SSPC-PS Guide 12.
00 September 1, 1994 Editorial Changes September 1, 2000
SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings
PAINTING SYSTEM GUIDE NO. 12.00
Guide to Zinc-Rich Coating Systems
1.1 This guide provides general information on the description, selection and application of zinc-rich coatings, and the selection of topcoats. 1.2 Zinc-rich coatings are highly pigmented primer coatings that are uniquely defined by their capability of galvanically protecting steel exposed at discontinuities such as narrow scratches and holidays. While the major pigment component in a zinc-rich coating is zinc dust, the vehicle may be inorganic or organic. 1.3 Zinc-rich coatings are classified as follows: Type IA—Inorganic - post-cured, water-borne, alkalisilicates Type lB—Inorganic - self-cured, water-borne, alkali silicates Type IC—Inorganic - self-cured, solvent-borne, alkyl silicates Type IIA—Organic - thermoplastic binders Type IIB—Organic - thermoset binders 1.4 Certain zinc-rich coating systems are suitable for use in protecting steel surfaces either topcoated or untopcoated. Zinc-rich systems are not suitable for certain exposure conditions. (See Section 4 and Table 1.) juncture, the pre-fabrication primer may be incorporated into the final system or removed. SSPC-PS Guide 22 and SSPC-Paint 30 discuss the use of zinc-rich coatings as prefabrication primers. 2.2 VEHICLES FOR ZINC-RICH COATINGS: Zincrich coatings are available as a number of different commercial types. These coatings may be categorized as having inorganic (Type I) or organic (Type II) vehicles. 2.2.1 Inorganic Vehicles: Type I inorganic vehicles include post-cured waterborne alkali silicates (IA); selfcured, waterborne alkali silicates (IB); and self-cured, solvent-borne alkyl silicates (IC). The vehicles of Types IA and IB may include the alkali earth silicates (commonly sodium, lithium, potassium, and ammonium silicate), while IC vehicles are alkyl silicates (most commonly ethyl silicates). Type IA vehicles are post-cured with a separate wash solution, usually mildly acidic in nature, applied as an aftercoat. Type IB vehicles are chemically similar to Type IA vehicles, except they are formulated to self-cure upon exposure to moisture and carbon dioxide in the air. Type IC vehicles self-cure upon exposure to atmospheric moisture. 2.2.2 Organic Vehicles: Type II vehicles include those with thermoplastic binders (IIA) and thermoset binders (IIB). Type II thermoplastic vehicles include polymers of chlorinated rubber, styrene, vinyl, and other organic materials that soften upon exposure to heat. Type IIB thermoset vehicles do not soften upon heating, and include polymers of epoxy, polyurethane, polyester, silicone, and other chemically cross-linked materials. 2.3 PIGMENTATION FOR ZINC-RICH COATINGS: The major pigment component in these coatings is zinc dust of the type described in ASTM D 520. Inorganic zinc-rich coatings contain a minimum zinc dust content of 74 percent by weight in the dry film. Organic zinc-rich coatings contain a minimum zinc dust content of 77 percent by weight in the dry film. 2.4 NUMBER OF COMPONENTS: Inorganic and organic zinc-rich coatings are supplied as a single package or multi-component package. Many multi-component packages have the zinc pigment packaged separately to be mixed with the vehicle at the time of application. All multicomponent coatings have a limited pot life after mixing.
