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by T. GROENEWALDt,
Ph.D. (Rand), D.I.C. (Imperial
SYNOPSIS The aqueous chemistry of gold(l) that has found practical application is mainly the chemistry of the anionic complexes involving ligands such as cyanide. sulphite, and the halides. The one potential exception is the cationic gold(I)-thiourea ion. While many laboratory studies have been made during the past decade. the application of thiourea in the processing of gold is only now reaching the development stage. While thiourea is relatively inexpensive. recent interest has probably been spurred mainly by the novel technology that could arise out of the cationic properties of the gold-thiourea ion. This review outlines the chemistry of gold and thiourea. and discusses the possible use of thiourea in the processing of gold with respect to dissolution. solvent extraction. ion exchange, electrowinning. electroplating. electroless deposition. electro-etching, and electropolishing. SAMEVATTING Die waterchemie van goud(l) wat prakties toegepas word. is hoofsaaklik die chemie van die anioniese komplekse waarby ligande secs sianied. sulfiet en die haliede betrokke is. Die een moontlike uitsondering is die kationiese goud(I)-tio-ureumioon. Hoewel daar gedurende die afgelope dekade baie laboratoriumstudies uitgevoer is. bereik die gebruik van tio-ureum by die verwerking van goud nou eers die ontwikkelingstadium. Hoewel tio-ureum betreklik goedkoop is. is die onlangse belangstelling waarskynlik hoofsaaklik toe te skryf aan die nuwe tegnologie wat uit die kationiese eienskappe van die goud-tio-ureumioon kan voortspruit. Hierdie oorsig beskryf die chemie van goud en tio-ureum in hooftrekke en bespreek die moontlike gebruik van tio-ureum by die verwerking van goud met betrekking tot oplossing. oplosmiddelekstraksie. ioonuitruiling. elektrowinning. elektroplatering. elektrolose afsetting. elektroetsing en elektropolering.
Introduction Hydrometallurgical processes for the extraction of gold and the gold-plating industry have to date been based largely upon the use of the soluble anionic ions of gold such as the cyanide, sulphite, and halide complexes of gold(I). Despit9 the obvious utility that a cationic species could have in the processing and uses of gold, it is only during the past decade that attempts ha ve been made to take research results to a stage where gold-processing technology includes the use of cationic species of gold. At this stage, it appears that the gold(I)thiourea ionl Au(CS(NH2)2): will be the first to achieve industrial importance, particularly since the use of thiourea can not be ruled out on the basis of economic consideratiom. It is the purpose of this paper to review the fundamental chemistry of gold and thiourea, and to indicate the possible applications of thiourea in the future processing of gold. Redox Reactions The oxidants used for the dissolution of gold in acidic solutions of thiourea also oxidize thiourea in successive stages to form a number of products2. An understanding of these redox processes is essential before the action of this liquor upon gold ca n be described. The first product is formamidine disulphide, which is formed with relative ease in acidic solutions by the
*Paper presented to the Symposium on Coordination Chemistry in Extractive Metallurgy, March 1976, sponsored jointly by the National Institute for Metallurgy and the South African Chemical Institute. tMetallurgy Laboratory, Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg. JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE
