII . Statistics for buildings subject to seismic risk expertise Seismic risk category RsI .205 15 1935 1897 1920 1919 1897 Source: Processing of information from the urban database of the City Hall of Municipality of Bucharest 85 .public hazard RsI .constructions with high risk of collapse in case of earthquakes having intensities corresponding to seismic calculation areas (design earthquake) RsII .constructions for which the probability of collapse is reduced.constructions for which major structural damages that do not significantly affect the structural safety are expected. not included in the appropriate risk class Total number of constructions subject to expertise out of which consolidated constructions Number of building s 92 Constructio n year (average) 1933 134 1892 121 1935 23 2 833 1.Table 4. but for which the damages of the non-structural elements may be important RsIV constructions assigned to emergency classes.
Source: Processing of information from the urban database of the City Hall of Municipality of Bucharest Figure 60: Distribution of constructions subject to technical expertise from the point of view of seismic risk (Bucharest) Source: Processing of information from the urban database of the City Hall of Municipality of Bucharest Figure 61: Distribution of constructions subject to technical expertise from the point of view of seismic risk (ZAU PIDU) Buildings density in sqkm 86 .
Although the percentage of stock of new apartments is only about 2% of the total number of apartments. In terms of offer of old apartments. also contributed to this decline. in 2009 and 2010 the situation has reversed. the emergence of this concept on the Romanian market has brought a desire among Romanians for a better quality housing. If. the others opting for the semi-central and outskirts areas. playgrounds for children. Also. implicitly. These complexes provide decent living conditions and multiple facilities. it is around 750. The financial crisis reflected in the decrease in salaries or even the loss of jobs. about 40% of buyers are interested in central and downtown areas. part of the Romanian National Art Museum and the Telephone Palace. Centrally located units were also affected. the entire action requires more than 50 years at the current rate and costs amount to hundreds of millions of euro. the prices increased from week to week. Affordability of the dwellings in ZAU PIDU The residential market has fluctuated significantly in recent years. compared to those located in semi-central or peripheral areas. of the prices of residential units with up to 30-50% in certain peripheral locations of Bucharest. landscaped green spaces. by the end of 2007 and early 2008. Starting with 2004-2005. calculated depending on the number of persons recorded in each building and the density of the buildings (Figure 78). the increase of the VAT rate by 5 percentage points to 24% from July 1st. corporate owners had to bear this increase. Another major issue is the need for thermal rehabilitation of collective residential buildings. it may be mentioned the "Athenee Palace" hotel. the Nehoiu hotel. If the provisions of the normative acts implementing safety for the stock of buildings in the 1st class of seismic risk will apply. new apartments in residential complexes started to add to the stock of existing residential units. elevators connecting the underground parking lots and the apartments. such as modern construction standards. Among the buildings of particular importance that have been consolidated. matched by the lack of confidence in the country's economic development have led to a significant decrease in demand and. 2010 affected the sale prices of residential units.000 units in the capital city. Approximately 41% of the buildings subject to seismic risk of the 1st degree have 4 floors or more. spa centres or swimming pools. own underground parking lots. security. Thus. 3 and 5 have been rehabilitated in the action area. Figure 79 shows the concentration of the affected population in the event of an earthquake of high intensity. So far. only 45 buildings included in programs run by the City halls of districts 1. which have tightened financing conditions. As a preference among consumers. although in a more moderate manner. 2.Source: Processing of information from the urban database of the City Hall of Municipality of Bucharest Figure 62: Distribution of constructions subject to technical expertise from the point of view of seismic risk in ZAU PIDU Source: Processing of information from the urban database of the City Hall of Municipality of Bucharest Figure 63: Concentration of population affected by seismic risk in ZAU PIDU (July 2011) Only 20 constructions subject to technical expertise from the point of view of seismic risk have been consolidated. 87 . The financial institutions.
This is due to the fact that. On the other hand. Tudor Vladimirescu . referring to 2-bedroom apartments located in standard blocks of flats for each zone. blocks of flats may be classified depending on the year of construction. refurbished. some of these buildings can be renovated and used for various commercial or residential purposes. this feature is given either by blocks of flats built during the communist era or by the numerous pre-war or post-war villas (Dacia. embassies. The average selling price per square meter for old flats in the analyzed sub-zones range from EUR 1. of the demand it generates. Especially the highly skilled workforce is drawn to locations in stable and coherent communities. Lascăr Catargiu . having a strong cultural identity.300 per sq m in zone 1 and 8 and EUR 1.sub-zone 9. Another aspect that determines demand on the residential market is the proximity to specific points of interest. to well maintained areas of the city. hence. Ştirbei Vodă . 6 and 7 and EUR 1.sub-zone 1).sub-zone 6. in terms of building quality. Most of the developments of small apartment buildings (average 3-4 levels) shown in Figure 167 are made in the absence of available land on the site of former houses. the demand is relatively high. "old" Calea Mosilor . sub-zone 4 being one of the most popular. construction standard. In most sub-zones.100 per sq m). From the standpoint of market attractiveness and. The central area of Bucharest covers most of the administrative buildings in Bucharest. A high demand equals higher prices and. but there are situations where such buildings are purchased either to be demolished in order for development or are incorporated in a future wider project.sub-zone 3. offices of companies) and old. also leading to long-term viability of the spaces. The prices presented above are averages of each sub-zone. In the second case. Mircea Vulcănescu. with strong transport links. educational institutions and other public interest objectives. smallsize houses in advanced stage of impairment. the selling price per square meter reaching at times more than 3. used for various commercial and institutional (restaurants and coffee shops. this area is very sought after among buyers. Grădina Icoanei . with values of EUR 1. A large real estate development potential is represented by sub-zone 9. depending on the specific characteristics taken into account.sub-zone 7.From the real estate perspective.000 Euros.350 per sq m in zone 5 (the market average in the whole city is now approximately EUR 1.400 per sq m in zone 4.Cişmigiu . seismic classification. about 40% of the market demand focusing on this part of the capital city. For this reason the centre was the least affected by the crisis in terms of decrease of the selling prices. the successful rehabilitation of collective buildings (for example the one subject to seismic risk located on the front side of main boulevards or in the downtown area) may attract long-term investments by the private sector. if the supply is constant. but considered to have growth potential. numerous office buildings. housing can play a key role in regenerating underperforming areas or those affected by the lack of investments.250 per sq m in zones 3. 88 . These prices can be higher or lower. the Unirii area provides safety. In the first category. The residential units of the type house/villa in the sub-zones concerned may be classified into two categories: historical. In this case. As a result. the zone under analysis is predominantly a residential one. impressively-sized villas. the purchase price is referenced to the development potential of the land and not to the existing buildings. where there still is unused land. In the urban economic development.
through the way in which they allow to escape from daily stress in a more peaceful. contributing significantly to reducing their level. parks. urban green spaces are a true moderator of environmental impact of human activity. involving a spatial vision of the network of public spaces. they can function as a visual screen against spatial uniformity. There are studies indicating that the main value of green spaces lies in their role of recovery of the "well-being" of people who often go there. soil and water. From a social perspective. so as to create the basis for interaction among the various social categories. green spaces can provide a greater diversity of land use and opportunities for a wide range of activities. particles and dust). Well-managed green spaces contribute to strengthening social justice by increasing social inclusion. through various exercises (walking. Maintaining a balance of the urban environment. Mitigating noise. public and private gardens. The process of photosynthesis consumes carbon dioxide and releases oxygen. The cultural life is enriched by the fact that green spaces are venues for social and cultural events (festivals.5. mental and social development. Improving the efficiency of water drainage in the urban environment. exhibitions.1. running.g. squares.3. They encourage a healthier lifestyle. Well landscaped green spaces can be effective barriers against noise. Green spaces can absorb other pollutants as well (e. both through direct contact and by participating in community events. especially by moderating the extremes of urban climate. The development of this infrastructure is the result of a public policy implemented throughout a long period. with higher temperatures and limited air circulation. Through the value of landscaping. theatrical or cinematographic activities. Green spaces Green spaces infrastructure is more than a statistic of green land. sport grounds. Green spaces also have a great importance in terms of aesthetics. They can also play an important role in basic education of children about nature and the environment. During the day. celebrations and other similar events). recreation complexes. The constructions and concrete surfaces in cities creates a specific urban environment. Green spaces provide added value to the urban environment by increasing its diversity and providing socio-economic and environmental benefits. with significant influence on the social health of the city. They also have psychological effects. a green area of 25 square meters provides the necessary oxygen for one person. street alignments. The economic benefits include both direct benefits (workforce employed in the management of public spaces. contributing to improving the urban physical environment by: Reducing pollution. In addition. Many studies emphasize the social benefits of green spaces. whose behaviour is influenced in respect of physical. Green spaces can be a safe playground for children. which leads to the socalled "heat islands" (see Figure 80). In terms of environmental benefits. freely available to everyone. relaxing place. Conserving the local natural and cultural heritage and maintaining biodiversity. providing a neutral framework. Many times. health benefits of green spaces are extremely important and worth emphasizing. as well as income generated from this activity) and less tangible 89 . particularly during the growing season. contributing to maintaining a healthy urban environment by cleaning air. green spaces give identity to the built environment. cycling).
Source: Intergraph .612.processing of ANM data Figure64: Heat poles map of Bucharest In the perimeter under study. the existence of well-maintained green spaces contributes to the quality of life. the presence of green space. such as effects on the price of the neighbouring properties 3. The total area of green space in ZAU PIDU is of 66. the number of isolated trees is 45. through the benefits it ensures to the inhabitants (in terms of aesthetics and health) determines the increase of the value of the areas. on foot or by bicycle. helping to attract economic activities in the area or their role in attracting tourists. and the balance regarding the existing and required green space is shown in Table 5. A high quality network of green spaces linking residential areas to areas of economic activity increases the accessibility and attractiveness of local residences and jobs in the area. squares. Generally.benefits. the entire typology of green spaces (public parks. Table 5: Existing and required green spaces in ZAU PIDU Category of green space Green area surface Green space surface m2 Minimum recommend ed surface Green space deficit m2/inhabit Green space deficit 90 . including by encouraging the inhabitants to walk to work safely.4 hectares. A pleasant environment always helps create a positive image of urban centres and thus can increase the attractiveness for investments and new job offers. public gardens. In conclusion. gardens) is 7. planted alignments) may be found. Research has shown that the inhabitants attach high value to the areas where quality green spaces. According to the census made by the "green cadastre".411 and the number of trees in the compact green space areas (parks.
79 (m2) 6. walks in the park are not affected by social. or a passive one .C.354 664.521 Izvor (Haşdeu) 12.922 292.71 2.710 Sala Palatului 1. between 79% and 82% of Bucharest inhabitants believe that the parks are representative elements for the centre of Bucharest (see Figure 86). socializing activities (either with friends or to meet new people) and going with the grandchild/child to play (Figure 82).77 0. Unirii Park and Carol Park are among the favourite walking areas of the Bucharest inhabitants (Figure 98).48 (ha) 15. Park Pro-social policies recommended at European level aim at increasing the number of parks and green spaces in urban areas and encouraging people to spend as much free time in such places.00 1. lack of 91 .5. Cismigiu Park. 21.5. sporting activities.352* *The difference up to 371.walking through the park.474 Libertăţii (Carol I) 64.236 Unirii 3. Considered a leisure behaviour.3.8 Source: Processing of data in the "Green Cadastre" . participating in various events held in the park). Long walks in the parks of the urban action zone are the main motivation for 24% of the Bucharest inhabitants going in downtown Bucharest (Figure 94). The main barriers that prevent people to use urban green spaces are: the absence of facilities (including play areas for children). Brătianu (Colțea) 786 Cazzavilan 692 Universitate (National Theatre) 651 Total 309. Only half of the Bucharest inhabitants go to the park every week (Figure 81) Table 6: Parks in the urban action zone PIDU Surface (m2) Cişmigiu 209. economic or political events.761 Grădina Icoanei 3.urban database of the City Hall of the Municipality of Bucharest The landscaped parks in the urban action area are listed in Table 6.50 ant 1.816 Sf. being determined by individual availability and weather conditions.219 Ion Voicu (Ioanid) 7.23 0.437 Ateneul Român 979 I. the presence of other people considered undesirable in the park (also related to concerns about personal safety). Gheorghe Nou 1.922 square meters is represented by green landscaped surfaces under the form of parks in the area of housing complexes.5 6. According to sociological survey detailed in Chapter 1. The information in the sociological investigation shows that the main reasons why people use green spaces are: relaxation (whether active relaxation .276 / inhabitant 4.(m2) Parks Alignments. squares Total 371.for instance.070 Nicolae Iorga 2.
connectivity of green spaces.Urban Green Environment). a better management. more events in the park. education. green spaces offer accessibility. d) group of indicators for planning. What is the main reason you go in the park? to relax I take my child/grandchild to play to meet my friends to meet/tals to other people N/A NA/Don't answer How often do you go in the park? Every week 1-2 times a month once in 1-2 months several times a year 1-2 times a year less than once a year I don't go Source: SNSPA . the integration of private green areas. According to the World Health Organization.79 m2/inhabitant. sports. b) group of quality indicators of green spaces: species diversity. employment."Social mapping of Bucharest". The factors that encourage people to use green spaces more are cleanliness. developed in the FP5 URGE project (Framework Programme 5 . planning tools. citizen involvement.23 m2/inhabitant. fragmentation. where the urban environment is the habitat of about 70% of the population. we find that the proportion of green spaces in the total administrative area is 7%. better accessibility and proximity of a dwelling to green space. standards regarding green spaces are at least 26 m2/ inhabitant (with a recommended minimum of 6 m2/inhabitant). isolation from other green spaces. habitat diversity. calculated based on other types of green spaces (Table 5). Calculating the main indicators at the level of the urban action zone. administration responsibilities. production. better facilities. development and management of green spaces: green urban policy and its legal context. city identity. protecting cultural and natural heritage. which establishes the following groups: a) group of quantity (availability) indicators of green areas: surface. the standard of green space for an inhabitant must be 50 m2 (9 m2/inhabitant is the minimum recommended). the increase of personal safety. budget for the urban green system. c) group of indicators regarding the use of green spaces: recreation. and access difficulties (especially for older people).cleanliness. integrated internal/external system. calculated depending on the surface of the parks and 0. At EU level. 92 . culture. the ability to improve the quality of the environment. 2011 Figure 65: The frequency with which Bucharest inhabitants go to the park Figure 66: The motivation for the Bucharest inhabitants for going to the park For analysis of the green space infrastructure. the most comprehensive set of indicators appears in the Interdisciplinary Catalogue of Criteria. waste management. awareness of the physical and emotional benefits derived from the impact of urban green space. and the surface of green spaces per inhabitant is of 4.
green spaces planning policies should be developed to meet local needs.88) and well below the level of the UE recommendation of 3 trees. As for Bucharest. it falls into the category of cities where public perception of environmental quality (in which green spaces are also included) is low. Secondly. Fourth. one of the great failures of the ZAU PIDU is the insufficiency of green spaces. the data being structured as a geographic referencing system. an updated database is needed first of all. Thirdly. Source: Processing of data in the "Green Cadastre" .5.6 in the urban action zone. The adoption of public policies for the purpose of remedying this problem is urgent.4. accompanied by a community involvement is needed to develop and manage green spaces through partnerships between local authorities. The average of trees per inhabitant is of 0. The level of satisfaction of the urban population depends on the way in which the quantitative (spatial) and quality aspects of the green space system are performed.Therefore. the business environment and NGOs. 93 .urban database of the City Hall of the Municipality of Bucharest Figure 67: Green spaces in ZAU PIDU 1. The integration of green spaces in the urban regeneration process should be done inclusively by attracting investments in the area (as a result of the increase of the attractiveness of the urban landscape) and by using green spaces (especially parks) as starting points for local regeneration initiatives. lower than the Bucharest average (0. an integrated approach. the increase of quality. quantity and accessibility of green spaces is needed in a vision of urban space. The City Hall of the Municipality of Bucharest has completed the "Green Cadastre". Crime in PIDU urban area Crime and civil disobedience are factors that encumber local economic development. In conclusion. To increase the quality of green spaces. the existing green space in ZAU PIDU does not provide the minimum standard per inhabitant needed to raise the quality of life in accordance with European recommendations. to the extent that sustainable development is harmed by social phenomena that affect the personal safety or the trust of citizens.
831 18. in the area of the project.205 10.164 3. Even if most of the street crimes are decreasing in the PIDU area (robberies. out of which: Bucharest 81. compared to the situation in Bucharest.848 19. Table 7: Total statistics of the reported crimes Indicator Area 2006 2007 2008 Total reported crimes. while at the level of the city there was a general increase.394 46.384 12.785 15.834 3. Inclusive.993 51 168 Table 8: Statistics regarding the street crimes reported Indicator Area 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total reported street crimes.949 16.97% of the area of Bucharest. After a decrease registered in the subsequent year.925 15.365 .400 PIDU 4. in 2007.other crimes Bucharest 18.909 50 169 2010 98.260 14. There is a series of trends that can be favourably influenced by the implementation of PIDU.292 20. the reports are alarming concerning the abuse crimes. the increase of the total crimes reported is greater in the PIDU area (135% in the last four years). between 15% and 17% of the total reported crimes take place in this area. in the period 2007-2010.679 14. these crimes have increased by 43%. which is why it is imposed to continue the actions to increase the employees of the public security forces.618 46.440 .000 inhabitants (total crimes.513 PIDU 465 376 536 . out of which we can highlight the decrease of the standard of living and the fact that a part of the population tries to obtain resources using illegal means. respectively the disturbance of public order. and then it slightly decreased. Committing street crimes is also enhanced by the impossibility of the public order forces to cover the territory. we can state that the incidence degree of the crimes that took place within the area of operation has been significantly increased in 2007.153 82. Having significantly decreased in Bucharest (45% decrease).174 8.449 16. we can notice the following: The increase of street crimes is determined by various factors.000 Bucharest inhabitants 42 41 42 PIDU 148 153 142 Source: Data provided by the General Directorate of Bucharest Police 2009 96. Proliferating street crimes is enhanced also by the fact that the members of the community are not enough preoccupied with their own safety and of the goods they detain.660 16.888 13.272 PIDU 12.925 500 62. Unlike last year. At the level of rates/area.325 which: 94 .171 17. the incidence of these reported crimes presents an increasing trend.928 17. in 2010 the crime in the PIDU area has decreased.359 PIDU 8.259 9. due to the lack of police officers.crimes against a person Bucharest 15. but also the fact that the community is tolerant towards antisocial and law-breaking behaviour. as well as street crimes) are three to four times greater than the average mean of Bucharest. thefts.52% of the total population of Bucharest and the analysed area represents only 3.029 20.115 3. The crimes reported for 1.798 3.After assessing the statistics regarding crimes. compared to the situation in the capital city (121% for the same period). But we can notice an almost 10% increase of the crimes against the patrimony in the PIDU area.crimes against the patrimony Bucharest 46.227 80. rapes – in absolute value or analysing their incidence degree).177 18. The total number of crimes tends to grow in the last 5 years. Although the population in ZAU PIDU only represents 4. out of Bucharest 18.639 10.539 Crimes reported for 1.257 768 59.
695 12.387 3.818 149 8 2.044 1. thefts.398 2.483 2.046 196 8 911 210 9 30 1.552 Bucharest PIDU Bucharest 1.984 15.866 929 2. committed in ZAU PIDU Percentage of other crimes reported in Bucharest. committed in ZAU PIDU Crimes reported for 1. disturbance of public order) Street crimes reported for 1.138 2.314 2.419 PIDU 283 234 233 256 250 Bucharest 16.crimes against a person (robberies. committed in ZAU PIDU Percentage of crimes against persons reported in Bucharest.000 inhabitants 95 . rapes) .. committed in ZAU PIDU Percentage of crimes against patrimony reported in Bucharest.661 1.827 1.021 12.000 inhabitants PIDU Bucharest 3.887 PIDU 3.002 238 10 35 PIDU 43 33 32 Source: Data provided by the General Directorate of Bucharest Police Percentage of total crimes reported in Bucharest.058 2.street thefts .837 138 10 1.191 2.737 1.718 17.other street crimes (abuse.
committed in ZAU PIDU Percentage of other street crimes reported in Bucharest. the integrated project of urban development is recommended. Moreover. The increase of the permeability or of the access within a space implies the increase of the effectiveness and of the visibility of police officers in the area. we can state that a better management of the territory would be effective to fight against this type of crime. the analysis presented highlighted the great per cent of abuse crimes and disturbance of public order. With regard to the type of intervention requested by the findings resulted from the analysis of the crime statistics in the central area of Bucharest.Percentage of total street crimes reported in Bucharest. It is considered that a greater access and a nonlimited mobility within a space can lead to the decrease of the crime rates. committed in ZAU PIDU Percentage of street thefts reported in Bucharest.000 inhabitants Street crimes reported for km 2 Source: Data provided by the General Directorate of Bucharest Police Figure 68: The evolution of crime in PIDU area and a comparison with the city The policies of the city leaders in Europe provide us valid examples of urban strategies that have been used to control the illegal behaviour of the population. Taking into account that all other crimes in this area have been maintained under control. committed in ZAU PIDU Percentage of street crimes against persons reported in Bucharest. the surveillance is also improved by a well96 . including in order to discourage and prevent street crime. Firstly. committed in ZAU PIDU Street crimes reported for 1.
by a more effective management and surveillance of the territory and by enhancing a civic spirit. Recent studies suggest the existence of a determinant liaison between the attractiveness of a space and the mobility of the community for civic actions. The security of the community became an explicit objective of urban policies. opposed to disorganization and instability. Through the measures proposed by the integrated plan. As a result. the increasing trend of the total reported crimes can be negatively influenced.structured and maintained space. encouraging social forms of pressure that fight these manifestations can be an additional method to secure a space. the integrated plan proposed supports the discouraging of crimes. On the other hand. including by proposing individual projects concerning the security of the population. which are presented as main control vehicles of the population and which are included in the governing principles of the local community. are preventive factors that discourage the crime behaviour. Parallel with discouraging the illegal behaviour. order and efficiency. 97 .
in the annual research program “Social Mapping of Bucharest”. and what the issues. In the following. 2011 Figure 69: The most representative areas for the Center of Bucharest 98 .93 to a 95% confidence level. highlighting the aspects relating to defining the center. current issues of the city and country. a quantitative one.4). and the students from the Faculty of Political Sciences of NSPAS (National School of Political and Administrative Studies). The questionnaire design was based on several research dimensions: perceptions.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. have yet failed to assimilate sufficient social symbols (Figure 85).5. Defining the center One of the sociological research dimensions was to define people’s perception on the center. For more than a quarter of the respondents. Perceptions and social landmarks related to the urban action area A complex sociological study was conducted to understand how the Bucharest people relate to the central area. with a total volume of 1116 persons and a theoretical margin of error of +/-2. PhDs. center valorization and use.5. attitudes and representations on the quality of life. used the sociological survey method on a representative sample of the Bucharest population of over 18 years of age. which are representative for the Bucharest people. although loaded with political. being the only place of spontaneous manifestations in the Capital. is an important place for the social memory with civic character. they were presented in the section allocated to the urban transport (Chapter 1. the University Square is the main symbolic center of Bucharest.1. social and cultural level of the urban processes dynamics. One of this analysis’ first components was to define the elements of the center. crime and anomie. This is because the University Square. Regarding the transportation aspects. historical or commercial symbols. Information on the methodology used is provided in Annex 6. multithematic character and was conducted with the support of the teachers. 1.1. All other areas. “Which of the following areas/ squares/ boulevards you think are the most representative for the Center of Bucharest?” The source: NSPAS . compared with all others. the study results interpretation is presented. needs and priorities of the area are in both uptown residents’ view and those of the city as a whole. The research.5. through image analysis and center Bucharest identity for the city residents. MAs. The survey had a wide. perceptual evaluations of the city at an architectural and urban.5.