2.1 GENERAL USAGE: 2.1.1 Zinc-rich coatings are primarily formulated to provide protection to steel by virtue of the galvanic protection provided by the zinc. They also typically provide hard, abrasion-resistant coatings, but flexibility and impact resistance may vary widely. These coatings normally require a blast cleaned surface for best results, and are usually applied in one coat 50 to 125 micrometers (2 to 5 mils) dry film thickness over the cleaned steel. 2.1.2 Some are used as prefabrication primers or shop primers, where they are applied to freshly blast cleaned steel plates and sections. The prefabrication primers, often at a lesser thickness, are intended to protect the steel throughout the fabrication period until the final painting system can be applied to the finished structure. At that
1 Untopcoated Inorganic Zinc-Rich Coatings: These coatings may be suitable for use in the following environmental zones: 1A. 3D. Solvents Chemical Exposure. 1B. Severe
Guide 9 PA 1 PA 2 PA Guide 3 SP 5/NACE No. 4. 1 SP 6/NACE No. the requirements of the specification shall prevail. 3C. while other products may not. 2A.3. 3E. are presented below based on the following SSPC classifications of exposure: 1A 1B 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B 3C Interior.1 CLASSIFYING EXPOSURE ZONES: Successful corrosion protection utilizing a zinc-rich coating system is dependent upon the anticipated service in environmental exposure zones.Inorganic and Type II . 1B.3 USE OF UNTOPCOATED ZINC-RICH COATINGS: 4.00
Guide for Atmospheric Testing of Coatings in the Field Shop.1. and 3B. 2D. 3 SP 8 SP 10/NACE No.4.1 Topcoated Inorganic Zinc-Rich Coating Systems: These systems may be suitable for the following environmental zones: 1A. Normally Dry Frequently Wet—Fresh Water Frequently Wet—Salt Water Fresh Water Immersion Salt Water Immersion Atmospheric Chemical Exposures (pH 2 to 5) Atmospheric Chemical Exposures (pH 5 to 10) Atmospheric Chemical Exposures (pH 10 to 12) Chemical Exposure. unsuitable (not recommended) or questionable for the exposure environments in Section 4. 3. 4. and Maintenance Painting of Steel Measurement of Dry Coating Thickness with Magnetic Gages A Guide to Safety in Paint Application White Metal Blast Cleaning Commercial Blast Cleaning Pickling Near-White Blast Cleaning Zinc-Rich Primers (Type I .00 PS Guide 22.3.1 The standards referenced in this guide are listed in Section 3. 1994 Editorial Changes September 1.4 SSPC STANDARDS AND JOINT STANDARDS:
inorganic zinc-rich coatings. or amendment of the reference standards in effect on the date of invitation to bid shall govern unless otherwise specified. 1B. either topcoated or untopcoated. and 3E. Field.
3.4 USE OF TOPCOATED ZINC-RICH COATING SYSTEMS: 4. 4. These coatings are not recommended for the following environmental zones: 2B. 3. Guidelines for the use of organic and
. 3B. and 3C. 3B. 2000
3. Reference Standards
3.01 PS Guide 8. and 3D. or that the environmental description is too variable to assure satisfactory coating system performance.00 September 1. These systems are not recommended for environmental zone 3E. Questionable means that some products may perform satisfactorily. These coatings are questionable for environmental zone 2C. 2 Paint 20 Paint 29 Paint 30 PS 12. Performance-Based Weld-Through Inorganic Zinc Primer One Coat Zinc-Rich Painting System Guide to Topcoating Zinc-Rich Primers Guide for Selecting One-Coat Preconstruction or Prefabrication Painting Systems
4. 3. Guidelines for the use of topcoated and untopcoated zinc-rich primers in various environments are presented below and in Table 1.3 and 3. These coatings are not recommended for the following environmental zones: 3A. These systems are questionable for the following environmental zones: 2C. Selection of Coating System
4.2 The latest issue.Organic) Zinc Dust Sacrificial Primer. 3C. 3A. revision. 2B. and 3D. 2D.3 If there is a conflict between the requirements of any of the cited reference standards and the specification.4 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS (ASTM) STANDARD: D 520 D 3925 Specification for Zinc Dust Pigment Practice for Sampling Liquid Paints and Related Pigmented Coatings
4. 2A. These coatings are questionable for environmental zones 2C and 2D.SSPC-PS Guide 12. 2A.4. Normally Dry Exterior.2 GUIDELINES FOR USAGE: The untopcoated and topcoated inorganic and organic zinc-rich coatings are categorized as suitable (recommended). 2B.2 Untopcoated Organic Zinc-Rich Coatings: These coatings may be suitable for use in the following environmental zones: 1A.
Variations in properties of these coatings depends largely on the vehicle. 3D. and 3C.1 DEGREE OF CLEANING: Although blast cleaning to SSPC-SP 5 may be preferred. under certain conditions pickling can be used as a surface preparation for zinc-rich primers if agreed upon by the contracting parties.2 For Paint 29. In wet conditions. The minimum zinc loading is 77 percent by weight of zinc in dry film. paragraph 5. and neutral petroleum products. whether inorganic or organic. Although this specification is written for blast cleaned surfaces. Unless topcoated.2 and Table 1.