action of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide3 at room temperature: 2CS(NH2)2~NH2C(NH)SSC(NH) (NH2)+2H++2 e(1) In view of this rapid reaction, formamidine disulphide must be assumed to be the active oxidant for the dissolution of gold in thiourea solutions4. Reaction (1) is followed by slower reactions that form products in which sulphur has a higher oxidation state, for example, sulphur or even sulphate ions; these products therefore gradually accumulate in the solution. These secondary redox reactions are only partial in acidic or neutral solutions unless vigorous oxidants such as acidic dichromate are used, when the oxidation products are urea and sulphate ion2. In alkaline solution (pH 8), this latter reaction is quantitative even with mild oxidants5. 6. The reactions of thiourea with gold(III) and iron(III) are of special interest. The redox reaction with gold(III) is rapid in acidic solutions, and the reduction to gold(I) is quantitative; this reaction has been recommended for the analytical determination of gold(III)7. 8. Only one ion of gold(I)-thiourea is known!, namely [Au(CS(NH2h)2 ]+. The reaction between iron(III) and thiourea is slow9 because of the formation of very stable metal-ligand co-ordination bonds. The complex [Fe(III)S04(CS(NH2)2)]+ (stability constant log ,8=6,64 :!: 0,63) was identified in a mixed sulphatethiourea medium, and, upon completion of the reduction process, the complex [Fe(II) (CS(NH2)2) ]S04 was identified. Oxidative Dissolution The dissolution of gold in acidic solutions of thiourea was reported as long ago as 1941 by Plaksin and Kozhuchovalo, and was observed again by Preisler and Berger3 in 1947, but there was a considerable time lag JUNE 1977 217
OF MINING AND METALLURGY
and the AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY OF THE SOUTH . hydrogen4. the reaction between iron(III) and thiourea leads to a prohibitively high consumption of reagent . 0. the activation energy of the dissolution reaction. Oxidants that have been added to acidic solutions of thiourea to effect the dissolution of gold include formamidine disulphide3. NH4 citrate. Iron(III) appears to be much more effective in sulphate than in chloride medium13. thiourea is oxidized on platinum to formamidine disulphide.1 V. The electroless plating of gold thus probably occurs direct from the cyanide of gold.H2SO4' as well as thiourea in amounts of less than 1 g(l. Although the efficiency of this liquor decreases with its age.4 V is 100 per cent and. The rate of dissolution decreases with the age of the liquor. a value that was found3 to be independent of pH over the range 0 to 4. 23. However. there is some doubt as to whether the reduction of gold(I)-thiourea to gold metal by the action of a soluble reducing agent is utilized in any of these processes. aqua regia. and the standard reduction potential3 Eo is 0. The rate of oxidation is. NH4 citrate.8.. The consumption of reagents renders this technique uneconomical when compared with conventional cyanidation techniques. and the rate of gold dissolution is similar in hydrochloric and sulphuric acid media. The current efficiency up to a potential of 1. nitric acid appears to retard the process13. At anodic overpotentials of 0. An example ofthis can be found in a patented electroless plating solution19 at pH 3. 10-6 and the dissolution proceeds with a current efficiency of 100 per cent. Over the entire potential range 0. decreases because of the simultaneous liberation of oxygen at the anode. which is at least five times faster than is possible with conventional cyanide solutions. 18. and N2H4. which function as inert surfaces. The secondary redox-reaction products of the thiourea appear to cause a passivation of the surface of the gold. and its effect has been observed as a grey-black film on the surfaces of gold exposed to the action of these solutions. and the exchange current21 io is (2. The use of acidic solutions ofthiourea for the oxidative dissolution of gold in an ore can thus be recommended only when an extremely high rate of extraction is required.1 M formamidine disulphide. Electrochemical Dissolution The anodic dissolution of gold is rapid up to anodic overpotentials of 0. and to about 0. Electrochemistry The electrochemistry of thiourea has been investigated on platinum3. strongly dependent upon pH21. Ea. since the solution. 