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## Ex no: 1 MIN HEAP Date:

AIM To implement the min heap structure with insert and delete minimum operation using Java program ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Start the program by creating function with min heap property Two functions namely insert () and deletemin() are created The insert () is used to insert new element in the tree structure with heap property. The deletemin() is used to delete the minimum element which is usually a root node. The two operations are performed satisfying heapness and completeness property. End of the program.

Step 5: Step 6:

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

class heapalg { int maxsize=100,size; int[] h=new int[maxsize]; public int leftchild(int i) { return 2*i; } public int rightchild(int i) { return 2*i + 1; } public int parent(int i) { return i/2; } public boolean isleaf(int i) { return ((i<=size) && (i>size/2)); } public void swap(int i,int j) { int t; t=h[i];h[i]=h[j];h[j]=t; } public void display() { System.out.println("The heap elements are:"+"\n"); for(int i=1;i<=size;i++) System.out.println("\n"+h[i]); } public void insert() { size++; if(size>maxsize) System.out.println("Heapfull"); else { try

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

{ System.out.println("Enter the element:"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); h[size]=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } insertelt(size); } } public void insertelt(int i) { while ((h[parent(i)]>h[i])) { int par=parent(i); swap(par,i); i=par; } } public void delet() { if(size==0) System.out.println("Heapempty"); else { System.out.println("The deleted min elt:"+h[1]); h[1]=h[size--]; if(size!=0) percolate(1); } } public void percolate(int i) { while(!isleaf(i)) { int small=leftchild(i); if( (small<size)&& h[small] > h[small+1]) small+=1; if(h[small] < h[i]) swap(small,i); i=small; } } }

class minheap

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

{ public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { int ch=0,cont=0; heapalg h1=new heapalg(); do { System.out.println("\tMIN HEAP \n 1.Insert \n 2.Delete Min"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); try { ch=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } if(ch==1) { h1.insert(); h1.display(); } else if(ch==2) { h1.delet(); h1.display(); } else { System.out.println("Enter the correct choice"); } System.out.println("press 1 to continue:"); try { cont=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } }while(cont==1); } }

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

OUTPUT:
I:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\01>javac minheap.java Note: minheap.java uses or overrides a deprecated API. Note: Recompile with -Xlint:deprecation for details. I:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\01>java minheap MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 23 The heap elements are : 23 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 56 The heap elements are : 23 56 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 43 The heap elements are : 23 56 43 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 16 The heap elements are : 16 23 43 56

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 58 The heap elements are : 16 23 43 56 58 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 5 The heap elements are : 5 23 16 56 58 43 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element : 30 The heap elements are : 5 23 16 56 58 43 30 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

2 The deleted min elt :5 The heap elements are : 16 23 30 56 58 43 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 2 The deleted min elt :16 The heap elements are : 23 43 30 56 58 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 2 The deleted min elt :23 The heap elements are : 30 43 58 56 Press 1 to continue... 1 MIN HEAP 1. Insert 2. Delete 2 The deleted min elt :30 The heap elements are : 43 56 58 Press 1 to continue... 3 I:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\01>

## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

RESULT :
Thus the program f or Minheap using Java has been implemented and executed Successfully.

## Ex no: 2 DEAPS Date:

AIM To implement program for doubly ended heaps (deaps) structure with insert and delete operations using java.

ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Start the program by creating Deap Structure. Perform insert and delete functions. The insert() is done with 2 methods namely maxinsert() and mininsert(). The delete() is done with 2 methods namely deletemax() and deletemin() The leftChild and rightChild are compared and the appropriate element is placed in the root node. After the insert and delete operation Deap elements are displayed. Stop of the program.

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*; class deapsalg { int maxsize=100,size; int[] h=new int[maxsize+1]; public int leftchild(int i) { return 2*i; } public int rightchild(int i) { return 2*i + 1; } public int parent(int i) { return i/2; } public boolean isleaf(int i) { return ((i<=size) && (i>size/2)); } public void swap(int i,int j) { int t; t=h[i];h[i]=h[j];h[j]=t; } public void display() { System.out.println("The deaps elements are:"); for(int i=1;i<=size+1;i++) System.out.println("\n"+h[i]); } public int MaxHeap(int i) { int t=i; while(t!=2 && t!=3) t=t/2; if(t==2) {