6. greatly extending coating life. This type combines the properties of the organic vehicle with the abrasion resistance and the galvanic action of the zinc pigment. They galvanically prevent rust undercutting at small breaks in the coating system.1 SSPC-Paint 29 is a zinc dust containing primer specification which requires a minimum zinc loading of 50% by weight of dry film rather than the higher loading required by SSPC-Paint 20. have a greater ability to withstand exposure to most solvents.) Therefore. the organic zinc primers are generally more tolerant of surface preparation and are easier to topcoat. performance depends upon formulation and the coating manufacturer should be consulted.2. 2B. Surface Preparation
5. Application and surface preparation constraints may limit the choice. Zinc-Rich Primers (Type I-"Inorganic" and Type II-"Organic".2 SURFACE PROFILE: Surface profile should be in the range of 25 to 90 micrometers (1. it is also the most costly. toughness of film. 6.1 Zinc-rich coatings are particularly useful for protecting steel surfaces in moist corrosive environments. 1994 Editorial Changes September 1. In wet conditions above 60°C (140°F). inorganic zinc-rich primers generally exhibit more pinholing and bubbling upon topcoating. 5. These systems are questionable for the following environmental zones: 2C.3. 1B. often filling the breaks with protective deposits of zinc oxidation products. 3A. in most cases a near-white metal blast (SSPC-SP 10) or in some cases even a commercial (SSPC-SP 6) blast may provide a satisfactory surface for these coatings. and prohibits subsequent phosphoric acid or dichromate treatment.3.4. These primers are very resistant to high humidity and salt air.2.4. due to rapid depletion of zinc.5 These guidelines are based on the general characteristics of the different types of zinc-rich coating systems and exposure environments.3 Organic: Compared with the inorganic type.00 September 1. the recommendations of the coating manufacturer regarding the use of a zinc. Inorganic zincs have a tendency to mudcrack at heavier thicknesses. 18.104.22.168 Inorganic: Inorganic zincs. Coating Materials
6. zincrich primers function well up to 50°C (120°F). The degree of corrosion protection desired may be a prime consideration. The minimum zinc loading is 74 percent by weight of zinc in dry film. Some types of inorganic zincs require moisture to cure.2. oils.2 Topcoated Organic Zinc-Rich Coating Systems: These systems may be suitable for the following environmental zones: 1A. this requires adequate rinsing of all pickling residues with 60°C (140°F) hot water.1. They function well up to 400°C (750°F) in dry conditions. This type generally does not require moisture to cure. 3B.1.1. 4. Substantial formulation differences exist among zinc-rich coatings. Organic zincs generally provide less resistance to abrasion.1 PRIMER: SSPC-Paint 20. Specifically. organic zincs may provide less galvanic protection than untopcoated inorganic zincs. Zinc-rich coatings are characterized by their abrasion resistance. zinc-rich primers are not recommended.4. Within the range of 50° to 60°C (120° to 140°F). the galvanic protection and longterm corrosion resistance are assured by more rigorous performance tests than those required in Paint 20. The ability of a topcoated system to perform adequately is strongly dependent on the generic type and formulation of the topcoat.1.2. 6. and high temperatures than the inorganics. they are unsuitable for acidic or alkaline service outside the
. These systems are not recommended for environmental zone 3E. 2A. 4. and has less tendency to dry spray.SSPC-PS Guide 12.rich coating (organic or inorganic. 2000 4. Compared to organic zincs.2D. When left untopcoated. lasting many years. These include exterior fence tests as well as conventional labora-
5. The pickling procedures shall be in accordance with SSPC-SP 8. 4. and galvanic action of the zinc. Table 1 provides minimum surface preparation guidelines for zincrich coating systems in various environments. “Zinc Dust Sacrificial Primer Performance-Based. “Pickling”. while requiring more care in surface preparation and application compared to organic zincs. 4.0 to 3.2 ALTERNATE PRIMER: SSPC-Paint 29. SSPC field tests have shown that the practical lower limit for zinc loading is 65 percent. The choice of best coating for a specific end use must be made by a comparison of properties with the requirements of the service. has less tendency to mudcrack.5 mils) unless otherwise recommended by the coating manufacturer. 6. topcoated or untopcoated) in a given environment should be solicited. and dry spray may occur under certain ambient conditions. This is particularly critical when considering use of a zincrich system in a questionable category of Sections 4.” 6. solvents.3.) 6. (See Section 6. pH range from about 5 to 10.
(See Note 11. “overspray” may be a problem.00 for additional information.4 MANUFACTURER’S LITERATURE: This guide is intended to be supplemented by the coating manufacturer’s instructions and literature. 7. zinc-rich primer.00 September 1. 9. When self-coating inorganic zinc-rich coatings. Level 2 is a 12 month fence test. SSPC-Guide 9 lists the type of data to be submitted. or other appropriate authorities.2 APPLICATION OF ZINC RICH COATINGS: Zincrich coatings vary in application characteristics. Many zincrich coatings will not dry or cure properly at extremes of high or low humidity (in excess of 90% or less than 50% relative humidity). The film thickness should be measured in accordance with SSPC-PA 2. Details relevant to the surface preparation. along with information regarding the performance or suitability of the system for corrosion protection in the intended environment. 7. “Guide to Topcoating Zinc-Rich Primers. These characteristics should include formulation information readily derivable in a laboratory. they must be submitted as part of the design. or to fill in irregularities. Exercise caution during work stoppages to prevent settling of zinc in hoses and equipment. but may be brushed for small jobs. or bidding document. Level 2 may be used as an interim qualification to allow for earlier procurement of the coating. Level 1 is laboratory testing only.SSPC-PS Guide 12.)