Yet. Respondents of all ages emphasized that the historical buildings. 2011 Figure 70: Elements considered as representative for the center of Bucharest The building the most representative for the Bucharest people is the Palace of Parliament (“The House of People”). The House of People is followed at a distance by the Romanian Athenaeum and the Intercontinental Hotel. the administrative and office buildings are not considered representative for the center of Bucharest. The young respondents found that the bars. the identity of the city center is given by the built heritage and parks.The elements of the urban landscape considered as representative for the center by the Bucharest people were also analyzed. This emphasizes that for the majority of the population. cafes and restaurants are also representative for the central area. thus explaining many people’s animosity on the increasing presence of the office buildings in the downtown area (referred to as a problem of the center by a number of respondents). Do you consider historical buildings as being representative for the center of Bucharest? First of all Not at all 66+ years between 56-65 years between 46-55 years between 36-45 years between 26-35 years between 18-25 years Do you consider historical monuments as being representative for the center of Bucharest? First of all Not at all 66+ years between 56-65 years between 46-55 years between 36-45 years between 26-35 years between 18-25 years Do you consider parks/open buildings relaxing Do you consider historical areas for as as being representative for the center of being representative for the center of Bucharest? Bucharest? First of First of all Nota t all at all Not all 66+ years between 56-65 years between 46-55 years between 36-45 years between 26-35 years between 18-25 years Do you consider restaurants/coffee houses/shops as being representative for the center of Bucharest? First of all Not at all 66+ years between 56-65 years between 46-55 years between 36-45 years between 26-35 years between 18-25 years Do you consider administrative buildings as being representative for the center of Bucharest? First of all Not at 66+all years between 56-65 years between 46-55 years between 36-45 years between 26-35 years between 18-25 years Do you consider economic centers/business centers as being representative for the center of Bucharest? First of all Not at all 66+ years between 56-65 years between 46-55 years between 36-45 years between 26-35 years between 18-25 years The source: NSPAS . monuments and parks are primarily representative for the center of Bucharest (Figure 86). “The House of People” is considered by a 99 .“Social Mapping of Bucharest”.
they would certainly include “The House of People”.third of the population also the most beautiful building in the capital.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. Another component of the demarche was related to the people’s perception analysis on certain points of the city. was thus obtained. Some of the respondents mention the historic center as an area to be avoided by the potential tourists. A mental map of the center indicating locations that are part of the collective image of the center. as well as places for which opinions are divided. while other 11% of the people think it’s the ugliest of the buildings. the historic center and the Romanian Athenaeum. The suburbs and. the streets covered with garbage are the areas that shouldn’t be shown to strangers. only two buildings built after 1989 – a mall and the Victory Square BRD building – figure in the first 60. while more than a half none to be ugly. Equally interesting is the fact that no building built after 1989 falls in the top 20 most beautiful buildings of Bucharest. or whose belonging to the center is challenged. As a matter of fact. in general. which the survey participants were asked whether they are part of the center or not (Figure 87). A large part of the objectives the Bucharest people are proud of are in the urban action area: Cişmigiu Park. More than half of the respondents say that in case of a tour of Bucharest for their foreign friends. A quarter of respondents did not mention any building to be beautiful. 2011 100 . In your opinion are the following areas/objectives part of Bucharest’s center? Yes No I’ve never heard of this area Don’t know Don’t answer The source: NSPAS .
Areas in the vicinity have a certain degree of challenge. Other points in return. but the difference between the attachment to the city and that to the center reveals a problem in the Bucharest inhabitants’ relationship to the center. It is no surprise that the attachment to the familiar space. ●areas that the majority of the respondents do not consider part of the center ●areas that the majority of the respondents consider part of the center ●areas that a high percentage of the respondents have not heard of The sursa: processing data from NSPAS . which reveals the impact of urban dissolution produced by the operations of the ‘80s on the image of the center.Figure 71: The perception of different areas on belonging to the center of Bucharest The mental map resulting from mapping the responses obtained shows the respondents’ perception on the center: the places perceived by an absolute majority as being central bind on the North-South axis between Victoria Square and the Patriarchate and on the East-West axis between Kogălniceanu Square and Rosetti Square. old Calea Moşilor.5. the Flower Market.5. Traian. 2011 Figure 72: “The Mental Map” of the center of Bucharest 1. Gemeni Square. Mântuleasa are already considered outside the center by a relative majority of respondents (Figure 88). 101 . such as Uranus. Valuing the center The analysis of the way in which the Bucharest people relate to the center was another dimension of the sociological study. Marriott Hotel. An important aspect is the proportion of respondents who haven’t heard of some areas. Antim Monastery or Mircea Vodă Boulevard areas.2. The attachment to the center is much smaller than that to the city or to the neighborhood (figure 89). all located in the area where the interventions related to the Civic Center have been made. as Dacia Boulevard. Carol Park. Isolated behind the curtains of blocks and the boulevards of the Civic Center. are unknown for almost a quarter of respondents. Antim Monastery. these points seem to have disappeared from the mental map of the Bucharest center. but are still considered as part of the center. Uranus. Buzeşti.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. neighborhood is higher.
10 representing the best residential area. Dorobanţi. the center being thus advanced by the perception of residents in several neighborhoods.“How much do you appreciate …?” Very fond of Fond Not so fond of Very little fond of/Not fond at all Don’t know Don’t answer The neighborhood you are living The center of the town The center of the Bucharest The source: NSPAS .“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. 2011 Figure 73: The inhabitants’ attachment to the neighborhood/center/city The center is the most desirable area of Bucharest. including Bucureştii Noi. 2011 Figure 74: Ranking neighborhood by desirability The residents of the center place their own area on a relatively modest position in relation to other areas of Bucharest.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. Aviaţiei and Băneasa (Figure 90).90 grade. Crângaşi – Giuleşti or Berceni (Figure 91). The North is considered the “best” neighborhood. which includes the regions north of Victoria Square. In your opinion which is the best neighborhood from Bucharest? Center The source: NSPAS. Kisselef. They grant on average a 6. Other Don’t know/Don’t answer 102 .
“If you had the possibility to settle in the center of Bucharest would you choose to live in this area?” The source: NSPAS . the horizontal expansion trend manifested with a relative difficulty.the best neighborhood Center The source: NSPAS . 2011 Figure 75: The self positioning of own neighborhood The center does not represent a popular option to live for the other inhabitants of Bucharest either. the center being defined either as part the business and/ or the tourism.the worst neighborhood 10. as inauspicious housing area.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. after the excessive centralization of the communist period. also associated with the prestige of living in central area. 2011 Figure 76: The attractiveness of the center of Bucharest as residential area 103 . Three in four Bucharest inhabitants say they would not choose Bucharest downtown as residential area. the trend in recent decades in the big cities is to increase the popularity of the center as residential area. For Bucharest. especially in the North area. because of overcrowding and pollution.The self positioning of own neighborhood on a scale of 10 units 1.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. Although the big cities’ central areas are not generally used as residential areas. or. due to a poorly structured urban growth strategy. This is a natural tendency characteristic of most metropolises.
These types of activities bring to the fore the issue of the parking. often go downtown. shopping and leisure. the traditional propensity to the center. cinema. is permanently reduced because of the emergence of malls and shopping centers. 104 . in residential neighborhoods.3. Exploitation of the center The center is an area frequently used by a majority of respondents (Figure 93).1. Most of the public or private institutions (from institutions with a public/administrative character to restaurants) lack of parking spaces proportional to influx of people they require. “How often do you go to the center of the Bucharest irrespective of the reason you go there?” Don’t know/Don’t want to answer at 2-3 months don’t go once a month several times a year daily 2-3 times a week 2-3 times a month The source: NSPAS . only partly solved for some of the commercial units in the central area.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. The main motivations of the active people are related to work/school. For non-food products. as a place of acquisition prestige.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”.5. music) To go to restaurant/bar/coffee/club For shopping/markets I work/go to school in the center The source: NSPAS . 2011 Figure 77: The frequency of going out downtown in Bucharest “Most of the time you go to the Center…” Don’t know/Don’t answer I live in the center For walks in park For spectacles (theatre. 2011 Figure 78: The motivation for going to downtown Bucharest In terms of the commercial role. in particular the active people.5. relatively similar in offer. the most Bucharest people opt for proximity as the main criterion for selection of the point of purchase. 40% of the Bucharest people.
mostly located in the center. Approximately 18% of the Bucharest people most often buy products from the small stores near the house. Of course. the young aged between 18 and 35 years are those who go out downtown weekly to a significantly greater extent than all other age groups. 2011 Figure 79: The Bucharest people preferences for non-food shopping stores locations The Bucharest people do not often go out to restaurants. bars or cafes. almost half of the Bucharest people said they had bought products from traditional products fairs organized in Bucharest.Usually. One can say that there is a revaluation of the traditional products. “If you were to thing to think about the things you buy other than those representing food products what would you prefer?” A shop from the neighborhood you live A shop from the center of the town It doesn’t matter.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. “How often do you usually go out. Correspondingly. at the restaurants/bars/coffee houses?” Don’t know/Don’t answer Daily Once a couple of months Once a month 105 . the greater the frequency with which the Bucharest inhabitants go out becomes. including stores like “supermarket” in markets or from ground floor (41%). it can be anywhere in Bucharest Don’t know/Don’t answer The source: NSPAS . Also. most of those who never go out to town are in the low income groups (up to 1500 RON). one of the factors that determine this type of leisure behavior is the individual income level: the data reveal that as the individual income increases. most Bucharest people go to the market or small shops in the housing area. Among the Bucharest people. This leisure practice is becoming less and less common with the advancement in age.
“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. Attraction is strongest at young people between 18-35 years (over half of them use to go out downtown). The habit of going out to town in the area close to work is present in a greater extent to the active population (26-45 years). In general. the more the Bucharest people go out downtown. The better the financial situation. in terms of leisure options is noted.Daily Weekly Once a month Once a couple of months Only on a special occasions Don’t go 18-25 years 26-35 years 36-45 years 46-55 years 56-65 years 66-75 years over 75 years Daily Weekly Once a month Once a couple of months Only on a special occasions Don’t go The source: NSPAS . it appears that this practice of going out downtown the capital is more common for the categories with a more than 1500 RON income.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. a big attraction of the young and adult population for the city center. compared with those without higher education. “Where are you usually go out. at restaurants/bars/coffee houses?” Without higher education With higher education Without income over In the neighborhood Near the workplace In the center Another situation Don’t know The source: NSPAS . 2011 Figure 81: Where Bucharest inhabitants go out to restaurants/ bars/ cafes 106 . 2011 Figure 80: The frequency with which the Bucharest people go out to restaurants/ bars/ cafes Higher education people would rather go out in the center of Bucharest. In terms of individual income. Some of the people with no income are the young who prefer the central urban targets with major symbolic capital.
5. More than half of the Bucharest population says that they haven’t been to the theatre. for ameliorating the effects of the crisis on the cultural consumption. preferences are much more diversified. have increased among the population.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. as a compensation for people not spending much for fun and leisure. cinema or museum in the last year (NSPAS. Also. the consumption of elite culture (theater. The restaurants the most cited as favorite are those located in subzone 1.: the people originating in Bucharest have the tendency to believe that things are going in the wrong direction. In CCCDC’s point of view. “Name one area in Bucharest where you like to walk” Don’t know/Don’t answer The source: NSPAS . New shows adapted to the public’s needs could increase the level of cultural consumption. offers. Secondly. In terms of cafes and bars.According to the Cultural Consumption Barometer (CCCDC. measures have to be taken on three dimensions: financial. According to the CCCDC study. could consist of discounts on tickets. Bucharest people’s preferences generally focus on targets with a historical resonance. i. museums and cinemas can take measures of socialization such as laying out spaces like bars or cafes in their premises for the public that attend them (CCCDC. operas. 2010). socialization and innovation. the average consumption of events/ local festivals decreased in the segment of people with university and postgraduate studies in Bucharest. 2011 Figure 82: Bucharest people preferences for walking areas 1. Going to the cinema is the most common activity of the mass cultural activities. show institutions. museums. probably because leisure in the park does not vary depending on the economic factors and does not require economical resources (Figure 98). 2009).e. 2009). The data reveal the existence of a pattern.5. no bar having a score greater than 4%. such as walking in the park. such as theaters. The financial measures.4. there is a decrease in the culture consumption in Bucharest compared to previous years. special programs. while the people originating from another locality tend to believe that the direction in which things work in Bucharest is good. in direct correlation with how the trend of the country in general is perceived. especially applicable to the show institutions and museums. 107 . exhibitions) decreased in the population with secondary education and has remained relatively constant among the loyal public and with higher education. Problems and needs of the center The trend in Bucharest is largely perceived as wrong. Non-cultural activities.
the condition of roads and old buildings (figure 100). 2011 Figure 84: The main issues to be handled in the center of Bucharest If the analysis narrows down to the central area residents. the main issues of the center are the traffic and the parking spaces.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. in your opinion. which is the most serious problem that should be solved?” Traffic Parking spaces Town cleaning Road conditions The look of the old center/consolidating the buildings Delinquency/infractionality Insufficient green spaces/green spaces maintenance Public transportation The contrast between new and old buildings Others Don’t know/Don’t answer The source: NSPAS . cleaning is mentioned to a greater extent with age. resulting thus the need to act in the central area for improving the situation. and 15% versus 5% of respondents). for example for those of 18-25 years (8%). followed by cleaning. The issue of parking spaces in downtown Bucharest is mostly mentioned by the active young and adult population (18 to 45 years). to a greater extent than they are for the whole city (26% versus 9%. compared to those of 56-65 years (14%). Among the main problems of the city. 2011 Figure 83: The Bucharest people perception on the direction in which things work in Bucharest In Bucharest people’s opinion. “If you think about the center of Bucharest. being of lesser importance for the young population.“Do you think that in Bucharest things are going well or bad?” Wrong Well Don’t know/Don’t answer The source: NSPAS . the main issue for them is represented by the lack of the parking spaces (Figure 102). The traffic and the parking spaces are considered the most serious issue for the center. 108 .“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. The issue of the parking spaces is present to a greater extent among those with higher education than among others.
Subzone 1 and subzone 6 of the intervention area are on the map of Bucharest drug sellers. Half of the respondents say they don’t feel safe after dark in the areas where they live. followed by the lack of cleanliness and the condition of roads. The condition of the roads and the cleaning of the city are in the top among the interviewees. 2011 Figure 85: The main issues to be handled in Bucharest The main issues of the Bucharest people remain constant in recent years. policlinics Traffic Delinquency/infractionality A lack of dwellings for young people Work places Parking spaces Condition of footwalks Insufficient green spaces/green spaces maintenance Public transportation Sewage Maintenance cost Dwellings. 109 . but also of the impact of media that the policy. Also subzone 6 and subzone 7 are on the map of Bucharest prostitution. The police officers interviewed in the qualitative survey conducted by NSPAS say that in the central area of Bucharest. school construction Public lighting Don’t know/Don’t answer He source: NSPAS . The areas with the highest crime level are related to several streets in subzone 9. along with the traffic and crime. crime is mostly present in the Roman area and the North Station.Uranus. A significant aspect is the presence in the top of the local issues of the condition of hospitals and polyclinics as a result of the decentralization of the health system.“Which is the most serious problem in Bucharest that should be solved?” Road condition Town cleaning Condition of hospitals. Rahova. which is the most serious problem which should be solved?” Parking spaces Town cleaning Road condition Delinquency/infractionality Traffic Sewage Water supply Condition of footwalks Public lighting Stray dogs Work places Public transportation Others Don’t know/Don’t answer Insufficient green spaces/green spaces maintenance The source: NSPAS . Crime is the main issue of the inhabitants. “But if you think about the neighborhood/area you live in. 2011 Figure 86: The issues of the center from its inhabitants’ perspective The citizens’ perception on the security level in the areas they live is rather negative. as in 2010. Ravova –Uranus area (which includes subzone 9) is negatively valued by the population.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”. as well as the accidents in healthcare had in the last year.“Social Mapping of Bucharest”.
very well equipped with social.high rate of dependence of the inactive population in relation to the active population.private investment attraction/ stimulation in the regeneration/ rehabilitation of buildings for collective dwellings .density of stable population.the potential of a consolidation and renovation project of the buildings with seismic risk and unitary management of implementation . health and educational infrastructure Oportunities .large number of buildings assigned to seismic risk .numerous transport links .the presence of social disparities .the potential of the working age population is inferior to the situation of the whole city .reduced local accessibility for some subzones 110 .insufficiently developed green spaces.large number of buildings that require thermal rehabilitation . with average superior to the whole city .lack of social integration programs of the disadvantaged population results in the growth of socio-economic disparities Weaknesses .street crimes are increasing in the action area .poverty and pauper living in some subzones . in relation to the EU approved standards .the area restructuration and development allow a better surveillance of the area.high price in the residencial sector and difficult access to funding sources . resulting in a decreasing crime incidence .satisfactory percentage of the population of children .SWOT Analysis Demographic and social characteristics Strenghts .the cultural landmarks of the area can serve as a catalyst for the community cohesion Threats .increased interest of the investors for the area in question . superior to the Bucharest average .high percentage of elderly population .
unique in Bucharest. as well as the risks related to the ingeneration of economic sustainable growth The financial. in economic activities. at least partly. part of the subzones/ neighborhoods suffer from both poverty and worklessness.6. and the nature and form of the economic challenges and of the opportunities of the urban action area.1. representing an estimated 8. The urban action area should be understood in its relation to the whole city. Also.1. Economic characteristics of the urban action area and comparison to the city 44 The purpose of this chapter is: to provide an understanding of the economic conditions of the urban action area and how they affect the welfare of residents and businesses. in geographic information system. of support services for businesses and other services (about 23 thousand). 1. to identify how the evaluated area relates to the city economy in general. Budget reductions confirm that financing investments with impact in economic development will be reduced in coming years.717 people were reported as engaged in economic activities in UAA.6. representing about 28% of the total. Employees distribution according to the field of activity In 2010. investment targeting and decision suitability.6 thousand) and in the field of hotels and restaurants (around 6. the productivity will be affected in the next period. the public authorities’ understanding the form of local economic development and influencing the public service provision in a way to help meet the needs of the residents becomes extremely important. using Intergraph® platforms were processed) 111 . institutional framework. just as other areas of the city are influenced by the UAA. the IUDP (Integrated Urban Development Plan) of the UAA had an official number of 103 962 employees. In this context. we used the ascending method. even if the urban action area is the center of the capital. in the public sector (central and local authorities. culture) and 74 717. On the other hand.5 thousand). and the acute growth of the public debt will intensify the competition for the access to resources. to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the local economy. 74. of which 29 245. and the way of developing the policies concerning the economic development in the urban environment are going through profound changes. But there are specific features of the UAA economy. According to Table 9. most employees were in the field of professional and technical services. on the growth form and patterns in Bucharest. such as effective public policy formulation. First of all. and they can only be treated from an overall perspective. 4 In preparing this chapter. in the fields of trade and repairs (about 10. to identify the obstacles to economic development and local employment. Deepening the economic context in which companies operate is fundamental to identify the ways in which they can be supported.1. based on the relative information of the resident units (data from the financial statements of all businesse registered in the IUDP of UAA.1. education.8% of employees in Bucharest.6. 1. Future prospects for business in the UAA (Urban Action Area) depend. the UAA defines the center of the capital of Romania and is therefore a matter of importance both national and international. health. representing approximately 72% from the total. Workforce In 2010.
for the UAA.624 Total 75.1% N/A Public administration. The analysis of employment specialization in the UAA does not indicate conclusive data either for the financial intermediation and insurance sector.463 23.506 7.0% 35.726 6. whereas the headquarters of some large companies in the field are in the UAA.3% 1. insurance 1.3% 12.780 81.8% 12. there is a concentration of bank headquarters and of financial institutions in the UAA.043 3.9% 11. Also from Table 10.713 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register 2010 565 14.117 15.567 12.3% 12.133 1. and other services (1.6% 13.6% N/A Hotels and restaurants 44.3% 38. we notice the high percentage of the employees in the UAA in total employees.627 548 1. Table 9: Number of employees on fields of activity – the IUDP of the UAA Number of employees Field of activity 2006 2007 2008 2009 Agriculture.6% 27.892 6.166 Transportation and storage 2.699 1.717 Table 10: Total percentage of employees working in the IUDP of UAA Bucharest.523 3.6% N/A Industry 10. education.760 16.5% 8. education. as employees are reported at headquarters and not at local branches.Comparing to the figures in the entire city enables the identification of those sectors that are locally important (have a concentration of employment or growth potential).3% for real estate transactions.1% 35. forestry and fishing 1.681 3.332 88. health. it appears that the employees in these fields are a significant percentage of the total employees in the whole city (27. It is noted that the index exceeds the unit value for the fields of real estate (2. culture 1. in the fields of hotels and restaurants (44.1% 11.3% N/A Professional services and other services 17.6% 9. which could offer available base).7% 24.5% N/A The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.308 Public administration.6% 13. the UAA no longer has the employment concentration in the respective field it had the past.7) and of professional.759 11.009 907 805 712 Industry 18.1% 12. insurance 539 474 751 605 Real estate transactions 2.253 2. health.042 7.3% 17.495 21. Moreover.829 2.5% N/A Trading. Empirically.618 6.1% for services).5% N/A Transportation and storage 4. repairs 10.709 2.5% 13.793 23.183 Professional services and other services 18.7).139 17.5% 1.693 17. and most employees work in their local bodies and not in the studied area.0% 9.8% 1. forestry and fishing 10.522 3.690 12. which shows a specialization in these sectors of the urban action area.8% 11. this percentage decreasing four times within five years (which means that presently.974 10.598 2.3% N/A Real estate transactions 43. respectively 17.8% N/A Financial intermediation. Results are shown in Table 11.4% 5. technical services. repairs 7. The specialization index calculated for the agriculture sector is not relevant.3% 17.2% 7.668 74.303 Financial intermediation.531 8.6%) in 2006.2% 9.7% 1.4% 11.2% 7.568 Hotels and restaurants 7.011 Trading.050 10. In this respect.308 Constructions 10.095 1. culture 0.2% N/A Informations and communications 7.584 1.925 Informations and communications 3.487 25.6% 1.3% 14. and the percentage calculated in the same way for all Bucharest.055 2. Statistical Yearbook Bucharest 2007-2010 112 .096 3. with the development of investments in hotels and restaurants in other parts of the capital.8% 0. a specialization index is calculated as the ration between the percentage represented by the number of employees in a particular field to the total number of employees.5% 18.956 85.770 11. on fields Procent salariați Domeniu de activitate ZAU-PIDU/București 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Agriculture.2% N/A Constructions 12.
03 ↓ Industry NO 1. education.90 Public administration. repairs NO 0. Distribution of employees by size of the business A percentage of 29.965 16.877 19.923 20.53 Real estate transactions YES ↑ 2. if a large company leaves the market. given the average number of employees by types of enterprises (2.81 ↓ Constructions NO 0.9 1. small and medium enterprises keeps relatively the same trend.163 11.948 37.971 Medium enterprises 17.9 1.717 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register 113 .5 in medium enterprises and 516.584 Large enterprises 34.49 ↓ Trading. of 18.6% in 2010 compared to 2009.818 Total 75.2. More extensive training programs are developed by large enterprises.449 38.842 34.69 Informations and communications NO ↔ 1. insurance NO ↔ 0. forestry and fishing NO 3.Table 11: Employment concentration Specialization index Specialization to Bucharest Calculated Calculated index to Tendency index to national Bucharest level ↓ Agriculture.938 32. Table 12: Distribution of the number of employees according to the size of the enterprise in the IUDP of the UAA Number of employees Type of enterprise 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Microenterprises 8.7% of employees are employed in small and medium enterprises.780 81. Statistical Yearbook Bucharest 2007-2010 1.294 21. which indicates a certain concentration of these large enterprises in the UAA. synchronized with the evolution of the entire city.713 74. On the other hand. driven also by the relocation of some large enterprises in the area (Figure 103). Small businesses develop along large firms.382 9.6.927 17.972 10.53 Financial intermediation.956 85. 230 microenterprises or 33 small enterprises would be necessary to compensate the redundant employment.54 Hotels and restaurants NO ↔ 1.763 17.665 10. culture NO ↔ 0. If the number of employees in micro. However.3 in microenterprises.7 14. it follows that.332 88.3 0.1 0. 15. other services) YES ↑ 1.6 in large enterprises). 82.2 0.9 in small enterprises. both in terms of space usage.71 Services(professional.5 0. the percentage of employees working in this type of enterprises is relatively constant over the past five years.03 Transportation and storage NO ↔ 1.1 0.7 5.0 5. health. technical.13 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.043 15.630 14. and because the major economic activities provide leadership for the local business community and represents an incentive for quality and innovation. the number of employees in large enterprises experienced a sharper decline in recent years.1 4. The loss of large enterprises represents a strategic issue for the UAA. There is a very high percentage of employees working in large enterprises (significantly higher than the corresponding percentage calculated for the entire city).344 Small enterprises 14.1. around 44%.
culture. 114 .1% 12.8%) and in the fields of trade and repairs (approximately 23.8%).6.0% Medium enterprises 23.2% 19.7 billion lei turnover in 2010 (Table 14).1% 23.Table 13: Percentage of employees by type of enterprise – The IUDP of the UAA Percentage of employees in each type of enterprise Type of enterprise 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Microenterprises 11.0% 24. most enterprises are registered in the field of services (approximately 33. health. construction. In contrast.5% Large enterprises 46. as well as by the relocation of the other significant Bucharest operator in Ilfov County.4% 43.5% 13.2.4% 20.1% 12. The triplication of the relative weight of the fields of transport. total turnover of the entire city in the respective field (Table 15) has increased. hotels and restaurants sectors in the economy of the city remained constant. The relative importance of the industry. information and communication within the total economy of the city is determined by the presence of the headquarters of one of the important telephone and data operators in the UAA.9% The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register The evolution of the number of employees depending on the size of the company (ZAU PIDU) Micro enterprises Small enterprises Medium enterprises Large enterprises The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register Figure 87: Evolution of employees by type of enterprise 1. education.0% 42.1% 45.6% 23.6% 20.8% 12.5% 19. the share of turnover generated by services and the fields of public administration. As shown in Figure 104.0% 43.5% Small enterprises 18. The volume of the economic activity The economic activity in the urban action area generated an aggregate of 34. which indicates there are sectors that are specializing and growing.7% 25.