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## return 0; } else { return 1; } }

public int MinPartner(int p) { int powvalue=(int) ((Math.floor(Math.log(p)/Math.log(2)))-1); int partner=p-(int)(Math.pow(2,powvalue)); return partner; }

public int MaxPartner(int p) { int powvalue=(int) ((Math.floor(Math.log(p)/Math.log(2)))-1); int partner=p+(int)(Math.pow(2,powvalue)); if(partner>size+1) partner/=2; return partner; }

public void MinInsert(int i) { while (parent(i)!=1 && (h[parent(i)]>h[i])) { int par=parent(i); swap(par,i); i=par; } }

public void MaxInsert(int i) { while (parent(i) !=1 && (h[parent(i)]<h[i])) { int par=parent(i); swap(par,i); i=par; } }

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{ int newelt=0; size++; if(size>maxsize) System.out.println("Deap full"); else { try { System.out.println("Enter the element:"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); newelt=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e){ } if(size==1) { h[2]=newelt; return; } int p=size+1; h[p]=newelt; switch(MaxHeap(p)) { case 1: int partner=MinPartner(p); if(h[partner]>h[p]) { swap(p,partner); MinInsert(partner); } else MaxInsert(p); break; case 0: partner=MaxPartner(p); if(h[partner]<h[p]) { swap(p,partner); MaxInsert(partner); } else MinInsert(p); break; default: System.out.println("ERROR"); } } }

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public void deletemin() { if(size==0) System.out.println("Deap empty"); else { System.out.println("The deleted min elt:"+ h[2]); int i; int p=size+1; int t=h[p]; size--; int small; for( i=2;2*i<=size+1;i=small) { if(h[rightchild(i)]<h[leftchild(i)]) small=rightchild(i); else small=leftchild(i); h[i]=h[small]; } p=i; h[p]=t; for(i=2;i<=size+1;i++) { switch(MaxHeap(i)) { case 1: int partner=MinPartner(i); if(h[partner]>h[i]) { swap(i,partner); MinInsert(partner); } else MaxInsert(i); break;

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default: System.out.println("ERROR"); } } } }

public void deletemax() { if(size==0) System.out.println("Deap empty"); else { System.out.println("The deleted max elt:"+ h[3]); int i; int p=size+1; int t=h[p]; size--; int big; for( i=3;2*i<=size+1;i=big) { if(h[rightchild(i)]>h[leftchild(i)]) big=rightchild(i); else big=leftchild(i); h[i]=h[big]; } p=i; h[p]=t; for(i=2;i<=size+1;i++) { switch(MaxHeap(i)) { case 1: int partner=MinPartner(i); if(h[partner]>h[i]) { swap(i,partner); MinInsert(partner); } else MaxInsert(i); break; case 0: partner=MaxPartner(i); if(h[partner]<h[i]) {

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## swap(i,partner); MaxInsert(partner); } else MinInsert(i); break; default: System.out.println("ERROR"); } } } } }

public class deaps { public static void main(String args[]) throws IOException { int ch=0,cont=0; deapsalg h1=new deapsalg(); do { System.out.println(" DEAPs \n1.Insert \n2.Delete Min \n3.Delete Max"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); try { ch=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e){ } if(ch==1) { h1.insert(); h1.display(); } else if(ch==2) { h1.deletemin(); h1.display(); } else if(ch==3) { h1.deletemax(); h1.display(); } else { System.out.println("Enter the correct choice");

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OUTPUT :
I:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\02>javac deaps.java Note: deaps.java uses or overrides a deprecated API. Note: Recompile with -Xlint:deprecation for details. I:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\02>java deaps DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 60 The deaps elements are: 0 60 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 90 The deaps elements are: 0 60 90 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 36 The deaps elements are: 0 36 90 60 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1

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Enter the element: 70 The deaps elements are: 0 36 90 60 70 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 20 The deaps elements are: 0 20 90 36 70 60 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 47 The deaps elements are: 0 20 90 36 47 60 70 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 8

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The deaps elements are: 0 8 90 20 47 60 70 36 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 35 The deaps elements are: 0 8 90 20 47 60 70 36 35 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 1 Enter the element: 19 The deaps elements are: 0 8 90 20 19 60 70 36 35 47 press 1 to continue: 1

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DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 2 The deleted min elt:8 The deaps elements are: 0 19 90 20 47 60 70 36 35 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 2 The deleted min elt:19 The deaps elements are: 0 20 90 35 47 60 70 36 press 1 to continue: 1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 3 The deleted max elt:90 The deaps elements are: 0 20 70 35 36 60 47 press 1 to continue:

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1 DEAPs 1.Insert 2.Delete Min 3.Delete Max 3 The deleted max elt:70 The deaps elements are: 0 20 60 35 36 47 press 1 to continue: 2 I:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\02>

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RESULT :
Thus the program for Doubly ended heaps (Deaps) using Java has been implemented and executed successfully.

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## Ex no: 3 LEFTIST HEAP Date:

AIM To implement the leftist heap with insert and deletemin operation using Java.

ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Start the program by defining function. We know heap as the root node with minimum element. The insert and delete operations are performed with the help of combining 2 trees. The insert operation is performed by combining the two leftist trees. The deletemin() is used to delete the minimum element in the heap. After the insert and delete operations leftist heap elements are displayed. Stop the program.

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*; class node { public int data; public node LC,RC; public int shortest; }

class minleftist { node root = null; public void insert() { int newelt=0; try { System.out.println("Enter the element:"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); newelt=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e){} node temp = new node(); temp.data=newelt; temp.LC=temp.RC=null; temp.shortest=1; if(root==null) root=temp; else root=meld(root,temp); } public node meld(node a, node b) { if(a.data > b.data) { node t; t=a; a=b; b=t; } if(a.RC==null) a.RC=b; else a.RC=meld(a.RC,b); if((a.LC==null) || (a.LC.shortest < a.RC.shortest)) {

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node t=new node(); t=a.LC; a.LC=a.RC; a.RC=t; } if(a.RC==null) a.shortest=1; else a.shortest=a.RC.shortest+1; return a; } public void remove() { System.out.println("Deleted element is "+root.data+"\n"); root=meld(root.LC,root.RC); } public void display() { if(root==null) System.out.println("EMPTY"); else { System.out.println("\nIn Order"); dispin(root); } } public void dispin(node currentnode) { if(currentnode!=null) { dispin(currentnode.LC); System.out.println(currentnode.data+" "+"SHORTEST "+currentnode.shortest); dispin(currentnode.RC); } } };

class LeftistTree { public static void main(String args[ ])throws IOException { int ch=0,cont=0; minleftist m = new minleftist(); do {

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System.out.println(" LEFTIST TREE \n1. Insert \n2. Delete"); DataInputStream din = new DataInputStream(System.in); try { ch=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e){ } if(ch==1) { m.insert(); m.display(); } else if(ch==2) { m.remove(); m.display(); } else { System.out.println("Enter the correct choice"); } System.out.println("press 1 to continue:"); try { cont=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e){ } }while(cont==1); } }

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OUTPUT :
H:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\03>javac LeftistTree.java Note: LeftistTree.java uses or overrides a deprecated API. Note: Recompile with -Xlint:deprecation for details. H:\M.E\Sem - I\DS Lab\03>java LeftistTree LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 8 In Order 8 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 23 In Order 23 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 13 In Order 23 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 2 13 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 52 In Order 23 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 2 52 SHORTEST 1

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13 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 10 In Order 23 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 2 52 SHORTEST 1 13 SHORTEST 1 10 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 6 In Order 23 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 2 52 SHORTEST 1 13 SHORTEST 1 10 SHORTEST 1 6 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 1 Enter the element: 45 In Order 23 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 2 52 SHORTEST 1 13 SHORTEST 1 10 SHORTEST 1 6 SHORTEST 2 45 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert

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2. Delete 2 Deleted element is 6 In Order 52 SHORTEST 1 13 SHORTEST 1 10 SHORTEST 2 45 SHORTEST 1 8 SHORTEST 2 23 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 2 Deleted element is 8 In Order 52 SHORTEST 1 13 SHORTEST 1 10 SHORTEST 2 45 SHORTEST 1 23 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 2 Deleted element is 10 In Order 52 SHORTEST 1 13 SHORTEST 2 45 SHORTEST 1 23 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert 2. Delete 2 Deleted element is 13 In Order 45 SHORTEST 1 23 SHORTEST 2 52 SHORTEST 1 press 1 to continue: 1 LEFTIST TREE 1. Insert

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RESULT :
Thus the program for leftist heap using Java has been implemented and

executed successfully.

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## Ex no: 4 AVL TREE Date:

AIM To implement the AVL tree with insert & delete operations using Java.

ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Start the program by defining the functions. Insert the elements to the AVL tree. Check the tree if it is balanced or not. The balance factor is one of 0, 1 and -1. If it is not balanced, balance the tree using (i) Left-left (ii) Left-right (iii) Right-left (iv) Right-right Balancing And if the tree is balanced and then the insert() and the delete() operations are performed. Stop the program.