10.5 kg per ton of ore treated13.1 M thiourea. In the second patent.ric acid. Approximately 0. and is controlled only by the rate of diffusion of the oxidant to the surface of the. it appears that the oxidation ofthiourea by iron(III) does not immediately yield the secondary redox-reaction products that retard the rate of gold dissolution when other oxidants are used. and on lead24. The more likely role of thiourea in electroless goldplating solutions appears to be that of levelling agent. The electrochemical anodic transfer coefficient2O. or hydrogenbromide(bromine treatments currently used in the wet-chemical extraction of gold from gold-bearing materials and in the chemical etching of gold and gold alloys.420 V. The pH value of this solution is not specified but. Additions of formamidine disulphide and hydrogen peroxide produce identical results4. at more positive potentials. 19. the copper itself probably acting as reducing agent. a solution consisting of KAu(CN)2' thiourea. to Au(thiourea). However.4 V and higher. HCI. dissolved oxygen4. 218 JUNE 1977 JOURNAL A number of solutions containing gold and thiourea have been patented as electroless gold-plating solutions17. and 0.7) X 10-6 A cm-2. It was found that a pore-free deposit of gold could be plated upon a copper surface.5h using an acidic solution containing 1. The initial rate of dissolution of gold in a freshly prepared acidic solution of thiourea containing iron(III) as the oxidant is rapid. The most rapid rate of dissolution of gold in acidic solutions of thiourea is therefore obtained with iron(III) as oxidant. gold.1 X 10-8 M cm-2 s-1.3 V (Fig. from the composition of the solution. the reaction being given by1 (2) Au(CS(NH2)2)t+e-~Au+2CS(NH2)2' The exchange current density is greater than "" A cm -2. acidic solutions of thiourea could well prove to be a less-toxic and less-corrosive alternative to the cyanide. 11-16 Electroless Plating and the practical feasibility demonstrated by the dissolution of gold from a crushed ore4. 1)25 and nearly reaches the maximum diffusion-controlled rate.01 M formamidine disulphide is as much as 1.1 M sulphuric acid.1 kJ(mol over the temperature range4 3 to 35°C.5 containing KAu(CN)2' Na2 EDTA. which becomes passive in solutions of thiourea.1 to 14. and K-acetate (at pH 4) contains no reducing agent.14. KC!.4 kg of thiourea (and 6 kg of sulphuric acid) are consumed for each ton of ore treated. is unlikely to be sufficiently low to ensure the conversion of Au(CN).3. 13. and CoCl2 is used. 21 f3 is approximately equal to 0. and iron(III)4. being controlled partially by chemical and by transport phenomena. 12. The rate of dissolution of gold is rapid and increases with increasing concentrations of thiourea and of oxidant. cit. which is partially decomposed to cyanamide and sulphur at the higher potentials in this range23. which consists typically of Au(I)-thiourea. The anodic formation of formamidine disulphide on platinum is reversible3. the rate of dissolution of gold in a solution containing 0. However. although the patent specifies its function to be that of catalyst for the deposition of gold.9 to 2. however. 4. The rate of the passivation reaction appears to be rapid. the Co(II) ion probably functions as a reducing agent. 20-23 and graphite24. In accord with this observation. Thus it has proved feasible to decrease the time for the extraction of gold from a typical crushed ore from 24h to about 5h using this solution of thiourea. The first patentl7 is a good example of immersion plating rather than of true electroless plating. thiourea is oxidized to formamidine disulphide and other sulphur-containing compounds.before this discovery was investigated in depth4. 12-14. However. 15 and sod i u m per 0 xi d e12.0 M thiourea and 0. is 28.