1% 12.665 6.428 5.7% 14.065 2.4% 7. storage. financial. repairs 5.5% 5. repairs 5.1% 19.4% N/A Services (professional.6% N/A Total 11. health and culture The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.084 Trading. education.514 9.693 8.077 Public administration. Statistical Yearbook Bucharest 2007-2010 Number of enterprises on activity scope in ZAU PIDU Agriculture. education.Table 14: Turnover on fields of activity – the IUDP of the UAA Field of activity Turnover (million lei) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Industry 6.0% 12.7% N/A Trading.2% 73. education.2% 13.2% 75.227 35.633 3.948 9.5% 33.169 5. culture 60 75 144 166 163 Total 24.1% 7.689 3.2% 31.082 27.712 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register Table 15: The total share of turnover in the IUDP of the UAA in Bucharest.6% 15. other) 3.6% 19.5% 29.498 34. storage. real estate transactions. other) 13. information.773 Constructions 2.6% N/A Transportation.6% 25.516 Services (professional.369 7.158 9.0% 14.528 3. Figure 88: The number of enterprises by fields of activity 115 .883 6. health.1% 12.9% N/A The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.612 7.4% 16. communication 26.279 Hotels and restaurants 656 820 993 841 820 Transportation. culture 8.1% 12.1% 21.620 6.781 7. real estate transactions.4% N/A Hotels and restaurants 31. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transport and storage Information and communication Financial intermediation. financial.044 8.6% N/A Public administration.1% 7.7% N/A Constructions 14.4% 10.651 7. on fields of activity The share of turnover Field of activity in the IUDP of the UAA / Bucharest 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Industry 15. health. information.365 4. forestry and fishing Industry Construction Commerce. insurance Real estate transactions Professional and other services Administration.997 37.234 8.1% 14. communication 5.
831 6.5% to 23.6.8% 13. compared to the average. Table 16: The number of enterprises by type of enterprise – in the IUDP of the UAA Number of enterprises Type of enterprise 2006 2007 2008 2009 Microenterprises 9. table 17 shows the dropping tendency of the relative share compared to total in Bucharest for all types of enterprises (the larger the company.961 1.9% N/A Large enterprises 42.1.8% N/A Small enterprises 23.148 939 213 64 5.6% N/A Medium enterprises 27. The urban action area hosts an important weight of the large enterprises in Bucharest. One explanation for this phenomenon is the business center relocation in the North of the city.3.812 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.3% 19. the lesser the relative share of total in Bucharest).364 Medium enterprises 554 484 397 309 Large enterprises 172 130 109 87 Total 12. the vertical axis represents the number of enterprises in each field. Business profile 77% of the firms in the UAA are microenterprises. Moreover.685 11. 2010 4.4% N/A The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.689 1. One can thus infer that the developing companies no longer see the center of the capital as an attractive place for offices and seek locations more appropriate to their needs.4% 23. namely 23. technical. The percentage of large enterprises in Bucharest located in the UAA has yet declined from 42. The interpretation of the chart indicates a specialization in services (professional.3% 25.524 10.5% 16. and the size of the “circles” is proportional to the number of employees. trade and real estate transactions. The horizontal axis represents the number of employees in each field.5% 19.026 7. as well as an “over-employment” in the industry.170 1.1% 15. what the strengths and the weaknesses.789 8.3% 23.5% 5.949 7. Statistical Yearbook Bucharest 2007-2010 Figure 105 included an analysis necessary to better understand the economy of the UAA and particularly.5% 32. where investments in modern office buildings suited for users’ needs that require large spaces have developed (the number of large enterprises in the UAA almost threefold decreased between 2006 and 2010).052 Small enterprises 2. compared to the average of the city are. other services). 116 . compared to the average.364 Table 17: The share of enterprises by type of enterprise (in the IUDP of the UAA in total Bucharest) Percentage in the IUDP of the UAA / Bucharest Type of enterprise 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Microenterprises 9.3% 7.6% 7. by aggregating the data on the number of employees and the number of enterprises in each sector.4 % (see Table 17).4 % in the last five years.
0% 0. forestry and fishing Industry Construction Commerce. whose evolution is shown in Figure 108.6. the number of firms established in the field of trade falling from 126.96.36.199. prefiguring a downfall of the attractiveness of the area in terms of private investments.6% 5. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transport and storage Information and communication Financial intermediation.448 of which have operated under 1 year 162 281 300 199 133 of which have operated between 1 and 2 years 44 46 78 233 170 5 Employee distribution index The source: Eurostat 117 . insurance Real estate transactions Professional and other services Administration. If during the period 2009-2010 this decrease is explained by the economic crisis. Figure 107 shows that this indicator is decreasing. The dynamics of enterprises Entrepreneurship has a critical role in a dynamic and flexible economy.1% in the year 2010).3% of all firms and those in the field of services having increased from 18. the order of these two fields has been reversed. which forces companies to maintain their competitiveness.498 2. followed by those in the field of services. higher than the average in Romania (75. by applying the market competitive pressure and by launching new products. A key indicator is the ratio of newly established enterprises and the number of people (adult population).1 (Table 18).214 2. The percentage of firms that survive over 2 years. education. health and culture The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.2% 4. In 2010.1% Businesses that have ceased to exist in the course of the year 4. Figure 89: The distribution of the sectors of activity in the IUDP of the UAA 1. Table 18: The dynamics of newly established businesses in the IUDP of the UAA Indicator 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Businesse established in the course of the year 781 662 456 11 9 The percentage of newly established businesses 4. and quality are stimulated.6% to 30% (the phenomenon of specialization set out in section 1.9%) and much higher than the average in the European countries. In this way. most newly established firms were in the field of trade (figure 109). which fall between 60% and 80%55.4% to 25. Research suggest that up to 50% of the local economic growth comes exclusively from this phenomenon of company setting up/ closing. The percentage of newly established enterprises declined in the period 2006-2010 of almost 5 new firms per 100 existing firms to a figure of 0.1. we see that the downward tendency is pre-crisis. innovation and increased efficiency. can be noted). New enterprises induce the productivity increase. is very high (96.1% 0. of market entry and exit. investment.ZAU PIDU activity fields according to number of employees and enterprises Agriculture.200 1. Entrepreneurship also plays an important role by creating jobs and contributes to the economic regeneration and social cohesion.161 1. In 2006. Approximately 78% of firms have survived for more than 4 years.
000 inhabitants The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. culture 1.2% 4.3% 2.026 7.2% 2.7% 2.4% Financial intermediation.3% 8.7% Trading.8% 0.5% 28.5% 1.8% 6.5% 0.2% 13. health.4% 33.6% 7.3% 2.7% 8.8% 27.0% 3.425 1.6% 10.9% 2.9% 2.8% 1.7% Constructions 7.2% 2.3% 8.0% 11.5% 1. Growth rate of newly established businesses Number of newly established businesses at 10. Figure 91: The evolution of the number of newly established businesses per 10 000 inhabitants Percentage of companies surviving over 4 years The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.3% Hotels and restaurants 2.1% Informations and communications 4.004 1.3% 30.524 10. forestry and fishing 1.8% Professional services and other services 18. Figure 90: The growth rate of newly established businesses Percentage of companies surviving over 2 years The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.2% 3. 118 .2% 6.7% 6.364 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.2% 25.0% Education.4% 5.2% 12.5% 2.7% 25. insurance 3.8% Industry 6.8% 30.7% 5. repairs 42.0% 3.938 744 1.6% 6.2% Transportation and storage 3.685 Total businesses operating at the end of the year: 12.1% 0. Figure 92: The survival rate for businesses Table 19: The distribution on fields of activity of the newly established businesses Percentage of newly established businesses Fields of activity 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Agriculture.812 5.2% 5.8% 11.6% 20.685 11.of which have operated between 2 and 4 years 56 90 116 357 460 of which have operated for over 4 years 3.8% 2.7% 1.9% The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.1% Real estate transactions 7.
forestry and fishing Industry Construction Commerce.6. The density of the economic activity The density of the economic activity is an indicator of the local economic power. insurance Real estate transactions Professional and other services Education. Table 20: The number of enterprises per 10 000 inhabitants The number of enterprises at 10 000 inhabitants The area 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 The IUDP of the UAA 1. but this indicator is decreasing (Figure 110). health and culture The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. subzones 4 and 9 have the lowest density of companies (Figure 111). More businesses mean more opportunities.141 889 611 Bucharest 603 672 603 602 N/A The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. Figure 93: The distribution on fields of activity of newly established businesses (2010) 1.5. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transport and storage Information and communication Financial intermediation. Statistical Yearbook Bucharest 2007-2010 119 . foreshadowing a regressed attractiveness in terms of location of the economic activity. Table 20 shows a higher density of the economic activity compared to the city economy.The distribution on fields of activity of newly established businesses Agriculture. The competitiveness generated by a larger number of companies attracts an increase in productivity. Research has shown that the density of the economic activity is associated with higher levels of economic growth.320 1. In terms of spatial distribution.454 1.
6. the field is in recovery after the decrease in 2009.0000 inhabitants The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. Statistical Yearbook Bucharest 2007-2010 Figure 94: The evolution of indicator number of enterprises per 10 000 inhabitants The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. In terms of activity volume.6. The economy on sectors of activity AGRICULTURE The field is represented in the UAA by companies that reported its headquarters within this area (but obviously don’t have agricultural activities in the urban area). but the number of employees has decreased by half (Figure 112). Figure 95: The spatial distribution of enterprises registered in the IUDP of the UAA 1. Table 21: Average indicators on the field of activity of agriculture (year 2010) Average Average Number of The field turnover profit enterprises (million (million Average number of 120 .Evolution of the number of companies at 10.
* was not included in the economic analysis since it has a structure of employees developed in the territory Low density High density 121 .8 23. forestry and fishing 31 91.92 18.3 8.lei) lei) employees Agriculture.131 262 Figure 96: The evolution of turnover.104.6 1.6 1. Table 22: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in agrculture (year 2010) Enterprise ROMSILVA RA INTERAGRO AVICOLA BUCUREȘTI DACROM TRADE PIC ROMANIA Enterprise Turnover (million lei) 1.2 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.11 2.6 Number of employee s 19. profit and number of employees in agriculture ROMSILVA RA* INTERAGRO AVICOLA BUCUREȘTI 184 DACROM TRADE 33 PIC ROMANIA 16 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.680.
A.A. hot water and air conditioning. The representatives companies are geographically distributed mainly in subzones 6.E. in the area at the intersection of Tudor Vladimirescu Boulevard with 13 September (Figure 116) can be noticed.4% of the number of employees and contributes with 25. waste management and decontamination have aggregated.D.185 122 . RA TRANSELECTRI CA* Turnover (million lei) 1.173.E.T. REBU) are amond the largest companies in the area (both in terms of turnover. water distribution. The occurrence of a focusing pole in the eastern subzone 9. as well as employers).1 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. 7 and 8. Apa Nova. sanitation.545. Table 23: Average indicators in the field of industry (year 2010) Number of enterprises Average Average Average turnover profit number The field (million (million of lei) lei) employees Industry 345 25. production and supply of electricity.T. Although representing only 4. Table 24: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in industry (year 2010) Enterprise R. manufacturing industry.336 2. The number of employees in this sector decreased in the last five years with almost a quarter (fall largely determined also by the large enterprises’ in the UAA relocation). RA TRANSELECTRI CA ELECTRICA SA TINMAR IND SA APA NOVA BUCUREȘTI ÎEnterprise R. gas.3% at the cumulative turnover of the UAA.43 0. The main utility providers in the capital (RADET.4 733. Figure 97: The spatial distribution of turnover Figure 98: The spatial distribution of the in agriculture number of employees in agriculture INDUSTRY In this field.D. the activities from the extractive industry.3 Number of employee s 4.6% of the total number of enterprises in the UAA.46 42. while turnover increased by a third.022. the industry employs 19. The largest number of employees per enterprise in the UAA is in the industry.3 441.7 1.8 2.
Figure 99: The evolution of turnover. the total number of employees decreasing (by about 50% over the past two years). Table 26: The top of enterprises by 123 . the average number of employees per company in the field is 16. employing 10. A URANIULUI SA* 1.08 16. construction businesses are located mainly in subzones 8.8% in the economy of the UAA. Table 25: Average indicators for the field of constructions (year 2010) Average Average Average Number of turnover profit number The field enterprises (million (million of lei) lei) employees Constructions 490 6.783 REBU 1.8% of the number of employees.009 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. falling by approximately 14% during 2008-2010. * was not included in the economic analysis since it has a structure of employees developed in the territory Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. The sector represented in 2010 a rate of 9.4 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. The volume of activity reflected by the turnover has not known a so dramatic decline. Figure 100: The spatial distribution of Figure 101: The spatial distribution of the turnover in industry number of employees in industry CONSTRUCTIONS In terms of spatial distribution. after registering almost a doubling during the boom of 2007-2008. Although significant actors on the national market are present in the UAA. profit and number of employees in industry APA NOVA BUCUREȘTI 903 C. 4 and 7 (Figure 119).29 -0.N.
M.U.4 Number of ÎEnterprise employee s T.C.595 TIAB SA 676 BOG ART 418 STRABAG 412 COMINCO 336 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. profit and number of employees in constructions Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.8% of all enterprises). due to the presence of some 124 . with a number of 1276 active enterprises (23.6 COMINCO 102.3 BOG ART 347.B.C.7 TIAB SA 121.27 million lei and the average number of employees per company of 11 in the year 2010 are relatively high.B. The average turnover of 7.0 STRABAG 55. Figure 103: The spatial distribution of Figure 104: The spatial distribution of the turnover in constructions number of employees in constructions TRADING The sector is well represented in the UAA. SA 1.M.turnover and number of employees in constructions (year 2010) Turnover Enterprise (million lei) T. SA 343. Figure 102: The evolution of turnover.U.
1 898.12 10. Although the sector remains a major employer. The number of employees (as well as the number of active companies) is significantly decreasing. Table 28: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in trading (year 2010) Enterprise ROMANIA HYPERMARCHE AUTO COBLCESCU CARLSROM BEVERAGE CO SANOFI AVENTIS ROMANIA ROEL Enterprise Turnover (million lei) 1.276 7.2% of the total number of employees. repairs 1. the independent retailers being in a continuous decline (in number and market share).8 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. Table 27: Average indicators for the field of trading and repairs (year 2010) Average Average Average Number of turnover profit number The field enterprises (million (million of lei) lei) employees Trade.4 Number of employee s ROMANIA HYPERMARCHE * 3. The companies are relatively evenly distributed geographic within the studied area.6 60. The retail market has polarized in recent years.0 20.376.4 447.27 0.146 AUTO COBALCESCU SRL 658 CARLSROM BEVERAGE CO 481 SANOFI AVENTIS ROMANIA 201 ROEL 200 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the 125 . by 36% in 2010 compared to 2009. with 14.significant traders in the area. as the large chains of hypermarkets substantially increased.
Figure 106: The spatial distribution of Figure 107: The spatial distribution of the turnover in trading number of employees in trading ●professional trading ●street food tradind ●lay trading The source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) of the functions of buildings – Jully 2011 Figure 108: Trading in shops in IUDP of the UAA 126 . profit and number of employees in trading Trade Register.Figure 105: The evolution of turnover. * n was not included in the economic analysis since it has a structure of employees developed in the territory Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.
they ended their expansion. by increasing the number of employees in 2010 and recording of losses and a lesser decrease in the aggregated turnover value.16 31. the pressure from the demand dropped. Consequently. After a period of decline in 2009 due to the economic crisis (which caused a decrease in the volume of turnover of approximately 8. the retail market has gone through major changes lately.5% and the recording of some significant losses in this sector). with the entry of the luxury brands on the local commercial market in 2010.1 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. Consequently. TOURISM (HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS) The hotels and restaurants are mainly located in the north of the UAA. Table 29: Average indicators for the field of activity of hotels and restaurants (year 2010) Average Average Average Number of turnover profit number The field enterprises (million (million of lei) lei) employees Hotels and restaurants 210 3. The analyzed area is dominated in commercial terms by street shopping spaces. While trading spaces were hardly available in 2008. but familiar and constant. prestigious retailers began to appear. over 500 commercial spaces being identified in the urban action area. much of the secondary streets lose their commercial attributes. at the end of the first half of 2009. with the role of “connectors” between the intensely circulated areas or roads. a phenomenon otherwise present all over the studied perimeter. The historic center (subzone 2) remains most popular with traders. due to an aggressive expansion of the financial institutions and pharmaceutical networks. by opening stores with visibility and access from the street. a gap in the development of the southern area being created.Trading in shops is well represented in terms of density and area. Unirea Shopping Center became a destination of street trading in 2011. The discontinuities at the perceptive level generated by the degradation of the surrounding streets or the deteriorated building facades prevent the integration or exploitation of their commercial potential. Moreover. especially on the intensely circulated boulevards and streets. the areas adjacent to these trading “anchor presence” do not configure in complementarity or under their influence. which resulted in a reduction of rents. In contrast. Table 30: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in the field of hotels and restaurants (year 2010) 127 . Unirea and Cocor Shopping Centers are the largest investments in the field in central Bucharest. They are among the most attractive in Bucharest. Because it is for the present the only pedestrian area of the capital. The entire territory north of Dâmboviţa has a traditional commercial character. it remains very attractive for restaurants and cafes. but also for the fashion retailers. the field appears to feel a recovery. On the other hand. representing prestigious locations. a big part of the national and international retailers are missing from the urban action area. However. with diverse professional and lay supply. thus maintaining a high level of rental prices.91 -0. the balance between the demand and the supply on the commercial arteries reversed. Following the infrastructure rehabilitations. Calea Victoriei is one of the most sought areas. For the first time.
9 105. Figure 110: The spatial distribution of Figure 111: The spatial distribution of the turnover in the field of hotels and restuarants number of employees in the field of hotels and restaurants 128 .B.C.M.B.C.5 Number of employee s Figure 109: The evolution of turnover.4 65. Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. SA 701 AMERICAN RESTAURANT 676 LEBADA 2000 568 GRAND 328 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.219 T.R.Enterprise US FOOD NETWORK BUCUREȘTI TURISM GRAND AMERICAN RESTAURANT T. SA Enterprise Turnover (million lei) 157.R.1 98.M. profit and number of employees in the field of hotels and restaurants US FOOD NETWORK 1.6 92.
Of the 188 registered hotels in Bucharest. clubs in the IUDP of the UAA The Bucharest hotel market is mainly based on the business tourism segment and event planning. art galleries. the tourists. in particular. 31 3-star hotels with a total of 1302 rooms. which demonstrates the importance of an area’s clear-cut identity. cafes. 9 of the 12 5-star hotels in Bucharest are in the UAA. a lot of the economic activities are mainly addressed to the city’s inhabitants and. cafes. while maintaining the contact with the city’s residential function. restaurants. hotels represented the place of employment for 3238 employees and achieved a turnover of 458.bars. In the cities with a developed touristic industry. cafes. For comparison. clubs The source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) of the functions of buildings – Jully 2011 Figure 112: Hotels. is now devoid of distinctive elements and vitality. exchange offices or other tourism related services focus around the hospitality functions. the greatest density is in subzone 2. civic and historic nature of this private area favored its natural growth and appreciation as visible and important destination in terms of trade (and hence of tourism). bars. although in the studied area have been identified more than 300 restaurants. The labor force in the field of restaurants and other services of public alimentation and beverage service totals a number of 3284 employees. In 2010. just as the urban planning tools did not take into consideration creating or facilitating the emergence of these flows. 2 2-star hotels with a total of 25 rooms and a one-star hotel with a total of 45 rooms – a total of 66 hotel units with a total of 4673 rooms). Unirii Boulevard. generating a turnover of 361.5 million lei. this type of services / trade did not develop following a spatial ordering of tourist flows. shops of all kinds. almost one third is concentrated in the center of Bucharest defined in the analysis (9 5-star hotels with a total of 1879 rooms. 22 4-star hotels with a total of 1422 rooms.7 million lei. The symbolic. in Bucharest. For example.●hotels ●restaurants . from an economic point of view. The summed number of hotel rooms represents 63% of all hotel rooms in Bucharest. Unlike the metropolises wellknown in this regard. 129 . bars and clubs (from a total of approximately 1300 in Bucharest). Restaurants. although closely located to the Palace of Parliament (considered one of the main touristic attractions) and shortly distanced from subzone 2.
not necessary as generator of new jobs. without exploiting together their grouping in the central area. Table 31: Average indicators in the field of transportation and storage (year 2010) Average Average Average Number of turnover profit number The field enterprises (million (million of lei) lei) employees Transportation and storage 94 25. museums.3% in the volume of activity of the studied area.6% in the same period. An efficient transportation and logistics system is necessary to support the development of the capital and the economic and demographic growth of the entire metropolitan area.9 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.N.8 36. The field is in progress.7 Number of 130 . However.1% of the employees and participating with 6. events planning. employing 4. art galleries. The sector is vital. The number of employees increased by 37. promotion is not a synergetic one among the different types of touristic products. TRANSPORTANTION AND STORAGE The sector comprises only1.9 521. Table 32: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in the field of transportation and storage (year 2010) Enterprise C.8% of the enterprises registered in the IUDP of the UAA. but also without participating in a definitive way in the creation of strong identities for the areas they belong to. historic buildings. even those few exclusively commercial streets) are concentrated in this area. but there have been losses in the last two years. monuments. theatres. POSTA ROMANA SA GRUP FEROVIAR ROMAN TRANSPECO LOGISTICS WILLI BETZ ROMANIA ROMAVIA RA Enterprise Turnover (million lei) 1.8 84.6 39.376. The activity is concentrated in terms of space in subzone 4. They “survive” in terms of image and individual promotion. antique shops.4% over the past five years. bookstores. the turnover by 77.01 -1. representative institutions.The analysis of the entire urban action area indicates that most of the touristic resources in Bucharest (accommodation. important public spaces. the logistic activities generally evolving in the recent years. but especially as support for all other fields.43 32.
POSTA ROMANA SA* 34. Figure 114: The spatial distribution of Figure 115: The spatial distribution of the turnover in the field of transportation and number of employees in the field of storage transportation and storage 131 . * was not included in the economic analysis since it has a structure of employees developed in the territory employee s Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.729 TRANSPECO LOGISTICS 388 WILLI BETZ ROMANIA 152 ROMAVIA RA 152 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.731 GRUP FEROVIAR ROMAN 1.Figure 113: The evolution of turnover. profit and number of employees in the field of transportation and storage C.N.
This sector includes 82 companies with publishing activities (with a totaled number of employees of 749 and a total turnover of 145. profit and number of employees in the field of information and communication (ZAU PIDU) No. A relatively high number of small and medium enterprises. Evolution of turnover.9% of the total number of employees. 108 audiovideo and cinematographic production. IXIA SRL COMPUTARIS ROMANIA OSF GLOBAL SERVICES Enterprise ORANGE ROMANIA SA* FREESCALE SEMICOND.5 million lei turnover – of which 4170.7% to the turnover of the area. In 2010 it contributed directly with 13. Table 33: Average indicators in the field of information and ommunication (year 2010) Average Average Average Number of turnover profit number The field enterprises (million (million of lei) lei) employees Information and communication 432 11.6 24.23 14.INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION The field is a in a downward trend in all respects. 203 enterprises in the software production (2082 employees and 488.1 8. which represent 8.9 million lei other enterprises).161. including their broadcasting (407 employees and 188.1 million lei turnover) and 39 corporations with telecommunications activity (389 employees and 4344.96 2.5 million lei).5 35.7 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.732 198 190 133 .1% of all enterprises present in the UAA. of employees Turnover (mil. lei) Table 34: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in the field of information and communication (year 2010) Enterprise ORANGE ROMANIA SA FREESCALE SEMICOND. IXIA Turnover (million lei) 4.6 million lei just one operator and 173.7 Number of employee s 2. lei) Profit (mil. are recorded.6 million lei turnover). having a rate of 4.2 40.
credit. a contraction in terms of all indicators. profit and number of employees in the field of financial intermediation and insurance (ZAU PIDU) Table 36: The top of enterprises by turnover and number of employees in the field of financial intermediation 134 No. Significant companies are located in the area University – Calea Moşilor. profit and number of employees in the field of information and communication * was not included in the economic analysis since it has a structure of employees developed in the territory Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. Figure 116: The evolution of turnover. Table 35: Average indicators in the field of financial intermediation and insurance (yearl 2010) Average Average Average Number of turnover profit number The field enterprises (million (million of lei) lei) employees Financial intermediation. Evolution of turnover. returning to levels recorded in 2006. lei) Profit (mil. After a spectacular expansion in 2006-2008. lei) . financial transactions.OSF GLOBAL SERVICES 130 COMPUTARIS ROMANIA 121 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register. fund management activities and activities of the holding companies are included in this sector. insurance 81 1.8 The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.13 6. insurance and insurance brokerage. the field indicates in the last three years. Figure 117: The spatial distribution of Figure 118: The spatial distribution of the turnover in the field of information and number of employees in the field of communication information and communication FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION AND INSURANCE The monetary intermediation. of employees Turnover (mil. leasing.68 0.