Step 6: Step 7:

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*; class node { public int data; public node LC,RC; public int bf; } class avltree { node root = null; public boolean insert() { int newelt=0; try { System.out.println("Enter the element:"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); newelt=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } if(root==null) { node y=new node(); y.data=newelt; y.bf=0; y.LC=null; y.RC=null; root=y; return true; } node f,a,q,p; node b,c; int d; node y=new node(); boolean found, unbalanced; f=null; a=root; p=root; q=null; found=false; while (p!=null && found!=true) { if(p.bf!=0) { a=p; f=q;

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} if(newelt<p.data) { q=p; p=p.LC; } else if(newelt>p.data) { q=p; p=p.RC; } else { y=p; found=true; } } if(found==false) { y.data=newelt; y.bf=0; y.LC=null; y.RC=null; if(newelt<q.data) q.LC=y; else q.RC=y; if(newelt >a.data) { p=a.RC; b=p; d=-1; } else { p=a.LC; b=p; d=1; } while(p!=y) { if(newelt > p.data) { p.bf=-1; p=p.RC; } else { p.bf=1; p=p.LC;

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} } unbalanced=true; if((a.bf==0)||((a.bf+d)==0)) { a.bf+=d; unbalanced=false; } if(unbalanced==true) { if(d==1) { if(b.bf==1) { System.out.println("LL imbalance"); a.LC=b.RC; b.RC=a; a.bf=0; b.bf=0; } else { System.out.println("LR imbalance"); c=b.RC; b.RC=c.LC; a.LC=c.RC; c.LC=b; c.RC=a; switch(c.bf) { case 1: a.bf=-1; b.bf=0; break; case -1: a.bf=0; b.bf=1; break; case 0: a.bf=0; b.bf=0; break; } c.bf=0; b=c; } } else { if(b.bf==-1)

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{ System.out.println("RR imbalance"); a.RC=b.LC; b.LC=a; a.bf=0; b.bf=0; } else { System.out.println("RL imbalance"); c=b.LC; b.LC=c.RC; a.RC=c.LC; c.RC=b; c.LC=a; switch(c.bf) { case 1: a.bf=0; b.bf=-1; break; case -1: a.bf=1; b.bf=0; break; case 0: a.bf=0; b.bf=0; break; } c.bf=0; b=c; } } if(f==null) root=b; else if(a==f.LC) f.LC=b; else if(a==f.RC) f.RC=b; } return true; } return false; }

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## public void dispin(node currentnode) { if(currentnode!=null) { dispin(currentnode.LC); System.out.println(currentnode.data+" dispin(currentnode.RC); } } }

"+"BF "+currentnode.bf);

class AVLTreeImp { public static void main(String args[ ])throws IOException { int ch=0,cont=0; avltree a = new avltree(); do { System.out.println(" AVLTREES \n 1. Insert "); DataInputStream din = new DataInputStream(System.in); try { ch=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } if(ch==1) { boolean y=true; y=a.insert(); a.display(); if(y==false) System.out.println("Data already exists"); } else { System.out.println("Enter the correct choice"); } System.out.println("press 1 to continue:");

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## CS9215 - DATASTRUCTURES LAB

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OUTPUT :
AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 25 In Order 25 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 36 In Order 25 BF -1 36 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 50 RR imbalance In Order 25 BF 0 36 BF 0 50 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 10 In Order 10 BF 0 25 BF 1 36 BF 1 50 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element:

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5 LL imbalance In Order 5 BF 0 10 BF 0 25 BF 0 36 BF 1 50 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 20 LR imbalance In Order 5 BF 0 10 BF 0 20 BF 0 25 BF 0 36 BF -1 50 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 90 RR imbalance In Order 5 BF 0 10 BF 0 20 BF 0 25 BF 0 36 BF 0 50 BF 0 90 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 1 AVLTREES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 2 In Order 2 BF 0 5 BF 1 10 BF 1

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20 BF 0 25 BF 1 36 BF 0 50 BF 0 90 BF 0 press 1 to continue: 3

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RESULT :
Thus the program for AVL Tree using Java has been implemented and

executed successfully.

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## Ex no: 5 B-TREE Date:

AIM To implement the b-tree with insert and delete operations using Java.

ALGORITHM

## Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Step 9:

Start the program by defining function. Declare the class btree The insert and delete operations are performed To insert, check if root is empty, if it is empty Insert the element as root. If it is greater insert it into right sub tree. Otherwise, insert it into left sub tree Use the function split, to split the nodes Call the function display to display data1, data2, address and parent End of the program

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

class bnode { int data1,data2; bnode lptr,mptr,rptr,parent; public void bnode() { this.data1=this.data2=0; this.lptr=this.mptr=this.rptr=this.parent=null; } }

class btree { bnode root=null; bnode p,p1; bnode prev; void insert(int ele) { bnode temp=new bnode(); temp.data1=ele; if(root==null) { root=temp; } else { p1=root; while(p1!=null) { prev=p1; if(temp.data1<p1.data1) p1=p1.lptr; else if((temp.data1>p1.data1) &&(temp.data1<p1.data2)) p1=p1.mptr; else p1=p1.rptr; } p1=prev; while(p1!=null) { if(p1.data2==0) { if(temp.data1<p1.data1)