the gold plate appears somewhat darkened in colour. An advantage of this plating system may ~ ~ t 3 E u ~ >+' III c: QI "'C +' c: QI L. which produces smooth and brilliant surfaces. 31. 1). The diffusion coefficient (D) of Au [CS(NH2)2 Jt at 30 °C has been measured25 as 1. the reduction of formamidine disulphide causes rapid passivation of the gold surface. Gold and gold alloys of a fineness of at least 8 ct can be electropolished in solutions27 containing typically 0. but formamidine disulphide can be continuously reduced on a freshly deposited gold surface25. At the peak of the curve for cathodic current versus potential (Fig. on a passivated surface. this value increases25 to as much as 0. under such conditions. when the cathodic overpotential is increased to between -0.2 0. or titanium. 5 - 4 Cat hodic Anodic 1Q-3MAu(Tu). gold precipitation and hydrogen evolution occur simultaneously and the current efficiency drops markedly24. on a fresh gold surface. in general. 10. This variation in the value of Eo arises even if the gold electrode is not subjected to anodic potentials but also when the solution contains increasing amounts of contaminants. Eo is 0. this peak tends to shift to higher overpotentials as the caratage of the alloy decreases.395 V were obtainedl.17xlO-5 cm2/s. the activation energy24 for the deposition of gold Ea is 25 to 29 kJ/mol. under these circumstances.2 -0. Thiourea itself does not contribute to the cathodic reaction on platinum. At the higher potentials. The deposition of gold occurs with a current efficiency of 100 per cent. a finely crystalline semilustrous deposit of gold up to 1 mm thick could be plated before further electrolysis resulted in a noticeable deterioration in the deposit3O.3 to 0.15 and .0.1 . Electrodeposition The reduction of gold(I)-thiourea occurs24. It has been shown that the cathodic deposition of gold from acidic solutions of thiourea can be used for the recovery of gold from such solutions33 or for the production of gold plate. This also affects the value of the standard reduction potential (E 0) of reaction (2).7 M: thiourea in 0. where partial passivation of the gold surface sets in. and. Electroetching and Electropolishing Electroetching of gold is often used to obtain a dull matt finish on gold and gold alloys for decorative purposes.4 gold-gold (1)- Overpotential of anodic and cathodic CV)--+ for the system current versus potential thiourea JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY JUNE 1977 219 .336 to 0.6 V. values of Eo ranging from 0. gold. Electropolishing is the selective electrolytic dissolution of the metal. 30°C. 29-33 according to reaction (2) and is diffusion controlled at cathodic overpotentials between .41 V. The passivation of the gold surface at the higher anodic potentials results in a hysteresis loop in the curve of current versus potential. and can conveniently be described in terms of the typical curve of anodic current versus potential shown in Fig. 1.5 and -0.6 M H2SO4' and improved behaviour for the lower caratage alloys can be obtained by the addition of small amounts of metallic salts such as CUSO4' AgNO3. Both these techniques rely upon the anodic dissolution of the metal. as the concentration of the inhibiting reagents in the system builds up. pH 1.352 V (at 30 °C) but. Ea is 71 to 84 kJ/mol.3 0. the current values at the peak in this curve are further depressed.03 to 0.dissolution of gold becomes partly inhibited.35 V. and. while the current efficiency of gold dissolution decreases markedly.3 0.0. 0.1 0 0.4 Fig. In the absence of gold(I)-thiourea in the solution. I-Curves 0. Gold and gold alloys (9 to 22 ct) can be etched in acidic solutions of thiourea at applied potentials up to the peak in the curve of current versus potentiaJ26. and NiSO4 to these polishing solutions28.:zMTu. after which slight inhibition occurs29. J I::J ~ 6 Cl 0 0. and at 50 °C D is3° 1. but. both the smoothing and the brightening of the gold surface necessary for effective electropolishing can be achieved.1 X 10-5 cm2/s. at the trough.