9 1.1 10.0 Număr de angajați 92 Întreprindere SMITH & SMITH SRL IFN 2 B GROUP SRL ANGELO COSTA RO SELECT EXCHANGE ROMVAL EUROE Întreprindere SMITH & SMITH SRL SELECT 48 EXCHANGE IFN 2 B GROUP 40 SRL ANGELO COSTA 39 RO ROMVAL 27 EUROEX The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.3 1. Figure 119: The evolution of turnover.8 10.and insurance (year 2010) Cifra de afaceri (milioane lei) 12. 135 . profit and number of employees in the field of financial intermediation and insurance Low density High density The source: database processing financial statements reported in the Trade Register.
therefore the banks that report in special system are not included in these data. Accessibility is so important for a bank headquarters that more than 95% of sites are on the main streets of the area. The total turnover of the banks with headquarters in the IUDP of the UAA is 45.9 billion lei and the number of employees in their national developed network is approximately 23000. The headquarters of 11 of the 41 licensed banks in Romania. they led an aggressive policy of expansion of branch network. A heavy spatial clustering determined by the orientation of the branch location towards strategic segments of customers can be seen.6% of the total banking assets in Romania. During the period of economic growth until 2008. the field is poorly represented in the IUDP of the UAA. The statistics presented are built on the data reported to the Trade Register. the occurrence of a branch determines the installation of the competitors’ branches nearby. a developed trading sector and a population with a relatively high income level are some of the factors that favor the expansion of banking branch network. Six of these banks are in the top 50 largest companies in Romania.Figure 120: The spatial distribution of turnover in the field of financial intermediation and insurance Figure 121: The spatial distribution of the number of employees in the field of financial intermediation and insurance The source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) of the functions of buildings – Jully 2011 Figure 122: Branches of banks and financial Figure 123: Bank headquarters in the IUDP of institutions in the IUDP of the UAA the UAA Apparently. which in 2010 represented together 35. The presence of many public utility objectives (generating increased flows of users). 6 They were not included in the economic analyses for the IUDP of the UAA. at headquarters and branches represented in Figure 138. In most cases. A number of approximately 2800 of these work in the IUDP of the UAA66. 136 . Banks tend to occupy the best retail locations. It is also the case of the approximately 1800 employees of the National Bank of Romania. Zones 8 and 9 are the most poorly served by the banking branch network. stimulated by the increasing population access to credit.
with 1. as well as the real estate administration services (with a turnover of lei 128 million and with a number of employees of 495 in 2010).298 employees).8 1. the number of employees diminishing by 63%. PRACTIC SINDOMETSERVCOM SCMFOTOGRAFIA Company BUILDING SUPPORT SERV.6 86. in this sector was identified a specialization of the urban area of action.5 30.9 Evolution of the turnover.2 4.1. Spatially. according to Table 10. of employees Turnover (millions) Profit (millions) BUILDINGSUPPORTSERV. PRACTIC SINDOMET SERVCOM SCM FOTOGRAFIA Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 140: Evolution of the turnover.3%. UNIREA SHOPPING CENT.07 Average number of employees 4. Table 37: Average markers on the real estate transactions field of activity (year 2010) Field Real estate transactions Number of companies 369 Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Average turnover (million lei) 1.3% of the total number of employees hired in the real estate field in Bucharest work in the urban area of activity (UAA).6. it is relatively uniformly distributed on sub-areas. The sector is in freefall starting with 2009.REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS This field includes the real estates’ sale-purchase activities and their lease (which in 2010 have generated an activity volume of lei 475 million. UNIRESHOPPINGCENT. after that in 2006 this percent represented 43. 27. in comparison to the entire city (see analysis in chapter 1. of the profit and of the number of employees in the field of real estate transactions (UAA IPUD) Table 38: Top enterprises according to the turnover and the number of employees in the field of real estate transactions (year 2010) Company Turnover (million lei) 221.. and the sales’ volume by 51% during the last two years. the decrease is proportional to the general decrease of the field).1.63 Average profit (million lei) 0. Nevertheless.2 Number of employees 292 170 58 40 37 No. of the profit and of the number of employees in the field of real estate transactions Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Low density High density Figure 141: Spatial distribution of the turnover in the field of real estate transactions Figure 142: Spatial distribution of the number of employees in the field of real estate transactions .
1 Number of employees 2. of the profit and of the number of employees in the field of services Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register * not included in the economic analysis because it has an employment structure developed in the territory Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Low density High density Figure 144: Spatial distribution of the turnover in the field of services Figure 145: Spatial distribution of the number of employees in the field of services .816 Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Average turnover (million lei) 2. LOTERIA ROMÂNA SA MANPOWER ROMÂNIA LUGERA & MAKLER SEARCH CORPORATION E & PUNTO INT. The analysis in chapter 1. scientific. of employees Turnover (millions) Profit (millions) Figure 143: Evolution of the turnover.D.1 has revealed that UAA is particularized in this sector. N.7 78.S.0 43. services concerning the human resources. architecture. because the companies providing support-services are in fact innovative and they favour the introduction of modern practices in the activities that they serve.N. S and T groups in the national economy classified activities Schedule (professional – judicial.017 1.806 2.N.1. the field does not show a diminution that would be too accentuated (Figure 143). accounting. various services provided to the companies and to the population). engineering.12 Average number of employees 14.P. Even during a period of crisis. Company C. activities of the tourism agencies.M.C. Table 39: Average markers for the services’ field of activity (year 2010) Field Services Number of companies 1.SERVICES In this field have also been included the M. The development of support-services for the economic activity reflects a specialization of the economy. of the profit and of the number of employees in the field of services (UAA IPUD) Table 40: Top enterprises according to the turnover and the number of employees in the field of services (year 2010) Company C. LOTERIA ROMÂNA SA LUGERA & MAKLER MANPOWER ROMÂNIA WATCH&CATCH SECURITY I.6.S.742 831 806 No. the companies being more and more opened regarding the externalization of the activities that they used to perform using their own personnel. The phenomenon is of positive facture. CO.39 Average profit (million lei) 0. advertising.101.7 76.N. Turnover (million lei) 1.6 Evolution of the turnover. reported to the scale of the entire city (the percent of the employees in Bucharest working in UAA gravitates around the value of 17% during the analyzed period). technical services.1 45.
06 Average number of employees 7.74 Average profit (million lei) 0. with a constant tendency to increase. EDUCATION. Most of the times. Figure 146 suggests their concentration on more circulated arteries. they are located in the streets. CULTURE The sector includes private economic activities in the classes of public administration and defense. Recent studies have shown the fact that an uneven distribution of the services provided to the population exacerbates the inequalities produced by the other sectors of the economy. The increase of the turnover and that of the number of employees belong to the field of provision of medical services.IPUD The services provided to the population register a dynamics determined by the system of needs.Source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) of real estates functions – July 2011 Figure 146: Services provided to the population (localized in the streets) in UAA . being destined to complete the assortment palette of the consumption goods.6 . 8 and 9 are the weakest served. where the services' sector holds a 35-55% quota of the final private consumption. HEALTH. Table 41: Average markers for the fields of public administration. education. It is determined that sub-zones 8. The services’ provided to the population group is extremely diverse. culture (year 2010) Field Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Number of companies 220 Public administration. to the satisfaction of needs that do not have a correspondent in products or to the completion of the products’ usage in the field of consumption. social insurances. The development of the services provided to the population represents a feature of the economically advanced countries. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. health and social assistance. spatially developed in the north and in the east of UAA. From the urban development point of view. cultural and recreational activities (here are not included the activities performed by the state institutions in the same fields of activity). entertainment. health. of incomes and of consumption behaviours. health. it is of interest the analysis of the spatial development of the services provided to the population. education. culture Average turnover (million lei) 0. education.
MED AS 2003 H2O SPORT EVENTS MEDICAL ENTERPRISES UNISYN LABORATORIES AMA OPTIMEX SL Company C.2 Number of employees 347 222 86 75 48 No. culture Figure 149: Spatial distribution of the number of employees in the field of public administration. health. culture (year 2010) Company C. health.7 7. entrepreneurial spirit and competition. MED AS 2003 FALCK FIRE SERVICES PULS MEDICA MEDICAL ENTERPRISES UNISYN LABORATORIES Turnover (million lei) 23. education. research and development Innovation is one of the productivity determinants.6 21. education. health and culture (UAA IPUD) Table 42: Top enterprises according to the turnover and the number of employees in the field of public administration.development in other natural sciences and engineering Research . In the UAA has been identified a number of 34 economic operators having the main field of activity in the NACE group 72 – “Research-development” (Table 43).development in social and humanist sciences Number of units 4 21 9 . Table 43: Number of units in the research-development activity in UAA IPUD (year 2010) Research-development activity Research . culture Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Low density High density Figure 148: Spatial distribution of the turnover in the field of public administration. culture 1. of the profit and of the number of employees in the field of public administration. together with investments. Statistic information regarding innovation is limited. health.M. education.7 Innovation. education. education. or the number of registered patents.3 8. Their number of employees has almost halvened in the last five years. because the innovative activities are not usually reflected by traditional markers. but the volume of the turnover is increasing (Figures 150 and 151).M. health.Evolution of the turnover.7 11. of the profit and of the number of employees in the field of public administration.6. the training of the workforce. of employees Turnover (millions) Profit (millions) Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 147: Evolution of the turnover.development in bio-technology Research . like the volume of investments in research and development.
attracting the criticism concerning the arbitrary determination of these factors.Evolution of the number of employees in the researchdevelopment field (UAA IPUD) Evolution of the turnover in the researchdevelopment field (UAA IPUD) Turnover (mil) No. financial services and professional services).E. Sometimes. the value of the salaries plus the difference between the turnover and the cost of the material expenditure and of other entries in the production process (that is the operating profit) is used in the economic analysis.N. Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Evolution of the percentage of employees working in innovative industries (UAA IPUD) Figure 152: Evolution of the percentage of employees working in innovative industries 1. of employees Profit (mil) Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 150: Evolution of the number of employees in research-development in UAA IPUD Figure 151: Evolution of turnover in the researchdevelopment field in UAA IPUD A more relevant analysis is provided by the use of the proportion of employees in innovative industries (activity sectors including an increased percent of activities resulting from research-development and where more than 25% of the number of employees have higher training.6. at national level. The percent of employees working in innovative industries in the urban area of action is superior to the average on Bucharest and is increasing (Figure 152). The indicator is thus a combined function of using the work force and using the capital. The statistic marker used most of the times for the evaluation of the economic activity result is the gross added value7. the weighting coefficients for the two production factors are used. Because I. mainly uses for the regional accounts the descendant method (which 7 Represents the newly created value in the production process.8. It can be approximated satisfactorily with the sum resulting from the total salary expenditure and the cash operating profit (that is the operating profit to which the expenditure with amortization is added). Added value and productivity This section presents the result of the economic activity of the companies registered in the urban area of action. like information and communications. namely the value of production minus the intermediary consumption.S. .S.
The activity volume is mainly generated by the commerce (lei 9. . only the field of information and communications actually crates the “added value”.256 22 64 330 12 2. culture Total 6 504 95 258 62 64 1. Real estate transactions Professional serv. Financial brokerage. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and communications Financial brokerage. health Profit on fields of activity in UAA IPUD (lei millions) Agriculture Industry Constructions Commerce. industry (lei 8. among all the sectors of activity). Also. there are serious reserves regarding the comparable character of the data8. by representatives of the Employer’s Association or of the trade unions. This is the reason why the usage of the cumulated turnover and the cumulated profit of the economic units registered in UAA IPUD was preferred for the highlighting of tendencies.896 Profit (million lei) 2007 84 -83 66 314 -31 72 1. In Figure 154 can be observed that.430 Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register 8 The level of the underground economy is estimated by businessmen. According to some estimates. 9 It is possible that the official reports may not reflect the economic reality. up to 4 billion dollars are transferred annually from Romania to accounts from fiscal paradises (Source: Global Integrity Report).8 billion). repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and comm. information and communications (lei 5.3 billion) – Figure 153. as well as by the references at European level between 30% and 40% of the GDP (the level is double as compared to the one estimated by the INSEE and triple as compared to the one estimated by the Romanian Government). insurances Real estate transactions Professional services and other services Public administration. education. health.supposes the “distribution of the national value of the gross added value on regions. using various distribution keys. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and comm. reflecting as much as possible the estimated features”).179 26 52 247 23 1. 2010 Table 44: Profit on fields of activity Figure 154: Profit on fields of activity. the other reporting a relatively reduced profit. among all these. health.2 billion). and other Administration. this field is the most profitable (the highest rate of declared profit9.2 billion) and services (lei 4. education. Financial brokerage. insur.457 14 96 329 10 2. according to Figure 155. insur. 2010 Field of activity 2006 Agriculture. Real estate transactions Professional serv. Turnover on fields of activity in UAA IPUD (lei millions) Agriculture Industry Constructions Commerce.108 2009 -56 500 -20 81 -109 -148 1.774 2010 91 159 -41 151 -33 -135 965 10 26 224 14 1. education. and other Administration. culture Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 153: Turnover on fields of activity.668 54 -7 365 23 3. forestry and fishing Industry Constructions Commerce.107 2008 74 634 1 363 -119 53 1.
1% 4.4% 29.4% -3.0% -6. indicating a decrease of the UAA economy’s competitiveness.9% 33.6% -4. Financial brokerage. imposing the necessity of interventions in this field. 3 times in commerce. the profit and the number of employees in UAA.2% 5.7% 18.Profit rate on fields of activity in UAA IPUD Agriculture. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and communications Financial brokerage. the innovation.6% 3. The productivity of all the production factors also includes the variables like capital investments. the labour productivity is usually used as a statistic marker.9% 2. insurances Real estate transactions Professional services and other Administration.E. fishing Industry Constructions Commerce.0% 0. over 2 times in services.5% 4..1% 7. represented by Figure 156 for UAA.6% 9. namely the commerce sector. The phenomenon is alarming.3% 1.8% 23.9% -13.1% 14.0% -5. the use of land.7% 7. Total Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 155: Profit rate on fields of activity.3% 26.7% 2010 3. almost 2 times in information and communications. education.6% 22. There is a notable exception.9% 11. education. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and comm. The increase of the total productivity may be attained by improving the manner in which are used the inlets in the production process. regarding the turnover. for the purpose of the analysis the data has been used. the profit’s rate (profit reported to the turnover) has registered decreases in almost all the fields of activities: 4.9% 2008 2. Because of the existence of the already presented reserves regarding the accuracy of the gross added value marker provided by I. Because the total productivity is more difficult to calculate due to the lack of available data. 2 times in the field of hotels and restaurants..S.7% 12.8% 16.8% 4. which registers averages below the level of the entire city.6% 6.8% .3% -1.2% 2007 3.S. 2. as well as at the level of the entire city.2% 1.2% 17.4% -1. the training of the workforce. especially that of the efficiency in which they are combined. culture Total 2006 0. education.2% 8.3% 7.7% -11. in this period.1% -0..3% 15. the availability of the infrastructure. forestry.0% 3. health. whilst the profit per employee has dropped only two times (indeed.3 times in the industry.5% 12.9% 19. 2010 The productivity of an economy is mainly measured by two markers: total productivity (of all the production factors) and the labour productivity (gross added value per employee).4% 4.N.5 times in the financial field. culture (Table 45). the profit’s rate has decreased almost three times.5% 4. health. that reflecting imbalances of structural nature.3% 11.3% 2. insurances Real estate transactions Professional services and other services Public administration.0% 14.3% 6.8% -1. 6 times in real estate transactions. administration.7% 7. The turnover per employee.7% 8.3% 5.6% 4. Table 45: Profit rate on fields of activity Field of activity Agriculture. consolidated using the ascendant method.6% 4. shows a more elevated productivity in UAA in comparison to Bucharest.1% 25. The comparison to the profit evolution per employee in Table 47 shows the fact that this decrease of profitability is not only determined by the price increase of the labour production factor – overall.7% 4. falling in the trend registered by the entire national economy.7% 2009 -2. the wages have increased at a more alert pace than the volume of the economic activity).3% 7. forestry and fishing Industry Constructions Commerce.6% 0. In the last five years. 3 times in constructions.
education. real estate and financial transactions.69 19. on fields of activity Field of activity Profit per employee (lei thousands/person) 2006 0.06 23.08 10.31 13. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and communications Financial brokerage.61 8.96 -2.85 5.00 -3.88 8. communications Services (professional.24 22.97 0.90 204.94 -5.26 8. health.94 2008 3.10 1.69 -4.25 19.02 14.86 1.99 42.63 2009 -2.23 -15.83 2007 3.34 36.44 10.67 71.51 23.15 19.58 -5.86 127.75 25.57 2010 4.87 -1.81 14. on fields of activity Field of activity Turnover per employee – UAA IPUD (lei million/person) 2006 303 192 429 93 133 135 53 199 2007 302 228 494 109 145 159 68 219 2008 428 284 620 129 171 184 91 273 2009 426 352 465 136 160 213 102 267 2010 474 383 674 126 170 176 98 286 Industry Constructions Commerce.42 11.24 45.40 11.36 243.35 1.62 12.45 8.42 29.20 -17.Table 46: Turnover per employee in UAA IPUD.98 4.56 151. storage.16 23. other) Public administration.13 Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Agriculture.87 19.73 21.64 -3. insurances Real estate transactions Professional services and other services Public administration.56 13.91 15.68 -3. health.60 8.44 14. information. culture Source: Processing of the database of the situations reported to the Companies Register Total turnover per employee Table 47: Profit per employee in UAA IPUD.10 9.61 9. culture Total average profit per employee . repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation.90 25. forestry and fishing Industry Constructions Commerce. education.74 275.
Statistics Directories. health. storage. on fields of activity. 10 The turnover was considered as the indicator having the highest credibility.Turnover per employee Constructions (Buc) Constructions (UAA IPUD) Industry (Buc) Industry (UAA IPUD) Commerce. depending on the number of employees (the size of “circles”). communications (Buc) Transportation. on fields of activity (UAA IPUD and Bucharest) Modifications as per number of employees and turnover. 2006-2010 Professional services and other services Agriculture. Financial brokerage. information. repairs (UAA IPUD) Hotels and restaurants (Buc) Hotels and restaurants (UAA IPUD) Transportation. information. employees number increase markers (horizontal axis) and the turnover 10 (vertical axis). storage. Increase in the number of employees Source: Processing of the database of the financial situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 157: Modifications as per number of employees and turnover. fishing Industry Constructions Commerce. education. communications (UAA IPUD) Services (UAA IPUD) Administration. Bucharest 2007-2010 Figure 156: Turnover per employee. repairs (Buc) Commerce. . forestry.. as compared to “the gross added value” or the declared profit. insur. 2006-2010 Figure 157 presents the UAA performance in the last 5 years. repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and comm.. culture (UAA IPUD) Source: Processing of the database of the financial situations reported to the Companies Register. Real estate transactions Administration. education.
The logistic park represents a well-defined area where the activities in connection with transportation. hosting companies or laboratories of the universities and institutes. in the organizational structure or the types of clients. the advantage of the presence in the area of the main institutions of higher education will be capitalized. The industrial park is traditionally represented by an area dedicated for the development of industrial.The administration. as number of employees as well as turnover (still. (2) research and development and (3) storage and distribution.000 sqm). health and culture activities noted the greatest increase. Thus. delimitated by supraunitary increase of the turnover. Business incubators are programs created to accelerate the development of small enterprises and of the entrepreneurial initiatives by a range of services and support resources. Therefore. their weight is reduced in the total of the economic activity). logistics and distribution of goods are developed by various operators on commercial bases. In principle. which proposes the creation of a “backbone” of ECO development of the city. The main objectives of an incubator include: creation of new jobs. the interventions of the local authorities must stimulate the increase of the competitiveness and of productivity. except those in the information and communications technology. the incubators are oriented towards startup companies or in the incipient development stage and they also offer support-services for the businesses. in the Bucharest area. The UAA economy is superior to the Bucharest average in almost all the chapters. providing support to small companies with great potential. the main idea behind the existence of incubators consists in the services provided to the startup companies. The incubators vary regarding the manner in which they provide their services. which would benefit in the financial support from the capital's budget. Particularly. Differently from the scientific and technologic parks. There are several business incubators in Bucharest. most of the SMEs in the incubator belong to the services and to the industrial sector and there is no target sector towards which it could clearly aim. it is noticed a decrease of competitiveness and of productivity. adapted for industrial needs. The most efficient intervention method is to create support structures for the innovative businesses. research institutes and the business community. and the individual projects should be included in a wider program of the local authority to support the technological poles. the entrepreneurs who wish to enter an incubation program must follow an admission program. where the price of land is lower. The scientific and technologic park represents an area where educational. a few features can be isolated: the incubators host an average of 11 SMEs. The incubation of a startup company increases the probability that the business to last for a longer period. technology transfer. which are designed to be large. The professional activities are the second field reflecting local specialization (located in the same quadrant. three wide categories of business structures. They are usually developed in suburban locations or near freeways and national roads. promotion of innovation. education. development of industrial clusters (presence in the location of companies in the same field of activity). the existing business incubators did not succeed to create the expected effects around them. The information and communications technology sector also shows an increase of the studied area’s economy. Thus. Not all businesses are eligible to be incubated. They are privately developed and are actually oriented towards major companies. technologic transfer of research results and their capitalization by economic activities take place. because only the market’s mechanisms are able to regulate this aspect. collaboration between universities. research. The field of logistics (transportation and storage) has also known a development.INFRATECH” national program. it cannot be held as the market's area of failure. mainly heavy industry (because there also is the variant of “light” industrial parks. as well as for the number of employees). Although most of the incubators offer to their clients areas to develop their businesses. due to the relatively low price of the land. less than the EU average of 34 enterprises sustained by one incubator. on which are grouped several office buildings (not existing in the development of industrial or residential functions). Accordingly. in the wider context of a weak competitiveness and productivity of the national economy overall. by functional re-conversion of buildings in the patrimony of Bucharest Municipality Town Hall. can be defined: the industrial park. Still. Industrial parks are characterized by three wide categories: (1) production. financed by the “Development of innovation and technologic transfer infrastructure . the technologic park and the logistic park. developed and coordinated by the incubator’s management and offered within the incubator. We include here a reference to the “Eco Bucharest 2015” project. developed by the former ANIMMC using funds from the World Bank or by the Regional Operational Program. Based on the investigation performed on the business incubators and on the industrial and technologic parks. with a large surface on one single level (up to 6. several significant business parks have been built inside the city. increasing together with the expansion of this sector nationally. as well as by the network of created contacts. production activities. by innovating rehabilitation of a . the creation of municipal business incubators is imposed.1. closer to the business park concept). by the multiannual national program between 2002 and 2012 of founding and developing business incubators. Major Field of Intervention 4. There are several types of business structures. The business park is represented by a larger surface of land.
and the UAA “South” in the subzones 4. The southern area suffers. and this underdevelopment is also noticed in the level of economic activity. The main markers afferent to those subzones have been aggregated. the result being presented in Figure 159. 5. affected by the urban interventions in the '80s. Figure 160 comparatively shows the profile of the economic activity in the northern and in the southern areas of the UAA (the size of the “circles” is according to the number of employees in the field).000 hectares along the Dâmboviţa’s axis. has lost its "good will". More than two thirds of the enterprises are located in the northern area. from the point of view or urban weaving accessibility and permeability. For the purpose of the analysis. including the Parcul Izvor and Lacul Morii areas (see Figure 158). by an artificial intervention and not by the natural development towards the north.9 Spatial analysis North/South The analysis of the urban weaving has revealed an imbalance between the north part of the delimited area and its south part. 6 and 7. the UAA “North” consists in subzones 1. The southern area has diminished its importance in the city.6. 8 and 9. Source: Space Syntax / ASUB Figure 158: Eco Bucharest 2015 1. 2. They hire almost three quarters of the total number of employees and generate over three quarters of the activity volume of the UAA. 3.surface of 1. .
education. on fields of activity. culture Index turnover Index turnover Index number of employees Index number of employees Source: Processing of the database of the financial situations reported to the Companies Register Figure 160: Profile of the economic activity in the northern and in the southern areas of UAA IPUD . repairs Hotels and restaurants Transportation and storage Information and comm. forestry. fishing Industry Constructions Commerce. insurances Real estate transactions Professional services and other services Administration.North-South distribution UAA IPUD North South Percent of total surface Percent of total population Percent of total no. in the Northern area Number of employees and turnover. Financial brokerage. in the Southern area Agriculture. on fields of activity. of companies Percent of total employees 2010 Percent of total turnover 2010 Figure 159: Distribution of the economic activity between the north and the south in UAA IPUD Number of employees and turnover. health.
because of the numerous public institutions located in the central area .re-directing investments to other areas with growth potential .in general.aging population. which could have a greater impact if they are closed . including “separation” from current business .absence of infrastructure investments in certain areas Opportunities .numerous innovative industries.large amount of users of the area Risks .in the past.high percentage of employees in priority sectors . compared to the city .large enterprises left the area (more than two thirds in the past five years) .increase in the number of highly trained and qualified unemployed persons .numerous senior citizens .increase in the quality of the urban space may attract investments and highly educated labour force . compared to the rest of the city.strong presence of the financial sector in the area (a quarter of the Romanian banks have their main headquarters in ZAU PIDU.traffic congestions and extensive use of personal cars .the generally good accessibility can keep the area attractive as a business location.it is more dependent on jobs in the public sector (28%). which offers better opportunities and attracts enterprises from the ZAU .higher economic activity per inhabitant/employee than the city average .presence of higher educational institutions representative at national level is favourable for access to highly educated labour force .strong source for services – support for economic activity .high crime level .tourism is well developed in the area (representative hotels and restaurants) .development of the city toward the North. high percentage of company registrations/closings indicated a strong entrepreneurial economy. which determines a larger dependency on social services . strong network of subsidiaries is developed in the area) .increase in the national/global competition in attracting investments . At present.highly educated labour force Disadvantages . such entrepreneurial spirit is no longer manifest .public transportation is not rapid .there are “clusters” of high poverty level .real estate properties are more expensive.most employees travelling here to work earn better than in the areas they come from .numerous and significant transportation connection points with the rest of the city .there still is land not used in the South.SWOT analysis Economic characteristics Advantages . the degree of poverty is lower than in the rest of the city .an attraction place for employees from the entire metropolitan area .many big enterprises. which discourages labour force in the area . which can be used for other developments (both for residential and business purposes) .three activity sectors comprise two thirds of the number of employees .