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{ int t=p1.data1; p1.data1=temp.data1; p1.data2=t; p1.lptr=temp.lptr; if(temp.lptr!=null) temp.lptr.parent=p1; p1.mptr=temp.rptr; if(temp.rptr!=null) temp.rptr.parent=p1; } else { p1.data2=temp.data1; p1.mptr=temp.lptr; if(temp.lptr!=null) temp.lptr.parent=p1; p1.rptr=temp.rptr; if(temp.rptr!=null) temp.rptr.parent=p1; } temp.parent=p1.parent; break; } else if((p1.data1!=0) && (p1.data2!=0)) { p1=split(temp,p1); temp=p1; p1=p1.parent; } } } display(root); } bnode split(bnode t,bnode p) { bnode n1=null; bnode n2=null; if(t.data1<p.data1) { if(p.mptr!=null) n1=p.mptr; if(p.rptr!=null) n2=p.rptr; p.lptr=new bnode(); p.lptr=t; t.parent=p; p.mptr=null; p.rptr=new bnode();

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p.rptr.data1=p.data2; p.rptr.lptr=n1; if(n1!=null) p.rptr.lptr.parent=p.rptr; p.rptr.rptr=n2; if(n2!=null) p.rptr.rptr.parent=p.rptr; p.rptr.parent=p; p.data2=0; } else if((t.data1>p.data1) && (t.data1<p.data2)) { if(p.lptr!=null) n1=p.lptr; if(p.rptr!=null) n2=p.rptr; p.lptr=new bnode(); p.lptr.data1=p.data1; p.lptr.parent=p; p.data1=t.data1; p.lptr.lptr=n1; if(n1!=null) p.lptr.lptr.parent=p.lptr; p.lptr.rptr=t.lptr; if(t.lptr!=null) p.lptr.rptr.parent=p.lptr; p.rptr=new bnode(); p.rptr.data1=p.data2; p.rptr.rptr=n2; if(n2!=null) p.rptr.rptr.parent=p.rptr; p.rptr.lptr=t.rptr; if(t.rptr!=null) p.rptr.lptr.parent=p.rptr; p.rptr.parent=p; p.data2=0; p.mptr=null; } else { if(p.lptr!=null) n1=p.lptr; if(p.mptr!=null) n2=p.mptr; p.lptr=new bnode(); p.lptr.data1=p.data1; p.lptr.parent=p; p.mptr=null; p.lptr.lptr=n1; if(n1!=null)

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p.lptr.lptr.parent=p.lptr; p.lptr.rptr=n2; if(n2!=null) p.lptr.rptr.parent=p.lptr; p.data1=p.data2; p.data2=0; p.rptr=new bnode(); p.rptr=t; p.rptr.parent=p; } return p; } void display(bnode temp) { if(temp!=null) { display(temp.lptr); display(temp.mptr); display(temp.rptr); System.out.println("data1::"+temp.data1+" data2::"+temp. data2+" Address::"+temp+" parent::"+temp.parent); } } }

class BTrees { public static void main(String[] args)throws IOException { System.out.println("B-Trees"); DataInputStream in=new DataInputStream(System.in); btree bt=new btree(); int x,ch; do { System.out.println("Enter the element"); x=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); bt.insert(x); System.out.println("To continue...press 1"); ch=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); }while(ch==1); } }

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OUTPUT :

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RESULT :
Thus the program for b-tree using Java has been implemented and executed

successfully.

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## AIM To implement the tries with insert operation using Java.

ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Start the program by defining the functions. First initialize the node to null To find the particular element use function finds Check the element to root node, if it is not found check for left or right side of the root. If its found return the element To insert the particular element read that element and Insert the element with tag as 0 and level as 1. To display the elements, display if root as null, print as empty, otherwise call empty Print the current node in left sub tree in the format as currentnode.data + level and tag. Display current node in the right sub tree End of the program

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

class node { public int tag,level; public int data; public node LC,RC,par; }

class trie { public node cptr; public node root=null; public node find(int key) { int item=key; node temp=root; while(temp!=null) { cptr=temp; if(temp.tag==1) { if((item & 1)==0) { temp=temp.LC; item=item >> 1; } else { temp=temp.RC; item=item >> 1; } } else { if(key==temp.data) { return temp; } else break; } } return null; }