been given46 as Amine . which has been taken to confirm an electrostatic attachment to the resin. Recovery of Gold the series secondary41 to tertiary4O. Acidic solutions of thiourea have been used to improve the selectivity of the extraction of gold(I)-cyanide from ion-exchange resins loaded with the metal-cyanide usually found in cyanide leach liquors. this equilibrium will also be affected by the amount of cyanide ion originally bonded to the amine in the organic phase. with the quaternary group47. 51. iron and the remaining copper are removed by a solution containing ammonium hydroxide. 30. Furthermore. Studies into this process are rather complex in that the distribution of the gold depends upon the exact composition of the organic phase. the extraction of gold(I)-cyanide by means of long-chain amines dissolved in organic diluents can in general be written as Amine-X( 0)+ Au(CN). 50.. Although there is not always agreement on the mechanism. 56.is some counter ion.. it is usually possible to strip copper. (4) This stripping treatment has no irreversible effect upon the organic extractant. The difficulty in stripping the gold from these organic solutions is generally inversely related to the efficiency of extraction of gold(I)-cyanide by these amine extractants. certain difficulties that have persisted in this technique have encouraged investigations in other directions. thus providing a new way of overcoming traditional problems in this field. and upon the type of acid in the aqueous phase. however. and sodium hydroxide. so that the problem of polymer formation35 in the gold electroplate is not as likely to arise as when acidic cyanide solutions are used. since this cyanide is stripped quantitatively into even slightly acidic solutions containing thiourea52. has been based upon the fact that gold can easily be stripped from amine extractants into acidic solutions of thiourea. The order of stripping of the metal-cyanide complexes from quaternary ammonium extractants is generally opposite to the order of extraction48. it has been found possible to strip the gold(I) effectively only into acidic solution<! containing thiourea. silver. the extraction of gold from solution in industry is exclusively concerned with the extraction cf gold(I)-cyanide from cyanide media.be derived from the fact that the cathodic evolution of hydrogen is markedly increased in the presence of thiourea (at least on silver surfaces)34.(a)~Amine +2HCN(a)' . while gold and silver are not stripped at all.Au(CN)2( 0) + X -(a). these resins are all prepared on a base of divinylbenzene and styrene copolymers containing quaternary or tertiary ammonium salts. ammonium nitrate. together with free cyanide. Much of the research in this field during the 196013. Thus. The recommended stripping sequence for the Anionite AP-2 resin is removal of the zinc and nickel cyanides. 43-46. With the strongly basic resin AV-17. Although the recovery of this gold has long been accomplished by precipitation on metallic zinc. the stoichiometry and mechanism of the process shown in equation (4) have not been established. and even with some tertiary amines4O. Similar equations would naturally hold for amine-based ion-exchange resins. OF THE SOUTH . However. have assumed that the difficulty encountered when gold is stripped by means of electrolytes from tertiary amines is indicative of homopolar bonding between the gold and the amine groups. The role of thiourea in the stripping process should be viewed in conjunction with the extraction of gold(I)-cyanides by amine groups. and zinc complexes into solutions containing sufficient free cyanide. 48. species36-38. a total AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING AND METALLURGY (3) where the subscripts refer to the aqueous (a) and organic (0) phases. studies were made on strongly basic ion-exchange resins (type A V-1753 and Russian type AM54) and from a resin containing mixed (50 per cent of each) strongly and weakly basic groups (Russian type AP-2)55. The efficiency of extraction increases along 220 JUNE 1977 JOURNAL . Infrared studies on a strongly basic anionexchange resin that was saturated with gold(I)-cyanide have indicated the presence of gold on the resin as the Au(CN). In view of the anodic oxidation of thiourea. in the case of tri-n-octylamine. 42-46 to quaternary ammonium compounds47-5O. the extraction efficiency also increases with an increase in the polarity of the organic diluent5O. A similar conclusion was made after an infrared investigation of a solution of trialkyl (C7-C9) benzyl ammonium ion in kerosene containing 40 per cent decylalcohoP9.5 per cent H2SO4 to strip the gold.. despite the numerous references to the use of acidic thiourea solutions for the stripping of gold(I)-cyanide. there is also an experimental need for the use of sealed systems to prevent loss of the hydrogen cyanide from the aqueous phase while equilibrium is being established 50. or a mixture of these tw036. The gold and silver can then be selectively stripped into acidic solution<! of thiourea. Thus. as well as to prevent a measure of spontaneous dissolution of the gold by the oxidants formed during the reactions on the anode25. which can be reloaded with gold(I)-cyanide without intermediate treatment45. by treatment with 5 per cent H2SO4' followed by treatment with 5 per cent thiourea in 2.Au(CN)2(0)+2CS(NH2h(a)+2H2SO4(a) = Amine- HSO4(0)+Au(CS(NH~)2)2' HSO4(a) Gold (I)-Cyanide Aside from isolated instances in the gold-plating and gold scrap-recovery industries. The failure of much of the research and development effort into the recovery of gold by solvent extraction and ion exchange to attain industrial acceptance can largely be attributed to the difficulty in obtaining the required selectivity of extraction and ease of recovery of the gold after extraction. The reaction in which the gold is taken into aqueous solution as the Au [CS(NH2)2 Jri complex ion has. it will be necessary to separate the anode and cathode compartments of the electrolytic cell to avoid incorporation of sulphur in the gold plate25. and X. some authors4O. iron. and part of the copper. the noble metals are removed from the aqueous phase by electrodeposition or 'electroelution'. an enhancement in the concentration of the gold of at least three orders of magnitude is possible via this cycle 50. 50. and even during the past few years.