9% of the surface area of the ZAU represents transportation infrastructure (1. detours and humps. Such transit traffic puts enormous pressure on the centre and has adverse effects spatially (by an excessive consumption of valuable urban space and degradation of the quality of the urban space in terms of function and landscape). The street network is developed mainly as circulation corridor. warning drivers to drive carefully and introducing elements that make them easier and more enjoyable to be used by pedestrians or bikers. by developing a new type of design for the streets. The more than 20 years old history of pedestrian priority streets proves their success in enhancing safety and the quality of the environment provided by the street. The studies carried out in all cities where pedestrian priority streets were implemented show a high degree of satisfaction on the citizens’ part. as a result of the citizens’ uncertainty and negative perception of it) and economically (makes the city centre less appealing). the priority is the movement of pedestrians and bikers. with no possibilities for detours at the level of the central circular transportation line or inside the central area. there still is an unjustifiably increased tendency to use motor vehicles. Public Services 1. residents have car access. whose capacity does no longer satisfy the growing number of motor vehicles.79 square km of sidewalks. representing 16.3% of the total surface area of the ZAU). this integrated plan proposes a series of interventions that would not make the transportation issue worse than it is. The purpose of the interventions is to give the city centre a friendly look for pedestrians. Instead of being a traffic monoculture. making them accessible for all types of users.1. as the street can be used both for moving and as a public space. rather than their utility within the .1. In the absence of an integrated mobility policy and poor information of the population regarding such vision.7. The construction of a coherent and agreed system of circulation areas and sidewalks and bicycle paths is all the more necessary for the centre of the capital. transit traffic is not encouraged. Considering that it will take some time until the matter of the large transportation infrastructure deviating the transit traffic from the centre is settled. movement of motor vehicles is restricted through various obstacles. Transportation and mobility infrastructure The information available in the urban database of the Bucharest City Hall shows that 24.7. the area is developed in terms of landscape. a meeting area and only secondarily their role is to facilitate traffic and provide parking spaces.e. In this approach. representing 8. Vehicles are not forbidden. the streets’ main function is that of a populated public place. and this level of satisfaction is influenced mostly by the design and social performance of the public spaces. Streets are designed as public spaces. socially (leads to an improper behaviour in the public space. the so-called “shared streets”. The two major transportation axes (N-S and E-W) cross the centre.57 square km of streets. but streets are first of all designed as public spaces. Pedestrian priority streets integrate pedestrian activity and motor vehicle movement in one surface area. i. entrance in such spaces is very clearly marked. The main characteristics of priority streets are: they are a populated public space.5% of the total surface area of the ZAU and 0. streets are turned into a perfectly operational system of human interaction.
Gross water comes from the Dambovita and Arges rivers (treated in the Arcuda.2. and the city’s main collector drain is placed below the Dambovita river. the re-technologization program of thermal points. Electric energy is distributed to final consumers through a more than 15 year old network.7. street crossings or private property. and then is discharged into service pipes (cannot be inspected) and secondary collector drains (difficult to be inspected). Waste water and meteoric water is collected through connections and outlets. from underground. which led to fewer losses (which represent up to one third of the total quantity of distributed water).traffic system. it is discharged directly into the Dambovita. The main collector drains carry waste water and then discharge is into the emissary. because of the need to pump water in order to harvest it in tanks. service pipelines and connection pipelines. the role of emissary was taken over by the waste water cassettes below the Dambovita riverbed. As revealed by the sociological study. increased pollution of surface water. under sidewalks or green spaces. At present. The main collectors are placed parallel. the rehabilitation of buildings is required.4. The centralized water supply system allows the connection of the entire population from the urban action area. Large transportation distances from producers to final consumers lead to losses of heat and heating substances (up to one third). This plan identified a route that includes the streets that can be developed as “pedestrian priority streets”. one on top of the other. Rosu and Crivina plants). Considering the tanks’ reduced capacity. The main problem is the decrease in gas pressure at consumers during wintertime. because in that area the subway routes and the uneven passageway were correlated vertically. partly modernized by replacement programs and by extending of metering to the consumer. Thermal energy (heating and hot water) is still mainly supplied by the Bucharest centralized heating supply system. Technical and urban infrastructure11 Bucharest has a technical and urban infrastructure that is facing heavy wear and tear. as well as high consumption of pumping energy at heat sources. which are old and highly 11 The information in this chapter is taken from the expert appraisal reports regarding the situation of the technical and urban infrastructure. existence of certain depression areas that can benefit from sewage only by pumping. waste water is not treated. To reduce the thermal energy demand. wells and small capture zones. Its role in the rebirth of the centre of Bucharest is detailed in chapter 2. The heating system faces significant wear and tear. attached to the “Integrated Urban Development Strategy in Bucharest and Its Support and Influence Territory” . Drinking water is carried from treatment stations to the pumping station tanks through viaducts. The natural gas operator is planning to gradually replace the steel pipelines. there is the risk of floods upstream of Unirii Square. Natural gases are distributed through a more than 50 year old network. After they were developed. stations and modules is in process of being executed. pumping is performed in failure mode. non-discharge of rain water in certain areas. located on public roads. citizens of Bucharest are willing to accept traffic restrictions for the purpose of improving the public space (see Figures 60-62). Waster is distributed through arteries. in Bucharest. It is worth mentioning that the section of the clean water riverbed of the Dambovita is substantially reduced around Unirii Square. Consequently. 1. which consists of CETs and the distribution system managed by RADET. downstream of the capital (the waste water treatment station in Glina is not operational yet). The sewage system faces several malfunctions: partial or total colmatage of leakage sections. which provides 72% of the thermal energy necessary in Bucharest. The sewage system in Bucharest was designed as a unitary transport system of household and rain water.
corrosive. Thus.7. incineration). Waste management is still underdeveloped: there are areas in the very centre of Bucharest that represent uncontrolled waste storage points by the population and economic operators. replacement of the old. data conduits and a metropolitan network for public institutions. storage will remain the main waste management option. which leads to a decrease in communication speed and increase in price (especially for natural persons). Interventions to underground networks are not planned and correlated. placing of street cupboards to mass cables. as a result of the lack of coordination and sometimes deficient organization of operators in archiving the completed underground networks. the contract for the installation of the metropolitan telecommunication network in a publicprivate partnership (Netcity) was executed. Carol I. thus. Paradoxically. Cleaning Street and household cleaning services are provided in the urban action area by authorized cleaning companies (the cleaning activity was taken over by the local councils of the Bucharest Municipality sectors. which again led to an increase in the mounting of cables on poles or building (including fiber for secured data transmission for companies such as banks). and operators no dot reinstate the streets to their initial condition after working on the networks they are in charge of. the objective is to promote other management options ensuring compliance with European practices and that would avoid as much as possible. urban networks do not develop in an integrated way. by the construction of new telephone conduits. the final elimination solutions (storage. and the estimated value is EUR 270 million. reorganization of the networks from such street cupboards to clients. The project entitled “Integrated Waste Management System for Bucharest and Ilfov“ will be financed by POS Mediu. Blvd. I. In 2008. Although in the short and medium term. Such network will allow the elimination of aerial networks on the routes where Netcity will interfere with.C. Blvd. In the 90’s. The citizens and the municipality are being confronted with having to choose between high speed communications at a low price. some of the areas which are currently disfavored as regards Internet and television are the central areas of private dwellings (Blvd. the telecommunications infrastructure passed through a modernization process with implications at urban level. the cable infrastructure developed. non-operated optical fiber. often trying to use as much as possible cables mounted in underground pipelines instead of aerial cables (on buildings or poles). and the obligation to move such cables underground. 1. deteriorated ones. there are five specialized cleaning companies). with serious negative consequences on the soil and underground water. and cables were mounted on poles or buildings (because the creation of underground conduits was more expensive). thus making the urban space look “patched”. Calea Mosilor). but with the disadvantage of unaesthetic cables mounted on poles or buildings. even though there is a specialized network coordination department within the Bucharest Municipality. .3. During the past ten years. Unirii. on the one hand. Bratianu. Internet networks (cable or optical fiber) developed. Let us not forget the delays in obtaining the endorsements for investments. which will offer support for mounting of cables. with other pipelines made of materials that are resistant both to corrosion and the new envisaged pressure level (the passing from a low pressure regime to a medium pressure regime is contemplated). Once the cable television companies and mobile telephone companies appeared on the market.
and 16% assess it as bad or very bad. In 2010. Health Good health is essential to human wealth fare. an increased health condition is a key element of the human capital. which represents an important dimension of the quality of life. selective collection is introduced only as a pilot project and proves to be a failure in the absence of public information campaigns regarding the benefits of the recovery. recycling and use of certain types of waste. living environment. but nevertheless. think that the health care system is bad or very bad. achieve their objectives. National Institute for Economic Research. Health is the result of a complex combination of individual and social factors. and it represents a value per se. 46% assess their health as good and very good. the perceptions of primary medical assistance slightly improved. At individual level. In time. However. there are social factors that influence health: quality of the medical services. fewer than in the previous years.4. In Bucharest. all contribute to this slightly improved perception of the medical assistance that people benefit from. health is influenced by the genetic legacy. various possibilities for people to choose their eating habits. The progress noticed may be explained by the significant change in the type of medical services to which people have access.2 on a scale from 1 to 5. Diversification of medical services. from very bad to very good. A research conducted in 201012 shows that Romanians assess their health moderately: the average assessment is 3. 28% as satisfactory. Positive assessments can be explained by the relatively easy access. waste is not selected. most of the population (54%). contributing to the society’s competitiveness in relation to other regions. large waste transport distances until final storage. absence of a system for their collection and realization. of the environment. which enabled transferred hospitals to move from the subsistence sanitary management to a normal activity. 56% of the population deeming it good or very good. to primary assistance services. values regarding health and life style. development of private medical services that imposed new standards. the health care system is assessed mostly negatively. Hence. existence of abandoned motor vehicles. introduction of new medical treatments and new technologies. Assessment of people’s personal health is the manner in which they define their own health.7. 1. have a fulfilled life and act as active members of the society. most of the times. only the main streets are cleaned. but also in investing in the rehabilitation of buildings and purchase of equipment. choices that people make in this regard. education. Research Institute for Quality of Life . Such data suggests that a significant percentage of the population has serious health problems. On the other hand. most of the street waste is collected manually. the lack of or insufficient street recipients and garbage bins. with the help of special machines (automatic sweepers and street vacuum cleaners). there are 66 hospitals (out of which 25 belong to the 12 “Quality of Life 2010” – Romanian Academy. 28% as satisfactory. as well as by personal characteristics such as age. using rudimentary means. goods and services. by the Bucharest Hospital and Medical Services Administration (ASSMB). On the one hand. good health allows people to carry out their activities. In general. while approximately one quarter (26%) think of it as bad and very bad. Socially. A part of the health infrastructure was taken over by the municipality. development of private pharmacies. primary medical assistance is assessed positively. such hospitals succeeded not only in covering their expenses with salaries and materials. occupation.
Bucharest Health Insurance House Figure 1: Health infrastructure in ZAU . Due to the large number of sanitary institutions in the central area. 20 under the Bucharest Hospital and Medical Services Administration and 11 in other networks.980 beds and 2. consisting mainly of medical centres. Bucharest Public Health Department. 10 in the network of the Bucharest Public Health Department. Of the 66 hospitals.network of the Ministry of Health . totalling 1.560 medical staff.15 national hospitals and 10 emergency hospitals -. either public or private) and 39 medical centres/significant policlinics (most of which are private). was developed to cover the deficit in the residential areas. 10 are located in the urban action area. As revealed by Figure 161. as the outskirts have fewer medical units.PIDU 13 Source: “Integrated Urban Development Strategy in Bucharest and Its Support and Influence Territory” . The private healthcare network. 15 medical centres and over 150 medical offices add to the health infrastructure of the central area. most of the medical units are located in the North of the ZAU. they are actually used by all of the capital’s inhabitants. Areas in Bucharest with good medical representation13 ● hospitals ●policlinics/medical centres ● medical/dentist’s offices ●pharmacies Source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) of functions of immovable assets – July 2011.
quality of family life. Research Institute for Quality of Life . as this is the first year when the image of the Romanian educational system undergoes a fundamental change. The State’s capacity to financially support education. The reason is that students who benefit from quality education have better results at school and most of them chose to continue their studies. In Romania. but also create benefits both at personal and social level: increase in the population’s living standards. a qualitative educational system is much more important than many years of school. most of the students finish 12 years of school. The declared purpose of such changes was to increase the population’s access to equal chances to education and improve the quality of education. The high level of economic development allows the population in these countries to bear an important part of tuition costs. Changes in the duration of mandatory education have had a significant impact on the general evolution of the population’s educational level. in general persons with good social. and the economic difficulties. In all. the number of school years is higher. Thus. through an almost continuous change in terms of structure. except for higher education.7. deterioration of learning conditions in schools. in 2010 the population’s assessments varied: 30% of the population think that accessibility to education is high and very high and 29% think that accessibility to education is low and very low. National Institute for Economic Research. the other educational levels have varied. and the quality of education). the image of the educational system was positive). In Romania.e. As regards accessibility to education (i. According to certain people. The distribution of assessments changed significantly in 2010. to go through all educational stages. throughout the past two decades. but also the population’s capacity to invest in education are first of all reflected by the duration of mandatory education.e. family and economic backgrounds. Apart from the continuous changes. 14 The population is also divided in their assessments over the educational system: 31% think that the system is good and very good. Education The Romanian educational system has passed. The limited resources allotted to education have resulted in the appearance of adverse effects as to accessibility to and quality of education: increase in the rate of school abandonment. improvement of labour quality and productivity. In the developed states.5. The increasing negative assessments might be the result of the continuous instability of the educational system over the years. it deteriorates (traditionally. for the economic development of a country.1. Both the quantity and the quality of education are determining factors in the social and economic development of a country. in Romania. the equal chance offered to all individuals to receive the form. a population educated at a proper age not only recover the investment in education. the difference between wishes and their accomplishment is very big. which has also been enhanced by the recent crisis. where the number of students has constantly increased. type and specialization they want. health. and creating the conditions for others. content and organization. Experience has shown that. Quality education. it may be asserted that the educational system does not offer equal chances for all categories of individuals to access education. school is mandatory for a period of at least 10 years. which caused new problems. i. which affected the pupils’/students’ education and life strategies. the high number of students. 32% think that it is bad and very bad. in countries where educational output is high. The State is the main investor in education. based on such data. low educational performance. and the reasons are both the inconsistency in drawing up and applying educational policies. another cause is the worsening of the problems accumulated during the transition in the field of school infrastructure and the problems 14 “Quality of Life 2010” – Romanian Academy. exposing some of the society members to the risk of prematurely abandoning the system.
most of the parents’ precarious financial situation has negative consequences on their children’s interest in school. educational institutions concentrate on the central area. Romania ranks among the first countries in the EU in terms of early school abandonment. and after finishing school. there are difficulties in providing tenure teachers for some specialties). exaggerated ungrounded absences from school. low interest on the part of certain teachers to ensure quality in education and decentralize the educational system. This phenomenon is explained by kindergartens’ and schools’ proximity function. unprofessional management in some school units. pre-university population has decreased dramatically (only preschool education has not faced a decline). which comprises a series of prestigious national colleges15. Figure 162 shows that. existence of an unjustifiably high number of students that repeat their school years. parents’ low interest and commitment to know and solve school problems. Table 48 shows the high percentage of schools that operate in the marked area out of the total number of such units in all Bucharest. they are unemployed (annual reports of the Bucharest Employment Agency reveal the difficulties that pre-university graduates face in finding jobs: the majority of the unemployed persons are high school graduates without any professional certification). compared to the same index calculated for kindergartens and schools (such are closer to the relative weigh of the ZAU population in all Bucharest).000 children. the number of Olympic students participating in the Olympics’ national phase and in international contests. Private units have developed especially in the preschool field. High schools tend to group in the central area. low professional mobility and fluctuation of teachers/foremen instructors in vocational and technical education causes a decrease in the efficiency of the teaching/learning process. insufficient vacancies in kindergartens. which leads to students opting mainly for theoretical high schools. which are distributed in a relatively equal manner. 15 Most of the high schools in the central area are among the best high schools in Bucharest. Higher educational institutions representative at national level are mainly located in the urban action area (see table 49). and the percentage of students with low reading/reading comprehension skills is high compared to the European average (both indicators are double compared to the European target). insufficient school and career guidance counsellor’s offices. and the options of the Bucharest students (source: ISMB 2010) . as the tuition level grows. The main problems of the secondary education found at regional level by the Bucharest School Inspectorate include: improvised.related to personnel. by satisfying the educational offer for more than 5. a high rate of school abandonment. The capital’s school network is formed mainly of public pre-university educational units. according to the average of the last student admitted. many substitute teachers and unqualified teachers (although the school network is comprehensive for the region. private kindergartens covering part of the deficit.
L.088 2.8% Schools 162 9 5.S.N. S.365 135.6% High schools 102 21 20.127 3.363 329 364 361 350 n/a 901 2.055 1.A.0% Sports clubs Total Bucharest of which in the ZAU ZAU PIDUPIDU percentage/ Bucharest 7 0 0.729 12.6% Special education 20 3 15.Table 48: Public pre-university educational network in ZAU PIDU Kindergarten s 179 14 7.997 16.C.124 12. Technical Military Academy “Titu Maiorescu” University “Spiru Haret'' University Ecological University Financial and Banking University * has specializations in ZAU PIDU Kindergartens in Bucharest16 Schools in Bucharest16 No.941 1.962 400 10.0% Table 49: Higher educational institutions in ZAU PIDU Higher educational institution “Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism University of Bucharest “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy* Academy of Economic Sciences National University of Music University of Arts “I.952 364 Staff 744 1. of students 3296 39.T.N.Caragiale” U.699 224 31 High schools in Bucharest16 Faculties in16 16 Source: “Integrated Urban Development Strategy in Bucharest and Its Support and Influence Territory” .A.500 874 9.P.
PIDU . colleges ●schools ●kindergartens Source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) regarding functions of buildings – July 2011. Bucharest School Inspectorate Figure 2: Educational units in ZAU .● higher education ●high schools.
The sociological study has revealed that for the citizens. cultural institutes of other States focus on the central perimeter. second-hand bookshops. museums.PIDU 17 Source: “Integrated Urban Development Strategy in Bucharest and Its Support and Influence Territory” . theatres. Culture Architectural. memorial houses.4 hereof proposes a strategy to give value to such cultural sites. due to the spatial typology. functionality and representativeness of such area. monument churches. Most urban marketing studies show that the city identifies itself mainly with the central area. arts and history monuments.6. Cultural institutes in Bucharest17 ●cultural sites ●churches ●embassies/consulates Source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) regarding functions of buildings – July 2011 Figure 3: Cultural sites in ZAU . art galleries.1. cultural centres. the most representative elements for Bucharest are its historical buildings and monuments. both for the citizens of Bucharest and for tourists alike. libraries. Chapter 2.7.
Dynamics of investments in the urban action area 1. While in 2006 investment expenses counted for two thirds of the total expenses.1. the capital expenses of the Bucharest City Hall and the institutions under the subordination of the Bucharest General Council decreased in the past few years. The evolution of public investment in Bucharest is revealed by the analysis of financial indicators related to local budgets. most of the urban infrastructure works in the urban action area are carried out by the Bucharest City Hall. Sector 3 City Hall. Sector 1 City Hall. However. current and capital expenses in Bucharest Municipality (million lei) Structure of expenses in Bucharest Municipality in 2010 municipal public services investment environmental protection total expenses current expenses capital expenses social assistance service of duty forced executions expenses of the apparatus of Bucharest Municipality Source: activity reports of the general mayor and budgets of the Bucharest Municipality during 2006-2010 . more than the general drop in the municipality’s total expenses.1 Dynamics of public investments Public investments in the entire city are made by the Bucharest City Hall and the city halls of the other sectors. Sector 2 City Hall. As shown in Figure 164.8.8. Sector 4 City Hall and Sector 5 City Hall. in 2010 they reached 40% of the total number of the Bucharest Municipality’s budget (see Figure 165). The competent authorities in the urban action area are the Bucharest City Hall. Evolution of total.
extension of water and sewage network. with 20 apartments on average). 1. hospital equipment. totalling almost 300 apartments. etc. were identified.2. Dynamics of private investments This chapter presents only private investments that are relevant in terms of urbanism.Figure 4: Evolution of expenses of Bucharest Municipality Figure 5: Structure of expenses of Bucharest Municipality in 2010 Structure of investments of Bucharest Municipality in 2009 Structure of investments of Bucharest Municipality in 2010 transport infrastructure rehabilitation of national stadium rehabilitation of schools and kindergartens rehabilitation of historical center other investment programs (other investments include the modernization of thermal points. construction and modernization of passageways). The total value of the residential investments in the marked area is estimated at approximately euro 150 million.8. . Annex 9 details the investments of the Bucharest Municipality in the urban action area. RESIDENCE As regards investments made in the past years in the residential sector in the area analyzed herein. were postponed because of the crisis and. Other two projects. the considerable decrease in demand. and six big projects. implicitly. almost eighty small residential complexes (4-5 storey buildings. Only four of the big projects were completed. rehabilitation of treatment station. whose development was made public starting from 2006. bringing over 400 new apartments on the market.) Source: activity reports of the general mayor and budgets of the Bucharest Municipality during 2006 2010 Figure 6: Structure of investments in Bucharest Municipality in 2009 and 2010 Most public investments were intended for transport infrastructure (repairs and rehabilitation of streets.