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public void insert() { int key=0; try { System.out.println("Enter the element:"); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); key=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } if(root==null) { root=new node(); root.data=key; root.tag=0; root.level=1; root.par=null; root.LC=null; root.RC=null; } else { { node temp=find(key); if(temp==null) temp=cptr; if(temp.tag==0) { node n1=new node(); node n2=new node(); temp.tag=1; n1.tag=0;n2.tag=0; int k1=temp.data; temp.data=0; int k2=key; int kk1; n1.data=k1; n2.data=k2; int lv=1; while ( (k1 & 1 ) ==(k2 & 1 )) { kk1=k1; k1=k1 >> 1; k2=k2 >> 1; if(lv>=temp.level) { node n3=new node(); n3.tag=1; if((kk1 & 1)==0) {

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temp.LC=n3; temp.RC=null; n3.level=temp.level+1; } else { temp.RC=n3; temp.LC=null; n3.level=temp.level+1; } n3.par=temp; temp=n3; lv++; } else lv++; } if((k1 & 1)==0) { temp.LC=n1; temp.RC=n2; n1.level=n2.level=temp.level+1; } else { temp.LC=n2; temp.RC=n1; n1.level=n2.level=temp.level+1; n1.par=temp; } n2.par=temp; } else { node n1=new node(); n1.tag=0; n1.data=key; if(temp.LC==null) temp.LC=n1; else temp.RC=n1; n1.level=temp.level+1; n1.par=temp; } } System.out.println("Element already exists"); } } public void display()

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{ if(root==null) System.out.println("EMPTY"); else { System.out.println("\nIn Order"); dispin(root); } } public void dispin(node currentnode) { if(currentnode!=null) { dispin(currentnode.LC); System.out.println(currentnode.data+" \t "+"LEVEL- "+currentnode.level+" "+"TAG"+currentnode.tag); dispin(currentnode.RC); } } }

class TrieImp { public static void main(String args[ ])throws IOException { int ch=0,cont=0; trie t = new trie(); do { System.out.println("\t TRIES \n 1. Insert "); DataInputStream din = new DataInputStream(System.in); try { ch=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); } catch(Exception e) { } if(ch==1) { t.insert(); t.display(); } else { System.out.println("Enter the correct choice :"); } System.out.println("press 1 to continue:"); try {

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OUTPUT :
TRIES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 1234 In Order 1234 LEVEL- 1 TAG-0 press 1 to continue: 1 TRIES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 4321 Element already exists In Order 1234 LEVEL- 2 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 1 TAG-1 4321 LEVEL- 2 TAG-0 press 1 to continue: 1 TRIES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 5634 Element already exists In Order 0 LEVEL- 2 TAG-1 5634 LEVEL- 6 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 5 TAG-1 1234 LEVEL- 6 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 4 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 3 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 1 TAG-1 4321 LEVEL- 2 TAG-0 press 1 to continue: 1 TRIES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 34 Element already exists In Order 0 LEVEL- 2 TAG-1 5634 LEVEL- 7 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 6 TAG-1

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34 LEVEL- 7 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 5 TAG-1 1234 LEVEL- 6 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 4 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 3 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 1 TAG-1 4321 LEVEL- 2 TAG-0 press 1 to continue: 1 TRIES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 9821 Element already exists In Order 0 LEVEL- 2 TAG-1 5634 LEVEL- 7 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 6 TAG-1 34 LEVEL- 7 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 5 TAG-1 1234 LEVEL- 6 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 4 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 3 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 1 TAG-1 4321 LEVEL- 4 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 3 TAG-1 9821 LEVEL- 4 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 2 TAG-1 press 1 to continue: 1 TRIES 1. Insert 1 Enter the element: 921 Element already exists In Order 0 LEVEL- 2 TAG-1 5634 LEVEL- 7 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 6 TAG-1 34 LEVEL- 7 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 5 TAG-1 1234 LEVEL- 6 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 4 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 3 TAG-1 0 LEVEL- 1 TAG-1 4321 LEVEL- 5 TAG-0 0 LEVEL- 4 TAG-1 921 LEVEL- 5 TAG-0

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RESULT :
Thus the program for tries using Java has been implemented and the output was

verified successfully.

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## Ex no: 7 QUICK SORT Date:

AIM To write a Java program for the implementation the quick sort ALGORITHM Step1: start the program Step2: Declare and initialize the array size Step3: Enter the number of elements to be quick sorted. Step4: Enter the elements using for loop Step5: call the function quick (1, noe) Void quick (int first,int last) Step6: if the first element is less than the last (a) then the first element is taken as the pivot &i=first, &j=last (b)The condition is checked for i<j if true Step7: set a loop to check the elements (a) while (a[pivot]>=a[i]&&i<last)i++; (b) while (a[pivot]>=a[j]&&j>first)j--; Step8: if (i>j) Swap (i,j) Step9: sort the elements and display the sorted values.