in addition. Many of these difficulties appear to have been overcome by immobilization of the liquid ion exchange on a porous support such as clay64 and plastics such as polyethylene39. stripping of the adsorbed metal cyanides from this organic medium was achieved by treatment with potassium cyanide for the removal of copper. The gold was readily stripped from these fabrics into hydrochloric acid solutions containing thiourea63. but the loading capacity of the foam was about fifty times smaller than was possible with activated charcoal. the gold JOURNAL OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE has been recovered by cementation on lead powder44. The rapid rate of dissolution of gold in thiourea should also find application in the analytical chemistry of gold. consequently. these developments will generate an interest in the fundamental chemistry of this system. the rate of gold sorption onto these foams was found to be equivalent to that on activated charcoal. but that alkaline eluants such as sodium cyanide or hydroxide res~ored the original porous structure58. copper. these fabrics had the advantage of being rather selective for gold. a complete process was proposed for the hydrometallurgical recovery of gold from cyanide solutions by means of ion exchange.on the resin and to the formation of bridged structures of the type Au-CN-Zn38. these systems cannot be used for the direct treatment of pulps on account of intense emulsion formation and adsorption of the extractant onto the solid particles of the pulp.es that are deleteriously affected in acidic solutions of thiourea. for example. 'electroelution' by simultaneous electrolysis of the acidic solution of thiourea in contact with the ion-exchange resin has been found to accelerate removal of the gold from the resin 56. complex has made the selective recovery of gold a distinct possibility.elution of the precious metals could be obtained only by use of a solution of hydrochloric acid and thiourea57. Thus. stripping of the gold by acidic thiourea forms an integral part of these processes. although the capacity for gold adsorption was reduced. 60 or by electrodeposition53. It was found that treatment of the strongly basic resin AM with acidic thiourea sharply reduced the porosity of this resin. and gold loading. iron. as does the conversion of gold(I)-cyanide to gold(I)-thiourea in acid solution. losses of extracted metal. finally. The rate of adsorption of gold(I)-cyanide onto synthetic fabrics containing suitable N-containing active groups (2-methyl-5 vinylpyridine or polyethylenepolyamines) has been found to occur about twenty to thirty times as rapidly as on conventional strongly basic resins. Conclusions In the hydrometallurgy of gold. Strongly acidic cation-exchange resins are as effective as charcoal in extracting gold(I)-thiourea acidic solutions75. Tributylphosphate has been used for the solvent extraction of gold(I)-thiourea from hydrochloric acid solutions 71. Gold(I). treatment with sulphuric acid for the removal of zinc and some of the nickel. as well as the stripping processes involving these ions on JUNE 1977 221 OF MINING AND METALLURGY . and some impurities. Activated charcoal has been used for the sorption of gold from acidic solutions of thiourea. in the surface finishing of gold in the jewellery industry. and the results have been applied 72 to an industrial solution containing gold. Tributylphosphate loaded on open-cell polyurethane foams has