000 rentable sqm). attracting companies that relocate their business from semi-central areas or the outskirts for a better location in the city. Gara de Nord and Stefan cel Mare. The CBD tenants are mainly banks. Romana Square. half the number of parking spaces in semi-central areas. where the ratio is 1 space/50 sqm).e. Due to the small number of available land and high prices. Supplies constantly increased.July 2011 Figure 7: Collective dwellings built in the past 5 years in ZAU PIDU OFFICES Figure 8: Significant residential projects in ZAU PIDU The current office space area in Bucharest is approximately 1.000 sqm. from 3. The analyzed area is.000 rentable sqm. Such companies want to be visible and have good access for their main headquarters and are willing to pay a premium to the rent. there are the most expensive rents in the capital. totalling a surface area of 111. Victoriei Square. the number of parking spaces is low compared to the semi-central areas and the outskirts (the average is one parking space at 100 sqm of office. but in 2009 it started to decrease. The demand has also increased in the central area. part of the CBD office area. Because of the height of such buildings. while the subject area comprises approximately 300. In the Central Business District (CBD).5 million sqm. Thus.000 sqm in 2009 and 2010. The total office supply in the CBD is 400. as it is called in specialized language. The office segment developed in central Bucharest by taking into account the characteristics of the land around the city centre. support services supply companies for business or State agencies. . to approximately 70. Such area is located between Charles de Gaulle Square. without covering it entirely.000 sqm. in principle. The central area alone represents 25% of the total rentable area. there are many buildings whose floors have small surface areas. Current rents are around euro 15-17/sqm/month. Universitatii Square. Figure 168 presents the representative office projects in the area (i. the buildings developed vertically.000 sqm in 2007. those that have more than 10. The level of rents was constant during 2006-2008.LEGEND Existing projects Announced projects Source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) regarding functions of buildings . Unirii Square.
former units that were either closed. Hence. most of which are located at the first two exits from the A1 Bucharest . industrial parks appeared outside the city. Although land in the urban action area is scarce and expensive. Prior to 1989. the acquisitions in the past years of “America House” and “Europe House”). required by the legislation regarding environmental protection. the analyzed area benefited from significant investments over the past few years. It is the case of Inox. Most of the transactions were performed during 2006-2008. subareas 8 and 9 had numerous industrial areas. Romtrans. the industrial element disappeared almost entirely from the capital centre. Electromagnetica. the demand on the office market made entrepreneurs invest in this sector an excessive of euro 200 million. Source: Synergetics – data collection (inventory) regarding functions of buildings – July 2011 Figure 9: Office buildings constructed in the past 5 years in ZAU PIDU INDUSTRIAL SPACES Figure 10: Significant office projects in ZAU PIDU Together with the relocation of plants outside cities. which changed or are in the process of changing their initial use.As we may notice. Thus. Muntenia.Pitesti highway. but developments have not started yet because of the real estate crisis. Zonal Urbanism Plans were issued to change their destination from industrial to residential or office spaces. Investors purchased such platforms with the purpose of demolishing existing constructions and developing various real estate projects or giving another destination to the existing spaces. . Major transactions involving buildings located in the ZAU were registered (for example. relocated or changed their profile. Bere Rahova plants.
road status and old buildings (figure 101). the main problem is represented by parking places (figure 102). Sociologic. which enclaved and segregated entire sections of the city. the main urban mobility mean in Bucharest. At the level of the entire urban action area. transport and economic analysis have emphasized the need to intelligently approach the problem of parking spaces in the center. 1.9. followed by cleaning. as well as in an extended section in sub-area 6 (Grivița-Buzești-Berzei).1. For the enhabitants of the central area. The need for urban regeneration of the sections with social and spatial problems appears especially in sub-areas 3 and 9. limited economic activities by lack of accessibility and created image problems that lead to the unexploitment of the area’s potential. first of all a discrepancy is noticed between the status of the sub-areas in the north of the urban action area (sub-areas 1.9. Development needs identified through the sociologic study The main problems of the central area identified through the sociologic study realized by the SNSPA on a representative sample for the population in Bucharest are represented by traffic and parking places. whose mobility conditions are currently hindered by a large number of obstacles. to community consolidation and to the creation of economic opportunities. Buharest only uses the nothern half of the central area. traffic being invoked as the main problem of the capital’s center. Thus reconnection appears as a fundamental necessity of the central area.1. which will hereby build . that lead to the improvement of urban space quality. Transport analysis and the analysis of the preferences of Bucharest’s inhabitants emphasize the need to create alternative routes. They need urban regeneration operations.9. whose lack is considered the main problem by the inhabitants of the central area and at the same time represent an impediment for economic agents. but with a valuable bilt environment.Development needs identified in the urban action area 1. which would thus benefit from the creation of new connections. economic and built environment analysis proved that in the central area there are regions with socio-economic problems. The need to solve the traffic problem is emphasized both by the analysis of urban transport and the sociologic one. which are ideal for urban regeneration projects. The latter ones were mainly affected by urban operations in the 80s. These alternative routes are mainly designated for pedestrians and cyclists. Both the analysis of the urban network ant the economic analysis highlighted the fact that the lack of accessibility contributed to the isolation of the southern part of the urban action area and a decrease in its attractiveness and economic dynamics. 6 și 7 with sub-area 2 in positive evolution) and the other sub-areas. Therefore. urban reenactment must also be focused on creating leaisure opportunities. Solving spatial and socio-economic disparities between the North and the South of Bucharest’s central area is consequently one of the priorities of the urban action area. Development needs identified through the diagnosis analyses Following the analyses described in the previous chapters. on a larger scale. as well as public transport. Social.2. Citizen safety is also one of the problems of the urban action area for the inhabitants in the central area.
administrative. long term visions. from the point of view of the image capacity generated through its strong points. Urban operations realized in the last years are generally punctual. That is why another important necessity is the holistic vision in approaching the development of the capital center. The need to improve Bucharest’s urban image is important. mainly the city center. side-walks) must be rehabilitated. political and cultural. Today. green spaces are isolated from each other by fast traffic color. it does not succeed in having as good an image. Bucharest’’s center needs high quality public spaces. streets. professionals). Although. developing and administrating it. Moreover. a series of still unexploited strong points were identified. The city’s potential. which. civil society. social. for the execution of the Integrated Urban Development Plan for the Central Area.the community and increase the population’s cultural capital. Following the analyses presented in the previous chapters. so that its own citizens start getting acustomed with high living standards. That is why. but also works that improve their functionality and integrate them in tourist routes. in its turn. sub-area 2). They do not approach any extended scale (except for infrastructure works in the western area of the Historical Center. Moreover. such as Unirii Square. The lack of an institutional organism and/or a set of regulations. which can valorize and eclectic city brand. in order to become an attraction point in an European (even world) competition at city level. at municipal level. social and economic problems of the central area. 1. economic. The Saffron European City Brand Barometer . Thus there is a need for collaboration between several urban actors in order to generate coherent and quality urban solutions. which can be taken over from one legislature to the other. Bucharest must promote urban life under all its aspects. according to its potential. 18 Saffron Consultants. In Unirii Square. Bucharest needs visions assumed by all the parties (political. involves in a policy or a coherent vision the various aspects defining the urban landscape. a series of fountains are also traffic islands and cannot be closely admired by pedestrians. Both green spaces. The status of the patrimony and the public spaces leads to deficiencies in space attractiveness and perception. Major public spaces. The often precarious status of the built patrimony and the abuses caused in protected areas transmit the need to protect and value the cultural patrimony. Bucharest is at the same level as Kőln or Salonic. are presently difficult to manage by pedestrians. and other types of public spaces (markets. Revoluției Square or Victoriei Square. Bucharest needs an intervention at structural level. which serve the community and consolidate the European metropolis image. is one of the major causes of this disfunction and of this status. on 10-20 years. this potential was considered. both for the inhabitants and for the tourists and possible investors. influences the decision to invest in the area.10 The development potential of the urban action area Bucharest is one of the few European metropolises that does not use its advantages to generate a strong image and brand and to attract investments and tourists18. which. being rather auto traffic and parking spaces. differences in approaces or problem solving can be noticed in several areas from one sector cityhall to another or even within the actions of the municipal cityhall. nor integrated in space. representing a significative development potential for the city: the presence of a lrge diversity architecture. is unexplored. 2009. These spaces need an identity reconfiguration. Research in the field of urban marketing shows that the status of buildings and public spaces plays an important role in a city’s perception.
the companies’interest to establish in a functional center may lead to the economic and edilitary development of the area. which can be reconfigured in order to improve urban image and in order for them to be used by inhabitants and visitors as well. the increase in popularity of bike transport can support a reconfiguration of some central streets for cycling transport color. . the existance of field reserves that can be reused. thereby participating in the extended value system of Bucharest center (Vilacrosse. the Antrepozite-Rahova-Uranus area). Antim Monastery area. Odeon. the existance of public spaces that are presently not landscaped or maintained. show rooms). Curtea Veche. presently not valorized at its potential. the existance of important connections at city level. the existance of a tendency to revalorize the consumption of traditional and biological products and the existance of free spaces can support the idea of creating new markets and recovering the old and degraded ones. Victoriei. which can support the development of intermodal functional nodes. Englez Passages. the Hystorical Center. the existance of an important green space network. the presence of cultural endowments that can be rehabilitated and valorized. care pot fi amenajate și integrate într-un sistem de spații publice eficient. the presence of the Dâmbovița river. the existance of spaces that are not sufficiently valorized for the community (sport fields. as well as the opportunity to regenerate brownfield type spaces (from destructured spaces in the Civic Center area to old industrial surfaces).
2. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FOR THE URBAN ACTION AREA 2.1 The need for a local development strategic vision The aim of the local development strategic vision is to harmonize the socioeconomic objectives formulated at the level of the urban action area with the Bucharest space, economic and social dynamics and with the priorities at city and country level. The development vision of the urban action area contains the coordinates established by Romania’s integration in the European Union in order to valorize the local potential. Viziunea este în acest caz îndreptată în trei direcții majore: ...........................................................................................................................................A competitive center at national and international level; ...........................................................................................................................................A sustainable urban area from a social and economic point of view, with a balanced medium and long term dynamics and development; ...........................................................................................................................................A n attractive area for inhabitants, visitors and investors, which offers facility diversity, benefits from a good infrastructure and becomes a magnet for development and creative investments. 2.2 Objectives 2.2.1 European objectives and principles regarding the improvement of the living environment in the urban area The strategy for the Bucharest center is fundamental both for the analysis of the area’s needs and potential and for the integrated approach principles resulting from the programs, policies and documents proposed and adopted at European Union level or at the level of member state reunions, such as the Leipzig Charter or the Toledo Statement. The Leipzig Charter for Sustainable European Cities, approved on occasion of the informal reunion of the European ministers responsible for urban development and territorial cohesion, in Leipzig (May 24-25 2007), recommends “the more frequent usage of integrated approaches in urban development”. The integrated urban development policy is a process through which spatial, sectorial and temporal key aspects are coordonated, the dsired result being the integration of the operation at local and municipal level from an urbanistic, economic and social point of view. The Leipzig Charter specifies, among the action strategies: creating and insuring high quality public spaces, by intensifying the interaction between architecture, infrastructure planning and urban planning, in order to increase the quality of life in the cities; modernizing infrastructure networks and increasing energetic efficiency, sustainable and accessible urban transport, at a reasonable price;
proactive innovation and educational policies: competitiveness and economic growth, reducing the disparities between neighborhoods and inside them; granting a special attention to under-privilleged areas, considered in the context of the city as a whole.
Similarly, the reference Document in Toledo regarding the integrated urban regeneration and the strategic potential of this approach, for a more intelligent, sustainable and inclusive urban development in Europe specifies that “the ministers reaffirmed the validity of the assumed commitments and of the principles established during the previous ministerial reunions, particularly the «integrated approach» in urban policies as one of the main instruments to advance in the directions established by the EUROPE 2020 strategy.” The Toledo Declaration emphasizes the fact that urban areas suffering from socioeconomic problems and a degradation of the built environment must make the object of an integrated and coherent urban regeneration process, which considers both the rehabilitation of the built fund and public spaces, and community consolidation and encouraging entreprenorial activities. Good European practices suggest several key aspect that may characterize a successful regeneration project. For example, from a spatial component point of view, English Partnerships specified in its Urban Design Compendium that the key aspect are: Places with character. In order for urban areas to be properly used and appreciated, they must be safe, comfortable, diverse and attractive. Moreover, there must be a place specificity and it must offer variety and usage options. Enriching the system. New projects should improve the qualities of the existing areas, reflect and complete their context. This applies at any level – region, city, neighborhood or street. Reconnection. Urban spaces must be easily accessible and integrated from a physical and visual context point of view. This aspect requires a special attention in order to establish how the spaces can be accessed by a pedestrian, a biker, by public transport or personal vehicle – in that order. Landscape work. Emphasize is placed on spaces that create a balance between the natural and the built environment and use all the resources – climate, landscape and ecosystem – in order to preserve energy and fully use the infrastructure. Investment management. In order for the projects to be developed, they must be valid from an economic point of view, well administrated and preserved in time. This assumes the understanding the developers, assuring the involvement of the local community and authority, defining adequate implementing mechanisms and including all the stakeholders in the design process. Design for change. New developments must be sufficiently flexible to answer futuer changes in use, life style and demography. This means designing to make resources
more efficient, to make the usage of the public space and service infrastructure more flexible and introduce new concepts for transport, traffic and parking management.
2.2.2. Objectives of the regional operational program The Regional Operational Program (ROP) is the strategic document implementing elements of the National Regional Development Strategy within the National Development Plan (NDP) and contributes, along with the other operational programs (POS Increasing Economic Competitiveness, POS Transport Infrastructure, POS Environment, POS Human Resources Development), to achieving the objective of the National Regional Development Strategy and of the Reference Strategic National Frame, that is reducing economic and social development disparities between Romania and the average development of the member states of the European Union. ROP was elaborated in accordance with the European subsidiarity principle, based on the development strategies in the regions, elaborated at regional levels in large partnership work groups. The Regional Operational Programs shall be established between 2007 - 2013 from the state budget and the local budgets, being cofinanced from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). ROP’s strategic objective consists of the territorially balanced economic and social development of Romania, according to specific needs and resources, focused on supporting sustainable development, improving the business environment and the basic infrastructure. In order to reach the general objective of regional development, the ROP strategy implies reaching specific objectives: Increasing the economic and social importance of urban centers, through a polycentric approach, in order to simulate a more balanced region development; Improving accessibility, especially the accessibility of urban centers and their connections with the surrounding areas; Increasing the quality of the social regional infrastructure; Increasing region competitiveness; Increasing the contribution of tourism in regional development. The objective of the Regional Operational Program is therefore increasing the quality of life and creating new work places in the cities, by rehabilitating the public urban infrastructure, the cultural improving social services, as well as by developing business and entrepreneurship support structures. 2.2.3. Objectives for the Integrated Urban Development Plan in Bucharest-Central Area In this context, after analysing the needs and development potential in the area and consulting the objectives of the Regional Operational Program 2007-2013, Priority Axis 1“Supporting sustainable development in the cities”, the following general objectives were established for the Urban Development Integrated Plan- Bucharest central area: Consolidating the city’s identity and supporting its vitality and attractiveness,
Local economic development, Sustainable urban regeneration. These general objectives can be reached only through an integrated and holistic approach, considering the social, economic and spatial aspects and answering to as many social groups and necessities at the same time. This approach allows maximum visibility and impact. The specific objecives of the Integrated Urban Development Plan for the Bucharest central area aim at creating an accessible and efficient urban network, rehabilitating the public service infrastructure, re-enacting the puclic space network and valorizing the area’s high potential. The effect of these actions shall be increasing attractiveness, increasing the quality of life for the inhabitants in the area and the entire city, creating a vibrating, dynamic center for Bucharest, European capital. O1. The center – and identity mark Image and brand studies realized at European level show that Bucharest is an underappreciated and unknown city. Although studies indicate the fact that the city has a high potential for investments and urban tourism, Bucharest suffers from a mostly negative image or even from the lack of knowledge of any identity landmark by Europeans. Tourists visiting Bucharest usually visit the Parliament’s Palace, and other parts of the city center often remain unexplored. One of the objectives of the Integrated Urban Development Plan is (re)creating an urban identity for the Bucharest central area, a clear identity, that attracts tourists and investors, creates a positive eclectic city brand, as well as stimulating a community and affiliation feeling that Bucharest inhabitants today do not have. Asige from the economic side of reaching the attractiveness potential for investors and tourists, the integrated plan aims at recovering the gap between the inhabitamts and their own city, highlighted by the sociologic sudies realized in Bucharest. By recreating the bound between the center and its users, beyond the economic benefits, a process to highlight social cohesion and local pride for city inhabitants is thus envisioned. O1a) Delineating an identity for the central area with a tourist and cultural potential The heterogenous and eclectic ccharacter of the Bucharest central area must be valorized in order to create an urban identity of which the inhabitants are proud and which attracts both tourists and investors. With quality public spaces, a diverse architectural patrimony, well valorized, alternative attractive routes for pedestrians and bikers, the Bucharest central area shall be an identity landmark for a European metropolis with a special history and an yet unexplored potential. O1b) Re-enactment of the public space network The value and attractiveness of a city are supported by the quality and diversity of its public spaces. Public spaces, presently adversly landscaped, often spontaneous parking, inaccessible spaces or spaces with redundant urban furnishing, have a currently sub-used potential. Representative public spaces must make the object of rehabilitation projects on modern principles, tranforming them into representative points, the symbol for a European Bucharest. This integrated plan meet the investments made presently for public buildings in the central area (the National Theatre, the National Library), proposing an adequate public space by organizing international contests, so that the final solution is both high quality and representative for the city.
Its priority must be both the physical reconnection of the isolated areas. pedestrian spaces with commercial role appear in Rotterdam (the famous Lijnbahn) and German cities reconstructed after the Second World War. with a high stress level. reflecting an increase of the purchase power among the population and the car’s role as a social status in postsocialist Romanian culture. functional. Secondly. promoting a high quality of urban life and experience. the realization of a concentric and radial continuous and coherent velo route network is considered important. These areas must be reintegrated from all points of view . the configuration of an integrated pedestrian and bike traffic network in a wide central area is considered. determining a polluted urban space. Both inhabitants and visitors consider intense traffic one of the important problems with a negative effect on the quality of life and urban experience. Bucharest repeats the Western scenario. by creating new connections and traffic flows. Efficient traffic system Traffic problems today in Bucharest are major. socioeconomic. and public spaces are redeemed to the city through the construction of underground and surface parking lots. the number of cars is increasing. and the problem of parking spaces is acute. the assurance of the necessary parking lots is aimed for the central area by constructing underground and surface parking lots. but the first city to move on was Barcelona in the 80s. An objective of the Integrated Urban Development Plan is to make the traffic system efficient in the central area by prioritizing sustainable and alternative traffic forms and by creating more and smaller parking spaces. an increase in the number of cars has a negative influence on the city. O3.O2. developed however with a greater speed. which represents not only traffic opportunities. Commercial pedestrian spaces are externded in the entire Occidentl Europe. segregated areas with major socio-economic problems resulting because of being separated from the rest of the city must be reintegrated through the present plan. identity – in the city center. the one of quality public spaces dedicated both to the city’s inhabitants and to visitors. Restructured and reintegrated urban network Unbalances created by the insertion in the Civic Center represent the main problem of the Bucharest central area. Moreover. based on a well established concept. when the number of cars increased exponentially. as well as mental reconnections at the level of the cities population in the areas separated from the Civic Center. The number of cars on the streets of the capital increased each year. A chance for Bucharest would be to profit from the lessons learned from the experience of western-European cities and the way they transformed the cities “invaded” by traffic into cities with a friendly and dynamic public space. and pedestrian space was reduced to narrow sidewalks. O3a) Encouraging walking and bikingthe use of public transport as alternatives for auto traffic Bucharest is a city suffocated by auto traffic. Since the 1950. when ample urban works were executerd. Therefore. These two sub-objectives comply with the actions in the other capitals of the European Union. where pedestrian and biking traffic is encouraged. The “invaded city” reflects what happens in occidental cities between 1950-1960. but also quality public spaces. Enclaved. regenerating the area by acions that increase the investments in the area and community cohesion. The city is congested. However. important markets in the cities became parking spaces. that do not occupy the public space. that realize public spaces and contribute to the decongestion of streets and markets in central areas. The public spaces of West-European cities were “recovered” for their own inhabitants. and the phenomenon was .spatial. as to bike transport.
cultural and leaisure activities. such as redirecting traffic on the Dâmbovița quay or enlarging the boulevards. Proposed actions must allow the creation of pedestrian and biker spaces. metropolitan and interurban level. in terms of the minimum number of lanes (corresponding to the narrowest steet widht). the integrated plan recommends considering tramway infrastructure projects that would make the network more efficient. A rapid. where it can play a key role in reducing physical isolation -. by avoiding the need to park or loss of time in traffic). filled with pedestrians. local economy benefits from the continuous passage of pedestrians and bikers. Consequently.adopted in the entire world. accessible to everyone – especially to marginalized neighborhoods. Works facilitating transit auto traffic in the center. as well as from the Northern Railway Station to Eroii Revoluției. efficient and comfortable public transport will become much more attractive than using the personal car. simultaneous with stimulating a more durable mobility at urban. The movement “cities with no cars” is a global presence. an opportunity is represented by studies analyzing the optimization of auto traffic. by creating connections in Unirii Square. What cities with successful public spaces have in common is ther existance of visionary urban policies with clear objectives and priorities. Center arteries must be treated as local character streets. psychology studies have shown that a dynamic street. Streets and boulevards in the central area must have a role in supporting urban life and not in transit. In addition. These streets can be totally or partially closed to auto traffic. Only under these conditions will Bucharest stand to be compared with the other European capitals. multimodal transport networks. The “recovery” of public spaces for Bucharest inhabitants and encouraging walking and biking to the detriment of auto traffic represent absolute priorities for the Integrated Urban Development Plan. streets that support commercial. as well as the optimization of urban logistics. The same declaration emphasizes the need to prioritize non-motorized less-polluting transport means. passign the Izvor-Uranus area. Encouraging sustainable transport modalities must also be a priority. It is recommended to support an efficient and cheap public transport. except for the pilot area of the historic center (and it is spatially very restricted). throughout an entire day or only during certain hours. the rest of the street surface being dedicated to the other transportation means. only lead to its congestion.Biker and pedestrian routes can be realized on the existing structure of some central streets. essential traits of an European urban center. promoting walking and biking. Bucharest. Creating an attractive alternative will lead to a change in the acual perception of car usage (the lack of a car is often seen in Wetern Europe as an increased level of independency. contradicting the understanding of the functionality and role of a city center. which are sized to a “human” scale and which accommodate buildings that can receive trade and food service functions on the ground floor. Moreover. lacks pedestrian areas and pedestrian priority areas and a coherent traffic system for cyclists. that represent alternative routes for the city’s streets suffocated by traffic. by encouraging the commercial activity of stores. including in the majority of post-socialist cities. The Toledo Declaration includes several aspects related to transport sustainability. starting from these aspects and after the analysis of the recommendations of the Transport Master Plan. Works on new metro arteries must become a priority. restaurants and coffe shops. offers a feeling of safety. Benefits for health are incontestable. from the American Portland to Curitiba in Brasil. However. For the streets with a variable number of lanes. . Walking and using bikes must be prioritized because both are ecologic and convenient transport means. which is presently weakly served by public transport. among which “Reducing transport needs by promoting proximity and mixt transport layouts”.
The streets afferent to this intermodal pole. Dianei Street and Tudor Arghezi Street. This project will be executed in stages. The bike route coming from Lipscani Street must cross (underground) the N. will allow reducing the number of cars on the streets. continue through Sf. Gheorghe Square: It is presently an important terminal point for tramways. on a wide scale. thus avoiding the great traffic congestion from Universității Square. Bălcescu Boulevard. The small parking system. Rosetti Square: Starting point for different routes. which creates disconfort for all users. Hristo Botev Boulevard. The regulation of street parking. The installation in the central area of large parking lots (over 1000 spaces) is not recommended. by moving them underground. network extension and frequency optimization and by introducing. Gheorghe Square and reach Calea Moșilor (old route). however it is difficult for bikes. Sf. encouraging walking and biking. leisure and cultural functionalities generates congestion and the usage of sidewalk areas dedicated to pedestrians as parking space. arranged on the entire central ring. allowing the possibility for an adequate management of parking lots throughout the entire central area. avoiding a major traffic disfunction in the central area. on which bike routes can be marked: Cristian Radu Street. on a perimeter ring of the city’s central area. Thus relieved space at street level becomes available for a better use by pedestrians and bikers. due to low traffic flow values. as proposed through this strategy. . These parking spaces will be connected through an infrastructure system in which pedestrians and bikers have a well defined and equipped space. shall bring significant benefits: important spaces are given back for use in pedestrian and biker traffic. These will consist of points from which different public and alternative transport routes will start. A proposal is made for the execution of an integrated small and medium parking system (under 500 spaces).Bike routes and varied means of public transport must be correlated and connected by realizing intermodal poles. The entire system will be supported by an integrated display and signaling system for available spaces. Public transport must be prioritized through supported investments. the existing roadway is maintained. connected in important public transport nodes. the passages dedicated to public urban transport means. traffic capacity is maintained almost unmodified on the routes proposed for modernization. Rosetti Square must become the main alternative for Universității Square. because such parking spaces become a traffic generating factor in itself. simultaneously ensuring a better traffic and public transport flow. Intermodal poles identified through the Integrated Urban Development Plan are: Romană Square. O3b) Small and medium parking lot system The presence in the central area of several public.
as well as the consolidation of the community and the encouragement of entrepreneurial activities. the quality of several urban networks. O5. encouraging the use of public transport. the strategy for the city’s center must provide a sustainable development. with an increased quality of the surrounding environment. Field recycling is recommended through redeveloping and reusing abandoned or unused fields for public functions (we exemplify with the Panduri library. as well as protecting or requalifying architectural forms shall contribute not only to the improvement of the urban landscape. Integrated urban regeneration A number of areas with a significant historical and architectural value are marked today by major spatial and socio-economic disfunctions. the Toledo Declaration and the Regional Operating Program. by traumatizing demolition and by ignoring the rest of the urban and social capital. public spaces invaded by parked cars. O6a) Creating un attractive public field Except for the green spaces. physical improvement and modernization of the infrastructure represent not only essential requirements for a city’s . whose landscaping and maintenance became a priority for local authorities. built environment. Therefore.” Urban areas suffering from socio-economic problems and a degradation of the built environment must make the object of an integrated and coherent urban regeneration process. Their potential. Rehabilitating and landscaping green spaces. recommend them as target areas for integrated regeneration projects. determined by their central location and by the values of the built fund. with cracks and dislevelments. the improvement of public spaces must become a priority. An unattractive public space leads both to a decrease in the quality of life for the inhabitants (walking through a city invaded by cars becomes a stressful activity). only the field value is prioritized and preserved. the essential role of public spaces in the city’s urban development was discussed: “revalorizing deteriorated public spaces and creating new open spaces.O4. Within the Toledo Declaration. “proposes to optimize. this action being registered in the recommendation line of the Leipzig Charter and the Toledo Declaration. the Căderea Bastiliei mobile market) – a key strategy to contribute to a reduction in field consumption. greener city. walking and biking in the overcrowded central area will lead to a more sustainable. in this entire urban capital. The „integrated urban regeneration” concept. according to the Toledo Declaration. and a negative effect on the city’s image for tourists and possible investors. O6b) Creating work places The Toledo Declaration emphasizes: “Building rehabilitation. and thus to an increase in business and specialized labor force attractiveness. patrimony). as opposed to other intervention forms in which. that envisions both the rehabilitation of the built fund and the public spaces. but also to an increase in their attractivess for the locals and to identifying the locals with the urban environment and the community they are part of”. Development of economic activity By improving public spaces and quality and diversifying cultural services and activities will increase the attractiveness of the city’s central area for investments. Sustainability In accordance with the objectives of the Leipzig Charter. preserve and revalorize the entire existing urban capital (social. creating a green network. as well as the acute social needs of the area. O6. Bucharest does not offer and attractive public space for residents and visitors: sidewalks made of bad wuality materials.
as well the creation of cultural centers for the community. especially in the construction sector (which presently goes through a major crisis in some member states). but also for sectors in which the need for work force is greater and thus represents a new potential source for work places.” The projects proposed through the integrated plan shall lead to an increase in the area’s role int eh city’s economy and implicitly in creating new work places. O7. there is a concentration of needy population with specific problems that must be approached coherently and comprehensively by an Integrated Urban Development Plan. Mainly in areas 4. Social cohesion Recent social tendencies in Bucharest reflect an amplification of the discrepancies between different population categories.attractiveness. Therefore. helping with unemployment absorption. A residential segregation process according to economic criteria is in full development. educational and leisure role for the entire population in the area. Objectives The center – an identity mark Sub-objectives Actions Rehabilitating buildings with architectural value Educating the public on the built patrimony Reconfiguring / creating quality and representative public spaces Reconditioning the public lighting infrastructure Reconditioning pavements Endowment with urban furnishing Valorizing the built patrimony Quality public endowments . in contrast to general European principles promoting social mixture. 8 and 9. Bucharest must not develop as a series of paralel cities. priorities must be established for the actions envisioning social cohesion. which play a social. but it must reflect the diverse character of a European capital.