9. The contractor shall correct such work or replace such material as is found defective under this specification. Topcoats must be formulated not only for environmental resistance. Special precautions in cleaning the prime coat prior to topcoating may be required. etc. a similar coating history should be required for the entire system as described in Section 8. For application of the zinc-rich. High substrate or ambient temperatures may result in a “dry spray” or porous coating. 2000 tory accelerated testing.
7. the percent solids by volume or coverage rate. the arbitration or settlement procedure established in the procurement documents shall be followed. (See SSPC-PS Guide 8. In the event of a conflict between the manufacturer’s written instructions and this guide. depending upon climatic conditions at the time of application. Paint 29 establishes three levels of performance. If the manufacturer’s literature or recommendations are to become part of the requirements of a procurement document. Often. but also for suitable application (to minimize pinholing. and Level 3 is a 30 month fence test. pigment. and volatile portions. (See SSPC-Guide 9. 6. All zincrich coatings are preferably applied by spray.” discusses topcoating of zinc-rich primers. Table 1 provides guidelines for topcoating zinc-rich primers in various environments. unless otherwise specified. solicit the manufacturer’s instructions. The date of the manufacturer’s literature and the number of sheets should be listed. SSPC Guide 8.2 Samples of paints under this painting system may
.00.01.1 All work and materials supplied under this specification is subject to timely inspection by the purchaser or his authorized representative. organic zinc-rich coatings or non-zinc-rich coatings are used in lieu of selfcoating an inorganic zinc-rich primer.3 FILM THICKNESS: Due to the galvanic action of the zinc. particularly with inorganic zinc. especially in moderate or severe chemical exposures. and care should be taken to ensure they are thoroughly mixed before and during application. Details relative to surface preparation and application of coating shall be supplied.1. If no arbitration procedure is established. 8. should be notified to provide clarification.
8. 7. the procedure specified by the American Arbitration Association shall be used. and subsequent topcoat(s) should be required. 8.00. the weight per gallon. follow requirements of SSPC-PS 12. bubbling.) over a zinc-rich primer.2 COATING CHARACTERISTICS: Sufficient identifiable characteristics other than trade or brand name or designated number or symbol should be provided to permit laboratory test verification of coating identity. for the topcoat(s) follow SSPC-PS Guide 8. and other procedures used for quality control during manufacture of the coating. Coating Application
7.4 APPLICATION OF TOPCOAT: Most of the coatings can be topcoated for improved performance under more severe exposures. these coatings can give satisfactory performance under mildly corrosive conditions with one coat application as little as 50 micrometers (2 mils) thick. Submittals
8.1 COATING HISTORY: Documented information with authenticated data detailing the past history and exposure of the coating in terms of service life under specific conditions should be required when preparing specifications for major projects.) In case of dispute.1 APPLICATION GUIDELINES: Follow requirements of SSPC-PA 1 for general application guidelines. Inspection
9. including the generic nature of the vehicle. the specifier. Brushing should be done with extreme caution to avoid zinc settlement.3 TOPCOATS: Suitable topcoating of the zinc-rich primer may provide additional service life. 1994 Editorial Changes September 1. All zinc-rich materials may settle.) 8.3 TOPCOAT SUBMITTALS: When a tie coat or topcoat is specified.1. On windy days.
. and any required affidavit certifying full compliance with the specification.4 VOC CONTENT: Each coating.. the manufacturer should be consulted. can also assure quality. 11.