been used for the recovery of gold from sulphuric acid leach liquors containing thiourea 73. developments in this field are mostly due to the Russians. These tributylphosphate-Ioaded foams have also been used for the chemical enrichment and separation of gold(I)-thiourea during reversedphase chromatography74.. It has been reported that ion-exchange polyvinyl alcohol fibres effectively extract gold from acidic solutions of thiourea 76. In pilot-plant studies in which acidic thiourea was used to strip gold from ion-exchange resins or liquids. and it will be interesting to see whether these possibilities will be recognized elsewhere in the future. and have the advantage that the gold can be stripped effectively into alkaline cyanide solutions as the gold(I)-cyanide ion. 66 or in benzene and decyl alcohol67. the carbon has to be ashed before the gold can be recovered. 57. In time.Thiourea Various techniques have been investigated for the recovery of gold in acidic solutions of thiourea. of up to 17 per cent by mass of the charcoal are possible7O. silver. and also of zinc. this treatment removed impurities such as the cyanides of iron and copper that tended to build up on the resin and to impair its capacity for gold adsorption 59. zinc. In the light of these developments. Infrared investigation of the AM ion-exchange resin has indicated that the difficulty associated with the removal of iron. iron. Gold was extracted from cyanide pulps by countercurrent adsorption using carrier granules of porous polyethylene containing a 10 per cent solution of trialkylbenzylammonium chloride in a mixture of kerosene and decyl alcohol39. the most exciting applications appear to lie in the field of ion exchange where the cationic nature of the gold(I)-thiourea. In addition. The use of solvent-extraction techniques in hydrometallurgy is usually limited by losses of the organic phase due to a variety of reasons and. it appears safe to predict that thiourea could soon rank second in importance to cyanide in the processing of gold. 65. extraction of the noble metals by acidic thiourea followed byelectroelution of the noble metals. Weakly acidic resins do not appear to be able to extract a great deal of gold from acidic solutions of thiourea. 57. since all estimates in this regard have to be based upon electrochemical measurements on gold surfap. The kinetics and mechanism of the redox reaction between gold(III) and thiourea also deserve morethorough investigation. Pilot-plant studies have been reported involving the use of ion-exchange resins for the recovery of gold from cyanide solutions6°-62. 65-67 and polyurethane68. and nickel. is due chiefly to the accumulation of Fe(CN):. 53. and in the preparation of specimens for metallographical investigation. removal of the last traces of impurities on the resin and regeneration of the extractant by treatment with sodium hydroxide69. there are at present no reliable data regarding the formation of the gold(I)-thiourea system. and.