Integrating the enclaves between the Unirii Boulevard. crossing the Unirii Boulevard) Integrating area enclaved by the Unirii and Libertății Boulevards Creating auto and pedestrian connections across Dâmbovița. Unirii Square and Libertății Boulevard fronts Efficient traffic system Studies regarding the extension and modernization of the tramway network Improving the public transport system Building intermodal transport terminals Introducing colors dedicated to local public transport Integrated pedestrian traffic and bike network Creating pedestrian and bike routes and rehabilitating the existing ones Insuring the necessary parking spaces for the residents Insuring the necessary parking lots Eliminating parking lots from public places and creating new underground/surface parking spaces Development of traffic management systems Better traffic management .Objectives Restructured and reintegrated urban network Sub-objectives Coherent spatial structure Actions Tracing new connection axes Creating new pedestrian connections (Parliament’s Palace.
bikes) and public transportation Promotin a sustainable consumption model Traditional markets with local products Objectives Development of economic activity Sub-objectives Supporting creative economy Supporting traditional economy Attracting investors in the area by promoting commercial activities in pedestrian areas Creating business incubators Actions Diversifying and improving the quality of cultural services and activities Markets for traditional producers Creating pedestrian streets that support commercial activities in riverain buildings Creating business platforms Diverse and safe social climate Meeting the needs of all population groups Transparentizing the project and continuous consulting Varied socio-cultural activity agenda .Objectives Sustainability Sub-objectives Reconfiguring the green space network Actions Creating a „green system” of the area Improved environment quality Rehabilitating the existing green spaces Encouraging non-polluting transport means (walking.
A series of priorities have been identified to guide the actions of this integrated plan. a large number of accessibility. lifting the complexity degree of urban interventions in these spaces. potential and principles. a proposalhas been made for realistic actions at the level of urban intervention. such as Unirii Square. fences) limiting pedestrian flows and area usage. which cannot be approached through this integrated plan. Similarly. with problems. starting from the recommendations resulting from the performed analyses. such as the one of auto traffic at city level. It is recommended to organize solution contests to approach these very complex spaces: Unirii Square Universității Square Revoluției Square Victoriei Square Națiunile Unite Square . pedestrian mobility problems have been noticed. cannot make the object of interventions within this plan. There are certain problems. disfunctions in public space design. because solving the auto traffic needs establishing an integrated strategy at city level and cannot be limited only to the interventions at central area level. resulting from the specified needs. For such spaces. complex urban spaces. the existance of barriers (auto flows. connectivity. Following the analyses. It is important to specify that.Objectives Sub-objectives Ensuring a design of the spaces considering citizen safety Increasing safety and preventing criminality Actions Understanding the optimum and safe space operation conditions Investment for citizen safety 2.3 Development priorities The proposed Integrated Urban Development Plan considers existing opportunities and transposes the vision to create an integrated and well coordinated frame to transform the studied area.This strategy only presents possbile prioritary directions for a transport policy. first of all foundation studies are necessary.
c) Recovering Dâmbovița’s attractiveness as a river in the center of the city. (Antim Monastery. and by reconnection they will only be a ten minute walking distance from the current “Historical Center”. For Bucharest inhabitants. which physically and mentally segregated the neighborhoods. The lack of attractiveness for Dâmbovița is another major problem for the center’s urban identity and image. b) Recovering the southern Dâmbovița area and reconnecting it to the center. other urban operations facilitating tranzit traffic on Splaiul Dâmboviței must be avoided. The risk is losing the value of some monuments and areas belonging to the old city center. At the end of the socialist period. which. In this context. but as a local character street. Splaiul Dâmboviței must not be approached as a traffic artery. This integrated plan proposes a concept to revitalize and reconnect diverse character areas which represent Bucharest’s central area. the historical center only represents the Lipscani area. This way. A reconnection of the said streets is proposed and the reconstruction of two bridges which would become an attraction through their design. A major problem to recover unity in the central area represents the lack of connectivity between the northrn and southern Dâmbovița. Bucharest is an eclectic city. for which the architectural diversity of the center represents an advantage and an idntity mark. two main arteries that drained with user flows the southern Dâmbovița area were divided (Calea Rahovei and Uranus Street) and two bridges connecting them to the center from the northern part of Dâmbovița were demolished. which represents a simplified history. today. RECOVERY a) Recovering an urban identity for the Bucharest central area. for years.In this context PIDU’s key priorities are: 1. from the old Uranus neighborhood. presently hidden and difficultly accessible historic monuments and tourist objectives shall be recovered. The interventions started during the 80s broke Bucharest’s historical center through large boulevards. Coșbuc Flower Market). remained a space that was low frequented and used by the inhabitants. not as a valuable element from an urban point of view. Bragadiru Palace. the Parliament Palace and Romanian Academy House area. Reconnecting this area shall revive the Libertății Boulevard area. to traditional commercial axes such as Calea Moșilor and Calea Griviței. bordered by tall homogenous buildings. d) Regenerating degraded traditional neighborhoods Several central areas were affected in the last decades by continuous degradation . A proposition is made to reconfigure the Dâmbovița Quay between Unirii Square and Izvor by delineating a walking space along the river. Dâmbovița was treated so far as a utilitary infrastructure work. in order for it to become a pedestrian and biker-friendly public space and to valorize the Dâmbovița river.
this plan represents a catalyst for area regeneration. The plan also contains rehabilitation projects by reconversion of the social infrastructure. creating business incubators. Finally. are marked today by major spatial and socio-economice disfunctions. Three central areas with socio-economic problems and with an amplified degradation of the built fund . e) Recovery and re-functionalization of the fund built by reconversion This fund ties the physical regeneration of the fund built by the socio-economic one. the old Calea Moșilor area and the Griviței area – can be the target of an integrated urban regeneration program recommended by the strategy for the center of the city. through the appearance of business incubators and community centers. work places will be created and the economic activity of the old commercial axes will be stimulated. Both modern creative industries and craft and traditional style trade re-enactment are supported. through an integrat urban development plan. such as rehabilitating the building on 2 Blănari street in order to realize a socio-cultural center. However. such as the medieval nucleus of Calea Moșilor or the area of the old commercial axis of Calea Griviței.Significant historical and architectural value areas. both at the level of the degraded areas. and at the level of the entire city center. Given that. investments can only be made in the public field. such as Hala Matache. simultaneous with an aplification of social problems. A number of historical buildings shall be reconditioned in order for them to become business incubators (business platforms). most of the buildings in these areas. By rehabilitating historical monuments and public spaces the image of thses areas will be improved. . on private property.the Rahova-Uranus area. cannot make the object of direct rehabilitation investments. through these integrated infrastructure and public space improvement projects. by physical reconditioning of traditional places in the field.processes on the built fund. such as a Craftsmen Court. as well as the Uranus business platform and creating socio-cultural centers in the specified areas shall increase the dynamics of the area. or creating new structures.
cultural and leisure activities adapted to an urban European center. TRAFFIC a) The main priority regarding the car traffic facility is to ease the passing traffic through the central area. on short term a new artery leads to the mitigation of the traffic issue. the present plan suggests the execution of an integrated system regarding the streets' infrastructure. by building city rings and the beltway. we suggest the building of an integrated small and medium sized parking system (under 500 spaces). and not be meant mainly for the traffic. to the city's median and extern rings. efficient and comfortable mass transportation shall become much more attractive than using the private vehicles. The works at the new subway rails must turn to a priority.is the absolute expression of this plan: a large artery that becomes an obstacle in the connecting route between traditional neighborhoods from the northern part to the southern one. A first step in offering a new moving sustainable model consists in the reconfiguration of 23 streets with priority granted to pedestrians and bicyclists. If.2. The local economy benefits from the pedestrian and bicyclists flows by encouraging the trading activity performed by shops. priority systems for pedestrians and infrastructure for bicycles. Thus. which is connected to the important mass transportation nodes and to the artery network with priority for pedestrians and bicyclists. inaccessible or with redundant urban fittings. b) Streets and markets as friendly public spaces. with minim investments in the infrastructure. The European cities (lately the North-American ones as well) focus on new transportation polities where the mass. The public spaces within the capital's central area are currently poorly developed. with its main axis . The underground and above the ground parking system placed all over the central ring shall allow for the removing of the "unwanted occupation" of the public space by parked vehicles. The offering of alternatives through the main ring and subsequently through the beltway shall allow for a more fluid traffic in the central area and the increase of the travelling speed. the boulevard widening for the traffic continues the urban interventions performed in the last decade of the communist period. relaxation or even to children for playing. The boulevard widening for the traffic also leads to a complete out phasing with the urban policies from the European Union. 3. The presence in the central area of a large number of public and cultural institutions as well as leisure places leads to a built-up area and excessive usage of the streets as parking spaces (most of the times jamming the sidewalks). We suggest studies regarding the improvement of mass transportation connections in the central area (such as the creation of new links for the tramway network). The maximum widening of the central boulevards is not a solution. often used as spontaneous parking spaces. The introduction of an underground parking system shall allow for the recovering of more public space to be returned to the citizens of Bucharest or to tourists. A fast. parking spaces. The creation of attractive alternative means of transportation shall lead to a change of the current perception of car usage. The streets and boulevards from the central area must facilitate the supporting of urban life. as well as a more efficient mass transportation. In conclusion. restaurants and services. as they are environmental-friendly and affordable methods. c) Encouraging the sustainable means of transportation. which support trading. In fact. The Civic Center. PUBLIC SPACES a) A city's value and attractiveness are supported by the quality and diversity of its public spaces. Therefore. The central arteries must be regarded as streets with local character. the traffic's volume increases again which leads to an increased issue that should have been initially solved. with under-used potential. b) A second grand issue of the central area is represented by the parking spaces. mass transportation. Their rehabilitation would lead to the creation of socialization and relaxation spaces for the 1 . The passing traffic through the central area must be redirected in compliance with the Transportation Master Plan for Bucharest. The walking and riding of bicycles are recommended. it has a different effect on medium to large term: it encourages the usage of private vehicles.Unirii Boulevard . for walking. bicycles and pedestrian transportation (in this particular order) are favored and the transportation by private vehicles is discouraged.
The route suggested in the present integrated plan is meant to describe Bucharest and to provide an ambiance. which would function on an existing. A walk through the classical culture urban room invites to an excursion into the art history and Romanian and international culture. The initial concept was the urban room. the identity is a fundamental element in creating the urban room. history and public emotion that these places represent for Bucharest. Strategy for the touristic development of the Central Area of Bucharest The present chapter aims for an alternative strategy for promoting the Bucharest's central area starting with the previously disclosed development analysis. This integrated plan prioritizes the reconfiguration through quality projects of 21 urban public spaces. For Bucharest. with a more and more difficult functioning. National Library Square (Piața Bibliotecii Naționale) . approved by public debates taking into account the importance. The strategy integrates the investments performed on public buildings within this area (The National Theatre. 2. as a whole. Romană Square (Piața Romană). symbols of an European Bucharest. It includes some of the city's and country's most important cultural institutions Romanian National Art Museum. Palace Hall. c) Representative public spaces The intervention area of this plan lies between Victoriei Square (Piața Victoriei).inhabitants and visitors equally.4. adapted revitalized and renewed infrastructure. COMPETITIVENESS A planning and prioritizing of investments based on a flexible strategic medium and long term plan allowing for various financing options. Antipa Museum and Peasant's Museum) suggesting an adequate public space by organizing international competitions so that the final solution would be the best and the most representative for the city. event and challenge to its inhabitants and tourists. Unirii Square (Piața Unirii). should function as a network of interconnected areas. with major supremacy clearly defined . This generates dedicated. objectives and priorities. There is no "circuit" that the city would provide for the tourist and the streets have become just traffic ways. National Library. turning them into representative spaces. Diversity may become the support for an alternative route for pedestrians and bicyclists. included in a two hour journey by foot or a half an hour by bicycle. The urban space occupied by the classical cultural room is a relatively unitary and homogenous one. Revoluției Square (Piața Revoluției). Romanian Athenaeum. 4. Within this system. The city. The definition of "urban room" arises as necessary the more we refer to Bucharest. apart from the current crossing routes. The classical culture room is the name suggested for the Revoluției Square . integrated in a system at the level of the whole city. from European funds to private-public partnerships (with high public impact) may provide a more efficient usage of the City Hall's budget in a period when the public funds must be invested with a final purpose of increasing the quality of life in the city and in the same time to turn the city in a more attractive one for economic and investment activities. the concept of urban room becomes a major element in promoting diversity. The urban room means the community public space with well defined activities. These are important public spaces for which the rehabilitation is based on modern principles. The Enescu festival is organized here. This is the Bucharest's classical nature cultural focus. which is one of the most important symphonic music festivals in Europe. supported and applicable functions for a certain urban room.up to the Palace of the Parliament (Palatul Parlamentului) and George Coșbuc Flower Market. The Revoluției Square . For this purpose the most important public spaces and the most interesting touristic landmarks have been defined.the urban rooms. from George Cantacuzino market to Antim Monastery public space. Universității Square (Piața Universității).Palace Hall (Palace Hall) area. important historic and modern art exhibitions are also organized in these locations.
together with Buleandra Theatres creates the potential for a touristic interest in visiting this room. The contemporary culture room (The Palace of the Parliament . The Uranus area is suggested to be turned into a pole of alternative cultural activities. of interaction at niche level. The Romanian Academy. pluralist events or projects pursuing an urban and cultural regeneration. as traditional meeting locations. The presence in the area of the Contemporary National Art Museum.L. Important public/cultural/leisure functions may be found here. The reconnecting is not important solely for the area's development but it shall also have a powerful impact on all the surrounding areas. Moreover. Dacia and Eminescu. an urban socket is created completing the socialist architecture and scale and announcing the re-entering into the picturesque. Also the presence of Grădina Icoanei has its contribution to this feeling. of a high cultural value. the Square is perceived more as an important traffic node. This is the room which provides the possibility to create gardens. where the coffee shops and the leisure area may compete with the high vegetation that diminished the scale difference between the socialist buildings. Caragiale" National Theatre from Bucharest. The place's spirit is strongly altered by history and culture. Due to the surrounding traffic. bicycle tracks integrated in a development strategy of Bucharest's central area shall pursue the decrease of the car traffic speed and the increase of the pedestrian and bicyclist routes. The area's characteristics are given by the presence of some representative buildings for Bucharest and by the contracting atmosphere of a multicolored world. The spaces created by the area's urban systematization during the 80's are the proper setting for exhibitions.Romană Square area) aims at presenting the visitor of Bucur's city with an area of typical private houses found in the immediate surroundings of the grand boulevards. which have been executed for over a century. Bragadiru Palace. While Magheru Boulevard is the expression of the inter-war development and moreover a major traffic and trading artery. in its nearest neighborhood. The unity is reflected in the alignment of perches. "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urbanism and "I. The ambiance room (Grădina Icoanei . being the result of architectural and urban interventions. a welcome architectural parasite located in the premises of the Palace of the Parliament and more recently of the MNACLab. an experimented artistic lab imprints the urban room with the character dedicated to .Contemporary National Art Museum area) is meant to be a space dedicated to cultural events exclusively oriented to the contemporary art. The surrounding relaxation spaces are intensely used by the young people. in the stylish resemblance of the facades and in the fluidity of the whole space. for organizing various nonconventional. The increase of the green spaces' quality shall lead to a reintegration and implicitly a revitalization of the whole area. From the urban point of view it is an odd space. currently separated by Calea 13 Septembrie and Unirii Boulevard. although it can be found more in the private space than in the public one. presentations of contemporary artistic facilities and so on. there is a parcelar kept since the Borroczyn plan (1855) lightly densified afterwards. Thus. historical urban scale. dominated by volume and the medium sized picturesque ones. However. the academic room is a dynamic urban space where the student life is present everywhere. the former building of Merchandise Exchange and Flower Market offer a certain specificity to this place through their positions and historic values.is the outcome of an integrated urban shaping undertaking for the 30's. it is the proper space where flea markets may appear. The counterbalancing of the Magheru trading area with the relaxation area of Grădina Icoanei. The alternative culture room (Uranus . however coherent as a whole. namely Magheru. The Universității Square is the academic room as it hosts national famous educational and cultural institutions: the University of Bucharest. The not very high elevation regime favors the ambient and intimate character of the entire area. pedestrian traffic.Rahova area) is a suggestion in order to generate a natural integration of the southern area of the center. A plan for configuring the street network. consisting of isolated private houses. events. The area seems to have a lot of vegetation. The RahovaUranus area is however a weakly connected area to the city's core and the presence of industrial area as well as non-valorized land related to the Palace of the Parliament represent a physical obstacle generating a weak permeability.
theatres. of the historical center or the former Jewish neighborhood to a rarefied urban core. The whole space is currently dominated by the Palace of the Parliament. was flattened and the street raster has disappeared. restaurants and coffee shops. The history room (Historic center area) corresponds to the traditional center of Bucharest. The market's ensemble is by excellence a pedestrian space. The built environment is valuable from the historical and architectural point of view however it may be found in an advanced state of degradation. The market's reshaping is in progress. The urban room of the touristic market aims at generating a short incursion into what used to be a local specific trading form that implied the direct interaction with small manufacturers as well as with the city's inhabitants.or Lipscani area . a neighborhood for wealthy merchants. The once existing relief of this place. The vegetables and fruits market naturally attracts an important flow of surrounding inhabitants. former Victoria Socialismului. a building from the 70's remodelled during the past years of the communist regime in order to integrate in the new ensemble. The adjacent land is delimitated by a fence type border separating the urban public space from the one (also public) belonging to the Palace of the Parliament. the most brutal being the one during the demolitions in the 80's have created an area where the history is marginalized: Patriarhiei hill was almost entirely covered by blocks. whose characteristic is the monumentality . The bridge room (Izvor area) is an important traffic location on the suggested touristic route. a place . resulted from the mass demolitions executed in the 80's. The history urban room invites to an incursion into the Bucharest's history. on the northern side of the market. from the location point of view. The contemporary culture room occupies a cavity within the urban core. to a relaxed walk through the charming streets of Lipscani.contemporary culture right from the start. Being a traditional trading area by excellence. compact and continuous fronts urban texture with some empty lots. where Mihai Vodă neighborhood existed. „Touristic market” room (Amzei Market area) is a traditional important trade node in the Bucharest's center. subsequently replaced by a wooden temporary passage. on its side appearing numerous shops. Unirii Square may function as a huge stage in the center of the city's most complex crossroad. We suggest the rebuilding of the natural connection between Brezoianu area and Izvor park.claimed the most judicial occupancy of lands. Unirii Square is a space that avails an abrupt passing from the old urban core of Bucharest. Unirii Square has always been a place of interactions. that also disappeared. the hall complex has completely disappeared and Hanul lui Manuc is the only witness for the passing of the last decades. As the name shows it. Regarded as a neighborhood starting to rediscover itself step-by-step having a touristic and pedestrian potential. dominated by Dealul Spirii. Unirii Boulevard. intersections. exchanges. making room for a un-built space. Its grand surface. The 90's have brought a series of bright commercials on the Unirii Square's facades.the new civic center and its main artery. the historic center may become an area filled with coffee shops. leading to the current impression of a chaotic space. most of them insanitary. The area is currently regarded as a place without a past. the second largest building in the world. Mântuirea Neamului Românesc Cathedral shall be build within the same urban room. niche shops. the historic Center . The central park in Unirii Square is currently an isle of green space surrounded by intense car traffic on all sides. the complexity of the road network crossing it. with the purpose of building the Palace of the Parliament. which led to a grand density of buildings. Until 1977 there was Mihai Vodă bridge. Naturally deemed as a place where the most diverse entertainment manifests are organized. its intermodal character make Unirii Square a passing area as well as a grand interstitial urban space. compared to the other old neighborhoods in Bucharest. banks. covered by spontaneous vegetation. The entertainment room (Unirii Square area) is a true city stage. galleries. the bridge room is a space located at heights. The various legal issues determine a troublesome process for the rehabilitation of Lipscani. at the crossroads of some extremely different urban events. also known as Dealul Arsenalului. Surrounded by a front of blocks from the last years of the 80's decade and by Unirea shopping center. Its successive remodelling. It is an area with dense.
buildings with high patrimonial value .trading activities at the ground floor. the most diverse restaurants and shops. a continue facade of blocks from the 80's. which shall connect the two shores of Dâmbovița. mark the southern limit of the urban room. different as urban texture. with continue facades.where one can admire the city and its life. Brezoianu area. On the other side of the river.such as the building of the Ministry of Internal Affairs . night clubs. On one side. .
could represent the important elements for the area's development. project's implementation period Pursuing the analysis performed in the urban action area.3. One of the plan's key projects is the creation of an alternative route that brings closer the area's attractiveness and most used functions and provides an increased comfort and quality of finishes. starting with the development of spaces along the existing traffic arteries until the development of attraction poles such as squares. ACTION PLAN 3. that must be integrated in an ample strategy at city level. In this context there were identified a series of macro level projects. This type of projects involve the creation of under and above the ground parking spaces. a positive attitude towards the presence of some land reserves that may be reused (such as the Uranus department store area). Projects for the rehabilitation of some buildings with socio-cultural function are provided at this scale as well. The Projects to be implemented represent the direct means of carrying out the Objectives formulated within the present Urban Development Integrated Plan. The micro scale interventions involve the development of public spaces. on financing sources. At a medium scale. located at spatial and functional level.an unitary landmark . museums) that have both a local as well as a city level influence. especially for pedestrians and bicyclists. representing in the same time the outcome of some communication and consulting procedures. of the whole city's.1 Projects' list and the estimated budget for implementing the integrated plan. The projects within this category cover a large range. building of connections such as bridges and reshaping of public means of transportation. whose impact shall be felt on a wide area. for identifying the area's needs and potential and for establishing the Objectives and developments priorities a number of Projects for the central area have been suggested within this strategy. of the presence of some elements with cultural functions (theatres. This was born from the desire to increase the impact of some possible projects/major investments at city level and to provide their directing towards a larger number of users. markets. chapter : The projects reply to objectives and development priorities identified in the previous Sub-Objectives Actions Rehabilitation of buildings with high architectural value Projects Restoration of "Curtea Veche" Voivodal Palace Rehabilitation of Hanul Solacolu Rehabilitation of Hala Matache Objectives Central aria . as they address a large public. we suggest projects that complete the infrastructure necessary for a good functioning of the central area. pursuing the increase of their quality in order to offer an ambiance characteristic to the center area. show halls. Thus. having a large impact.
an identity landmark Reconfiguration / creation of quality and representative public spaces Improving 23 streets and 19 markets and squares along the alternative route with priority for pedestrians and bicyclists Reconfiguration of the public space on Unirii Boulevard Reconfiguration of the public space on Calea Victoriei Rebuilding of sidewalks in the central area Improving the Constituției Square as public space for events Modernizing Saint Anton Square public space Quality public facilities Rebuilding the public lighting infrastructure Rebuilding of sidewalks Urban furniture facilities .Objectives Sub-Objectives Actions Projects Rehabilitation of Dacia Cinema Informative billboards in the protected areas Museum of lost Bucharest Multiculturalism Museum Improving monuments for the public Improving the built patrimony Educating the public towards the built patrimony Central area .