10. Coatings meeting the composition and performance requirements of this specification usually have a VOC level between 0 and 500 g/L (0 and 4. 1994 Editorial Changes September 1. The owner may modify this specification as necessary to specify a particular VOC content limit consistent with local regulations. adequate instructions from the manufacturer are essential and must be closely followed to ensure maximum performance. after recommended thinning. the coating manufacturer should be consulted. or methods specified herein. The user of this specification. Pigment components may be similarly compared using atomic absorption or other spectrographic analyses. or other test methods or procedures will not be different from those actually applied at the jobsite. 11.SSPC-PS Guide 12.2 QUALITY ASSURANCE: The user should ensure that coatings qualified according to SSPC-Paint 20. as well as the user of all products or practices described herein. solids by weight. etc. 11. Notes
Notes are not a requirement of this specification. and useful as possible.3 Unless otherwise specified. VOC information should be supplied on the label or the technical data sheet.2 This specification does not attempt to address problems concerning safety associated with its use. This assurance can be obtained for vehicle components by obtaining infrared spectrographic curves from the laboratory test sample and comparing them with curves obtained from IR spectra on selected field samples. If there are any significant differences between the spectra obtained from the laboratory and field coating samples. SSPC cannot assume responsibility nor incur any obligation resulting from the use of any materials. must conform to published government regulations regarding volatile organic compound (VOC) content. coatings. 10.3 The degree of deviation from the ideal surface preparation which zinc-rich coatings will tolerate without serious loss of their properties varies considerably from coating to coating.1 While every precaution is taken to ensure that all information furnished in SSPC standards and specifications is as accurate. Various governmental agencies may have different VOC limits or use different methods of testing. Therefore. is responsible for instituting appropriate health and safety practices and for insuring compliance with all governmental regulations.2 lb/gal). 9. or of the specification or standard itself. 2000 be requested by the purchaser and shall be supplied upon request along with the manufacturer’s name and identification for the materials. complete. Disclaimer
10. viscosity. 11. such as weight/gallon. Samples may be requested at the time the purchase order is placed. testing.
11. Physical tests.00 September 1.1 The procurement documents should establish the responsibility for samples. Rich Primers (Type I-”Inorganic” and Type II-”Organic”). the sampling shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3925. If differences occur beyond the coating manufacturer’s published tolerance or 15%. or may be taken from unopened containers at the job site.
.00 September 1. thermoset binders (e. i. For specific conditions. others not recommended. White Metal Blast Cleaning SP 6 = SSPC-SP 6.. post-cured.3.4. and topcoating requirements for the designated environmental zones.g. recommendations do not imply equivalent system performance.SSPC-PS Guide 12. the SP 6 shown above should be SP 10. 2000
TABLE 1 Guidelines for Surface Preparation and Topcoating of Zinc-Rich Primers in Various Environments
Note: This table provides general guidelines only. Near-White Blast Cleaning NOTE: For pitted old steel. 4. Alkaline (pH 10 to 12) Chemical Exposure.
. self-cured. Commercial Blast Cleaning SP 10 = SSPC-SP 10. the coating manufacturer should be consulted.. self-cured. Solvent Chemical Exposure. the SP 10 shown above should be SP 5. primer. Neutral (pH 5 to 10) Chemical Exposure.) RECOMMENDED SURFACE PREPARATION: The number refers to the minimum SSPC blast cleaning surface preparations as follows: SP 5 = SSPC-SP 5. 1994 Editorial Changes September 1.
ZINC-RICH BINDER TYPES
Environmental Zones IA
Untopcoated Topcoated Untopcoated
Untopcoated Topcoated Untopcoated Topcoated
1A 1B 2A 2B 2C 2D 3A 3B 3C 3D 3E
Interior.5. Acidic (pH 2 to 5) Chemical Exposure. phenoxy) IIB = Organic. Its use should be limited to determination of generic suitability and minimum surface preparation requirements.g. solvent-borne alkyl silicates IIA = Organic.e. Normally Dry
R-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 5 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 10 NR
R-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 5 Q-SP 10 NR R-SP 10 NR R-SP 10 NR
R-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 5 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 10 NR
R-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 NR R-SP 6 NR R-SP 6 NR
R-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 R-SP 6 R-SP 6 Q-SP 6 NR
R-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 10 NR NR NR NR R-SP 6 NR NR NR
R-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 6 NR NR
R-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 10 NR Q-SP 10 NR NR R-SP 6 NR NR NR
R-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 10 R-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 10 Q-SP 6 R-SP 6 R-SP 6 Q-SP 6 NR
Exterior. Severe Q-SP 10 NR R-SP 10 NR R-SP 10 NR
BINDER TYPES: IA = Inorganic. moisture-cured polyurethane) RECOMMENDED USAGE: R = Recommended NR = Not Recommended Q = Some products recommended. 4. Fresh Water Frequently Wet. These recommendations provide minimum acceptable surface preparation. There are substantial differences in performance between the various types of zinc-rich coatings in a given environment. epoxy polyamide. and 4.2. the blast cleaning requirement should be the next higher degree of cleanliness. waterborne alkali silicates IB = Inorganic. thermoplastic binders (e. Salt Water R-SP 10 R-SP 10
Fresh Water Immersion Q-SP 5 Salt Water Immersion Chemical Exposure. Normally Dry R-SP 10 Frequently Wet. (See Sections 4. However. waterborne alkali silicates IC = Inorganic.