Kh. BAZHENOVA.-Issled. SHIVRIN. 12. 1971. pp. PREISLER. The rate of gold electrodeposition from thiourea solution. 33638k). U. 45.. SAVARI. LASKORIN. Nauoh. MUNIER. 322-325. vo!. C. D. 47-53. Ill. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR.. 40.. Ohem. 1961. and KOZHUCHOVA..T.. Private Communication. THIBERT. P.. 1961. 4.. Org. KOROLEVA. 2.. vo!. Pat. A. G. vol. J. 39. 1.. A.. Izv. 3rd Jun. KLIMENKO. J. G. vo!. 1969. pp. 1975. 8. 49119c). 21. and PLAKSIN.. 82. PANCHENKO. ORECHKIN. RUBS. M. V sea. and SARWAR. pp.. vo!.. ATANASYANTS. L. Zh. Dissolution of gold by acidic thiourea solutions.A. and KOZHUCHOVA. vo!.. N. J. Abstr. PLAKSIN. S. Inorg. 19. no. 21. vol.. OSPANOV. Amer. 6. Blagorodn. 1971. pp.. D. 1. 12-16. and SHVEDOVA. B. 28. ATANASYANTS. N. Oxidation-reduction potentials of the system selenourea-formamidine diselenide. Absfr. Plating. and LAVROVA. vo!. 14. SONGINA. 94. 412416. Nauk. E. D.1. V. 2. pp. pp. 157-158. A. 1. N-bromosuccinimide as a direct titrant for thiourea and thioacetamide using Bordeaux Red as indicator. and LAVROVA. 2. D. 10. 36454h). Ohem. 1312-1314.. G. Oxidation-reduction potentials of thiol-dithio systems: thiourea-formamidine disulphide. Ohem. 1969. Novosti Elektrokhim. 2. Extraction of hydrogen dicyano-aurate(I) with tri-n-octylamine (TOA). GROENEWALD.. 150. 14. Non-Jerr. MASLII. in a hydrochloric acid medium. 1955. S. 4. 1976. Roum. Nauk. NICOL. 196. vo!. Fr. 36.. A. Electroless gold plating solutions. 2. Electropolishing of gold alloys. W. and SAL'NIKOV S.. Nauoh. N.. no. V. E. no. N.ion exchangers. 1975. MADIGAN. Appl. Gos. 1955.. SSSR. 1974. GORBACHEV. O. 24 Oct. 19. 23.. p. and OCHKIN. A. pp. R. IvANov. MULDAGLIEVA. SeT.. 1151-1157. 34. P. vo!. vol. 1972. J. O. Yu. Akad. S. N. 1971. 46. E. 42. Tsvet. Ibid. vo!. Russ. 1971. A. V. 891-897. Nauk. G Investigation of cyanide complexes of gold. N.S. D. pp. Electroless gold plating. OVSEPYAN. Kaz. Yu. no. Sib. KONONOV. rhe nature or the gold(l)-thiourea complex adsorbed on an ion-exchange resin has also not been described. O. Irkutsk. The mechanism of the electrochemic'al oxidation of thiourea.. 47. 1964. vo!. Tr. PASHCHENKO. 2. pp. N. N. Use of thiourea as a solvent in the extraction of gold from ore. K. Tsvet. N. 1969. GORBACHEV. LAPSmN. 2. 1969. 26. 1. Ohem. G. Soviet J. M. Mechanism of adsorption of metal cyanide complexes by anion exchange resins. 1972. 50-57. Yu. 7. Eleotroohem. 107-119. SHIVRIN. M. Z. vo!. E. Akademii Nauk.. The nature of the maximum on the polarisation curve of gold electrodeposition from thiourea solution. pp. Kinetics of the electrooxidation of thiourea. N. A. 29. FRIDMAN. 13. J. Jul. 33.. J. PLAKSIN. P. vo!. vo!. 56. pp.. Redk. 1960. 1947. Extraction of gold and silver from cyanide solutions by extraction with a porous carrier. 69. GUPTA. Electrochemical studies on gold electrodes in acidic solutions of thiourea containing gold(I)-thiourea complex ions. The solubility of gold and silver in thiourea. GROENEWALD. and CHERMISINA. 1-6.. BEK. and STRIZHKO. Liquid extraction of complex gold and silver cyanides from cyanide solutions.. Izv. vo!. and LUPENKO. vo!. 9. C. Yu. Nauk.T. 1969 (Ohem. 8th Ed. pp. 3. POTEKHIN. and SHEPOT'KO.V. Redox potential of the gold(I)-thiourea complex. 7. V. Tr. 8.. R. Akad.M.M. POCHKINA. I. A study of the reduction and complex formation of Au(III). lzv. G.. ODA. LODEI'SCHCHIKOV. NAVTANOVICH.. Jul. E. A. 11. and SmVRINA. 15. 1963.. 25211x). and HAYASm. LACAL. V. PLAKSIN. Khim. there is certainly a need relating to its chemistry not only with gold but also with many other metals that form complexes with it.. 22. vo!.M. J. C. Extracting gold and silver from cyanide solutions using technical mixtures of amines.. FEDOROVA.. 1970. J. 31. W. vo!. Non-Jerr. Nauk SSSR. The mechanism of extraction by amines in alkali.S. 1. N. vo!. 92-94. pp. Metal. N.. 2309. 80. pp. 19-22. Inst. Nauoh. iron. 43. I. Ohim. MASLII.. N. 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