Objectives Sub-Objectives Actions Projects Reconfiguration of the Antim Monastery public space Reconfiguration of the Filaret bussstation square public space Configuration of the National Library public space Reconfiguration of Dâmboviței QuayUnirii-Izvor Reconfiguration of Universității Square (competition) Reconfiguration of Unirii Square (competition) Reconfiguration of Revoluției Square (competition) Reconfiguration of United Nations Square (competition) Reconfiguration of Romană Square (competition) Reconfiguration of Gara de Nord Square (competition) Reconfiguration of Matache market area (competition) .
crossing the Unirii Boulevard) Integrating the areas comprised by Unirii and Libertății Boulevards Building of car and pedestrian connections across Dâmbovița Building of the pedestrian and cyclist bridge Izvor Park MNAC yard Building of Mihai Voda Bridge Urban Complex Building a bridge across Dâmbovița Șelari .Palace of Justice Integrating the enclaves between the front of Unirii Boulevard. Unirii Square and Libertății Boulevard Building of the Domnița Bălașa urban ensemble Reconfiguration of Antim Monastery public space Efficient traffic system Studies regarding the extension and updating of the tramway network Studies regarding the building of a tramway lines connection across the Unirii Square .Objectives Structured and integrated urban texture Sub-Objectives Coherent spatial structure Actions Establishing new connection arteries Projects Crossing the Palace of the Parliament yard Crossing the Unirii Blvd near George Georgescu street and Sfinții Apostoli Building of a new pedestrian connection (Palace of the Parliament.
UranusGara de Nord route Rebuilding the Romană Square intermodal transportation node Rebuilding the Rossetti Square transportation node Efficient traffic system Improving the mass transportation Building of transportation of intermodal terminals Introducing corridors dedicated to local public transportation Integrated pedestrian and bicycles traffic network Ensuring the necessary parking spaces Building pedestrian and bicycles routes and the rehabilitation of the existing ones Removing of parking spaces from public spaces and building of new under/above the ground parking spaces Ensuring the parking spaces necessary for the residents Rebuilding the Sf.N. Tonitza street 7-9 .Objectives Sub-Objectives Actions Projects Studies regarding the building of tramway infrastructure and introducing tramway lines on the Eroii Revoluției. Gheorghe intermodal transportation node Building of a route with priority for pedestrians and bicyclists with related infrastructure Palace Hall Square underground parking spaces Domnița Bălașa underground parking spaces Piața Constituției underground parking spaces Automated superposed parking spaces .
Rahova Square underground parking spaces Antim parking spaces Academy area parking spaces Efficient traffic system Better traffic management Developing systems for traffic management Enlarging the traffic management system with another 50 crossroads Implementing a VMS system by installing billboards with various messages Restricting and controlling systems for car access into mainly pedestrian areas Management systems for opened above the ground parking spaces Management systems for closed above the ground parking spaces Sustainability Reconfiguration of green spaces network Improved quality environment Building of an area’s „green system” Reconfiguration of green spaces around the Palace of the Parliament Improving and modernizing Izvor park Rehabilitation of existing green spaces .Objectives Sub-Objectives Actions Projects Uranus .
Uranus cultural/community center Dacia.Căderea Bastiliei 65 Developing the economic activity Supporting the creative economy Improving the quality and diversity of cultural services and activities Rahova.Objectives Sub-Objectives Actions Encouragement of the non-polluting means of transportation (walking.Griviței cultural community center Blănari 2 cultural community center Curtea Meșteșugarilor Mihail Sadoveanu cultural community center Supporting the traditional economy Developing the economic activity Attracting investors in the area by promoting trading activities in the pedestrian areas Markets for traditional manufacturers Creating pedestrian streets supporting trading activities in the riparian buildings Căderea Bastiliei 65 traditional market Creating a route with priority for pedestrians . bicycles) and the mass transportation Traditional markets with local products Projects Creating a 9 km route for pedestrians and bicycles Promotion of a sustainable consumption model Rehabilitation of Hala Matache – traditional market Building a traditional market .
oriented towards pedestrian traffic and intensely circulated areas .Dinu Lipatti cultural community center Playground for the children from Acvila .Objectives Sub-Objectives Creating business platforms Actions Creating business platforms Projects Business incubator – 22-24 Calea Victoriei 2 Business incubator 26 Franceză Divers and safe social climate Providing the answer for the needs of all population groups Project’s transparency and continuous Building of Panduri Library Recreational spaces for the community Mihai Eminescu high-school Various offer of socio-cultural activities Recreational spaces for the community – Unirea high-school Recreational spaces for the community – Cervantes highschool Show room .Ion Creangă area Providing spaces taking into consideration the citizens’ safety Increasing the safety and preventing crime Understanding the optimum conditions for a safe functioning of the spaces Investments for citizens’ safety Pedestrian priority route Video monitoring system necessary for increasing safety and preventing crime.
Objectives Sub-Objectives Actions Projects 3. with localization of individual projects comprising the plan .2 The map for the urban action area.
2.3. DEZVOLTAREA DURABILA A MEDIULUI DE AFACERI III. 4 II.2.5.2.Piata Rahova Reconfigurarea spatiilor verzi din Parcul Izvor I.2.3.1. Piata Revolutiei. 4 Reconfigurare spatiu public Calea Mosilor (intre str. IIII. Mircea Voda si Logofatul Udriste Refacere infrastructura scuar intersectie Calea Rahovei cu str.1 P1 I.1.16.7 I.3 III. 2 I. ZONE PIETONALE / CU PRIORITATE PENTRU PIETONI Reamenajarea de strazi si realizarea unui traseu cu prioritate I. de Cervantes Reabilitarea cladirii situate pe str. Piata Universitatii.2.Gen.1 Reconfigurarea salii de spectacol a Liceului de Muzica “Dinu Lipatti” III. I.3. 8 Bdul Carol I) I.3.2.1. I.2.1. I. Piaţa Matache (concursuri) I.188.8.131.52 III.1.8 I.4 III.PMB Constructia podului pentru pietoni si biciclisti intre Parcul Izvor si MNAC III.184.108.40.206.1. biciclisti cu spatii amenajate de repaos si verzi peste Dambovita zona Parc Izvor .2. 3.11 Muzeul Bucurestiului Pierdut . CONSTRUIREA DE TERMINALE INTERMODALE IN SCOPUL IMBUNATATIRII INTEGRARII DIFERITELOR MODURI DE TRANSPORT PUBLIC URBAN II.Vanatori . Arthur Verona intre I. DIN MEDIUL URBAN Restaurarea.1 I.2. PIATETE SI PIETE PUBLICE I.2. Parcaj Subteran Splaiul Independentei zona PMB P6 Parcaj subteran Gradina Icoanei P7 Parcaj subteran Uranus .1.5 P4 I.5 modificarea spatiilor publice din curtea si vecinatatea Gr. Apostoli I.3.14.1. Gen.10 I.13.1. I. Lutherana cu str. Matei Millo Refacere infrastructura scuar str.220.127.116.11.1.2 Reconditionarea si crearea structurii de sprijinire a afacerilor “Curtea Mestesugarilor” III.2. Tonitza 7-9 (Centrul Istoric) P3 Parcare subterana Ansamblul Urban Domnita Balasa P5 Parcari Ansamblu Urban Complex Pod Izvor:parcaj subteran zona Parc Izvor Est.3 Recondiţionarea Pietei de Flori George Cosbuc III.2.2. str. consolidarea.2. Berthelot Refacere infrastructura scuar intersectie str. I.2. TROTUARE.2.3. Refacere infrastructura scuar str. Piata Constitutiei.6 Constructia Muzeului Evreiesc/Muzeul Multiculturalismului .3.3 Crearea unor spatii recreative pentru comunitate-amenajarea si III.2.9 III.3. NATIONAL SI LOCAL.12. Amenajare spatiu public manastirea Antim Reconfigurare Piata Unirii. TRAMVAIE SI TROLEIBUZE SI/SAU MODERNIZAREA CELOR EXISTENTE. Campineanu intre str. I.1.3. I.2. Piata Romana. I. Blanari 2 in vederea realizarii unui centru socio-cultural Centru cultural comunitar Dacia-Grivitei unui centru socio-cultural Reconfigurarea spatiului de la intersectia str.1. REABILITAREA INFRASTRUCTURII SOCIALE III.3.1 Reabilitarea Hanului Solacolu III.3 Reconfigurare nod intermodal de transport in comun Piata Rosetti I.3. SCUARURI. CONSTRUIREA DE STATII PENTRU AUTOBUZE.4. I. Golescu si Bdul Magheru Reconfigurarea spatiului public din fata Autogarii Filaret I. 2 I. Georgescu si Sf.piata traditionala III. 6 II.2. Stirbei Voda cu str. Baratiei si I.2.2 Reconfigurare nod intermodal de transport in comun II. TRANSPORT SI MOBILITATEA POPULATIEI II.1.3. III.1.2.Apolodor III.1.3 Crearea unor spatii recreative pentru comunitate-amenajarea si Reconfigurarea spatiului viran de pe str.1.3.2 I.11. 6 Reconfigurare spatiu public Calea Griviţei – „poartă de intrare în centrul Capitalei” I.18.104.22.168 P2 I. PARCARI P1 Parcare subterana Piata Sala Palatului P2 Parcare supraterana automatizata str. Brezoianu si Piata Walter Maracineanu Refacere infrastructura scuar str.1.2.Izvor/Traversare pentru pietoni si biciclisti cu infrastructura aferenta Bdul Unirii in dreptul str.3.3. STRAZI.2. Refacere infrastructura scuar intersectie I.1.10 modificarea spatiilor publice din curtea si vecinatatea Lic. I.1.2 III.5.1. Creanga cu str.3. III.3.1 I.3. INFRASTRUCTURA PUBLICA URBANA I.3 I. I. Uranus Configurarea spatiului public din arealul Bibliotecii Nationale Ga ra de No rd I. Caius Marcus Coriolan .10.2. Piata Garii de Nord. Acvilei .2.3. PODURI I.1. I.1. N.3.1 Platforma business Uranus III. Refacere infrastructura Piata George Cantacuzino I.3.1.3. 7 Reconfigurare spatiu public Calea Victoriei Reconfigurare spatiu public Bdul Unirii Reconfigurare spatiu public şi proiect de regenerare urbană pentru axele centrale (concurs) Realizarea Ansamblului Urban Domnita Balasa Refacere infrastructura scuar intersectie str.1.4 III. 7 II.1.1. Mendeleev Refacere infrastructura scuar intersectie str. I. G. Eminescu III.1. Brezoianu cu str.2 . Caderea Bastiliei 65 pentru utilizare in folosul comunitatii (organizarea unei piete volante pentru producatorii traditionali in timpul weekend-urilor) III.1 I.2.arhitectura reprezentativa I.3.7. SOCIO-CULTURAL III.Palatul de Justitie (Fost Podul Calicilor) Constructia podului pentru pietoni.3. Unirea Crearea unor spatii recreative pentru comunitate-amenajarea si III.2 I. 3 Reconfigurarea zonei de intrare metrou Piata Romana I. III.2.1. P4 Parcare subterana spatiu evenimente Piata Constitutiei I.2.Plan Integrat de Dezvoltare Urbană Zona Centrală Bucureşti III.2. Piata Amzei si str. 2 Traversare Bulevardul Magheru şi Calea Victoriei I. I. Gheorghe II.1 -Atelier Mestesugaresc/Galerii/Centru comunitar III.6 Piata Romana II.4.2. P3 I.6.2. P I. Piata Natiunilor Unite.3.4. I. 8 Piata Sf.2 III.3 III. I.1 Traseu TransCentral Urban Bucureşti I. I.2.3 P5 II.3. Berthelot cu Calea Victoriei Refacere infrastructura scuar intersectie str.8.15. CREAREA / MODERNIZAREA SPATIILOR VERZI III. 2 I.2 Reabilitarea Pietei Matache .13. P III. Matei Basarab. 5 Reconfigurare Cheiul Dambovitei .1.1.2.Unirii . I.9.4 I. CONSTRUIREA SI/SAU AMENAJAREA DE CULOARE SPECIALE PENTRU MIJLOACE DE TRANSPORT IN COMUN SI/SAU PISTE DE BICICLETE Reamenajarea de strazi si realizarea unui traseu cu prioritate pentru pietoni si biciclisti cu infrastructura aferenta III.Lutherana Reamenajare acces pietonal pasajul Villacrosse I.22.214.171.124.9 Achizitie spatiu comunitar Rahova-Uranus in vederea realizarii III. Sc.1.1.2. Constructia podului pietonal si pentru biciclisti peste Dambovita in zona Selari .7 si constituirea unui hub cultural pentru comunitate III.15. M.8 modificarea spatiilor publice din curtea si vecinatatea Lic.2.10.5. M.16. I.126.96.36.199. 2 I. Piata Victoriei.2.1. PATRIMONIU CULTURAL MONDIAL (UNESCO).1.1 Reconfigurare nod intermodal de transport in comun III.3.1 I.3 Restaurare Palat voievodal “Curtea Veche” III.2. Refacere infrastructura piata Alexandru Lahovari I. 5 III.4 I. I.11 III.1.1. I.8. III.11.2.teren de sport si loc de joaca pentru copii Constructia bibliotecii Panduri pe str. I.2. I. protejarea si conservarea monumentelor istorice III.
Public Utilities Department) General Department for Operations (Department for Quality and Environment Management . Financial Accounting Department) Legal and legislation Department Department for strategy and documents’ analysis Projects management office with international financing 2. Identifying the financing sources for the projects that are not eligible or may not be financed within the operational programs. Ensuring a structure that permanently maintains the connection with management authorities related to every financing source. The capacity of managing the suggested urban regeneration projects depends on the institutional capacity of Bucharest City Hall. Department for Environmental protection and eco-civic education. Culture Department.3. technical and financial resources. Department for Real estate and Land book recording. Creating some inter-institutional structures at municipality level that provide the UDIP functioning. Compliance with the legislation in force regarding public acquisitions and assigning the work contracts. European Integration Department. Roads. Contracts. parks and recreation for Bucharest Street Administration in Bucharest RADET RATB . monitoring. The main strategic partners for implementing UDIP are as follows: a. In this regard. Department for infrastructure coordination –regulation. The methodology for implementing non-reimbursable financing projects. The suggested management structure shall ensure the forecasting. coordination. Department for External credits. Department for Patrimony management. Ensuring the audit. Investment and Urban Planning (Department of Urbanism and Territory Improvement. General Council of Bucharest Municipality The administration of lakes. organization. International relations Department. Learning Department. evaluation procedures both at UDIP level as well as at the level of each individual project. Department for Acquisitions. Beneficiary 1. Income Department. training and evaluation-control functions. Ensuring the financing sources and compliance with the strict rules regarding cash movement and account records. Public Relations and Information Department) Economic General Department (Budget Department.3 The management of the integrated plan implementation Describing the structure ensuring the management for the plan implementation In order to establish the methodology for implementation of the „Central area” Urban Development Integrated Plan. Leasing. the following key elements were taken into account: The methodology for accessing non-reimbursable funds. measured through human. Bucharest City Hall General Department for Development. The task for implementing the „Central Area” Urban Development Integrated Plan belongs to the Project’s implementation unit. Investment department. structure created within the Bucharest City Hall. we took into consideration the fact that some projects shall be implemented using non-reimbursable financial support. Development – Tourism Department) General Department for Infrastructure and Public Services (Transportation Department. Traffic Signalizing. Implementation completion of projects financed through structured funds until 2005.
Luxten d. Non-governmental organizations UDIP phasing It is important to state that the list of suggested actions for UDIP shall be completed by Bucharest City Hall.Public Health Department .Community associations. when the parking spaces are removed. as well as the parking lots already planned to be executed by the Bucharest City hall. When establishing an implementation program. Public and private strategic institutions .Consulting and designing companies . the street parking spaces shall be removed. based on its existing priorities.Distrigaz Sud .b.Environmental Agency .Electrica . an assessment of the projects’ importance shall be executed taking into consideration the following aspects: when building the bicyclists route. Public interest companies . The Image hereinafter presents the projects’ phasing.Ministry of Transportation . new parking spaces shall be created within the under and above the ground parking lots suggested through this integrated plan.Apele Române c.ANOFM . pedestrian bridges and routes for pedestrians and bicyclists routes (that are not subjected to by infrastructure or warranty projects) phase 2: the building of the other parts of the routes for the pedestrian and bicyclists. . the projects have been divided into two phases: phase 1: consists in the building of parking spaces.Apa Nova . there are streets still in the warranty period (Appendix 8) Taking the above mentioned into consideration. new parking spaces must be created for the users.Bucharest Ilfov Regional Development Agency . objectives and urban polities. Other relevant institutions . in order to provide the crossing of Dâmbovița river by the bicyclists' and pedestrians' route the pedestrian bridges are mandatory to be build.
PHASE 1 PHASE 2 Image 1: Execution phases for the pedestrian and bicyclists route .
The forum shall have a limited functioning term.economic agents. Public consultations and outcome analysis In order to consult the public opinion with respect to the urban revitalizing project the following methods shall be applied: 1. Regular citizens Accessible information points shall be built in the interest area. There are two target groups for this process: the regular citizens represent a target group on one hand and a second target group is represented by the urban actors – economic agents. media and NGOs. remaining anonymous. thus being able to do so without the fear of being sanctioned. Urban actors. institutions. Target group no. Their opinion regarding the present strategy shall be recorded in a report. on the other hand. conclusions and recommendations regarding the improvement of the disclosed strategies.. This technique represents an efficient method for obtaining detailed feedback. . The outcomes shall be summarized in a global report that will take into account the completion of the urban revitalizing strategy. media and NGOs active in the interest area. The on-line forum report shall comprise detailed information of all the expressed opinions. schools. The advantages of this public consultation method are represented by the fact that a large number of citizens may express their opinions.4. may include „hot” reactions and attitudes and new ideas may be generated with respect to the presented urbanism strategies. where the citizens shall be informed over the suggested strategy. institutions. 2. institutions. The on-line forum shall include an area for questions and shall be supervised by a specialist who may answer the additional questions asked by users. 1. conclusions and recommendations regarding the improvement of the presented strategies. The report shall include detailed information of all the expressed opinions. PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS IN ISSUING UDIP The Urban Development Integrated Plan shall be subjected to an ample action of public consultations. 2. however large enough so that many citizens may express their opinions. Public face-to-face consultation Target group no. Deep interviews shall be organized with decision makers within the economic environment. The information subject to debate for the interested factors shall be available on a web site. Public on-line consultation The population shall be consulted through an on-line forum. media and NGOs.
solutions for the urban action area are suggested providing the correlation of social. on the sidewalks. from all these points of view. environmental and social structure projects. cultural and touristic elements that are generally efficient. economic. Special attention has been awarded to our wardnesses. ECONOMIC IMPACT a) Positive The creation of an identity for the center through different spaces. and the improvement of the public spaces' design will lead to the improvement of the city's image. there will be a general decrease in transportation costs. Apart from the established objectives. . In compliance with section 3.as bridges over the Dâmbovița. jobs will be supported for the management and supervising parking spaces and for the maintenance of commercial locations that will develop along the routes. As such. Additionally. We present hereinafter an outwardness and efficiency analysis method for the entire Urban Development Integrated Plan using the MultiCriteria Analysis method (that does not assign monetary value). The professional literature underlines the fact that this increases investments and tourism. as is the case with the Urban Development Integrated Plan. THE BENEFITS BROUGHT BY UDIP AND SUGGESTED ACTIONS The suggested Urban Development Integrated Plan is the result of a multidisciplinary analysis that has led to the identification of the needs and the development potential of urban action area and to the determination of the objectives and the action priorities. during the improvement of public spaces. the improvement of public spaces will lead to the increase of desirability of certain areas with a currently bad image (for example sub-area 9). The pedestrian and bicycle riders priority route will bring an important flow of people with the capacity to sustain the commercial and leisure activities. Business platforms will also generate a source of income for local taxes. As such. that assigns monetary value to each of these effects. On short term. For each project there was an individual presentation of the positive and negative impacts using the Cost-Benefit Analysis method in general. that do not provide cash to the City Hall's budget will be replaced with lucrative parking. benefits will be achieved directly for the City Hall's budget (including profits from the public transport company) and indirectly through the improvement of life quality for the Bucharest's inhabitants. The actions suggested by the integrated plan will have a positive impact and with regard to the creation of new jobs.5. that represent the positive and negative impacts of the area 's economic. By creating new connections .1. The building of underground superposed parking spaces will also lead to an increase in income for the City Hall. for serving the newly generated customer flow. both from the taxes paid by the new companies as well as from all the related tourism activities. This will determine the start of commercial and leisure activities (bars/restaurants) that will pay taxes to the local budget. the UDIP specific objectives are met by the set of suggested interventions. as in other European capitals. environmental. the works for improving public space and building a route will lead to a larger tax collection base. and construction of parking spaces. In medium and long term. new jobs will be created. If the Cost-Benefit Analysis is used in practice to individually assess projects. with diverse identities. the municipality will have additional income. If the execution of these actions will be accompanied by municipality policies of stimulating the usage of public and alternative means of transportation. "Parasitic" parking. the Multi-Criteria Analysis is considered adequate for the evaluation of urban policies or project packages. By avoiding the increase of traffic jams. from accidents as well as the cost of the existence of a general perception related to a stressful life and business environment that decreases investments. there will be an avoidance in high costs for the private sector from the delay between destinations.
the decrease in car sales in Bucharest need not be immediate nor significant. Nevertheless. The suggested actions will have a positive impact with respect to unemployment as well. having in regard that Bucharest is located at equal distance from the mountains and the seaside. Additionally. as is the case of a vehicle infrastructure project. the area and the city as well. through negotiations of such spaces with the project developers. there will be new means of transportation with a lower stress level then using the personal car in an overcrowded traffic. On long term it is estimated that volunteering and citizens' involvement policies will be encouraged in executing sub-area/city level projects. Thus. The building of socio-cultural centres dedicated to the entire community. SOCIAL IMPACT a) Positive The suggested actions will have an important role in increasing the life quality in Bucharest. For instance. 3 and 9 may find themselves under the risk of no longer affording to live in the area. taking into account that they are pollution free. An important aspect of this plan is the projects' distribution fairness. leading to a decrease in air pollution. that will only influence those who afford a car. The reconfiguration of public spaces and the building of a route for pedestrians and bicycle riders will lead to attractive leisure spaces. including in the impact areas. By creating medium sized parking areas the access by personal car in the center is discouraged. thus leading to a negative social outwardness. jobs will be supported for the management and supervision of built parking spaces. This can be solved through City Hall actions to build social housing. as well as the reconfiguration of school public spaces to be used by the entire community will lead to the strengthening of the communities' cohesion and the creation of a living environment that satisfies the community's needs. b) Negative Building the route for pedestrians and bicycle riders as well as improving public spaces in certain areas will lead to an increased status and image of those respective areas. as well as the area's centralizing. new jobs will be created. by acquiring new ecological means of transport and mainly expanding the electrical transportation. during the improvement of public spaces. the underprivileged population that mainly lives in sub-areas 2. On medium and long term. the pedestrian route may be used by all of the city's inhabitants and does not only address a certain category. and building of parking spaces. A negative impact of these measures will be felt by the car manufacturing industry and the car sales sector in the capital. . ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT By encouraging walking and bicycle riding alternative and very environmental friendly transportations means are promoted. The promotion of new sustainable means of transportation will have a beneficial effect on public health. development of public transportation by the municipality may consolidate the favourable impact on the environment. Walking and bicycle riding are means of transport beneficial for the entire population. This will determine an increase in investments in the area. which usually determines most Bucharest inhabitants to spend their week-end outside the city. The actions will have a positive effect on the whole population.b) Negative The actions suggested are focused on the creation of an efficient and sustainable traffic system and on discouraging transportation by personal car. Additionally. On short term.
with public spaces with well defined identity and a high quality design. directly related to business tourism. with direct/indirect effects on the city's wellbeing. TOURISM IMPACT A dynamic and living city with rehabilitated and well valorized patrimony monuments. with friendly pedestrian routes is an attractive city for tourists. the socio-cultural spaces shall also offer a chance for the population within the underprivileged areas to access the center.CULTURAL IMPACT The projects for the rehabilitation of public monuments and cultural spaces and for developing new cultural spaces for the community will have a beneficial effect for supporting and promoting cultural activities among the population. Major touristic objectives. The usage of European as well as local or central budget funds for projects with obvious favourable impact on the citizens is likely to change the populations' mentality. The development of a platform for activities. Business tourism will be re-launched in Bucharest. INSTITUTIONAL IMPACT The execution of the actions suggested in the present Urban Development Integrated Plan may lead to a significant improvement of the Bucharest inhabitants' and the tourists' perception on the authorities. The integrated plan's actions suggest a city identity brand that will be extremely beneficial for the tourism. The Curtea Meșteșugarilor project will encourage traditional cultural manufacture activities. In addition. will be connected through pedestrian priority routes. Bucharest City Hall may develop a partnership with the Palace of Parliament for the purpose of gradually opening this space. The rehabilitation of historical and architectural interest objectives is another cultural benefit important to the city. such as the Romanian Athenaeum and the Palace of the Parliament. . having in regard the Palace of the Parliament's attraction for this type of tourism consumers. leisure and alternative transportation around the Palace of the Parliament is likely to prolong the tourists' stay in this area for cultural consumption. with direct benefits for the city's tourism development and support the beneficial tourism impact as described below.
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