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

class quicksortalg { int noe; int[] a=new int[100]; public void sort() { try { System.out.println("Enter the number of elements : "); DataInputStream din=new DataInputStream(System.in); noe=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); System.out.println("Enter the elements : "); for(int i=1;i<=noe;i++) a[i]=Integer.parseInt(din.readLine()); System.out.println("The array:"); display(); } catch(Exception e) { } quick(1,noe); } public void swap(int i,int j) { int t; t=a[i]; a[i]=a[j]; a[j]=t; } public void quick(int first,int last) { if(first<last) { int pivot=first; int i=first; int j=last; while(i<j) { while(a[pivot]>=a[i] && i<last) i++; while(a[pivot]<=a[j] && j>first) j--; if(i<j) swap(i,j);

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## } swap(pivot,j); quick(first,j-1); quick(j+1,last); } } public void display() { for(int i=1;i<=noe;i++) System.out.println(a[i]+"\n"); } }

class quicksort { public static void main(String args[])throws IOException { quicksortalg q1=new quicksortalg(); q1.sort(); System.out.println("The sorted array is : "); q1.display(); } }

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OUTPUT :
Enter the number of elements : 8 Enter the elements : 90 32 56 89 12 76 54 34 The array: 90 32 56 89 12 76 54 34 The sorted array is : 12 32 34 54 56 76 89 90

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RESULT :
Thus the program for quick sort has been implemented using Java and the

output is verified.

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## Ex no: 8 CONVEX HULL Date:

AIM To write a Java program for the implementation of convex hull ALGORITHM Step1: Start the program Step2: Create a class convexhullalg Step3: Read the number of points Step4: Get the x and y co-ordinate values Step5: Sort the values using sort function Step6: To sort two values swap the values of i and j Step7: Call the function display to display the boundary points Step8: The function check id used to check whether the point is angular or not(180) Step9: End of the program

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

class convexhullalg { int x[],y[],n; boolean status[]; void insert() { try { DataInputStream in=new DataInputStream(System.in); System.out.println("Enter number of points:"); n=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); x=new int[n]; y=new int[n]; status=new boolean[n]; System.out.println("Enter x and y coordinates for "); for(int i=0;i<n;i++) { System.out.println("point "+(i+1)); x[i]=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); y[i]=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); status[i]=false; } } catch(Exception e) { } sort(); check(0,'L'); check(0,'H'); display(); } void sort() { for(int i=0;i<n-1;i++) { for(int j=i+1;j<n;j++) if((x[i]>x[j]) || ((x[i]==x[j]) && (y[i]>y[j]))) swap(i, j); } } void swap(int i,int j) { int temp=x[i]; x[i]=x[j]; x[j]=temp;

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temp=y[i]; y[i]=y[j]; y[j]=temp; } void display() { System.out.println("Boundary points are"); for(int i=0;i<n;i++) if(status[i]==true) System.out.println("("+x[i]+", "+y[i]+")"); } void check(int p,char c) { double slope=0,degree=0,deg=0; int next=0; status[p]=true; for(int i=p+1;i<n;i++) { try { slope=(double)(x[i]-x[p])/(double)(y[i]-y[p]); degree=Math.toDegrees(Math.atan(slope)); if(degree < 0) degree+=180; } catch(Exception e) { degree=90; } if(i==p+1) { deg=degree; next=i; } else { if((c=='L' && deg>degree)||(c!='L' && deg<degree) ||(degree==deg && x[i]<x[next])) { deg=degree; next=i; } } } if(next!=0) check(next,c); } }

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class convexhull { public static void main(String args[])throws IOException { convexhullalg c=new convexhullalg(); c.insert(); } }

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OUTPUT :
Enter number of points: 5 Enter x and y coordinates for point 1 1 5 point 2 2 3 point 3 5 8 point 4 3 4 point 5 6 4 Boundary points are (1, 5) (2, 3) (5, 8) (6, 4)

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RESULT :
Thus the program for convex hull has been implemented using Java and

Executed successfully.

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Ex no: 9 Date:

## 0/1 KNAPSACK USING DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING

AIM To write a Java program for the implementation of 0/1 knapsack using dynamic programming. ALGORITHM Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Start the program and define the function. Initialize the weight and profit. Read the number of objects that are given. For each objects, print the profit and weight Initializing is set to false. Display and print the item weight and profit Display the total cost End of the program.

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

## class objects { int weight; int profit; }

public class knapsack { static int N,W; static objects st[]; public static void main(String args[])throws IOException { DataInputStream in=new DataInputStream(System.in); System.out.println("Enter the number of objects:"); N=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); System.out.println("Enter the maximum weight sack can take:"); W=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); st=new objects[N+1]; st[0]=new objects();st[0].weight=st[0].profit=0; for(int i=1;i<=N;i++) { st[i]=new objects(); System.out.println("\nFor object "+i); System.out.print("Enter profit: "); st[i].profit=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); System.out.print("Enter Weight: "); st[i].weight=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); } int [][] opt=new int[N+1][W+1]; boolean [][] sol= new boolean[N+1][W+1]; for(int n=1;n<=N;n++) for(int w=1;w<=W;w++) { int option1=opt[n-1][w]; int option2=-1; if(st[n].weight<=w) option2=st[n].profit+opt[n-1][w-st[n].weight]; opt[n][w]=Math.max(option1, option2); sol[n][w]=(option2 > option1); } boolean take[]=new boolean[N+1]; int prof=0; for(int n=N,w=W;n>0;n--) if(sol[n][w])

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{ take[n]=true; w=w-st[n].weight; prof+=st[n].profit; } else take[n]=false; System.out.println("\nThe optimal solution is:"); System.out.println("Item \t weight \t profit"); for(int n=1;n<=N;n++) if(take[n]) System.out.println(n+" \t "+st[n].weight+" \t\t "+st[n].profit); System.out.println("\n Total profit:"+prof); } }

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OUTPUT : Enter the number of objects: 4 Enter the maximum weight sack can take: 15 For object 1 Enter profit: 10 Enter Weight: 5 For object 2 Enter profit: 20 Enter Weight: 7 For object 3 Enter profit: 15 Enter Weight: 12 For object 4 Enter profit: 17 Enter Weight: 2 The optimal solution is: Item weight profit 1 5 10 2 7 20 4 2 17 Total profit:47

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RESULT :
Thus the program for 0/1 knapsack using dynamic program has been implemented using Java and Executed successfully.

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Ex no: 10 Date:

## GRAPH COLORING USING BACKTRACKING

AIM To write the Java program for the implementation of graph Coloring using backtracking. ALGORITHM Start the program and define the function Create a class coloring Get the number of vertices in the graph Enter one if there is an edge in the graph And enter zero if there is no edge in the graph. Get the adjacency matrix of the given values Perform all possible combinations that are given Display all the combination End of the program

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PROGRAM :
import java.io.*;

class gcoloring { int a[][]=new int[10][10]; int x[]=new int[10]; int m, n; void read() { DataInputStream in=new DataInputStream(System.in); try { System.out.println("Enter number of vertices in the graph"); n=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); System.out.println("Enter 1 if there is an edge Otherwise 0"); for(int i=1;i<=n;i++) for(int j=1;j<=n;j++) { System.out.println("between "+i+" and "+j); a[i][j]=Integer.parseInt(in.readLine()); } } catch(Exception e) { } System.out.println("Given adjacency matrix is "); for(int i=1;i<=n;i++) { for(int j=1;j<=n;j++) System.out.print(a[i][j]+"\t"); System.out.println(); } for(int i=1;i<=n;i++) x[i]=0; for(int i=2;i<n;i++) { m=i; System.out.println("All possible combinations for m = "+i+" are "); mcoloring(1); } } void mcoloring(int k) { do { nextvalue(k); if(x[k]==0) break;

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if(k==n) { for(int i=1;i<=n;i++) System.out.print(x[i]+"\t"); System.out.println(); } else mcoloring(k+1); }while(true); } void nextvalue(int k) { int j; do { x[k]=(x[k]+1)%(m+1); if(x[k]==0) return; for(j=1;j<=n;j++) { if((a[k][j]==1) && (x[k]==x[j])) break; } if(j==n+1) return; }while(true); } }

class Graphcoloring { public static void main(String args[ ])throws IOException { gcoloring g=new gcoloring(); g.read(); } }

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OUTPUT : Enter number of vertices in the graph 4 Enter 1 if there is an edge Otherwise 0 between 1 and 1 0 between 1 and 2 1 between 1 and 3 0 between 1 and 4 1 between 2 and 1 1 between 2 and 2 0 between 2 and 3 1 between 2 and 4 0 between 3 and 1 0 between 3 and 2 1 between 3 and 3 0 between 3 and 4 1 between 4 and 1 1 between 4 and 2 0 between 4 and 3 1 between 4 and 4 0 Given adjacency matrix is 0101 1010 0101 1010 All possible combinations for m = 2 are 1212 2121 All possible combinations for m = 3 are 1212 1213 1232 1312

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1313 1323 2121 2123 2131 2313 2321 2323 3121 3131 3132 3212 3231 3232

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RESULT :
Thus the program for graph coloring using backtracking in Java has been implemented and executed successfully.